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Distribution pattern and ecology of Lactuca L. and its allied genera (Lactucineae – Cichorieae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

Roohi Abid and Muhammad Qaiser


Distribution pattern and ecological preference for habitat including altitude and soil of Lactuca L. (s. str.) and allied genera viz. Steptorrhamphus, Cephalorhynchus and Melanoseris have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. All the taxa belonging to these genera are mostly confined to high mountain ranges in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 33 taxa, two taxa belonging to Lactuca are subcosmopolitan. The seven taxa are Irano – Turanian (Central Asian) elements of which 2 belong to Lactuca and 2 to Steptorrhamphus and 3 belong to Cephalorhynchus. There are 8 Sino – Japanese elements of which one belongs to Lactuca and 7 belong to Melanoseris. However, 3 more taxa viz. M. rapunculoides, M. decipiens var. decipiens and M. decipiens var. multifida are also tentatively recognized as Sino – Japanese elements. Beside these 4 taxa are biregional, of which 3 Lactuca species are Mediterranean – Irano – Turanian elements whereas L. tatarica is an Irano- Turanian - Euro-Siberian element. There are 13 taxa which are endemic to subendemic, most of these are endemic to Pakistan (Western Himalayas and mostly known from type locality). However, M. gilgitensis seems to be confined to Karakorum Mountains and 2 species viz. M. alii and M. astorensis occur in Western Himalayas and Karakorum. It is difficult to classify these taxa into definite phytogeographical elements until more information is available

To Cite this article: Abid, R. and M. Qaiser. 2023. Distribution pattern and ecology of Lactuca L. and its allied genera (Lactucineae – Cichorieae) in Pakistan and Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot., 55(1): DOI:  

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