The halophytic plant, Suaeda vermiculata Forssk extracts reduce the inflamed paw edema and exert potential antimicrobial activity
Mohsen S. Al-Omar, Mohammed S.M. Sajid, Nada S. Alnasyan, Basma S. Almansour, Rana M. Alruthaya, Riaz A. Khan, Salman A. A. Mohammed, Albaraa M. Al-Damigh and Hamdoon A. Mohammed
Suaeda vermiculata is a halophytic plant widely distributed in central Saudi Arabia and traditionally used as a remedy for hepatitis, jaundice and viral infections. The study aimed to inspect the phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S. vermiculata different extracts against broad-spectrum microbial strains collected from human blood and urine samples. Anti-inflammatory activity of S. vermiculata is also investigated for the first time in this study. Phytochemical constituents of S. vermiculata extracts were investigated by chemical tests and by using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods were used to estimate the antimicrobial activity of S. vermiculata extracts. Anti-inflammatory effect of plant extracts was evaluated by Formalin-induced edema in rats’ paw. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sterols in the plant extracts. Tannins and flavonoids were strongly detected in ethanol and ethyl acetate while steroids were abundant in chloroform and n-hexane extracts. Among all extracts, the ethanol extract of S. vermiculata showed the best inhibition zone diameter (IZD) and MIC values against Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae with 12mm IZD (MIC 8.75mg/ml) and 13mm IZD (MIC 35mg/ml), respectively. Also, ethanol extract inhibits the growth of E. coli and Proteus vulgaris at MIC equal to 17.5mg/ml. All S. vermiculata extracts showed anti-inflammatory effect when they were compared with untreated vehicle group. Whereas, the anti-inflammatory activity observed for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were higher than diclofenac standard during all the intervals of the study. Ethanol extract of S. vermiculata showed potential antimicrobial activity with a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect which might be accounted for the phenolic and flavonoid constituents of the plant.
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