Current state of populations and ontogenesis of Allium altaicum Pall. (Amaryllidaceae) in Kazakhstan
Kubentayev Serik Argynbecovich, Kotukhov Yuri Andreevich, Mukhtubaeva Saule Kakimzhanovna, Kubentayeva Balsulu Bulatbekovna, Izbastina Klara Serzhanovna and Khalymbetova Aizhan Esenbekovna
Allium altaicum Pall. is one of the most valuable food and medicinal plants. The geographical distribution of the Altai onion in the territory of Kazakhstan was studied. The ecological and phytocenotic characteristics of the habitats of the species in different ecological and geomorphological conditions are given. The ontogeny and the seasonal rhythm of development were studied, the abundance and morphometric parameters were determined, the limiting factors responsible for the decline in the number of the species were identified and protection measures proposed. The distribution of Allium altaicum in the East and South Kazakhstan regions is established. Altai onion in the studied region has wide ecological amplitude, grows in mountain-steppe and high-mountain regions of Kazakhstan. In ontogeny, 7 age states are identified; the Altai onion populations in the studied region belong to the generative type. In the phenological aspect, in the highlands, there is a shortened growing season (4 months) and a rapid passage of phenophases; in the mountain-steppe regions, a relatively long growing season (6 months) is noted. The main limiting factors for the decline in the number of the species are the collection of leaves by the local population, grazing and forest fires, as well as the recreational effects of the “Ayuda” and the “Sibinsky lakes”. The species needs state protection; we consider it necessary to include Allium altaicum in the next edition of the Red Book of Kazakhstan.
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