Paper Details


Seed germination responses to some environmental factors in the red feather (Trifolium rubens)

Jeremi Kołodziejek

A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of various environmental factors, such as temperature, light, planting depth, pH, osmotic and salt stress, on germination of Trifolium rubens. Water-impermeability of seed coats prevents germination of T. rubens, but the response of embryos to stratification may suggest some physiological dormancy. Thus, seed dormancy in this species is caused by a water-impermeable seed coat (physical dormancy, PY) and a (non-deep) physiologically dormant embryo (PD), i.e. combinational dormancy (PY + PD). It was also demonstrated that all concentrations of GA3 increased seed germination when compared with the control treatment. Compared with distilled water, NaCl solution of 10–60 mM significantly reduced germination (p<0.01). The germination was <20% at an osmotic stress of -0.4 MPa, and above that, no germination was observed. Germination was affected by pH levels, with pH 8 being the optimum, whereas above or below that level, it was significantly reduced. The highest emergence (68 and 85%) was observed at 1 and 2 cm depth. In conclusion these results suggest that the seeds of T. rubens can germinate during favorable spring weather conditions. 

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