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Year 2003 , Volume  35, Issue 4
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XXXIII. MENISPERMACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MOHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XXXIII. MENISPERMACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 4 species of the family Menispermacea from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar subprolate, rarely oblate-spheroidal, colpate or colporate. Sexine thinner or thicker than nexine. Tectum reticulate or reticulate - rugulate. On the basis of aperture types two distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Cocculus pendulus - type and Tinospora malabarica -- type.

457-461 Download
2
ABIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING IN VITRO POLLEN GRAIN GERMINATION IN SAINFOIN (ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA SCOP.)
CENGIZ SANCAK, SATI ÇÖÇÜ, KHALID MAHMOOD KHAWAR AND SEBAHATTIN ÖZCAN*

ABIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING IN VITRO POLLEN GRAIN GERMINATION IN SAINFOIN (ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA SCOP.)
ABSTRACT:
A reliable in vitro method for germination of sainfoin pollen grains has been developed. Highest pollen germination rate of 96% with mean pollen tube length of 223.5 µm was obtained on medium containing of 100 g/l sucrose

463-471 Download
3
A NEW RECORD OF GEOPORA COOPERI F. COOPERI FROM WEST ASIA
MEHMET HALIL SOLAK, *FAHRETTIN GÜCIN, **MUSTAFA ISILOGLU AND ***GIOVANNI PACIONI

A NEW RECORD OF GEOPORA COOPERI F. COOPERI FROM WEST ASIA
ABSTRACT:
Geopora cooperi Harkness f. cooperi Burdsall, a macrofungus belonging to the Ascomycetes collected during a field trip around Izmir and Manisa in 1996 is reported as a new record for west Asia, Turkey.

473-475 Download
4
A NEW PUCCINIA ON ENDEMIC PHRYNA
ELSAD HÜSEYIN AND SEVDA KIRBAG*

A NEW PUCCINIA ON ENDEMIC PHRYNA
ABSTRACT:
The rust fungus Puccinia phrynae sp. nov. is described and illustrated from endemic Phryna ortegioides collected in East Anatolia, Turkey.

477-478 Download
5
EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE EFFICACY OF PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS IN THE CONTROL OF SOIL BORNE ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN
SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND A. GHAFFAR

EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE EFFICACY OF PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS IN THE CONTROL OF SOIL BORNE ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Use of inorganic fertilizers viz., urea, NPK, DAP and superphosphate on the efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus inoculum multiplied on rice grain showed that the infection of Fusarium spp., significantly reduced in mung bean plants where soil was treated with P. lilacinus alone, urea or NPK at 0 days. Seed sown after 10 days of treatment showed complete control of Fusarium infection where soil was amended with P. lilacinus + DAP. Infection of Macrophomina phaseolina was completely controlled where seeds were sown after 40 days of treatment in soil treated with urea alone and P. lilacinus mixed with urea. Similarly, complete suppression of Rhizoctonia solani infection was observed where soil was treated with superphosphate, NPK alone or P. lilacinus used with superphosphate, NPK, urea or DAP after 40 days of soil treatment.

479-482 Download
6
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO INOCULATION WITH AUXIN PRODUCING PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
AZEEM KHALID, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD AND ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO INOCULATION WITH AUXIN PRODUCING PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Effectiveness of rhizobacteria for promoting the growth and yield of different cultivars of wheat was evaluated by conducting Leonard jar and pot trials. Thirty one cultures of bacteria isolated from wheat rhizosphere soil were screened on the basis of their auxin producing ability in vitro. They were further tested for their growth promoting activity by conducting Leonard jar experiments on four cultivars of wheat under axenic conditions. Based upon the data recorded regarding auxin production in vitro, and screening in Leonard jar experiments, four isolates (W9, W11, W14, and W29) were selected to conduct pot experiment in the wire house under non-axenic conditions and considered as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Seeds of four wheat cultivars (Pasban-90, Inqlab-91, Watan-93, and Punjab-96) inoculated with these four PGPR isolates were sown in pots. Uninoculated control was kept for comparison in each cultivar. To eliminate any nutritional stress, nutrients were applied as NPK @ 120-75-50 kg ha-1, respectively. Results showed that selected PGPR isolates significantly increased plant height (up to 9.9%), number of tillers (up to 32.3%), spike length (up to 6.8%), spikelets spike-1 (up to 14.0%), straw and grain yields (up to 16.1 and 29.0%, respectively) in all the tested cultivars of wheat with different degree of efficacy. Among the various PGPR isolates tested, W11 was found the most effective in promoting growth and yield of different cultivars of wheat compared to control. Overall, the response to inoculation with various PGPR isolates varied with cultivars.

483-498 Download
7
BACTERIOCIN-LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCES (BLIS) FROM INDIGENOUS CLINICAL STREPTOCOCCI: SCREENING, ACTIVITY SPECTRUM AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION
SAMIA AHMAD, ALFRED IQBAL AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL

BACTERIOCIN-LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCES (BLIS) FROM INDIGENOUS CLINICAL STREPTOCOCCI: SCREENING, ACTIVITY SPECTRUM AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Two hundred streptococcal isolates from varied human indigenous clinical sources were screened for bacteriocinogenic activity by both direct and deferred methods (70% were showing bacteriocin-like activity). All the isolates were found highly bioactive against most Gram positive bacteria but less active against the Gram positive and totally inactive against themselves. Proteolytic enzymes rapidly inactivated the antagonistic activity whereas, glycolytic and lipolytic enzymes had no effect. Bioactivity remained stable in the presence of several organic solvents and detergents. Bacteriocin preparations could be stored at 4ºC for 2 months without loss of activity and remained stable at 60ºC for 60min and 80ºC for 40min and at 100ºC for 30min. Bioactivity was manifested within a wide range of 2-8 pH with the exception of enterocin ESF63 that was stable at low pH range of 5-8.5. All preparations were resistant to chloroform vapours. Different bacteriocin titre in terms of activity unit (AU/mL) was found against different sensitive/indicator strains.

499-506 Download
8
PHAGE TYPES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HOSPITAL INFECTIONS
SYED IQBAL ALAM, KHURSHEED ALI KHAN*, SHEIKH AIJAZ RASOOL** AND AQEEL AHMAD**

PHAGE TYPES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HOSPITAL INFECTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Of the 110 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical specimens particularly from osteomyelitis and septic arthritis when subjected to bacteriophage typing using 8 available phages showed that 48 (43.62%) were typable. Among the typable isolates 16 belong to phage type 68

507-510 Download
9
DOSE DEPENDENT AND TIME COURSE ELICITOR ACTIVITY OF CODIUM ELONGATUM AND ULVA LACTULUS (GREEN ALGAE) OF KARACHI COAST
FATIMA BI AND SEEMA IQBAL

DOSE DEPENDENT AND TIME COURSE ELICITOR ACTIVITY OF CODIUM ELONGATUM AND ULVA LACTULUS (GREEN ALGAE) OF KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
High molecular weight crude polysaccharides obtained from green algal plants Codium elongatum and Ulva lactulus were evaluated as an elicitor of disease resistance response in chickpea tissues in terms of induced browning and production of induced secondary metabolites. The results were recorded as a function of time and doses of elicitor employed. Hplc method was developed for the separation of complex mixture of induced secondary metabolites.

511-518 Download
10
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY SUBMERGED CULTURE OF RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPOROUS TUV -31
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND MOHAMMAD MOHSIN JAVED

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY SUBMERGED CULTURE OF RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPOROUS TUV -31
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the optimization of cultural conditions for the production of lipases by Rhizopus oligosporous T uv31. Studies were carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks by submerged fermentation. A medium M 5 containing peptone (30 g/l), glucose (10 g/l), KH2PO4 (2 g/l), NaNO3 (0.5 g/l), KCl (0.5 g/l), MgSO4.7H2O (0.5 g/l) was found suitable for optimum yield of lipase. The production of the enzymes reached maximum, 48 hours after inoculation at 30°C. The optimum inoculum size was 1.0 ml (4.63 X 107 spores) of fermentation medium. Maximum extracellular and intracellular lipase activities were found to be 2.79 ± 0.15 U/ml and 1.66 ± 0.04 U/g.

519-525 Download
11
SUBSTRATE-INDUCED REPRESSION OF INVERTASE SYNTHESIS BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN SUBMERGED CULTURE
IKRAM-UL-HAQ, *KIRAN SHAFIQ AND SIKANDER ALI

SUBSTRATE-INDUCED REPRESSION OF INVERTASE SYNTHESIS BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN SUBMERGED CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Invertase enzyme is used traditionally in the production of inverted sugars for industry, especially in the manufacture of candies and preserves, production of lactic acid and ethanol production from fermentation of cane sugar molasses. The present study deals with the substrate-induced changes in invertase formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae KR18. The maximal production of invertase during the course of study i.e. 5.63±0.9 U ml-1, was achieved using initial sucrose concentration of 15.0 g l-1 after 48 h of fermentation. The sugar consumption and mycelial dry weight were 9.65±1.3 and 2.62±0.3 mg ml-1, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in fermentation medium induce catabolite repression of yeast invertase. All the kinetic parameters i.e., product and growth yield coefficients (Yp/s, Yp/x and Yx/s), and specific rate constants, µ (h-1) were highly significant.

527-531 Download
12
CONTROL OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER MORPHOLOGY TO ENHANCE CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION UNDER LIQUID CULTURE
IKRAM-UL-HAQ, SIKANDER ALI, M.A. QADEER AND *JAVED IQBAL

CONTROL OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER MORPHOLOGY TO ENHANCE CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION UNDER LIQUID CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation deals with the control of Aspergillus niger morphology to enhance citric acid production under liquid culture. For this purpose, the parental Aspergillus niger GCB-16 and its mutant derivative NG-101 were mutually compared, using 150 g/l carbohydrates of cane-molasses as the basal fermentation medium. The mutant showed a 1.26 fold increase in citric acid production over the control as compared to 2.82 in times the wild-type culture. Addition of 2.0 x 10-5M CuSO4 to the fermentation medium reduced the Fe+2 ion concentration by counteracting its deleterious effect on fungal growth. The copper ion also induced a loose-pelleted form of growth (0.5 mm, dia.), reduced the biomass concentration (12.5 g/l) and increased the volumetric productivity of citric acid monohydrate (93.6±5 g/l). On the basis of comparison of kinetic parameters viz., the volumetric substrate uptake rate (Qs) and specific uptake rate (qs), the volumetric productivity, theoretical yield and specific product formation rate, it was observed that the mutant was faster growing organism (Yx/s = 0.118±0.02 g/g) and had the ability to overproduce citric acid (Yp/s = 0.340±0.02 g/g).

533-539 Download
13
NITROGEN LIMITATION FOR ENHANCED CITRIC ACID PRODUCTIVITY BY A 2-DEOXY D-GLUCOSE RESISTANT CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER NGD-280
SIKANDER ALI, IKRAM-UL-HAQ, M.A. QADEER AND 1 JAVED IQBAL

NITROGEN LIMITATION FOR ENHANCED CITRIC ACID PRODUCTIVITY BY A 2-DEOXY D-GLUCOSE RESISTANT CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER NGD-280
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation is concerned with the nitrogen limitation for enhanced citrate productivity by a 2-deoxy D-glucose resistant culture of Aspergillus niger NGd-280 in 15-L stirred tank bioreactor. Nutrients especially nitrogen source have a marked influence on citrate productivity because it is an essential constituent of basal cell proteins. Ammonium nitrate at various concentrations was used as a nitrogen source. The specific growth rate was inhibited and the biosynthesis of citric acid was delayed at higher concentration of ammonium nitrate. The specific citric acid production rate was highest when intracellular ammonium ion concentration was between 2.0-3.0 mmol/g cells. However, citrate production was stopped when intracellular ammonium ion concentration decreased below 1.0 mmol/g cell.

541-545 Download
14
KINETICS OF CITRATE OVER-PRODUCTION BY AN ASERGILLUS NIGER MUTANT RABt-10
RUBINA MAZHAR, ASAD-UR-REHMAN, *SIKANDER ALI AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

KINETICS OF CITRATE OVER-PRODUCTION BY AN ASERGILLUS NIGER MUTANT RABt-10
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the kinetic investigation of the effect of initial sugar concentration and rate of citrate overproduction by a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger RABt-10 developed after UV treatment. The maximal production of citric acid (66.15±1.1 g/l) during the course of study was achieved using initial sugar concentration

547-552 Download
15
RE-USE OF FUNGAL MYCELIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
IKRAM-UL-HAQ, SIKANDER ALI AND ASAD-UR-REHMAN

RE-USE OF FUNGAL MYCELIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the re-use of fungal mycelium for citric acid fermentation. Among the 16 - different isolates of Aspergillus niger, IS-6 was optimised for citric acid production. The re-use of mycelium was found to be economical due to decrease in fermentation period and high volumetric productivity (Yp/x = 3.233 & 2.914 gg-1) but in the third batch, the production of citric acid was markedly decreased due to the mycelial age factor.

553-556 Download
16
TOWARDS A SEEDLESS CULTIVAR OF KINNOW MANDARIN V. EMBRYOGENESIS OF PICKED AND DROPPED FRUITS
NAFEES ALTAF AND M. MOHSIN IQBAL

TOWARDS A SEEDLESS CULTIVAR OF KINNOW MANDARIN V. EMBRYOGENESIS OF PICKED AND DROPPED FRUITS
ABSTRACT:
Nucellar polyembryony in picked and dropped fruits was studied. There were 2,3, 4 and 5 leaf embryos with balanced normal germination. The significant differences were imbalanced growth with 8.7% thin shrinked leaves in embryos of picked fruits and 12.9% embryos without root system in dropped fruits which upon grafting had 100% plants with leaf abscission trait. Presence of abscission trait in vegetative parts of the branch and in the embryo indicated that the trait is of genetic origin as the embryos are derived from cell lines present in the vegetative parts.

557-561 Download
17
TOWARDS A SEEDLESS CULTIVAR OF KINNOW MANDARIN VI. PRODUCTION OF SEEDLESS PLANTS BY SPROUT/ SHOOT APEX/EMBRYO GRAFTS
NAFEES ALTAF AND M. MOHSIN IQBAL

TOWARDS A SEEDLESS CULTIVAR OF KINNOW MANDARIN VI. PRODUCTION OF SEEDLESS PLANTS BY SPROUT/ SHOOT APEX/EMBRYO GRAFTS
ABSTRACT:
The work reported relates to grafting of sprout/shoot apex/nucellar embryo of Kinnow tissue having seedless trait on rough lemon seedlings. Normal healthy and vigorous embryos with balanced germination were top grafted on 2 - 18 months old soil established healthy seedlings with 76% survival. Rough lemon seedlings with dense foliage, healthy, green, vigorous stem from fleshy vegetative shoots with sprouting leaves, balanced (top) shoot - root growth were found ideal for grafting shoot apical meristem (SAM) with 6 inches top stem with leaves having axillary meristem showed best graft survival (85%) and good source of micro plant propagation.

563-570 Download
18
CLONAL SELECTION IN APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH CV. AMASYA)
NEJDET KAPLAN, MUHARREM OZCAN1 AND MENSURE ÇELIK2

CLONAL SELECTION IN APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH CV. AMASYA)
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out using the apple populations grown in Amasya, Tokat and Samsun ecological conditions between 1997 and 2000. In the first year, 51 apple types were selected on which the studies have been concentrated. In the following observations

571-578 Download
19
ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES RESPONSES TO NaCl STRESS IN CALLI OF FOUR POTATO CULTIVARS
H. RAHNAMA*, H. EBRAHIMZADEH1 AND B. GHAREYAZIE

ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES RESPONSES TO NaCl STRESS IN CALLI OF FOUR POTATO CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The internode cuttings of 4 potato cultivars viz., Agria, Diamant, Kennebec and Ajax grown in callus inducing media amended with 0, 50

579-586 Download
20
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF PINUS PINEA L., FORESTS IN THE NORTH-EAST ANATOLIA REGION (TRABZON AND ARTVIN -TURKEY)
Ö. VAROL*, F. KARAER1, S. TERZIOGLU2 AND H.G. KUTBAY3

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF PINUS PINEA L., FORESTS IN THE NORTH-EAST ANATOLIA REGION (TRABZON AND ARTVIN -TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
In this study phytosociological structure of Pinus pinea L., forests that occurs in Trabzon and Artvin provinces in the East-Black Sea region in Turkey has been investigated. From the phytogeographical view point, it is situated in Euro-Siberian floristic region. The vegetation of the study area was analyzed according to Braun-Blanquet method and the plant associations were typified by considering characteristic species. We describe 1 plant association and 2 subassociations belonging to forest vegetation types in the study area.

587-595 Download
21
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT CROP-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI* AND ABDUL GHAFOOR**

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT CROP-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
ABSTRACT:
Wheat germplasm comprising of 150 diverse genotypes was evaluated for four quantitative traits at five locations throughout the country viz., Islamabad, Faisalabad, Quetta, Tandojam and Peshawer. Differences among locations as well as genotypes were significant and CV was higher in grain yield as compared to other characters. High genetic variance (s2) was observed at all the locations that revealed the scope of selection for crop improvement. High heritibility (h2) was estimated for days to heading and plant height, medium for days to maturity and low for grain yield. Low heritability in grain yield might be due to high additive gene effects that is influenced by environments. Elite lines were identified for further utilization in the breeding programme. Limited scope of selection was observed for days to heading and days to maturity, hence genes for these important traits should be investigated or exploited from other sources i.e., hybridization, mutation. Large scale testing of broad base gene pool needs to be built up by making extensive collection and obtaining germplasm from abroad to develop a sound breeding programme.

597-603 Download
22
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION STUDIES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, A. BAKHSH, M. ZUBAIR AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION STUDIES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies for yield and its components were conducted in 24 genotypes of chickpea. High heritability with low genetic advance of days to flowering, days to maturity and 100 seed weight indicated the influence of dominant and epistatic genes for these traits. High heritability of secondary branches and biological yield coupled with high genetic advance revealed that additive gene effects are important in determining these characters. Grain yield had positive and significant correlation with plant height, pods per plant

605-611 Download
23
INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SDS-PAGE MARKERS AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
A. GHAFOOR, F.N. GULBAAZ1, M. AFZAL, M. ASHRAF1 AND M. ARSHAD2

INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SDS-PAGE MARKERS AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Sixty accessions collected from major chickpea growing areas of the Punjab along with two check varieties were investigated for principal components analysis based on agronomic characters and seed proteins. Seed proteins were analyzed through slab type SDS-PAGE using 11.25% Polyacrylamide gel and 6 ml of sample quantity. First three principal components with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 88.58% of the variability amongst 62 genotypes evaluated for 11 quantitative traits, whereas PC4 to PC11 were less than unity. All the characters under study contributed genetic variance positively towards PC1 except days to flowering where it was negative. Eight characters (branches, pods per plant, pods per branch, seeds per pod

613-624 Download
24
DETERMINATION OF THE FORM AND THE AMOUNT OF THE SECOND DOSE OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS TO BE APPLIED TO WHEAT IN SPRING
NURI YILMAZ

DETERMINATION OF THE FORM AND THE AMOUNT OF THE SECOND DOSE OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS TO BE APPLIED TO WHEAT IN SPRING
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted to examine the form and the quantity of second dose of nitrogenous fertilizers given to wheat in spring in Yozgat's ecological conditions in Turkey during 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. Sowing, @ 500 seeds per square meter, was done with sowing seeder in the last week of September and 15 kg/da DAP was given at the time of sowing. Of the nitrogenous fertilizers, Ammonium sulphate (21 %N), Ammonium nitrate (26 %N) and Urea (46 %N) was applied @ 0

625-636 Download
25
NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN OKRA AND CARROT AS INFLUENCED BY FERTILIZER APPLICATION
ASLAM JOHN, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM AND MUHAMMAD ISHAQ

NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN OKRA AND CARROT AS INFLUENCED BY FERTILIZER APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers is a factor of nitrate accumulation in vegetables which causes health problems to the consumers. A study was conducted to assess the effect of NPK fertilizers on NO3 accumulation in okra (Abelmosclus esculentus) and carrot (Daucus carota) at Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. For okra five N (0

637-640 Download
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