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Year 2004 , Volume  36, Issue 3
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XL. FUMARIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MOHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XL. FUMARIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 9 species of the family Fumariaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar rarely apolar 3-6 colpate occasionally porate, prolate-sub-prolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely sub-oblate. Sexine thinner or thicker than nexine. Tectum rugulate - fossulate or fossulate-foveolate. On the basis of apertural type, two distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Corydalis diphylla- type and Fumaria indica - type. Playnological data has been useful at generic and specific level.

467-473 Download
2
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - XLI. CUSCUTACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MOHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - XLI. CUSCUTACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 11 species belonging to the genus Cuscuta of the family Cuscutaceae from Pakistan have been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Cuscutaceae is an eurypalynous family. Pollen grains are generally free, radially symmetrical, isopolar or apolar, colpate, oblate-spheroidal - prolate-spheroidal or sub-prolate rarely spheroidal. Sexine is thicker or as thick as nexine. Tectum reticulate, reticulate rugulate, scabrate or punctate-scabrate. The pollen morphology of the family Cuscutaceae is significantly helpful at specific level. On the basis of exine ornamentation, 3 distinct pollen types viz., Cuscuta reflexa - type, Cuscuta capitata- type and Cuscuta campestris type are recognized.

475-480 Download
3
THE ENDOTHECIUM IN INULA L., AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (INULEAE - COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
RUBINA ABID AND MOHAMMAD QAISER

THE ENDOTHECIUM IN INULA L., AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (INULEAE - COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The endothecium in 22 species of Inula L., and its allied genera (Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Dittrichia Greuter and Iphiona Cass.) was examined from Pakistan and Kashmir by light microscopy. Three types of endothecial tissues i.e., polar, radial and transitional are recognized. In the genus Inula radial and transitional endothecium are present whereas, in the genera Pentanema, Dittrichia and Iphiona is radial while the genus Duhaldea is characterized by polar endothecium.

481-486 Download
4
CAN COMPLEXITY OF THE GENUS ALLIUM L., BE RESOLVED THROUGH SOME NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES?
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF, *1ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI, MIR AJAB KHAN AND SYED SHAHINSHAH GILANI

CAN COMPLEXITY OF THE GENUS ALLIUM L., BE RESOLVED THROUGH SOME NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES?
ABSTRACT:
Allium L., is the largest genus of petaloid monocotyledons except orchids, with 750 species all over the world and 46 species in Pakistan. Numerical techniques were used to study the taxonomic relationship of the Allium L., from Pakistan. Both vegetative and reproductive characters were taken into account. Bulb plays a major role in identification of various species of this genus. A. fedtschenkoanum Regel and A. semonovii Regel are quite confusing but can be separated on the basis of outer tunic nature, scape length and floral characters. Tepals colour of A. fedtschenkoanum Regel is yellow and A. semenovii Regel has double coloured tepals, yellow above and red below. A. baluchistanicum Wendelbo is a rare species in Pakistan because it was recorded only once from Quetta in 1966. A. lilacinum Royle ex Regel was previously reported from Pakistan, but no herbarium specimen was available to verify the report. A. jacquemontii Kunth showed confusion with A. przewalskianum Regel, A. griffithianum Boiss., and A. roylei Stearn. Differentiation between A. griffithianum Boiss and A. jacquemontii Kunth can be made by using characters of scape and flowers. Some taxonomists recognized A. roylei Stearn and A. rubellum L., as separate species. Our results revealed that both are conspecific. A. rubellum L., is a synonym of A. roylei Stearn. This species is closely related to A. griffithianum Boiss and A. jacquemontii Kunth. A. longicupis Regel is a new record and for the first time reported from Pakistan. This species has pink flower, glabrous leaf sheath and the inflorescence is a bulbiferous umbel. It is closely related to A. roylei Stearn.

487-501 Download
5
BIODIVERSITY OF OSCILLATORIA (NOSTOCOPHYCEAE, CYANOPHYTA) FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SABEEN NAZ, MASUD-UL-HASAN* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

BIODIVERSITY OF OSCILLATORIA (NOSTOCOPHYCEAE, CYANOPHYTA) FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Specimens of the blue-green algal genus Oscillatoria Vaucher have been collected from various freshwater habitats in the districts of Gujranwala, Jauharabad, Jhang, Kasur Pasrur, Sargodha, Sialkot, Lahore and Sheikhupura, from the province of the Punjab and from Utrod River and Kalam (Swat) in the province of N.W.F.P. as well as from Muzaffarabad, Neelum Valley and Chenari in Azad Kashmir during different seasons of 1996-2000. They were taxonomically investigated and found to belong to 45 species.

503-530 Download
6
PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF TETRASPORA (VOLVOCOPHYTA) FROM SINDH
B. GHAZALA, MUSTAFA SHAMEEL, M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY1, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND SULTAN MAHMOOD LEGHARI2

PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF TETRASPORA (VOLVOCOPHYTA) FROM SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Two unicellular green algae, Tetraspora cylindrica (Wahlenberg) Agardh and T. gelatinosa (Vaucher) Desvaux were collected from thermal effluents and industrial wastewater near Hyderabad, Sindh during December 1995 and February 1996. Their methanol extracts revealed the presence of a variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, a steroidal fatty acid, ß-sitosterol and trans-phytol. In T. cylindrica 9 saturated and 11 unsaturated fatty acids were present in equal amounts (44.87 & 44.39 %), hencicosanoic acid (C21:0) was in largest quantity (17.02 %), pentadienoic (C5:2) and undecatrienoic (C11:3) acids were in smallest amount (0.115 %). In T. gelatinosa no saturated, no mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids could be detected, pentadecatetraenoic (C15: 4) acid occurred in largest quantity (30.08 %). The extract of T. cylindrica showed antibiotic activity against three of the ten bacterial species, six of the ten fungal pathogens and all the six fungi by food poisoning method. Both algae displayed appreciable amount of bioactivity regarding phytotoxicity with no activity in brine shrimp bioassay and insecticidal test.

531-547 Download
7
IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) GERMPLASM
MUHAMMAD SARWAR AND SADAR U. SIDDIQUI

IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
In order to conserve the sugarcane germplasm in vitro, studies were undertaken at the Plant Genetic Resources Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The cultures were successfully established for var. Katha on MS medium containing BA. Establishment of 8 other sugarcane varieties on the same medium composition suggested its suitability for conservation of sugarcane germplasm. In vitro conservation of var. Katha by osmotic stress showed that cultures with 2% mannitol were healthy up to 165 days (showing 75% survival rate), while the cultures with 1 and 3% mannitol showed 100% survival up to 105 days of storage. The technique has great potential for the conservation of plant genetic resources and more studies are required to further extend the subculture period by combining the osmotic stress with incubation conditions management.

549-556 Download
8
GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN RICE COLLECTIONS
AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, MUHAMMAD RASHID, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF AND ZIA-UL-QAMAR

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN RICE COLLECTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Deviations observed by Metroglyph method regarding the number of cluster formed, number of genotypes in the cluster and superimposition of the genotypes within the cluster pointed out that genetic improvement for yield and yield components is possible. Metroglyph scatter diagram provided the possibility of 11 groups of rice genotypes. On the basis of this grouping, it can be interpreted that hybridization between group-I and group-II is expected to give better rice varieties.

557-565 Download
9
NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS OF CARDINAL GRAPES GROWN IN ÇANAKKALE, TURKEY
NURAY MÜCELLÂ MÜFTÜOĞLU*, TUNCAY DEMIRER AND ALPER DARDENIZ**

NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS OF CARDINAL GRAPES GROWN IN ÇANAKKALE, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status of the Cardinal grapes that are grown in Çanakkale. Leaf and soil samples were taken from 18 different vineyards to ensure a uniform sampling area. Although all of the soil samples contained suitable pH values for grapes, levels of organic matter content were found to be low. Lime (CaCO3) content was at an insufficient level in 72% of the soils at 0-30 cm depth and in 61% of the soils at 30-60 cm depth. Phosphorous (P) content was at low and medium levels in 94% of the soils. Potassium (K) was found to be insufficient in 50% of the soils. In both depths, the iron (Fe) content of 33% of soils was lower than the critical level. Manganese (Mn) content was at an insufficient level in 22% of the soils. There were no nutritional problems with respect to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in the soils. Nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) contents of leaf blades were higher than those of leaf petioles. Potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) contents of leaf petioles were higher than those of leaf blades. There were no differences between zinc (Zn) contents in leaf blades and leaf petioles. The N content of 89% of the leaf blades and P content of 61% of the leaf blades was higher than the critical level. There were no nutritional problems with respect to K in leaf blades. The Ca contents of leaf blades and leaf petioles were found to be at insufficient levels. The Mg contents of leaf blades and leaf petioles were found to be sufficient. There were no nutritional problems in leaf blades and leaf petioles with respect to Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu.

567-575 Download
10
EFFECTS OF BENLATE SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE ON SEED GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH, BIOMASS AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN TWO CULTIVARS OF ZEA MAYS L.
ZAMIN SHAHEED* SIDDIQUI AND ARIF-UZ-ZAMAN

EFFECTS OF BENLATE SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE ON SEED GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH, BIOMASS AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN TWO CULTIVARS OF ZEA MAYS L.
ABSTRACT:
Effects of benlate systemic fungicide on seed germination, seedling growth, biomass and phenolic contents of Zea mays L. cvs. EV1018 and Gohar were studied. Seed dressing with systemic fungicide enhanced the germination of seeds of both cultivars with greater effects on root and shoot growth of cvs. EV1018 as compared to control. Phenolic contents in root and shoot substantially increased in both the varieties following treatment with systemic fungicide particularly at higher concentrations of 1000mg L-1 and 2000mg L-1. Gohar was less affected in terms of fresh and dry weights as compared to EV1018, exhibiting some degree of tolerance to systemic fungicide. Usage of systemic fungicides beyond a cut off range or threshold concentration proved counter-productive for crop yield.

577-582 Download
11
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) USING GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS
G. S. S. KHATTAK, M. ASHRAF* AND M. S. KHAN

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) USING GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
The genetic variation for yield and some important yield components was assessed in two sets of crosses involving four parents through generation mean analysis. The mean data of six populations (both parents, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) were subjected to joint scaling test. In the presence of epistasis, six-parameter model was used to detect all types of gene actions. Both the crosses had shown complex genetic behaviour for all the traits examined, except branches per plant in cross 6601 x NM 92 and pod cluster per plant in cross ML-5 x NM 54. The additive (d) and dominant (h) components of genetic variation were significant for all the traits in both the crosses, but dominant (h) component was non-significant for branches per plant and 1000 seed weight in cross ML-5 x NM 54, and for pod bearing nodes on main stem in cross 6601 x NM 92. The duplicate type of non-allelic interactions were found for pod cluster per plant and 1000 seed weight in cross 6601 x NM 92, and for 1000 seed weight in cross ML-5 x NM 54. The complementary type of non-allelic interaction for seed yield per plant was found in both crosses. The intercrossing of F2 plants are recommended to produce best recombinants for the traits having complex genetic behaviour and selection in the latter generations of segregating populations for developing high yielding mungbean genotypes.

583-588 Download
12
GENE ACTION FOR SYNCHRONY IN POD MATURITY AND INDETERMINATE GROWTH HABIT IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
G. S. S. KHATTAK, M. ASHRAF* AND R. ZAMIR

GENE ACTION FOR SYNCHRONY IN POD MATURITY AND INDETERMINATE GROWTH HABIT IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
The nature of gene action for days to flowering, plant height at different growth stages, synchrony in pod maturity and indeterminate plant growth habit were assessed in two sets of crosses involving four parents through generation mean analysis. The mean data of six populations (both parents, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) were subjected to joint scaling test. In the presence of epistasis, six-parameter model was used to detect all types of gene effects. The analysis indicated that most of the traits appeared to be complex in the expression of gene effects in both the crosses. Both additive (d) and dominant (h) gene effects were important in both the crosses for all the traits examined except days to first flower and first pod maturity in ML-5 x NM 54, where dominant gene effects were non-significant. The days to 90% pods maturity and plant height at first flower in case of 6601 x NM 92, and days to first pod maturity and plant height at first flower in ML-5 x NM 54 cross had showed no digenic interactions. The digenic interactions i.e., additive x additive (i), additive x dominance (j), and dominance x dominance (l) played an important role in the expression of all those traits which showed complex gene effects for their inheritance. The biparental approach is suggested for the exploitation of the complex inherited traits particularly for improved synchrony in pod maturity and determinate growth habit in mungbean.

589-594 Download
13
APPLICATION OF RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF MARKERS LINKED TO SALINITY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN, TANWIR AHMAD MALIK1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM CHOWDHARY1, MUHAMMAD JAVED IQBAL2 AND YUSUF ZAFAR1

APPLICATION OF RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF MARKERS LINKED TO SALINITY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
DNA marker for a low Na uptake trait in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was identified. The individual plants from F3 population segregating for salinity tolerance and the parents (LU-26S & Rohtas-90) were grown in polyethylene tubes under saline conditions (EC 25 dS m-1) and screened for K:Na ratio, chloride ions and net photosynthesis at the fourth leaf stage. The plants were then transplanted into pots filled with 7 Kg of fertile soil and supplied with optimum water and nutrients until maturity. Correlations of K:Na and net photosynthesis with yield components were calculated. Genomic DNA from 15 tolerant and 15 sensitive F3 plants was extracted. The bulked segregant analysis was used in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. DNA polymorphisms were observed using 148 primers. The primer OPZ-10 amplified a 680 bp polymorphic DNA fragment which linked to K:Na ratio trait. This DNA fragment can be used for marker-assisted selection to breed for salinity tolerant wheat. The K:Na ratio and net photosynthesis were not correlated with yield components.

595-602 Download
14
PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO ANTHOCYANIN AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN JUVENILE AND ADULT LEAVES OF "MINI-STAR" GAZANIA SPLENDENS
GÜL CEVAHIR*, SEMAHAT YENTÜR, MEVZULE YAZGAN, MUAMMER ÜNAL AND NADIM YILMAZER1

PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO ANTHOCYANIN AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN JUVENILE AND ADULT LEAVES OF "MINI-STAR" GAZANIA SPLENDENS
ABSTRACT:
Gazania splendens is an ornamental and decorative plant which is cultivated in parks and gardens and shows distinct juvenile and adult leaves in transition from the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase. There is no information in current literature that Gazania shows heterophylly. The objective of the present study was to assess the physiological parameters such as the changes of peroxidase activity (POD), anthocyanin and chlorophyll content in juvenile and adult leaves. It was found that POD activity and chlorophyll level increased in the juvenile leaves compared to the adult ones in which anthocyanin content decreased. These results indicate that there is an inverse correlation between the amount of anthocyanin and chlorophyll in the juvenile and adult leaf tissues, and increasing POD activity may limit anthocyanin content in the adult leaves.

603-609 Download
15
EMPLOYMENT OF IN VITRO TECHNOLOGY FOR LARGE SCALE MULTIPLICATION OF PINEAPPLES (ANANAS COMOSOS)
SAIFULLAH KHAN, ASMA NASIB AND BUSHRA AHMAD SAEED

EMPLOYMENT OF IN VITRO TECHNOLOGY FOR LARGE SCALE MULTIPLICATION OF PINEAPPLES (ANANAS COMOSOS)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were carried out for the micropropagation of pineapples. It is thus possible to produce disease free, uniform propagules at needed quantity and at appropriate time of the year. BAP @ 0.5 mg/L showed better results for the number and length of shoots per explant. IBA and NAA were employed for appropriate root initiation and development and the best media observed containing IBA @ 1.5 mg/L alone. This was followed by field experiments to determine an appropriate media for in situ plant growth in green houses, for acclimatizing the plants.

611-615 Download
16
BANANA PLANTLET PRODUCTION THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE
AISH MUHAMMAD, IQBAL HUSSAIN, S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI* AND HAMID RASHID

BANANA PLANTLET PRODUCTION THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa spp.) cv. Basrai was studied. Shoot tips were cultured on Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l BAP. Observations were recorded at an interval of four weeks for five subculturings. Evaluations were done at each subculture by counting the number of new shoots produced. Shoot tips coming from different rhizomes behaved differently under in vitro conditions. Some being highly productive while others produced less number of shoots. On the average

617-620 Download
17
COST BENEFIT RATIO OF IMPORTED AND LOCALLY PRODUCED ANTISERUM AGAINST PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
TAHIRA YASMIN, HUSSAIN SHAH AND SAIF KHALID

COST BENEFIT RATIO OF IMPORTED AND LOCALLY PRODUCED ANTISERUM AGAINST PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
An effort was made to estimate the cost benefit ratio of commercially available and locally produced antiserum against Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) to encourage scientists for indigenous research, a step towards self-reliance in sero-diagnosis. Comparing the cost of both antisera, the locally produced serum was found economical incurring an amount of Rs. 20,000/- that is 2.5 times lower than the imported antiserum kit involving expenditure of Rs. 45,000/-. Beside saving foreign exchange earning, locally produced antiserum is obtained in large quantity (>25 ml), which is strain specific sufficient for testing of approximately 65000 samples as compared to imported one (1 ml volume) enough for 1000 samples only. Furthermore, standardized procedure can be exploited for commercial production creating funds for routine lab-oriented research work and provides opportunity to train manpower. Besides, locally produced antiserum can be made available to provincial agricultural research institutes, extension and entry ports for checking health status of the crop and safe national and international germplasm movement. Thus the indigenous technology makes diagnosis of exact pathogen easier and convenient that will ultimately help in proper management of viral diseases.

621-627 Download
18
PLANT REGENERATION BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM CALLUS OF MATURE SEED EXPLANTS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
SAAD IMRAN MALIK1, HAMID RASHID2, TAYYABA YASMIN AND NASIR MAHMOOD MINHAS

PLANT REGENERATION BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM CALLUS OF MATURE SEED EXPLANTS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to test genotypes and to evaluate media for effectiveness in promoting whole plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis in two wheat genotypes viz., Inqilab-91 and Pavon-76. Embryogenic callus was obtained by culturing seeds of both varieties on gel-solidified Linsmaier and Skoog's (LS) medium with 3.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The callus cultures were maintained by subsequent subcultures onto fresh media at 4-5 weeks interval. The embryogenic calli carefully cleared of any surrounding non-embryogenic callus were grown on the gel-solidified basic Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 3% (w/v) sucrose after at least two subcultures. Seven different combinations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) i.e., 0 & 0.1, 0.5 & 0.1

629-634 Download
19
SEASONAL VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN, ALTAF HUSSAIN, M. ASHRAF, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM*1, M. Y. ASHRAF** AND MUHAMMAD SAEED AKHTAR

SEASONAL VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The rationale for this study was to determine soil and forage mineral concentrations as affected by season and location of collection with regard to satisfying grazing sheep nutrient requirements. Forages and soil samples were collected fortnightly during winter and summer seasons from three grazing areas within the same farm. Forages and soils (for soils only extractable nutrients) were analyzed for calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). It was found that location of collection of forages had little effect on Ca, Na or K forage concentrations, but forage Mg was high in location II during the summer season. In general, all sites of collection were associated with soils with adequate Ca and Mg concentrations, while soil with Na and K were uniformly low. In relation to grazing sheep requirements, all regions were generally adequate with forage levels of Ca, Mg and K, however, Na was deficient in both soil and forage in all locations except Na in soil in location III during summer.

635-640 Download
20
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FOREST ASSOCIATIONS OF ELIKA ECOTON AREA, N. IRAN
HASSAN NAZARIAN, AHMAD GHAHREMAN1, MORTEZA ATRI2 AND MOSTAFA ASSADI3

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FOREST ASSOCIATIONS OF ELIKA ECOTON AREA, N. IRAN
ABSTRACT:
Eco-phytosociological method with emphasis on physiognomic-floristic-ecologic criteria have been employed to study the vegetation of Elika ecoton area. The establishment places of releves were determined at random in each determined endogenic milieus. The concerned floristic-ecologic data of each releve was entered in the forms related to releves, using Braun-Blanquet's Composition Coefficients A-D and S. The data analysis was performed by using Anaphyto Software in F.C.A. and A.H.C. methods. The following four formations were specified:

641-657 Download
21
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON MYCORRHIZAE OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT.
A. MAHMOOD, RUBINA IQBAL, RAIHA QADRI AND SAEEDA NAZ

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON MYCORRHIZAE OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT.
ABSTRACT:
In young roots of Leucaena leucocephala infection hyphae formed appresorium, sending branches in different directions to colonize the host cell. The mycorrhizal fungus was non-septate and branched. Fungal cells (Pelotons) were observed in the root cortex. Characteristic arbuscules commonly formed by VAM fungus were visible. The main hyphae branched and the branched hyphae terminated in an arbuscule. The cortical cells of the root showed large number of vesicles which were either globular or elliptical in shape.

659-662 Download
22
LOCATION OF FUNGI IN GROUNDNUT SEED
SHAZIA RASHEED, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

LOCATION OF FUNGI IN GROUNDNUT SEED
ABSTRACT:
Using ISTA techniques, component plating of groundnut seed showed that seed coat (testa) was greatly infected by fungi viz., Alternaria citri Ellis & Pierce apud Pierce, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Gray, A. niger van Tieghem, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, F. semitectum Berk & Rav., F. solani (Mart) Sacc., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., followed by cotyledon and axis (radicle and plumule). Reduced number of fungal species in surface sterilized seed indicates that most of the fungi were located on seed coat (testa). Blotter method showed greater incidence of fungi on seed parts followed by agar plate and deep freezing methods. In seedling symptom test, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Aspergillus flavus and A. niger showed pre- emergence and post emergence rot resulting in root rot and damping off of seedling caused by root infecting fungi.

663-668 Download
23
CALVATIA AHMADII SP.NOV., FROM PAKISTAN
A.N. KHALID AND S.H. IQBAL

CALVATIA AHMADII SP.NOV., FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Calvatia ahmadii sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Pakistan. The fungus is characterized by horizontally chambered exoperidium, not pitted and branched capillitium and smooth basidiospores.

669-671 Download
24
PYTHIUM DELIENSE, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

PYTHIUM DELIENSE, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pythium deliense which is characterized by having simple filamentous inflated sporangia, smooth oogonia, highly aplerotic oospores, broad apical intercalary antheridia and bending of oogonial stalks towards the antheridia has been recorded for the first time from betelvine rhizosphere in Pakistan.

673-676 Download
25
EFFECT OF SEA SALT ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM
SYED AYAZ HASSAN AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFECT OF SEA SALT ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM
ABSTRACT:
Use of sea salt @ 1

677-682 Download
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