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Year 2006 , Volume  38, Issue 4
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LI -CARYOPHYLLACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LI -CARYOPHYLLACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 74 species belonging to 23 genera of the family Caryophyllaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, apolar rarely isopolar, pantoporate rarely 3-10 colpate, spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate occasionally prolate. Sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum spinulose-punctuate or scabrate-punctate often reticulate or reticulate-scabrate. On the basis of apertural type three distinct pollen types viz., Silene indica-type, Spergula arvensis-type and Stellaria media-type are recognized.

901-915 Download
2
GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF SOLANUM MELONGENA L., (SOLANACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF SOLANUM MELONGENA L., (SOLANACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
ABSTRACT:
Present investigations pertain to germination and viability of Solanum melongena L., (Solanaceae) pollens up to 48 weeks. Pollen germination was made by the hanging drop technique in different concentration of sucrose and boric acid solutions (10%-100%). Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different conditions, like refrigerator, freezer, in vacuum over silica gel and in organic solvents (Acetone, Benzene, and Choloroform). Pollen stored at low temperature (-30°C, -20°C) showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at +4°C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60°C) showed the best of germination. The study indicates that 30% and 40% solutions favoured pollen germination. Benzene showed more germination than acetone and chloroform.

917-920 Download
3
ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME FILICALES FROM NEELUM VALLEY, MUZAFFARABAD, AZAD KASHMIR.
GHULAM MURTAZA*, REHANA ASGHAR1, SYED ABDUL MAJID, ABDUL WAHEED1 AND SARWAT N. MIRZA2

ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME FILICALES FROM NEELUM VALLEY, MUZAFFARABAD, AZAD KASHMIR.
ABSTRACT:
Four ferns viz., Polystichum nigroplaceium (Christ) Diels (Aspidiaceae), Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai (Blechnaceae), Asplenium adiantum nigrum L (Aspleniaceae) and Adiantum capillus veneris L. (Adiantaceae) were collected from Neelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir and identified. The anatomy of the rachis of Polystichum nigroplaceium, Woodwardia unigemmata and Asplenium adiantum nigrum showed di-tri-tetrarch stele in the rachis. The rachis anatomy of Adiantum capillus veneris revealed a thick walled heavily cutinized epidermis and hypodermis while the ground tissue was made up of parenchymatous cells with air spaces. The ornamentation pattern of the spores of Adiantum capillus veneris is unique and can be referred as means of identification of the species.

921-929 Download
4
A NEW RECORD FOR THE FLORA OF TURKEY: ALYSSUM IDAEUM BOISS. & HELDR.
NERMIN ORCAN* AND RIZA BINZET

A NEW RECORD FOR THE FLORA OF TURKEY: ALYSSUM IDAEUM BOISS. & HELDR.
ABSTRACT:
Alyssum idaeum Boiss. & Heldr., as a new record for the Flora of Turkey is described and illustrated from South Anatolia.

931-933 Download
5
CHROMOSOME NUMBERS AND POLYPLOIDY IN THE LEGUMES OF PAKISTAN
SURAYYA KHATOON AND SYED IRTIFAQ ALI

CHROMOSOME NUMBERS AND POLYPLOIDY IN THE LEGUMES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Original counts of 15 species of leguminous plants of Pakistan are reported here including 3 counts new to science. This brings the total number of chromosomally known leguminous species in the flora of Pakistan to 208 belonging to 68 genera i.e., 40.15% of the total leguminous species in our flora. The incidence of polyploidy is discussed in relation to taxonomic groups, their phylogenetic position, habit classes and phytogeographic regions. The more archaic subfamilies i.e. Caesalpinioideae and Mimosoideae show the retention of higher basic numbers (x=12-14) with secondary cycle of polyploidy non-existent in the former (in our sample) while exhibited by some species like Acacia spp., and Prosopis juliflora in the latter. In Papilionoideae, the comparatively archaic tribes like Sophoreae and Millettieae exhibit higher basic numbers, but more advanced herbaceous tribes have lower basic numbers (x=6-8). In habit classes, woody species show the retention of high basic numbers with little intrageneric polyploidy (1.92%), while the herbaceous and weedy species show lower basic numbers but higher intrageneric polyploidy. The highest percentage of intragenetic polyploidy among various habit types in the sample is met with in annual herbs (3.8%), which are mostly weedy species belonging to the tribes Indigofereae and Trifolieae. The modal basic number in the sample is found to be 8 followed by 11, at the specific as well as at generic level. Basic numbers higher than 11 are most frequent in the Tropico-subtropical phytogeographic elements followed by Sino-Japanese and Indian elements. The intrageneric polyploids of Papilionoideae do not show any obvious correlation with any phytogeographic region. The overall percentage of intrageneric polyploidy in the sample is found to be 10.096% (0% in Caesalpinoideae

935-945 Download
6
FACILE PLANT REGENERATION FROM TOMATO LEAVES INDUCED WITH SPECTINOMYCIN
MUHAMMAD SARWAR KHAN*, MUHAMMAD USMAN AND MUHAMMAD ILYAS LILLA

FACILE PLANT REGENERATION FROM TOMATO LEAVES INDUCED WITH SPECTINOMYCIN
ABSTRACT:
Several studies have been conducted to find a combination of hormones conducive to improve regeneration from different explant tissues, particularly from leaves of tomato, and various responses were recorded to use in experiments. Major focus was to regenerate maximum number of shoots from tomato leaves Cv. Moneymaker, Packet, Nagina and Aroma. Depending on the cultivar used, shoot regeneration varied (Moneymaker = Packet = Nagina = Aroma) on RMOT medium (MS salts supplemented with 1mg/L Zeatin and 1mg/L IAA). In addition, several other media were used to compare regeneration efficiencies including RMOP medium containing MS salts supplemented with 0.1mg/L NAA

947-952 Download
7
MASS PROPAGATION OF BOUGAINVILLEA SPECTABILIS THROUGH SHOOT TIP CULTURE
SYED TARIQ SHAH, R. ZAMIR, T. MUHAMMAD AND *H. ALI

MASS PROPAGATION OF BOUGAINVILLEA SPECTABILIS THROUGH SHOOT TIP CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
A simple and efficient In vitro regeneration protocol for Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd., was developed from shoot tips of 5 year old plants. Shoot tips were surface sterilized and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0.25 - 2.0mg/l) or Kinetin (0.25 - 2.0mg/l) and NAA (0.1-0.5 mg/l) in combination with BAP (0.25 - 5.0 mg/l). It was observed that BAP (0.25mg/l) combined with 0.1mg/l NAA gave best results where 90% shoots were developed into plantlets. Best multiple shoot formation was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP and 250 mg/ l glutamine.

953-959 Download
8
EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE MICROPROPAGATION OF SUGARCANE CLONES
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN**, *M. UMAR DAHOT, SHAFQAT YASMIN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, NIGHAT SEEMA AND MAZHAR H. NAQVI

EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE MICROPROPAGATION OF SUGARCANE CLONES
ABSTRACT:
The rapid multiplication of early, mid and late maturing sugarcane clones were obtained under different concentrations of commercial sugar and plant growth regulators in this study. Late maturing sugarcane clone AEC82-223 did not produce any auxillary shoot at 6% commercial sugar concentration. In contrast multiplication rate was higher in early and mid maturing sugarcane clones NIA-2004, BL4 and NIA-98, respectively. Apical meristems were cultured on modified MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. An optimal multiplication was observed on M4 (1.0 mg/1 IAA + 1.0 mg/1 BAP + 0.1mg/l Kinetin) and M5 (0.l mg/1 kinetin + 1.5mg/l BAP + 1.5mg/l IAA). Maximum numbers of shoot were observed in BL4 followed by NIA-2004 when 1.0 mg/l of BAP and IAA were applied with low concentration of kinetin (0.1 mg/l). Shoot elongation and multiplication was improved on media devoid of BAP (MS+ 2 mg/1 kinetin + 2 mg/1 IBA + 2 mg/1 IAA). Best rooting was observed on media containing MS+ 1 mg/1 IBA + 6% sucrose.

961-967 Download
9
EFFICIENT EMBRYOGENIC SYSTEM FROM TISSUE CULTURE OF MATURE EMBRYOS FOR SOME COARSE VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI**, TASAWAR SULTANA, TAYYABA YASMIN, TARIQ MAHMOOD AND M. SHAHEEN AKHTAR*

EFFICIENT EMBRYOGENIC SYSTEM FROM TISSUE CULTURE OF MATURE EMBRYOS FOR SOME COARSE VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Five coarse cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) viz., Pakhal, Swat-1, JP-5, KS-282 and IR-6 were evaluated for their ability to undergo somatic embryogenesis. Results indicated that N6 basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D without BAP was the most appropriate for callus growth but inferior in its regeneration potential. Among all the genotype tested JP-5 showed highest 84 %) whereas IR-6 showed the lowest (63 %) callus induction frequency. (Regeneration rate was highest (82 %) on N6 basal media supplemented with 5 mg/L of BAP and 0.5 mg/L of IAA. All of the varieties showed a good regeneration potential on culturing, the highest for KS-282 and Pakhal while JP-5 showing the lowest regeneration compared with other genotypes studies. It was observed that sucrose supported regeneration better than sorbitol and mannitol. Calli on sucrose containing media showed higher regeneration and produced longer shoots whereas mannitol could not support the growth.

969-975 Download
10
DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS OF KALANCHOE TOMENTOSA (CRASSULACEAE) FROM SHOOT-TIPS
SAIFULLAH KHAN*, SHEEBA NAZ, KASHIF ALI AND SAMREEN ZAIDI

DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS OF KALANCHOE TOMENTOSA (CRASSULACEAE) FROM SHOOT-TIPS
ABSTRACT:
An efficient and cost effective protocol for direct regeneration of Kalanchoe tomentosa, a valuable medicinal and ornamental plant, is presented here. Multiplication and growth responses of Kalanchoe tomentosa towards BAP (6-Benzyle amino purine), NAA (a- Naphthalene acetic acid) and a hormone free control MS medium was evaluated. The effects of BAP and NAA either singly or in combinations, to accelerate the organogenesis of K. tomentosa were examined. The cultures were grown for 28 days at 22 ± 2°C under 16 hours photoperiod with the light intensities of 3500 lux. Maximum number of shoots, length of shoots, number of leaves, number of roots and number of plants were obtained on a hormone free MS based medium (control), suggesting that there is a little role of plant growth regulators in the In vitro development, multiplication and organogenesis of Kalanchoe tomentosa. More than 95% of the well rooted plantlets were established ex vitro in green house which were phenotypically similar to their mother plants. The 1:1 ratio of sand and grinded charcoal proved best as a potting mix for the hardening of plants.

977-981 Download
11
STUDIES ON THE GERMINATION OF AN ENDEMIC SPECIES CENTAUREA TOMENTELLA HAND.-MAZZ.
ISMET UYSAL**, S. CELIK AND K. OZKAN*

STUDIES ON THE GERMINATION OF AN ENDEMIC SPECIES CENTAUREA TOMENTELLA HAND.-MAZZ.
ABSTRACT:
Centurea tomentella an endemic species of Turkey is facing a threat of extinction due to its overuse for the decorative purposes. The species is under an abiotic stress of salinity in its natural habitats. Studies on the germination of this species were thus started in order to evaluate the possibilities which would enable us to sustain and cultivate the native populations on a large scale. The germination behaviour of this species was investigated under two different light regimes (8h light-16h darkness and 16 h light- 8h darkness) at a constant temperature of 25 oC. The results showed that germination was higher (59.50 %) in 16h light- 8 h darkness, but lower in 8h light-16h darkness (52.25 %). Different concentrations of NaCl and KNO3 were applied to assess if any improvement in germination could be obtained. Both the rate as well as total germination were higher at 0.25 % KNO3 under 8/16 h light/dark condition as compared to the control. The effect of 0.25 % KNO3 was significant, but light interactions were non significant.

983-989 Download
12
ROOT-INDUCED CHANGES IN POTENTIAL NITRIFICATION AND NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY OF THE RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
S. GILL, M. ABID* AND F. AZAM**

ROOT-INDUCED CHANGES IN POTENTIAL NITRIFICATION AND NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY OF THE RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to study the root-induced changes in potential nitrification (PN) and nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in the rhizosphere of 4 varieties each of wheat and chickpea using unplanted soil as reference. The two crop types were significantly different in gathering biomass over 21 days of growth; chickpea being twice more active when the values were averaged for 4 varieties. Wheat varieties had in general inhibitory and chickpea varieties a stimulatory effect on PN and NRA of the rhizospheric soil. On an average, NRA of the rhizospheric soil of wheat varieties decreased by 50% compared to unplanted soil i.e., non-rhizospheric or bulk soil. In contrast to wheat, chickpea varieties caused 5-30 times increase in NRA as compared to unplanted soil. When data for different varieties within a crop type were averaged, PN and NRA were 2 and 45 times higher in chickpea as compared to wheat. The two parameters were significantly correlated (r = 0.97, n = 9) suggesting the dependence of NR on In situ formation of NO3-. However, ratio of NRA/PN suggested chickpea varieties to be more efficient in inducing NO3- reduction than nitrification. In wheat varieties, NRA was not induced although NO3- was being formed at rates comparable to that in unplanted soil and in soil planted to two of the chickpea varieties. Significance of differential root-induced changes in PN and NRA to nitrogen nutrition of the two plant types is discussed.

991-997 Download
13
DUAL ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID ON ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE IN GRASS PEA SEEDLING (LATHYRUS SATIVUS L.)
YOU-CAI XIONG, GENG-MEI XING*, CHUN-MEI GONG, FENG-MIN LI, SHAO-MING WANG**, ZHI-XIAO LI AND YA-FU WANG

DUAL ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID ON ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE IN GRASS PEA SEEDLING (LATHYRUS SATIVUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The effects of exogenous abscissic acid (ABA) application on the antioxidant defenses were investigated in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seedlings. Four treatment combinations of ABA (1 × 10-3 nM ABA) and PEG (10 % polyethylene glycol, PEG 6000) were designed to evaluate their short-term (48 h) effect:

999-1014 Download
14
SOLUBLE PROTEINS INDUCED BY LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT IN THE LEAVES OF SPRING AND WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS
G. KARIMZADEH*, G. R. SHARIFI-SIRCHI, M. JALALI-JAVARAN, H. DEHGHANI AND D. FRANCIS1

SOLUBLE PROTEINS INDUCED BY LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT IN THE LEAVES OF SPRING AND WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Quantitative and qualitative changes in total leaf soluble proteins were determined in a spring cv. Zagross and in a winter cv. Azar 2 cultivar of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to 4°C for two weeks. The data obtained were used to test whether these different genotypes of wheat responded differentially to cold treatment. Seedlings were grown in a controlled growth chamber for 14 d at 20°C and then transferred to 4°C for 14 d before returning them to 20°C (cold treatment), or else they were maintained continuously at 20°C (control treatment). The plants were sampled every 48 h for total leaf fresh weight measurements. Total leaf soluble proteins were extracted. Proteins concentration was either determined by a colorimetric method, or size-fractionated on SDS-PAGE. Clear cold-induced increases in proteins quantity occurred during the low temperature treatment irrespective of cultivar. However, the electrophoretic protein patterns showed differences between-cultivar and between-temperature treatment. Ten new cold-induced polypeptides (17

1015-1026 Download
15
RESPONSE OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF N & K UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
M. ZAMEER KHAN, S. MUHAMMAD1, M. A. NAEEM1, EHSAN AKHTAR AND M.KHALID2

RESPONSE OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF N & K UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted at different sites to evaluate the response of wheat to foliar application of N and K under rainfed conditions of potohar region of Punjab. These studies were conducted to compare the effect of K (KNO3 and KCl) sources as foliar application at different growth stages of wheat. The treatments were

1027-1034 Download
16
LEAD CONTENT IN SOIL AND WHEAT TISSUE ALONG ROADS WITH DIFFERENT TRAFFIC LOADS IN RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
M.I. LONE, S.H. RAZA, S. MUHAMMAD, M.A. NAEEM AND M. KHALID*

LEAD CONTENT IN SOIL AND WHEAT TISSUE ALONG ROADS WITH DIFFERENT TRAFFIC LOADS IN RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
ABSTRACT:
A field study was conducted to evaluate the lead contents in soil and wheat as affected by vehicle exhausts in Rawalpindi district (Rawalpindi, Attock and Fatehjang). For this purpose three different traffic roads varying in traffic densities viz., Pir Vidhai road, Kamra road and Fatehjang road were selected. On each road five different fields at a distance of 20

1035-1042 Download
17
FORAGE MINERAL STATUS EVALUATION: THE INFLUENCE OF PASTURES
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN, M. ASHRAF AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM*

FORAGE MINERAL STATUS EVALUATION: THE INFLUENCE OF PASTURES
ABSTRACT:
Information is lacking on mineral nutritive potential of native pastures in arid pastures in different regions of Pakistan. An experiment, using wet nitric acid (HNO3) digestion followed by an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), was carried out to measure the levels of macro and micro minerals of herbage forages of a grazing pasture of Leiah district of south-western Punjab, Pakistan. The grazed forages had different concentrations of Ca and Mg, respectively, and were slightly higher than the minimum recommended levels in the diets of ruminants. Content of micro minerals varied among the grazing pasture forages. The forages had lower levels of Cu and slightly low to moderate contents of Zn as compared to recommended dietary requirements of ruminants. The feeds had moderate to high. The forages had levels of Fe considerably in excess of requirements. In order to optimize livestock productivity in ruminants fed on the pasture forages, specially, during winter or dry seasons, there is a need to supplement with micro mineral sources.

1043-1054 Download
18
LONG-TERM GRAZING ALTERS SPECIES COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS OF A SHRUB MEADOW ON THE QINGHAI -TIBET PLATEAU
HUAKUN ZHOU2, YANHONG TANG1, XINQUAN ZHAO AND LI ZHOU

LONG-TERM GRAZING ALTERS SPECIES COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS OF A SHRUB MEADOW ON THE QINGHAI -TIBET PLATEAU
ABSTRACT:
Livestock grazing has long been the most widespread land use on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, one of the world's highest ecosystems. However, there has been increasing concern during recent decades because of the rapid increase in livestock numbers. To assess the possible influences of grazing on the vast grassland, a long-term grazing experiment in a shrub meadow on the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was carried out. The experiment included five treatments with different stocking rates and one non-grazing (N) treatment. After 17 years of grazing, treatment differences were clear. The species composition differed markedly between grazing intensities, with a decrease in palatable grass species and an increase in unpalatable forbs at higher grazing intensities. The species richness and species diversity, however, were not significantly different between treatments. Vegetation height decreased significantly at higher grazing intensities. Total above ground biomass declined considerably and the biomass of forbs increased significantly under the higher grazing intensities. The amount of litter was significantly lower under the higher grazing intensities. The results suggest that long-term grazing alters the species composition, vegetation height and biomass production of the alpine grassland ecosystem without significantly changing species richness.

1055-1069 Download
19
RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VAR. CHAKWAL-97 TO ARTIFICIAL AGEING IN RELATION TO ITS VIABILITY UNDER MID-TERM CONSERVATION IN GENEBANK
ASJAD ALI, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI*, M. AFZAL* AND M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY

RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VAR. CHAKWAL-97 TO ARTIFICIAL AGEING IN RELATION TO ITS VIABILITY UNDER MID-TERM CONSERVATION IN GENEBANK
ABSTRACT:
Wheat is most important among cereal crops in terms of area and production and is a staple food for more than one third of the world's population. Seed storage for germplasm conservation is a big problem, as viability is decreased even under the optimal storage conditions in the genebank. About 85% viability is minimum requirement to store seeds in the genebanks for conservation purpose. Seeds of some plant species loose viability faster than others and there may be varietal responses within species. Artificial seed ageing (AA) is used to check seed viability and germinability potential. The objective of the present study was to determine the affect of artificial seed ageing on seed viability, while outlining the contribution of different factors like temperature and moisture in seed ageing. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) var. Chakwal-97 with two types of seed initial moisture contents i.e. low (LMC) and high (HMC) was used as experimental material. Treatments comprised of three temperature regimes (40, 50 and 60oC) each with 4 types of incubation durations (24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Two type of relative humidity (RH) [ambient (low) or high up to 100%] was maintained in seed containers during incubation. Between paper towel (BP) method was used for germination at 25 oC (± 2) under light conditions to check the seed viability after artificial ageing. It was concluded by visualizing the germination behavior of artificially aged seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Chakwal-97 that the viability decreases with the increase in AA incubation temperature. Incubation of seeds under high relative humidity (RH) has more effect in decreasing the seed viability than low RH. Under high RH the seed viability decreases with increase in incubation period.

1071-1078 Download
20
IMPACT OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT AND LEGUME ASSOCIATION ON AGRO-QUALITATIVE TRAITS OF MAIZE FORAGE
A. IQBAL, M. AYUB, H. ZAMAN AND R. AHMAD

IMPACT OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT AND LEGUME ASSOCIATION ON AGRO-QUALITATIVE TRAITS OF MAIZE FORAGE
ABSTRACT:
A two years study pertaining to different agro-qualitative parameters of forage maize grown alone and in association with legumes and different fertilization regimes viz., control (F0)

1079-1084 Download
21
INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM NUTRITION ON LEAF AREA INDEX IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) UNDER AN ARID ENVIRONMENT
H. PERVEZ, M. I. MAKHDUM1, M. ASHRAF2AND SHABAB-UD-DIN1

INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM NUTRITION ON LEAF AREA INDEX IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) UNDER AN ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan to study the effects of potassium nutrition on leaf area index in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) The treatments consisted of four cotton cultivars (CIM-448, CIM-1100, Karishma, S-12), four potassium-rates (0, 62.5

1085-1092 Download
22
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT ANDCANOPY REFLECTANCE IN WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREES (CITRUS SINENSIS (L.) OSBECK)
MUSTAFA SARI*, N. KEMAL SONMEZ1 AND MEHMET KARACA2

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT ANDCANOPY REFLECTANCE IN WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREES (CITRUS SINENSIS (L.) OSBECK)
ABSTRACT:
Understanding the spectral features of Washington navel trees is important to remotely measure and monitor the canopy properties and biochemical changes in plantations. Satellite and ground based passive remote sensing techniques have been widely used in many plant species. However, the use of these techniques in orange trees is limited. In this study, relationships between total chlorophyll (Chl) contents and canopy reflectances (RF) were used to determine the most suitable growth and development stage that could be used to measure and monitor the canopy properties and biochemical changes by remote sensing technologies in Washington navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). Plant materials consisted of four different age groups of 15

1093-1102 Download
23
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GERMINATION, GROWTH, YIELD, IONIC BALANCE AND SOLUTE COMPOSITION OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILLSP)
ABDUL WAHEED, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ*, GHULAM QADIR**, GHULAM MURTAZA**, TARIQ MAHMOOD* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF***

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GERMINATION, GROWTH, YIELD, IONIC BALANCE AND SOLUTE COMPOSITION OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILLSP)
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) was determined at three growth stages since it has already been observed by a number of workers that degree of salt tolerance of different crops varies with their ontogeny. Therefore, salt tolerance of three accessions, Local Arhar, ICPL-151 and ICPL-850014 of pigeon pea was assessed at germination, seedling and adult stage. It is clearly evident from this study that there was no positive correlation between the tolerance at the early growth stages and at the adult stage of pigeon pea, since no clear difference in salt tolerance of three accessions was observed at the germination and the seedling stage, whereas accessions differed considerably at the adult stage. Although increasing salt concentrations adversely affected the growth of all three accessions, ICPL-151 excelled the other two accessions in fresh and dry biomass, yield and yield components when tested at the adult stage. The tolerant accession, ICPL-151 accumulated significantly lower shoot and root Na+ and shoot Cl-. By contrast it was higher in shoot and root K+, K/ Na ratios K versus Na selectivity, soluble sugars, root starch, free amino acids and proline compared with the other two accessions. The better performance of ICPL-151 under saline conditions seems apparently due to accumulation of less Na+ and more K+ and K/Na ratio and higher concentration of proline, free amino acids and soluble sugars than the other two accessions. However, relatively greater accumulation of organic osmotica was probably not enough to decrease the osmotic potential of the tolerant accession.

1103-1117 Download
24
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION AND PHOSPHORUS ON GREEN GRAM (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
AMJAD MALIK, FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN1, ABDUL WAHEED2*, GHULAM QADIR1 AND REHANA ASGHAR2

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION AND PHOSPHORUS ON GREEN GRAM (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Harvested yields of mung bean are generally very low due to relatively little information on its fertilization and irrigation management. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of irrigation and phosphorus on green gram (Vigna radiata L). Four irrigation levels (I0 = No irrigation), (I1 = irrigation at vegetative stage), (I2 = irrigation at vegetative and flowering stage), (I3 = irrigation at vegetative, flowering and pod formation stage) and five phosphorus doses (P0 = 0, P1 = 20, P2 = 40, P3 = 60 and P4 = 80 kg ha-1) were arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Irrigation treatments exhibited positive effects on yield and yield components. Less than two and more than two irrigations were not economically beneficial. Phosphorus application @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 affected the crop positively, below and above this level left non-significant effects. Interactive effects of two irrigations and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 were most effective. Rest of the combinations remained statistically non-significant to each other. It may be concluded that green gram can be successfully grown under limited water supply when at least two irrigations are given with phosphorus at 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. The response of the crop was consistent during both the seasons; however, it was better during the first season than during the second one, which could be attributed to better climatic conditions.

1119-1126 Download
25
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID APPLIED THROUGH ROOTING MEDIUM ON DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF WHEAT
MUHAMMAD WASEEM, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR** AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF*

EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID APPLIED THROUGH ROOTING MEDIUM ON DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess whether exogenously applied SA through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of water stress on plant growth, photosynthesis and nutrient status of two wheat genotypes. For this purpose, salicylic acid @ 0, 5, and 10 mg L-1 was applied through the rooting medium to plants of two wheat lines growing in plastic beakers (250 mL) filled with Hoagland's nutrient solution containing 0 or 19% PEG8000 to represent two water regimes of control (0 MPa) and -0.6 MPa respectively. Different levels of SA applied through the rooting medium increased photosynthetic rate in both cultivars under non-stress conditions but only in S-24 under water stress conditions. Exogenous application of 5 or 10 mg L-1SA caused an increase in stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and sub-stomatal of water stressed plants of cv. S-24 whereas it was true for droughted plants of MH-97 only when 5 mg L-1 SA applied. Cultivar S-24 was generally higher in N and P contents of shoot and root than that in genotype MH-97 under both normal and water stress conditions. A decrease in shoot and root N contents of both genotypes and shoot and root P contents of genotype S-24 only was observed in stressed plants when 5 mg L-1 of SA was applied through the rooting medium, whereas the same was true for root P and shoot Ca2+ contents in the non-stressed plants of both cultivars. Application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium significantly reduced the root K+ of two cultivars under both normal and water deficit conditions. Although, exogenously applied SA through the rooting medium had growth promoting effects under non-stress conditions, it did not mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress on growth of both cultivars, though genotype MH-97 showed some recovery under water stress conditions.

1127-1136 Download
26
OIL AND FATTY ACID ACCUMULATION IN SUNFLOWER AS INFLUENCED BY TEMPERATURE VARIATION
GHULAM QADIR, SHAHBAZ AHMAD, FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN AND *MUMTAZ AKHTAR CHEEMA

OIL AND FATTY ACID ACCUMULATION IN SUNFLOWER AS INFLUENCED BY TEMPERATURE VARIATION
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted at the University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpinid during autumn

1137-1147 Download
27
THE METHYLATION-SENSITIVE AMPLIFICATION POLYMORPHISM IN JUVENILE AND ADULT PHASE CRAB APPLE (MALUS MICROMALUS)
ISHFAQ A. HAFIZ, NADEEM A. ABBASI, AZHAR HUSSAIN, ABDUL WAHEED* AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI**

THE METHYLATION-SENSITIVE AMPLIFICATION POLYMORPHISM IN JUVENILE AND ADULT PHASE CRAB APPLE (MALUS MICROMALUS)
ABSTRACT:
Cytosine methylation has been implicated in regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting and chromatin remodeling, resulting both in temporal and developmental regulation. Keeping in view its importance in development, this study was carried out to explore the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) associated with the transition from juvenile to adult phase in Malus micromalus. For detection of methylation in the genome of M. micromalus, a pair of restriction endo-nucleases HpaII-MspI was used. Genomic DNA from juvenile and adult phase leaves of the seedling tree, that was undigested (control) and digested with each enzyme HpaII and MspI, was amplified using selected primers. In total 72 bands were amplified with the help of 12 primers. Post amplification digestion of these bands with MspI or HpaII revealed 35 bands containing CCGG. Ten bands absent in amplified profiles from J phase digested DNA, appeared in amplified products from digested A phase DNA, indicating de novo methylation at CCGG. Five bands disappeared in A phase while these bands were present in J phase DNA amplified profiles, revealing presence of restriction site without methylation in A phase. These results are suggestive that demethylation may have occurred in A phase. Seventeen motifs of DNA methylation at CCGG remaining similar in both phases seem to have been maintained from basal to crown part of the seedling tree. Amplified profiles produced from restricted DNA from both phases showed polymorphism due to differential methylation.

1149-1157 Download
28
EVALUATION OF THE HETEROTIC AND HETEROBELTIOTIC POTENTIAL OF WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR IMPROVED YIELD
INAMULLAH, HABIB AHMAD*, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, SIRAJ-UD-DIN2, GHULAM HASSAN1 AND RAHMANI GUL1

EVALUATION OF THE HETEROTIC AND HETEROBELTIOTIC POTENTIAL OF WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR IMPROVED YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Heterotic and heterobeltiotic performance of 28 F1's obtained through crossing 8 commercial varieties, were evaluated for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant, flag leaf area, plant height, spike length, grains per spike

1159-1167 Download
29
DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF THE INHERITANCE PATTERN OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF BREAD WHEAT
INAMULLAH, HABIB AHMAD*, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, SIRAJ-UD-DIN2, GHULAM HASSAN1 AND RAHMANI GUL2

DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF THE INHERITANCE PATTERN OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF BREAD WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out on the inheritance pattern of the important yield parameters viz., tillers per plant, spike length, grains per spike

1169-1175 Download
30
ADAPTATION AND STABILITY ANALYSIS IN THE SELECTED LINES OF TIR WHEAT
M. ÜLKER1, F. SÖNMEZ*, V. ÇIFTÇI1, N. YILMAZ2, AND R. APAK1,

ADAPTATION AND STABILITY ANALYSIS IN THE SELECTED LINES OF TIR WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Genotype and environment (G x E) interactions are of major concern to plant breeders in breeding cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of grain yield in 12 wheat genotypes. Eleven lines selected from Tir wheat population (Triticum aestivum) were used in the study. The experiment was conducted in Van, Ercis, and Adilcevaz located in the eastern part of Turkey in 1997-98 and 1998-99. Two stability parameters were obtained as linear regression coefficient (b) of an entry mean on the average of all entries and deviation from regression (s²d), then stability was tested with the hypotheses b = 1.0 and s²d = 0. The results indicated that there were significant differences and interactions among genotypes, locations and years. The regression coefficient (b) values of the 11 genotypes used in this study ranged from 0.46 to 1.73; deviation from regression ranged from 69.9 to 2896.7. According to estimates of the two stability parameters, none of the genotypes were stable for grain yield. However, based on the linear regression coefficient and average grain yield, line 2 (Adilcevaz-40/1) and 11 (Van-Edremit/1) appeared to be promising because their yields were above the average in all of the environmental conditions of this study.

1177-1183 Download
31
BREEDING POTENTIAL FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE IN CORN (ZEA MAYS L.)
TASSAWAR HUSSAIN, IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR MALIK* AND ZULFIQAR ALI

BREEDING POTENTIAL FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE IN CORN (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Rising temperature reduces the pollen viability and silk receptivity of corn resulting in poor seed set and reduced yield. Continuously rising temperature and less frequency and distribution of rainfall coupled with usual canal-closure particularly in Pakistan have significantly been reducing the grain yield. This problem could be overcome by developing heat tolerant maize hybrids. For this purpose, five heat tolerant (lines), five heat susceptible (lines) and four heat susceptible (testers) corn inbred lines were hybridized artificially in a line x tester mating design. The 40 hybrids and 14 parents were evaluated for heat tolerance under high temperature field conditions by sowing on March 31 using triplicated randomized complete block design during spring 2004. Highly significant differences (P=0.01) were observed among 54 corn genotypes

1185-1195 Download
32
MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) IN WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEM: AN OPTION FOR RESOURCE CONSERVATION UNDER RAINFED ECOSYSTEM
MUHAMMAD ASIM, MUHAMMAD ASLAM, N.I. HASHMI AND NAFEES SADIQ KISANA

MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) IN WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEM: AN OPTION FOR RESOURCE CONSERVATION UNDER RAINFED ECOSYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan has 17 agro-ecological zones and in 11 of these rainfed agriculture prevails. The present paper gives an account of the experimental evidence demonstrating the potential importance of mungbean in the rainfed cropping systems with the goal to develop a sustainable agriculture at a higher level of productivity and profitability. Agro-economic studies of mungbean-wheat and fallow-wheat cropping systems revealed that water requirement for mungbean growth cycle varied depending upon seasons, potential evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop coefficients. Under agro-ecosystem of Islamabad, rainfall is surplus than water requirements of mungbean. The study also showed that the response of wheat growth, development and yield differ significantly when followed after mungbean crop as compared to fallow. Net monetary benefits of Rs.5820 per hectare could be obtained by sowing Mungbean in wheat based cropping system.

1197-1204 Download
33
IMPACT OF CROP AND WEED DENSITIES ON COMPETITION BETWEEN WHEAT AND SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN.
MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN* AND KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT

IMPACT OF CROP AND WEED DENSITIES ON COMPETITION BETWEEN WHEAT AND SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN.
ABSTRACT:
Field trials were conducted at Peshawar, Pakistan during two crop seasons i.e. 2003-04 and 2004-05 using a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with split-plot arrangement. The main plots consisted of four seed rates of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) i.e. 100

1205-1215 Download
34
INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) I. FREQUENCY AND SPECTRUM OF CHLOROPHYLL MUTATIONS
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH*, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA**, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA

INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) I. FREQUENCY AND SPECTRUM OF CHLOROPHYLL MUTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
A relative study of frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations induced by physical (gamma rays) and chemical (EMS) mutagens in M2 population was conducted in two desi (Pb2000, C44), one each of kabuli (Pb1) and desi x kabuli introgression line (CH 40/91) of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The treatments included two doses each of gamma irradiation and concentrations of EMS. The overall frequencies and spectrum of four types of induced chlorophyll mutants were viridis (9.01%), followed by xantha (8.61%), chlorina (5.82%), albina (0.5%) and others (0.26%). EMS treatments were found to be more efficient and effective than gamma rays in all the varieties. It appeared that recombinant of desi x kabuli chickpea introgression genotype was more responsive to chemical and physical mutagens as compared to pure desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes. The study of induced genetic variability for frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations on recombinant of desi x kabuli chickpea introgression genotype is the first report in chickpea.

1217-1226 Download
35
GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AS AFFECTED BY ROW SPACING AND WEED COMPETITION DURATIONS
M.M. MAQBOOL, A. TANVEER, Z. ATA AND R. AHMAD*

GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AS AFFECTED BY ROW SPACING AND WEED COMPETITION DURATIONS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) to study the effect of row spacing (75, 65 and 55cm) and different weed competition durations (0

1227-1236 Download
36
RESISTANCE OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) CULTIVARS AGAINST PULSE BEETLE
F. A. SHAHEEN, A. KHALIQ* AND M. ASLAM*

RESISTANCE OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) CULTIVARS AGAINST PULSE BEETLE
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 15 chickpea cultivars viz., Paidar-91, C-44, Noor-91, Bittle-98, Parbat, Punjab-91, NCS-2003, CM-2000, CH-41/91, Flip 97-192C, Dasht, C-44×E-100YM, NUYT-90395, BH-73111 and CM-72 against pulse beetle. The cultivars with rough, wrinkled, hard and thick seed coat were more resistant compared to those having smooth, soft and thin seed coat. The minimum number of holes (0.80 per grain) made by pulse beetle was recorded in grains of Punjab-91 compared to the maximum of 1.77 holes per grain in Paidar-91. The maximum number of eggs (3.12 per grain) of pulse beetle was observed in Paidar-91 and the minimum eggs (0.48 per grain) were recorded in Dasht. The adults of pulse beetle fed on Paidar-91 gained the maximum weight (10.27 mg) while the minimum weight of 7.02 mg was recorded for adults fed on grains of Bittle-98. The minimum grain damage (24.35%) was recorded in Bittle-98 while the maximum of 54.46% damage was seen in Flip 97-192C. The minimum grain weight loss of 25.66% was recorded for Dasht compared to the maximum weight loss (39.48%) in CM-2000. The minimum adults (2.96) of pulse beetle were attracted towards Parbat grains and the maximum of 5.07 adults were recorded in grains of Flip 97-192C. Chickpea cultivars of Punjab-91, Dasht, Bittle-98 and Parbat were resistant against pulse beetle while Paidar-91 and Flip 97-192C were found susceptible.

1237-1244 Download
37
IN VITRO NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SEAWEED EXTRACTS FROM KARACHI COAST
MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI 1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL 2

IN VITRO NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SEAWEED EXTRACTS FROM KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
Twenty two species of seaweeds viz., Asparagopsis taxiformis, Botryocladia leptopoda, Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Codium iyengarii, Cystoclonium purpureum, Cystoseira indica, Dermonema abbottiae, Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata, Gelidium usmanghanii, Gracilaria foliifera, Gracilaria gracilis, Iyengaria stellata, Jolyna laminariodes, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, Padina antillarum, Sargassum tenerrimum, Spatoglossum variabile, Stoechospermum polypodioidis were collected from the coastal areas (Manora, Buleji, Paradise Point) of Karachi, Pakistan. Methanol extracts of the seaweeds were tested for nematicidal activity against the larvae of Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode. Stoechospermum polypodioides appeared to be the most active seaweed as it caused 80 % mortality of the nematode larvae after 72 h exposure to its extract. Jolyna laminarioides was found to be least active in its nematicidal activity since it caused only 21 % mortality after the exposure of 48 as well as 72 h of its extract. Three species of Caulerpa and 2 of Gracilaria presented specific differences regarding their nematicidal activities.

1245-1248 Download
38
DIVERSITY OF PINNULARIA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SYED TARIQ-ALI, A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN 1AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL 2

DIVERSITY OF PINNULARIA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eight species of the diatom genus Pinnularia (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg (Pinnulariaceae, Bacillariales, Bacillariophyceae) were collected from various freshwater habitats at Gujranwala, Jhang, Kasur and Lahore districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan and Chenari in Azad Kashmir during April to December 2004. All the collected species appeared in the vegetative state and occurred during winter and spring. They were taxonomically determined and described for the first time from these areas.

1249-1255 Download
39
CERATOCYSTIS FIMBRIATA ISOLATED FROM VASCULAR BUNDLES OF DECLINING MANGO TREES IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
FAISAL S. FATEH, MUNAWAR R. KAZMI, I. AHMAD AND *M. ASHRAF

CERATOCYSTIS FIMBRIATA ISOLATED FROM VASCULAR BUNDLES OF DECLINING MANGO TREES IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ceratocystis fimbriata is being considered as one of the contributing factors in case of mango decline. It is a widely distributed; plant pathogenic fungus which causes wilt and canker on many woody hosts. Recently C. fimbriata was reported in Mango Decline from Oman and now it has been for the first time isolated from declining mango trees from Sindh, Pakistan. Morphological characteristics show perithecia brown to black with globose base, necks almost 800-900 µm long with ostiolar hyphae. Ascospores elliptical 4-8 x 2-5 µm, hyaline, non septate, hat shaped appearance. Conidiophores hyaline, septate upto 150 µm long. Conidia cylindrical, sometimes in chains, truncate at the ends.

1257-1259 Download
40
IN VITRO INVESTIGATIONS TO EXPLORE THE TOXICITY OF FUNGICIDES FOR PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
FATHIA MUBEEN, MUNIR A. SHIEKH*, TAHIRA IQBAL*, QAISER M. KHAN, KAUSER A. MALIK AND FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ**

IN VITRO INVESTIGATIONS TO EXPLORE THE TOXICITY OF FUNGICIDES FOR PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Various pesticides are used to protect different crops from pest attack but very little is known about the damaging effects of pesticide application on non-target, beneficial soil microflora. Present study was designed to explore the effect of fungicides on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from rhizosphere of wheat and other cereals. Different PGPR strains were tested In vitro to check their resistance against commercial formulation of diverse fungicides, at dose recommended for field application. Results were taken on the basis of the number of viable bacterial cells through plate count, fungicide resistance pattern through disc diffusion method. Comet assay was used for the first time, to assess the genotoxicity of fungicides for PGPR. Results indicate that fungicides viz., Alert Plus, Darosal and Mancozeb do have the inhibitory effect while Benlate have stimulatory effect on growth though the effect varies from strain to strain. No tested fungicides cause the genotoxicity.

1261-1269 Download
41
BIODIVERSITY OF MUSHROOMS AND ECTOMYCORRHIZAS. 1. RUSSULA BREVIPES PECK., AND ITS ECTOMYCORRHIZA- A NEW RECORD FROM HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE FORESTS OF PAKISTAN
A. R. NIAZI, S.H. IQBAL AND A. N. KHALID

BIODIVERSITY OF MUSHROOMS AND ECTOMYCORRHIZAS. 1. RUSSULA BREVIPES PECK., AND ITS ECTOMYCORRHIZA- A NEW RECORD FROM HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE FORESTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During the investigation on Biodiversity of Mushrooms and ectomycorrhizas from Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests of Pakistan, Russula brevipes was found associated with Pinus wallichiana. Russula brevipes and its morphotypes/ectomycorrhiza have been described and illustrated. The fungus and its mycorrhiza are new records for Pakistan.

1271-1277 Download
42
BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF BOMBAX CIEBA AND CANNA INDICA FLOWER
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ***, AYESHA-JAMAL* AND SHARFUN-NAHAR**

BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF BOMBAX CIEBA AND CANNA INDICA FLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Sixteen yeast species belonging to 10 genera from nectar of Bombax cieba flower and 25 species belonging to 15 genera from nectar of Canna indica flower were isolated and identified on the basis of their morphological and biochemical/physiological characteristics. Pichia lynferdii and Zygoascus helinicus were predominantly isolated from nectar of Bombax cieba whereas Cryptococcus laurentii, Debaryomyces hansenii and Fibulobasidium inconspicuum from nectar of Canna indica flower.

1279-1288 Download
43
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PENICILLIUM SPP., FROM THE RIVER INDUS BED AT KOTRI
MUHAMMAD SUHAIL, SHAISTA AKHUND, TAHIRA JATT, A. M. MANGRIO AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PENICILLIUM SPP., FROM THE RIVER INDUS BED AT KOTRI
ABSTRACT:
The mycoflora from the bed of river Indus at Kotri was investigated at three locations viz., Right Bank, Center and Left Bank from June 2004 to May 2005. Twenty four soil samples were collected from surface

1289-1292 Download
44
OCCURRENCE OF FUNGI ON MANGROVE PLANTS
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND FATIMA S. MEHDI

OCCURRENCE OF FUNGI ON MANGROVE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Mangrove plants viz., Rhizophora mucronata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Ceriops tagal were collected from Sonmiyani, Korangi and Keti bunder. A total number of 18 species of fungi belonging to 11 genera were isolated from different parts of Rhizophora mucronata

1293-1299 Download
45
EFFECT OF NURSERY FERTILIZERS ON PLANT GROWTH AND IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON MUNG BEAN AND OKRA PLANTS
LUBNA IRSHAD, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, M. JAVED ZAKI AND A. GHAFFAR

EFFECT OF NURSERY FERTILIZERS ON PLANT GROWTH AND IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON MUNG BEAN AND OKRA PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The potential impact of five widely used locally available nursery fertilizers viz., flourish, frutan, NPK, urea and fishmeal on the growth of mung bean and okra plants and control of Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematodes was examined. All fertilizers enhanced the plant growth as compared to control. The shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight were significantly increased in both okra and mung bean plants. Maximum inhibition of knots was achieved by fishmeal @ 0.1% followed by urea @ 0.1% and NPK @0.001% and 0.1%.

1301-1304 Download
46
ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL PATHOGENS IN CORN
YASMIN AHMAD, A. HAMEED* AND A. GHAFFAR**

ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL PATHOGENS IN CORN
ABSTRACT:
Enzymatic activity e.g., pectinase, cellulase, protease and lipase of different fungal pathogens causing stalk rot disease in corn was determined. In-vitro studies; corn stalk rot pathogens viz., Cephalosporium acremonium, Fusarium moniliforme, F. graminearum, F. semitectum, Macrophomina phaseolina, st. 1, M. phaseolina st. 2, Rhizoctonia solani st.1, R. solani st. 2 and Verticillium albo-atrum showed maximum pectinase activity after 48 hrs., which then decreased with the exception of C. acremonium. F. moniliforme, F. graminearum and F. semitectum showed the same pattern of pectinase activity but in variable quantity (88.9 µml-1, 66.6 µml-1 & 77.7 µml-1 respectively) after 48 hrs. In V. albo-atrum alongwith both strains of Macrophomina phaseolina, pectinase activity was also maximum at 48 hrs., and then significantly reduced at 96 hrs. Production of pectinase enzyme by C. acremonium started at 24 hrs., (22.2 µml-1) and showed maximum activity at 72 hrs., (66.6 µml-1) and then decreased significantly at 96 hrs., (11.1 µml-1). Cellulase production was not observed at 24 hrs., after inoculation of the pathogens, however, all the pathogens except R. solani st.2 showed cellulase activity at 48 hrs. Protease enzyme was found only in C. acremonium, F. moniliforme and F. graminearum. Lipase activity was maximum at 24 hrs., post-inoculation in all pathogens with the exception of F. graminearum, C. acremonium and R. solani st.1. Differences in enzymatic activity at different intervals may suggest their specificity in causing corn stalk rot disease.

1305-1316 Download
47
IN VITRO INTERACTION OF FUSARIUM SPP., WITH OTHER FUNGI
FAKHRUNNISA, M.H. HASHMI AND A. GHAFFAR

IN VITRO INTERACTION OF FUSARIUM SPP., WITH OTHER FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
In the present study interaction of 10 Fusarium spp., namely Fusarium equiseti, F. longipes, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F.proliferatum, F. scirpi, F. pallidoroseum, F. sporotrichioides, F. solani and F.subglutinans with other fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, A.terreus, A.versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Drechslera hawaiiensis, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium digitatum, P. funiculosum, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma hamatum was studied in vitro. In dual culture plate assays, Trichoderma hamatum showed inhibition in growth of Fusarium spp., by producing zones of inhibition.

1317-1322 Download
48
ROLE OF CRUSTACEAN CHITIN, FUNGICIDES AND FUNGAL ANTAGONIST ON THE EFFICACY OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN PROTECTING CHILLI FROM ROOT ROT
VIQAR SULTANA, JEHAN ARA*, GULNAZ PARVEEN**, SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE** AND VIQAR UDDIN AHMAD***

ROLE OF CRUSTACEAN CHITIN, FUNGICIDES AND FUNGAL ANTAGONIST ON THE EFFICACY OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN PROTECTING CHILLI FROM ROOT ROT
ABSTRACT:
Application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium alone or with crustacean chitin, fungicides (benlate/captan) or Paecilomyces lilacinus (a biocontrol agent) significantly suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani attacking roots of chilli. Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cyst nematodes, also caused significant suppression of root rot pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be less effective against M. phaseolina, but more effective against F. solani, than benlate and captan. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. lilacinus together on crustacean waste powder produced better plant growth than when used alone. The use of crustacean waste powder resulted in better plant growth than the use of pure chitin.

1323-1331 Download
49
BIODEGRADATION OF 4-AMINOBENZENE SULPHONIC ACID BY A LOCAL TEXTILE MILL ASPERGILLUS NIGER ISOLATE
R. FARYAL**1, S. AHMED** AND A. HAMEED*

BIODEGRADATION OF 4-AMINOBENZENE SULPHONIC ACID BY A LOCAL TEXTILE MILL ASPERGILLUS NIGER ISOLATE
ABSTRACT:
4-aminobenzene sulphonic acid (4-ABS) is an intermediate formed during the degradation of azo dye loaded effluent containing the unutilized azo dyes used by the textile industry during dyeing and printing processes. Released in the environment, it is a recalcitrant and mutagen. Degradation of 4ABS by fungal strain Aspergillus niger RH19 was investigated in batch shake flask-cultures. Aspergillus niger RH19 showed more than 40% degradation of 4ABS. Experiments were carried out at initial concentrations between 50-500mg L-1. With increasing initial 4ABS concentrations in shake-flask cultures, percentage removal of 4ABS decreased and residual 4ABS concentrations increased proportionally. Temperature, pH and inoculum size for degradation were optimized. Optimum temperature and pH for degradation was 34oC and 5.0 respectively. Degradation in shaking condition at various concentrations of 4ABS (50-500 mg L-1) was 30-60% whereas in static condition degradation was <20%. Degradation of 4ABS was not affected with addition of glucose as secondary source of carbon at 250mg L-1, however at 500mg L-1, addition of glucose resulted in decreased degradation.

1333-1340 Download
50
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRAL DISEASES OF MUNGBEAN AND MASHBEAN IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD BASHIR, ZAHOOR AHMAD AND SHAHID MANSOOR*

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRAL DISEASES OF MUNGBEAN AND MASHBEAN IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess the occurrence, distribution and importance of viral diseases of mungbean and mashbean crops in Punjab, Pakistan, an extensive survey was conducted during summer season of 2004. The symptomatic plant samples were collected from farmer's fields and experimental plots at research stations and tested by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect and identify viruses infecting these two crops. Based on field observations, the incidence of mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) ranged from 4 to 40% in mungbean depending upon crop variety and location. In case of mashbean, the MYMV incidence was from 5 to 100%. MYMV was observed as a major disease of both these crops distributed in all the districts surveyed with significant importance. Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) was the second important viral disease with incidence of 5 to 28%, but was more serious in mashbean than mungbean. Out of 540 symptomatic plant samples collected from commercial plots of mungbean and mashbean and tested by ELISA, only 213 (39%) samples reacted positively with one or more antisera. Based on ELISA results, only five viruses such as MYMV, ULCV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) were detected and identified. AMV was prevalent only at research stations, but not at farmer's fields. The incidence of CMV, BYMV and AMV was recorded as 6 to 20%. The natural infection of CMV, BYMV and AMV on mungbean seems to be first record in Pakistan. Widespread infection of viral diseases in commercial crops and experimental stations is of great concern, especially where individual virus incidence is high and two or more viruses are present. Incorporation of viral disease resistance in the present cultivars is the only practical way to control viral diseases.

1341-1351 Download
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PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


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