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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 5
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LV. CAPRIFOLIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LV. CAPRIFOLIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 18 species of the family Caprifoliaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal rarely sub-prolate or sub-oblate. Sexine slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum mostly spinulose to coarsely reticulate or sub-psilate often rugulate-striate. On the basis of exine pattern six distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Abelia triflora-type, Lonicera myrtillus-type, Lonicera obovata-type, Lonicera quinquelocularis, Lonicera webbiana-type and Viburnum grandiflorum.

1393-1401 Download
2
MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF CARICA PAPAYA L., (CARICACEAE)
ANJUM PERVEEN, SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND RUBINA ABID

MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF CARICA PAPAYA L., (CARICACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination of Carica papaya L., of the family Caricaceae was examined upto 48 weeks in refrigerator (+4oC), freezer (-20oC, -30oC) and freeze drier (-60oC). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage as compared to pollen stored at +4oC and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60oC) showed the highest germination percentage. Whereas lowering the storage temperature and moisture contents tends to increase the viability.

1403-1406 Download
3
MICROMORPHOLOGY OF CYPSELA AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME GENERA IN THE TRIBE INULEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND NOUREEN ZEHRA

MICROMORPHOLOGY OF CYPSELA AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME GENERA IN THE TRIBE INULEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypsela morphology of 10 taxa belonging to the tribe Inuleae of the family Asteraceae was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The taxa included representatives of the genera Pegolettia Cass., Varthemia DC., Asteriscus Torn.ex Mill., Carpesium L., and Blumea DC. Cypsela micromorphological characters are found taxonomically significant both at generic and specific levels.

1407-1416 Download
4
NEW SPECIES OF TARAXACUM WEBER EX WIGG., FROM PAKISTAN
SULTANUL ABEDIN

NEW SPECIES OF TARAXACUM WEBER EX WIGG., FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A new section QAISERA and 9 new species of the genus Taraxacum Weber (Family Asteraceae) distributed in 5 sections viz. SECT. LEUCANTHA: 1, T. quettacum; sect. MACROCORNUTA: 2, T. gilgitense, 3, T. laholense; SECT. OLIGANTHA: 4, T. mansehracum, 5, T. zamarrudae SECT. QAISERA: 6, T. qaiseri; SECT. PARVULA: 7, T. alii, T. rawalpindicum and 9, T.janalamii have been described from Pakistan. Latin diagnosis of the new taxa, discussion with closely related species and their illustrations are provided.

1417-1433 Download
5
EXPLORING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF UNDERUTILIZED PLANT SPECIES IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD* AND SUMAIRA JAVED

EXPLORING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF UNDERUTILIZED PLANT SPECIES IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK
ABSTRACT:
This research was conducted on selected underutilized plant species in Ayubia National Park, Pakistan. The six most prominently used medicinal and food species viz., Adhatoda vasica, Artemisia scoparia, Galium aparine, Amaranthus viridis, Hedera nepalensis and Urtica dioica that gain little attention by scientific research and local community were selected as underutilized species. Due to their underutilized characteristics they were investigated in detail for exploring their economic values. About 50 informants were interviewed in this regard to study their ethnomedicinal and ecological properties. Amaranthus viridis, Hedera nepalensis and Urtica dioica were also chemically analyzed for ash, total proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. The results of the study demonstrated that these 6 selected underutilized species have great medicinal and nutritional importance could be good sources of some important nutrients for humans and can become a source of poverty alleviation of poor local community of the study are. The precious ethno botanical knowledge about underutilized plants is disappearing very fast, however this study could be helpful in conserving the precious knowledge.

1435-1442 Download
6
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AND SEED OIL FROM A WILD PROVENANCE OF PAKISTAN
FAROOQ ANWAR* AND UMER RASHID

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AND SEED OIL FROM A WILD PROVENANCE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the present study was to examine the physico-chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan. The Moringa seeds harvested from the forests of Kohat district of NWFP exhibited an oil yield of 34.80%. Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were 31.65, 7.54, 8.90 and 6.53%, respectively. The extracted M. oleifera seed oil revealed an iodine value of 68.63; refractive index (40°C)

1443-1453 Download
7
FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF ARID TEMPERATE HARBOI RANGELAND, KALAT, PAKISTAN
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND MUFAKHIRAH JAN DURRANI2

FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF ARID TEMPERATE HARBOI RANGELAND, KALAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Harboi rangeland is an arid temperate highland range. The growing season lasts from April to October with seasonal and annual variation in rainfall and temperature. Monthly sampling over two years period was carried to determine its productivity. The total average dry biomass production was 10772.5 Kg/ha/year. The months of July and August were the most productive months (2120.7 and 2012.7 Kg/ha, respectively). The total dry biomass, biomass contributed by grasses, herbs and shrubs generally increased from April through August and thereafter it progressively decreased till October. The grasses contributed 1269.1 Kg/ha/year, herbaceous species 743.4 Kg/ha/year and shrubs 8760.0 Kg/ha/year towards the total dry biomass production. It was observed that the range is suffering with overgrazing, over exploitation and soil erosion, which must be cared for. It is recommended that a blend of traditional and modern methods of range management with the participation of local communities be tried for its sustainable use.

1455-1470 Download
8
INTRAANNUAL VARIATIONS IN WEED COMMUNITIES OF LENTIL FIELDS IN CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
SIKANDER SULTAN* AND ZAHEER AHMAD NASIR1

INTRAANNUAL VARIATIONS IN WEED COMMUNITIES OF LENTIL FIELDS IN CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Weed communities are never static nor are they necessarily at equilibrium as they change in response to external and internal forces. To identify the ecologically operative weed communities, two surveys were carried out at eight sites in lentil fields of District Chakwal during 1999-2000. Twenty nine weed species in 1999 and 36 weed species in 2000 were recorded from the study area. Based on the importance value, 8 weed communities viz

1471-1479 Download
9
MORPHO-GENETIC VARIABILITY POTENTIAL OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L., FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
MOHAMMAD ARSHAD1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2, MAQSOOD AHAMAD3 AND FAKHAR ZAMAN4

MORPHO-GENETIC VARIABILITY POTENTIAL OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L., FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Twenty accessions of perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris L., collected from different habitats of Cholistan desert were evaluated on the basis of morphological characters. Wide range of variation was recorded among these accessions. Data recorded on morphological characters were analysed by using principal component analysis and all the accessions gathered into five groups. The biggest and smallest groups were represented by eleven and two accessions, respectively. The germplasm collected from different sites of Cholistan desert, though grouped into the same group, exhibited morphological variation. Keeping in view the prominent characters associated with PC2 and PC1 the accession number 14 collected from “Shaheeda Wala Toba”, accession number 8 from “Cheepan Wala Toba”, accession number 5 from desert area of 43/D.B (Yazman) and accession number 2 & 4 collected from Lal Suhanra appeared as the best accessions according to days taken to earing, number of tillers per plant, number of internodes on main tiller, number of leaves on main tiller, fresh weight of the plant, total number of branches per plant, height of the plant, leaf area, number of leaves on main tiller, part of internode covered by leaf sheath, total number of branches per plant and number of reproductive branches per plant. It is emphasized that the germplasm of Cenchrus ciliaris L. adapted in hot and punishing climate of Cholistan desert has a lot of potential for its further evaluation against multiple stresses such as drought, salinity and high temperature to sort out the best genotypes, which ultimately will be helpful in greening the degraded rangelands of Cholistan desert.

1481-1488 Download
10
STUDY OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SUGARCANE INDUCED THROUGH MUTATION BREEDING
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, M. UMAR DAHOT** AND ABDULLAH KHATRI

STUDY OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SUGARCANE INDUCED THROUGH MUTATION BREEDING
ABSTRACT:
Three sugarcane clones viz., NI-98, NIA-2004 and BL4 were tested for induced somatic mutation using irradiation doses of 0

1489-1501 Download
11
GENETIC HERITABILITY FOR GRAIN YIELD AND ITS RELATED CHARACTERS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
SHABANA MEMON, MUEEN-U-DIN QURESHI, BASHIR AHMED ANSARI AND MAHBOOB ALI SIAL1

GENETIC HERITABILITY FOR GRAIN YIELD AND ITS RELATED CHARACTERS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Seven F3 progenies and their 8 parental lines of spring wheat were evaluated for some genetic parameters viz., coefficient of variability (Cv), genetic variance (Vg), heritability percentage (h2 %) and genetic advance (GA) in 7 quantitative characters (grain yield and its associated traits). Highly significant (p£0.01) differences were observed for all the characters viz. plant height, number of grains per spike, seed index and grain yield per plant among all the genotypes; indicating more variability. Differential responses for different characteristics were observed among the entire cross combinations. The highest heritability with more genetic advance for plant height, number of spikelets per spike and number of grains per spike were observed in progeny Khirman x RWM-9313. Two progenies Soghat-90 x Sarsabz and Marvi-2000 x Soghat-90 showed more number of tillers per plant, spike length and grains per spike with more heritability and genetic gain. The parental line Khirman (a drought-tolerant variety) showed outstanding performance with respect to more number of tillers per plant (12.6) and grain yield per plant (25.6) also combining acceptable genetic parameters.

1503-1509 Download
12
DETECTION OF RIBOSOMAL DNA SITES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AND MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILTZEK) BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION
G.S.S. KHATTAK1, E. WOLNY2 AND I. SAEED1

DETECTION OF RIBOSOMAL DNA SITES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AND MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILTZEK) BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was used to detect rDNA sites in chickpea and mungbean. In chickpea, the rDNA sites were detected on three pairs of chromosomes. Among these three pairs of chromosomes, one pair exhibited both 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites, while in case of other two pairs of chromosomes the 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites were located separately on separate pair of chromosomes. In case of mungbean, rDNA sites were found on four pairs of chromosomes. Each 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA had separate sites on two pairs of chromosomes. Active Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs) of both the crops were detected through silver staining technique. One and two pairs of chromosomes were detected active for NORs in chickpea and in mungbean, respectively.

1511-1515 Download
13
FREQUENCY OF TRIPLOIDS IN DIFFERENT INTERPLOIDAL CROSSES OF CITRUS
MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI1, IQRAR A. KHAN2, M.M. KHAN1 AND HAIDER ABBAS3

FREQUENCY OF TRIPLOIDS IN DIFFERENT INTERPLOIDAL CROSSES OF CITRUS
ABSTRACT:
The frequency of triploids in progenies from 2x x 4x and 4x x 2x crosses of Kinnow mandarin and Succari sweet orange was analysed. Chromosome counts indicated that crosses among tetraploid x diploid Kinnow yielded maximum triploids while reciprocal crosses of Kinnow exhibited a mixed population of diploid, triploid and tetraploid seedlings. The occurrence of triploids varied from 25% to 83.4% depending on the pistillate parents used. Crosses of diploid Succari with tetraploid Kinnow also produced nucellar diploid, sexual triploid and tetraploid seedlings. The highest number of tetraploids (71.4%) were produced in cross of tetraploid Kinnow with diploid Succari.

1517-1522 Download
14
GENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES FOR ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ROOT AND SHOOT CHARACTERISTICS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
A .GANJEALI1 AND M. KAFI2

GENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES FOR ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ROOT AND SHOOT CHARACTERISTICS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted at the Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Twenty genotypes of chickpea were grown in pots (10´100 cm). Root traits including, total root length (TRL), number of lateral roots (NLR), root area (RA) and ratios of root dry weight (RDW) to root volume (RV) and leaf area (LA) to (RA) only at the seedling stage and root traits such as tap root length (TL), RVand RDW and shoot traits including, height of plant (H), leaf area (LA), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (SDW) and root/shoot ratio at the seedling to seed filling were determined. Significant differenence were found in TI, TRL, NLR, RA, RDW at the seedling stage. The triats RV, NLR, RA, RDW and RA showed significant and positive correlation with TRL at the seedling stage. No correlation was found between root traits at the seedling stage with the same traits at the flowering, podding and seed filling stages. In the seedling stage the highest linear regression correlation between TRL and RA (r2=0.91), between TRL and RV (r2=0.81), between RV and RA (r2=0.82) and between TRL and NLR (r2=0.84) were found. The correlation coeffiicent of RV versus H was 0.89, 0.81 and 0.94 at the flowering, podding and seed filling stages, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RDW and RV at the flowering (r2=0.55) and podding stages(r2=0.56). Since RV, RA and RDW are easy to measure and has the highest correlation with the TRL at the seedling stage, therefore we will be able to use from equations produced for TRL estimation in this stage. These parameters are the major criteria for selection of drought resistance.

1523-1531 Download
15
PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–II: DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF GRAIN MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI, TOSHIHIRO KUMAMARU* AND HIKARU SATOH*

PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–II: DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF GRAIN MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
ABSTRACT:
Rice grain quality characters pertaining to morphology were evaluated for diversity within Pakistan local rice germplasm; 475 accessions collected from 3-rice cultivation zones and other parts of the country. The altitudinal distribution patterns were carried out for some grain quality traits. A wide variation was found in grain size, shape and weight. The variation observed for these traits seemed to bear some correlation for its distribution with respect to altitude of collection site. Pakistan rice cultivars were dominated by long grain type while the short grains were absent, according to the measured length. However, based on grain length/width ratio

1533-1538 Download
16
AN EFFICIENT TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE
IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA AND IHSAN KHALIQ

AN EFFICIENT TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Effective screening techniques for drought resistance would be beneficial in wheat breeding programme. Higher water requirement and increasing labour costs are the major problems of field and laboratory screening techniques. An attempt to improve the economic and rapid screening was made in the present study. The investigation was mainly restricted to seedling response of 100 wheat varieties/lines. Wheat seedlings were counted to measure the following seedling traits; emergence percentage, emergence index, emergence rate index, energy of emergence, mean emergence time, percent seedling recovery and desiccation tolerance index. These traits when pooled together could discriminate between drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes.

1539-1546 Download
17
5USE OF CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINATION OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SEVERAL TRAITS IN EGG PLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
SIDDIK KESKIN1 AND FIKRET YASAR2

5USE OF CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINATION OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SEVERAL TRAITS IN EGG PLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Morphological traits of the plants may depend on several biochemical traits. Thus, the determination of the relationships between morphological and biochemical traits of the plants may be important for plant scientists. The relationships between morphological (SL; Shoot length, RL; Root length, SW; Shoot weight, RW; Root weight and LW; Leaf weight) and biochemical traits (K, Na, Cl, Malondialdehyde and Chlorophyll) were studied by using canonical correlation analysis in egg plant grown under controlled climatic (salt-stress) conditions. Canonical correlation analysis was used to summarize the relationship between morphological and biochemical traits of the egg plant. This multivariate linear statistical analysis may be used in a wide range of disciplines to analyze the relationships between multiple independent and dependent variable sets. As a result, the canonical correlation between the first canonical variates pair was found as 0.949 and the first canonical variate extracted 66.36 % of the variance in the morphological traits (Y set). It can be concluded that this multivariate analysis can be used to simplify the relationship between morphological and biochemical traits of the egg plant.

1547-1552 Download
18
USE OF COMPOST AN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCING RICE-WHEAT PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
GHULAM SARWAR1, NAZIR HUSSAIN2, HELGE SCHMEISKY3 AND SHER MUHAMMAD1

USE OF COMPOST AN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCING RICE-WHEAT PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The main aim of present study was to evaluate the possibilities of composting different organic substrates i.e. crop residues, leaves of trees, vegetables and fruit wastes. Decomposed organic matter was used in rice-wheat crop production in normal soil (Organic C = 0.33%, Available P= 5.72 µg g-1, K= 5.7 cmolc L-1, pHs = 8.19, ECe = 2.35 dS m-1 and SAR = 7.20). Compost (12 and 24 t ha-1) was applied without and with chemical fertilizer (Rice: 100-70-70 and wheat: 140-110-70 NPK kg ha-1) to investigate the probable effects of compost on crop yields. The grain yield and yield components (plant height, number of fertile tillers and 1000 grain weight) of rice and wheat increased significantly with the application of organic material in the form of compost at both the levels. The combination of compost with chemical fertilizer further enhanced the biomass and grain yield of both crops. This treatment proved economical over others. On the basis of experimental results, a recommendation for the farmers was formulated that they should compost the crop residues to apply in their soils for the increased sustainable crop production. In this way, the soil fertility can be improved with a net improvement in land productivity.

1553-1558 Download
19
DIVERGENCE IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) BASED ON YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS
MUHAMMAD KASHIF* AND FAROOQ AHMAD KHAN1

DIVERGENCE IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) BASED ON YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
Fourteen genotypes of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., were investigated for determining genetic diversity based on 12 quantitative traits using Meteroglyph and Divergence analysis based on pivotal elements. High variation was observed for most of the characters including sucrose recovery with high superiority of the genotypes, CP-43-33, CP-72-2086, COJ-84 and SPSG-26. Four clusters were observed with four genotypes in three clusters in each case, whereas cluster IV consisted two genotypes. The genotypes with high index scores can be crossed to have maximum variability of good combinations of characters. Though cluster analyses grouped genotypes with greater similarity for agronomic traits, they did not necessarily include the genotypes from the same source or origin.

1559-1563 Download
20
SAP DYNAMICS AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVARS OF PAKISTAN
MEHDI MAQBOOL, AMAN ULLAH MALIK* AND ABDUL JABBAR

SAP DYNAMICS AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVARS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
To supply the superior quality mango at international markets require many problems to be surmounted. Different experiments have been conducted to devise a strategy for sapburn management in commercial mango cultivars of Pakistan. In the first experiment, the effect of harvest time of a day and total sap quantity in different cvs of mango was studied. Sap collected from cv Chaunsa was 11.89 times more as compared to cv Sindhri and the quantity of sap exuded early in the morning was greater than later during the day. In the second experiment, it was observed that there is a little effect of delayed de-stemming (after harvest) on sap quantity. However, the total sap quantity was maximum in cv Chaunsa (spurt, 0.77ml & ooze, 0.54ml) and minimum in cv Sindhri (spurt, 0.15ml & ooze, 0.08ml). In the third experiment, three commercial mango cvs were tested against spurt and ooze sap to observe the sapburn susceptibility after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs at two different storage conditions (ambient: 25 ± 1°C; 14°C & 85%RH). Chaunsa cv was the most susceptible followed by cv Sindhri and cv Dusehri. Sapburn incidence in cv Chaunsa were more at ambient temperature (25 ± 1°C) than in cold storage (14°C, RH 85%). However in cvs Sindhri and Dusehri sapburn incidence were almost similar at both the temperatures. In the fourth experiment, level of sapburn severity was studied with reference to harvest time of the day. Sapburn severity increased as daytime proceeded. After 7 days of storage at ambient temperature as well as in cold storage (13 ± 1°C & 80-85% RH) average sapburn severity score was maximum in fruits which were harvested at 3:00 pm (1.08) while minimum in fruits harvested at 8:00 am (0.06). In another experiment fruits were placed on de-sapping trays for different time periods to determine the optimum time of de-sapping to reduce the incidence of sapburn injury. After 15 days of storage (13 ± 1°C & 80-85% RH) minimum sapburn injury occurred in fruits which were placed for 20 minutes (0.65) on de-sapping tray followed by 10 minutes (0.73) as compared with control (2.54) or fruit harvested by traditional method. The results will be used to work out a practical sapburn management approach in commercial mango cvs of Pakistan.

1565-1574 Download
21
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GEOGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GERMPLASM
MOHAMMAD NISAR1, A. GHAFOOR2, M. RASHID KHAN3, HABIB AHMAD4*, AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI3 AND HAIDAR ALI5

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GEOGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
The chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm, comprising of 118 accessions were evaluated for total seed protein, using SDS-PAGE. Both local and exotic germplasm were used for elaborating genetic diversity and geographic relationships of the accessions. Seed protein profile revealed that variations in major bands were there in accessions 52352, 52530, 52607, 52672, 52670 and 53484. Where as variation in minor bands were visible in most of the accessions. Cluster analysis revealed that the recorded genetic diversity was actually due to the analyses of different gene pools, which might be due to varying degree of out breeding. Geographic relationship based on total seed protein profiles provided clues of introduction of the same germplasm in different areas and transgression of genes into different landraces.

1575-1581 Download
22
EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND ZINC APPLICATION METHODS ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF MAIZE
KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1 MUHAMMAD ARIF2 AND MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND ZINC APPLICATION METHODS ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field trials were conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during summer 2006 to investigate the effect of tillage and Zinc application methods on maize yield and its associated weeds. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement having 3 replications. The main plot consisted of conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) while Zn application methods were assigned to the subplots which included seed priming (dry seed, soaking seed in water, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% Zn solutions), foliar spray of 0.01% Zn solution, soil application @ of 5 kg ha-1 and combination of soil application (@ 5 kg ha-1) plus foliar spray (0.01% Zn solution). Tillage significantly affected weed density (WD) and yield of maize. CT suppressed WD recorded 21 and 42 days after sowing (DAS). Likewise, CT also suppressed the major weeds viz., Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria sanguinalis and Convolvulus arvensis. Higher grain yield was recorded in CT plots as compared to RT. Zinc application methods significantly affected WD recorded 42 days after sowing and grain yield of maize. The interaction between tillage and Zn application methods for WD recorded 42 DAS was also significant. Greater WD was recorded in RT as compared to CT. Mean of the interaction values indicated that WD was lower in CT as compared to RT irrespective of Zn application methods. Yield was higher in CT as compared to RT. Likewise water soaking and Zn application methods improved maize yield as compared to control. It is concluded that CT resulted in lower WD and higher yield of maize. Furthermore, water soaking and Zn application methods enhanced grain yield of maize as compared to control.

1583-1591 Download
23
APPRAISAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
MOBINA ULFAT1,3, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2,3, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3*, NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM3 AND AMER JAMIL4

APPRAISAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Of Brassica species, canola (Brassica napus L.) is potentially important due to its good quality edible oil and potential to grow on salt affected areas. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to screen 34 local and exotic accessions of canola (Brassica napus L.) for salt tolerance and to identify suitable traits as selection criteria. Six week-old hydroponically grown plants of canola cultivars were subjected to 0 or 150 mM NaCl for five weeks. Various physiological and biochemical traits such as net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, leaf proline, leaf glycinebetaine, leaf Na+, leaf K+ and leaf K+/Na+ ratio, leaf osmotic potential and leaf relative water content were measured. All canola cultivars were ranked on the basis of relative salt tolerance using various physiological and biochemical attributes and then correlated with plant salt tolerance (plant growth) to identify the suitable selection criteria. Thus, the 34 lines were possible to categorize into three groups, i.e., salt sensitive, moderately salt tolerant, and salt tolerant. Dunkeld followed by Con-II, Rainbow were highly salt tolerant, while Westar, Balero, Oscar, RGS 003, Option-500 and Cyclone were salt sensitive. However, cvs BLN-877, Haanza, Goliath, and Olga were also considered potential candidates as salt tolerant cultivars. According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of plant growth, except leaf K+, leaf osmotic potential and RWC, all physiological and biochemical traits were positively related with their salt tolerance. However, A and gs were found as the most suitable determinants. Overall, photosynthetic capacity, proline and GB accumulation ability, and ion discrimination can be used as potential biochemical or physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in canola. Although leaf Na+, leaf K+/Na+ ratio, proline and GB accumulation were positively related with salt tolerance, the strength of relationship was week.

1593-1608 Download
24
POTASSIUM-CALCIUM INTERRELATIONSHIP LINKED TO DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
SYED ABDUL MAJID*, REHANA ASGHAR1 AND GHULAM MURTAZA

POTASSIUM-CALCIUM INTERRELATIONSHIP LINKED TO DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz. Rawal-87, Inqalab-91, Potohar-93 and Chakwal-97 were grown under pre-anthesis, post-anthesis and terminal drought stress against unstressed condition in lysimeters to study the calcium and potassium interrelationship and their relation to drought tolerance at booting and milking stages of crop growth. Gypsum block method was used to monitor drought stress in the soil. Calcium and potassium contents were quantified by flame photometer from fully expanded flag leaves. The calcium and potassium contents showed compromising attitude towards drought tolerance. Results of the study suggested that Chakwal-97 cultivar had more than others tendency to adapt stressful environment. Higher ratio of K+/Ca2+ in response to drought stress demonstrated the tolerance of wheat cultivars against stress. In the present study Potohar-93 showed highest ratio as compared to other cultivars at booting as well as milking stage during both of the years, showing best tolerance response against drought whereas drought imposed during different stages of growth and terminal drought affected differentially, showing tolerant abilities of different cultivars at different stages. Although Potohar-93 showed overall best tolerance, Rawal-87 responded best in pre-anthesis drought condition on the basis of K+/Ca2+ ratio.

1609-1621 Download
25
YIELD STABILITY ANALYSIS CONFERRING ADAPTATION OF WHEAT TO PRE- AND POST-ANTHESIS DROUGHT CONDITIONS
SYED ABDUL MAJID*, REHANA ASGHAR1 AND GHULAM MURTAZA

YIELD STABILITY ANALYSIS CONFERRING ADAPTATION OF WHEAT TO PRE- AND POST-ANTHESIS DROUGHT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz., Rawal-87, Inqalab-91, Potohar-93 and Chakwal-97 were grown under pre-anthesis, post-anthesis and terminal drought stress in comparison to the unstressed condition in lysimeters to study the adaptability of crop in different drought environments on the basis of yield and yield components. Gypsum block method was used to monitor drought stress in the soil. The performance of yield components attributable to grain yield were assessed and it was found that number of grains per spike and biological yield were positively and significantly correlated to the grain yield. Harvest index and thousand grains weight were also correlated positively but the former was significant at 5% only and the later had non-significant correlation. It was also found that number of spikelets per spike was negatively and non-significantly correlated with the grain yield of wheat under drought stress conditions imposed during this study. Present study revealed that grain yield of wheat crop under water deficit conditions can be improved by selecting the genotypes having more number of grains per spike and biological yield. Chakwal-97 had highest mean during both the years but regression coefficient closest to one was for Inqalab-91 in number of grains per spike. On the basis of number of grains per spike Inqalab-91 remained most stable for the year 2002-03 and Chakwal-97 for 2003-04. Inqalab-91 also exhibited stability for both these years on the basis of thousand grains weight. Similarly, on the basis of the major parameter judging for stability, the grain yield, Inqalab-91 with highest mean for both years and with regression coefficient closest to unity in one of the years (2003-04) looked to be the most stable genotype. Deviation from the regression fit is the measure of genotypic stability over a set of environments. Inqalab-91, with highest mean in yield and yield components and smaller deviation from the regression fit, was relatively stable in drought stress environments. Inqalab-91 with almost 90% of coefficient of determination in all the regression of yield components looked to be the best, although other varieties had higher coefficient of determination than that of Inqalab-91 in some of the yield components.

1623-1637 Download
26
GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF MULTI-ENVIRONMENT TRIAL (MET) DATA IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) THROUGH CLUSTERING AND GGE BIPLOT TECHNIQUE
IHSAN ULLAH, M. AYUB, *M. RASHID KHAN, M. ASHRAF, M.Y. MIRZA AND M. YOUSAF

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF MULTI-ENVIRONMENT TRIAL (MET) DATA IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) THROUGH CLUSTERING AND GGE BIPLOT TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Multi-environment trial (MET) data of 10 sunflower hybrids were analyzed to:

1639-1646 Download
27
IMPROVEMENT IN SALT TOLERANCE OF MAIZE BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE : GROWTH AND WATER RELATIONS
KHALID NAWAZ AND *MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

IMPROVEMENT IN SALT TOLERANCE OF MAIZE BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE : GROWTH AND WATER RELATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of exogenous glycinebetaine (0, 50, and 100 mM) applied at different growth stages i.e., vegetative, reproductive and both at the vegetative and reproductive stages on growth and water relations was assessed in the plants of two maize cultivars, Golden and C-20 under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing plant fresh and dry biomass of both maize cultivars. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water potential, leaf osmotic potential and leaf turgor potential. However, salt induced reduction in growth of both maize cultivars was ameliorated by exogenously applied GB. Furthermore, GB applied at the vegetative growth stage was more effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of salt stress on both maize cultivars than when applied at the reproductive stage or at both the vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Leaf water potential and leaf turgor potential of the salt stressed plants of both cultivars were increased due to foliar application of GB. The ameliorative effect of GB on growth of both maize cultivars under saline conditions was due to GB-induced improvement in plant water status. The adverse effects of salt stress on maize can be alleviated by the exogenous application of GB at different growth stages by modulating water relations.

1647-1653 Download
28
SCREENING OF LOCAL ACCESSIONS OF PANICUM MALIACEUM L. FOR SALT TOLERANCE AT THE SEEDLING STAGE USING BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ION ACCUMULATION AS SELECTION CRITERIA
PAKEEZA SABIR AND *MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

SCREENING OF LOCAL ACCESSIONS OF PANICUM MALIACEUM L. FOR SALT TOLERANCE AT THE SEEDLING STAGE USING BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ION ACCUMULATION AS SELECTION CRITERIA
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in Panicum maliaceum L.

1655-1661 Download
29
IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH*, R. AHMAD*, ANSER ALI** AND SAIF ULLAH***

IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A field study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on grain development (grain filling rate and grain filling duration) and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Inqlab-91. The experiment was conducted at the Crop Physiology research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during the year 2002-03 and 2003-04. Four irrigation levels i,e one irrigation ( Irrigation at tillering stage), two irrigations ( irrigations at tillering and anthesis stages), three irrigations (irrigations at tillering, anthesis and grain development stages), four irrigations (irrigations at tillering, stem elongation, anthesis and grain development stages) and four nitrogen levels i.e, 0, 50

1663-1672 Download
30
EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON NODULATION OF PEA CULTIVARS
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI

EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON NODULATION OF PEA CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment for two consecutive growing years (i.e.

1673-1680 Download
31
COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF NACL AND SEA SALT ON GERMINATION OF HALOPHYTIC GRASS PHRAGMITES KARKA AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE REGIMES
AFSHEEN ZEHRA AND M. AJMAL KHAN

COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF NACL AND SEA SALT ON GERMINATION OF HALOPHYTIC GRASS PHRAGMITES KARKA AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Seed germination of salt tolerant grasses, which could serve as non-conventional fodder/forage crop for saline land is more sensitive to salinity than dicotyledonous halophytes. Phragmites karka (Retz.). Steud., is a perennial halophytic grass, distributed in marshy places around Karachi. To determine tolerance limits of germination, we conducted germination experiments in NaCl and sea salt (0

1681-1694 Download
32
INFLUENCE OF LEAF EXTRACT OF NETTLE LEAF GOOSEFOOT (CHENOPODIUM MURALE L.) AND NACL SALINITY ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
S.M. ALAM AND A.H. SHAIKH

INFLUENCE OF LEAF EXTRACT OF NETTLE LEAF GOOSEFOOT (CHENOPODIUM MURALE L.) AND NACL SALINITY ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Aqueous leaf extract of nettle leaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale L.) was evaluated alone or in combination with NaCl salinity for its influence on germination and seedling growth of rice. The leaf extract and NaCl alone or in combination did not have any significant effect on germination, but the shoot and root lengths decreased significantly by the treatments compared to control. Root growth was affected more than the shoot. The combination of leaf extract and NaCl drastically reduced the shoot and root growth more than the separate effects of these stress treatments. The results suggest that the leaf extract of Chenopodium murale may release some toxic phenolic allelochemicals which deleteriously affected the seedling growth of rice plant.

1695-1699 Download
33
GROWTH OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT, IN DIFFERENT SOILS OF KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
SYED ATIQ-UR-REHMAN 1 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL2

GROWTH OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT, IN DIFFERENT SOILS OF KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The effects of soils collected from Khan Towel, Tanveer Garment, One Tech Rubber and One Tech Ply Board factories in the vicinity of Korangi and Landhi industrial areas were studied on the growth of Leucaena leucocephala under natural environmental conditions in a greenhouse. Plants of L. leucocephala which were grown in soils of Tanveer Garment factory showed reductions in many of the growth variables like root length, shoot length, seedling length, plant cover, number of leaflets, leaf area and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf and total plant dry weight (which included root, shoot and leaf dry weights) as compared to plants grown in soil of a control area (Karachi University Campus soil). Khan Towel and One Tech Rubber factory soils caused decrease in the growth parameters such as number of leaflets and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf and total plant dry weight of L. leucocephala as compared to plants in control area soil whereas root/shoot ratio was reduced in plants which were grown in One Tech Ply Board factory soil over the control soil. Growth of L. leucocephala was mostly increased in soil of a control area when compared to soil of Tanveer Garment factory. The amount of total soluble salts and available sulfate in all of the industrial areas soils were higher relative to a control area soil of Karachi University Campus. Total soluble salts and copper were found in highest extent in the soil of Khan Towel factory as compared to a control area soil. Tanveer Garment factory soil had lowest organic matter and highest amount of zinc than control soil. In the case of One Tech Rubber factory, the amount of coarse sand and concentration of Calcium carbonate was mostly increased over the control soil whereas level of chromium was higher in One Tech Rubber factory soil than a control soil. Soil of One Tech Ply Board factory had highest magnitude of available sulfate relative to the control soil. The research demonstrated that the growth of L. leucocephala was greatly reduced in plants which were grown in soil of Tanveer Garment factory than a control area soil of Karachi University Campus. Khan Towel and One Tech Rubber factory soils showed reductions in various growth variables of L. leucocephala. This showed that the soil of industrial areas of Korangi and Landhi, particularly of Tanveer Garment factory followed by Khan Towel factory and One Tech Rubber factory is contaminated by the existing pollution in the area.

1701-1715 Download
34
IMPACT OF MICROHABITAT ON SURVIVAL OF SERIPHIDIUM QUETTENSE SEEDLINGS
SHAMIM GUL*, SARFRAZ AHMAD**, ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI* AND MOHAMMAD ISLAM**

IMPACT OF MICROHABITAT ON SURVIVAL OF SERIPHIDIUM QUETTENSE SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Two years study was conducted to examine the influence of microhabitats i.e., plant canopies and interspaces on the seedling emergence and survival of Seriphidium quettense in relation to soil temperature and soil moisture in natural habitat. The growth rate of first year seedlings are also examined. Relative abundance of microhabitats was determined by using square quadrates. Soil temperature and soil moisture of two microhabitats were recorded at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm depth. Results showed that soil moisture in spring was found critical for seed germination while in summer it had greater impact on the survival of first year seedlings. Precipitations in March and April promoted seed germination while monsoon rains influenced seedling survival. Soil moisture and soil temperature in different microhabitats were significantly different in different months, reflected significant influence upon seedling emergence and their survival. Seedling emergence and survival was higher under plant canopies than in open interspaces. Highest mortality rate of first year seedlings were observed in June and August under high soil temperature and low soil moisture contents. High soil moisture in July due to occurrence of precipitation decreased the mortality rate of first year seedlings. After winter, no mortality occurred. Survived seedlings of the first year had high root to shoot ratio. Results further depicted that conspecific plant canopies are favorable microsites for seedling survival. Furthermore, high root to shoot ratio may enable them to survive in arid habitat.

1717-1724 Download
35
PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR PROMOTING GROWTH OF LENTIL SEEDLINGS UNDER AXENIC CONDITION
M. ZAFAR-UL-HYE, Z.A. ZAHIR*, S.M. SHAHZAD, M. NAVEED, M. ARSHAD AND M. KHALID

PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR PROMOTING GROWTH OF LENTIL SEEDLINGS UNDER AXENIC CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
Nodulation and subsequent nitrogen fixation by lentil plants are inhibited by accelerated ethylene concentration in the root zone. Plant growth-promoting bacteria can help overcome these deleterious effects. Twenty seven isolates of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase were isolated from the lentil rhizosphere by using dilution plate technique. A jar experiment was conducted under axenic condition for the screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase to promote growth of lentil seedlings. All the rhizobacterial isolates had the potential to modify the growth of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions. Results of jar study showed that inoculation with selected isolates increased the root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, fresh shoot weight, dry root weight and dry shoot weight of lentil seedlings up to 2.4

1725-1738 Download
36
EVALUATION OF COMPOSTED ORGANIC WASTE ENRICHED WITH NITROGEN AND L-TRYPTOPHAN FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
Z.A. ZAHIR*, M. NAVEED, M.I. ZAFAR, H.S. REHMAN, M. ARSHAD AND M. KHALID

EVALUATION OF COMPOSTED ORGANIC WASTE ENRICHED WITH NITROGEN AND L-TRYPTOPHAN FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Organic waste materials are being used in huge amounts (tons ha-1) for improving soil health and crop yields. Recycling of organic wastes enriched with nitrogen and L-tryptophan (L-TRP) could convert organic waste material into a useful soil amendment, which may be effective even when added in substantially small amounts (kg ha-1). Organic waste material of fruits and vegetables was collected and subjected to composting in a locally fabricated mechanical unit. The composted material was enriched with N (120 g kg-1 compost) and L-tryptophan (10 mg kg-1 compost) to convert it into a value added organic fertilizer. Effectiveness of the compost enriched with N alone and with N plus L-TRP was compared by applying different rates (300, 400 and 500 kg ha-1) to wheat in two year field study. The P and K fertilizers were applied as basal treatment in all plots, thus control consisted of P and K fertilizers only. Results of field experiments revealed that application of N & L-TRP-enriched compost @ 500 kg ha-1 was as effective as full dose of N fertilizer in improving growth and yield of wheat, saving 30% N fertilizer. It significantly improved the yield of wheat by 64% during first year and by 73% during second year compared with control. Similarly, N, P & K contents of the wheat plants were significantly improved upon application of N & L-TRP-enriched compost @ 500 kg ha-1 compared with control. The technology bears its promise not only to improve crop yield on sustainable basis but also reduce dependence on chemical fertilizer as well as huge piles of organic wastes causing environmental pollution.

1739-1749 Download
37
SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS NITROGEN UNDER AN IRRIGATED WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING SYSTEM
TARIQ MAHMOOD*, REHMAT ALI, FAQIR HUSSAIN, KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK AND GHULAM RASUL TAHIR

SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS NITROGEN UNDER AN IRRIGATED WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Seasonal changes in soil microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) were followed under an irrigated wheat-maize cropping system receiving urea and/or farmyard manure (FYM) at 0–200 kg N ha–1 year–1 for the past ten years. The Nmic was maximum (109–218 kg N ha–1) at the wheat stem elongation stage and minimum (80–148 kg N ha–1) at the wheat tillering stage. Fertilizer application significantly increased the Nmic, indicating that the belowground processes were limited by N availability. Averaged across sampling dates, the Nmic ranged from 93 kg N ha−1 (in unfertilized) to 176 kg N ha–1 (in FYM applied at 32 t ha–1 year–1), whereas the annual Nmic flux ranged from 57 kg N ha–1 (in unfertilized) to 118 kg N ha–1 (in FYM applied at 16 t ha–1 year–1). Crop dry matter and N yields increased due to fertilizer application. At an equivalent N application rate, urea applied alone produced maximum yields, followed by urea combined with FYM, whereas FYM applied alone yielded minimum. The size and flux of Nmic were poor indicators of the crop N availability, whereas the soil mineralizable N determined by alkaline permanganate method at the crop sowing stage was significantly correlated with the soil mineral N, and with the crop dry-matter and N yields.

1751-1761 Download
38
FFECT OF PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY IMMERSION SYSTEMS ON BANANA MICRO-PROPAGATION
IKRAM-UL-HAQ* AND MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT

FFECT OF PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY IMMERSION SYSTEMS ON BANANA MICRO-PROPAGATION
ABSTRACT:
For the establishment of a micro-propagation protocol for banana (Musa spp.) cv Basrai, meristematic stem cuttings were used as an explant. A number of cultures were maintained on MS medium supplemented with various auxins and cytokinins, of which a combination of IAA and BA for organogenesis and BA only for shoot induction/multiplication were considered as good agents for In-vitro propagation of banana. Micro-propagation efficiency was significantly (P >0.005) increased, when organogenesis was carried out by culturing on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 mM BA; 15.0 mM IAA and solidified with 3.60 g/L phytagel for 3-weeks, while shoot induction (1.0 g/L phytagel) and its multiplication (2.0 g/L phytagel) on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 mM BA for 2 and 3-weeks respectively. 17.65±0.50 plantlets per micro-stem cutting were developed through this protocol. Among others, in one medium (6.0 mM TDZ and 4.0 mM NAA or/and 10.0 mM BA) callus formation was observed but later on cultures proceeded to death, instead of multiplication. The phenolic oxidation was inhibited through the addition of L-cystein (30.0 mg/L) in each culture. Roots developed within 2-weeks, by culturing on MS basal medium supplemented with IBA (0.1 mg/L). Through this protocol, complete and normal micro-propagated plantlets were obtained within 2-3 months.

1763-1772 Download
39
IN VITRO STUDIES ON MICROGRAFTING TECHNIQUE IN TWO CULTIVARS OF CITRUS TO PRODUCE VIRUS FREE PLANTS
ALI A. NAZ1, MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI1.*, HAIDER ABBAS2 AND M. QASIM1

IN VITRO STUDIES ON MICROGRAFTING TECHNIQUE IN TWO CULTIVARS OF CITRUS TO PRODUCE VIRUS FREE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to assess the potential use and applicability of micrografting technique for the development of virus free nursery in citrus. Some techniques that tend to increase the grafting success were employed. MS media added with 3%, 5% and 7% sugar was used in combination with two grafting methods e.g., inverted-T incision and surface placement in Kinnow mandarin and Succari sweet orange. The grafting was carried out under aseptic conditions by using15 days old etiolated seedlings of rough lemon. Shoot tips (1-2 mm) and 3-leaf primordia (0.3-0.5 mm) were taken from the fresh shoot flushes and grafted in vitro. Higher grafting success of 34.7% was recorded with inverted-T incision than surface placement which gave 26.7% successful micrografts. A total of 21% successful micrografts were achieved at 3% sugar level which increased significantly to 33% with increase in sugar level to 5% in both cultivars. Overall, Kinnow mandarin showed relatively better response in combination with inverted-T incision and produced 33.3% successful micrografts. Succari sweet orange responded maximum with surface placement method and yielded 30.7% successful micrografts.

1773-1778 Download
40
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS ON PLANT NUTRIENT STATUS AND YIELD IN KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
WAQAR AHMED, M. AZHER NAWAZ, M. AZHAR IQBAL AND M.M. KHAN

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS ON PLANT NUTRIENT STATUS AND YIELD IN KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
ABSTRACT:
Nutritional status and yield of Kinnow mandarin grafted on nine different exotic and local rootstocks was studied. Leaf nutrient status of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) availability in leaves differed significantly among the trees on various rootstocks. Maximum N (2.60 and 2.67%) was recorded on Rough lemon and minimum (2.20 and 2.21%) on Troyer citrange during 2005 and 2006 respectively. P (0.16%) was maximum on Rough lemon while minimum (0.09%) was recorded in Carrizo citrange. As regard K, it ranged from 1.15 to 1.65% on Volkamariana and Carrizo citrange rootstock, respectively. The highest number of fruits per tree were recorded on Brazillian Sour orange (1037.16 fruits) and lowest (184.49 fruits) on Carrizo citrange rootstock. While on weight basis maximum yield (139.52 kg) was recorded in Volkamariana and minimum (27.83 Kg) was in Carrizo citange. For most of the parameters Volakamariana was found to be promising followed by Rough lemon and Mithi whereas all citrange (Carrizo, Yuma and Troyer citarange) rootstocks performed poorly in relation to nutrient uptake and yield.

1779-1786 Download
41
INDUCTION AND REGENERATION OF HYPOCOTYL DERIVED CALLI IN HOT CHILLI (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) VARIETIES
RABBIA HASNAT, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI, TOUQEER AHMAD AND ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ

INDUCTION AND REGENERATION OF HYPOCOTYL DERIVED CALLI IN HOT CHILLI (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
An efficient and reliable In vitro protocol was established for induction and regeneration of calli in varieties of hot chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) var. Nepali and NARC-IV. Early initiation and induction with sustainable calli growth in both varieties was achieved on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l-1 of 2,4-D. Better performance in both varieties regarding shoot initiation, regeneration rate (%) and number of lateral shoots per regenerants were achieved on medium containing 3.0 mg l-1 BA. Rooting was achieved on half strength MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. Plantlets exhibiting normal morphology with extensive rooting were acclimatized in greenhouse.

1787-1795 Download
42
OCCURRENCE OF THE FAMILY PINNULARIACEAE (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
SYED TARIQ-ALI1, A. ZARINA1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

OCCURRENCE OF THE FAMILY PINNULARIACEAE (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eleven species of 6 diatomaceous genera such as Amphora, Caloneis, Gyrosigma, Mastogloia, Neidium and Stauroneis belonging to the family Pinnulariaceae of the order Bacillriales, class Bacillariophyceae were collected from Gujranwala, Kasur, Lahore, Sialkot districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan during January-December 2004. They were taxonomically determined and have been described for the first time from their area of collection. Calonies lanceolata, C. silicula and Stauroneis minor are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

1797-1805 Download
43
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE FAMILY MESOTAENIACEAE (DESMIDIOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL) IN CERTAIN NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
WAQAR-UL-HAQ1, A. ZARINA1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE FAMILY MESOTAENIACEAE (DESMIDIOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL) IN CERTAIN NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eleven species of saccorderm desmids (green microalgae) belonging to 5 genera of the family Mesotaeniaceae (order Mesotaeniales, class Desmidiophyceae, phylum Volvocophyta) were collected from various freshwater habitats of Gujranwala, Jhang, Lahore, Sargodha and Sheikhupura districts of the Punjab, Bahrain & Kalam in Swat and Attock (NWFP) of Pakistan as well as Chenari and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir during January 2005-April 2006. They ware taxonomically investigated and have been described for the first time from these areas. These species were found to grow in all the seasons of the year but mostly occurred in spring and winter. The genera Hyalotheca and Netrium and the species H. dissilliens, H. mucosa, N. digitus, N. oblongum, Pleurotaenium trabecula and Staurastrum inflexum are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

1807-1815 Download
44
THE DESMID FLORA OF SOME HIGH MOUNTAIN LAKES OF THE TURKISH EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION
BÜLENT ŞAHİN AND BÜLENT AKAR

THE DESMID FLORA OF SOME HIGH MOUNTAIN LAKES OF THE TURKISH EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION
ABSTRACT:
A floristik study of desmids which were found in the epipelic and epilithic habitats of the 7 high mountain lakes, all situated in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, is presented. A total of 55 desmid taxa of 12 genera belonging to 3 families were identified. Ten taxa are new records for the Turkey’s desmid flora.

1817-1832 Download
45
ISOLATION OF PHTHALIC ACID DEGRADING PSEUDOMONAS SP. P1 FROM SOIL
SHEEBA MURAD, FARIHA HASAN, AAMER ALI SHAH, ABDUL HAMEED AND SAFIA AHMED*

ISOLATION OF PHTHALIC ACID DEGRADING PSEUDOMONAS SP. P1 FROM SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Phthalates are common plasticizers used in pPVC (plasticized polyvinyl chloride) products. Phthalates are commonly found in the child rearing products (for teething, toys etc.), blood bags, dialysis tubing, paints, lacquers, cosmetics, coatings of capsules etc. The present study was conducted to explore the potential of new microbial strains for the biodegradation and biotransformation of phthalic acid. A bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas sp. P1, was found to degrade phthalic acid in agar plate assay as evident by the formation of clear zone around the colony. The strain was tested for the growth and tolerance limit on different concentrations (10- 3000 ppm) of phthalic acid in mineral salt medium with and without glucose. On mineral salt agar plates, containing phthalic acid as a sole source of carbon, rich growth along with the hydrolyzing zone was observed upto the maximum concentration of 2800 ppm without glucose and upto the maximum concentration of 2900 ppm of phthalic acid with glucose. Transformational studies were carried out in mineral salt liquid medium containing varying concentrations (100- 500 ppm) of phthalic acid. Microbial growth was checked at 570 nm at different time intervals and the cell free supernatant was analyzed for the disappearance of phthalic acid at 280 nm. The highest percentage of degradation of phthalic acid was found at 37oC and pH 8, i.e. 59% and 64% respectively. In mineral salt medium without glucose, phthalic acid degraded up to 72% at 500 ppm after 48 hours of incubation.

1833-1841 Download
46
SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA GERMPLASM AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT
M.B. ILYAS*, M.A. CHAUDHRY**, N. JAVED*, M.U. GHAZANFAR* AND M. AHSAN KHAN***

SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA GERMPLASM AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
One hundred and seventy three germplasm lines/varieties of chickpea received from various research organizations were screened for the sources of resistance against chickpea blight disease (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Lab) by artificially inoculating the germplasm under a plastic tunnel where temperature, ranged from 8-240C and humidity was maintained above 80% by sprinkling fresh water. Out of 61 lines received form Pulses Research Institute, Faisalabad 3 lines viz., 03039, 03041 and 03053 exhibited highly resistant response while 11 lines viz., 03001, 03002, 03011, 03016, 03020, 03023, 03024, 03035, 03040, 03044 and 03045 displayed resistant reaction. The rest of the lines displayed moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction. Out of 80 lines received from Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad 5 test lines i.e. 03115, 03131, 03133, 03143 and 03159 were found to be highly resistant while 16 test lines viz., 03108, 03126, 03127, 03153, 03156, 03157, 03161, 03162, 03169, 03170, 03172, 03173, 03174, 03177, 03178 and 03180 were found resistant against A. rabiei infection. Similarly out of 90 test germplasm lines/ cultivars received from Arid Zone Research Institute, Bukhar 3 lines viz., 93A-086, 93A-111 and 93A-3354 exhibited highly resistant response while 5 lines viz., 91A-016, 92A-792, 92A-117, 96A-4504 and NES-98K4, displayed resistance response against A. rabiei infection. These resistant sources can further be exploited in breeding programe for the development of disease resistant commercial cultivars.

1843-1847 Download
47
COMPARATIVE GROWTH, MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN
DARAKHSHANDA KOKUB1, F. AZAM2*, A. HASSAN2, M. ANSAR2, M. J. ASAD1 AND A. KHANUM1

COMPARATIVE GROWTH, MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Growth rate of 8 fungal strains of Sclerotium rolfsii on potato dextrose agar plates at 28oC ranged from 0.86-1.35 mm hour-1. Strains D4, D7 and D8 were found to be comparatively fast growing and produced greatest number of sclerotia than others. All strains produced round shaped sclerotia with average diameter of 0.5-2.0 mm. Mycelial compatibility reaction on PDA plates showed that strains D5 and D7 as well as D3 and D8 were compatible with each other. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis also revealed that strains D5 and D7 shared 94 % similarity while strains D3 and D8 were 83% similar.

1849-1866 Download
48
SCREENING OF CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR SOURCE OF RESISTANCE AGAINST CITRUS CANKER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD BURHAN*, S.T. SAHI** AND S. AHMAD***

SCREENING OF CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR SOURCE OF RESISTANCE AGAINST CITRUS CANKER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty six citrus cultivars were screened for resistance against citrus canker under artificial disease conditions in the field of Orange Research Institute, Sargodha during 2006. A considerable variation was observed among the cultivars with respect to their disease reaction. Disease rating scale ranged from 0-4 to know the level of resistant and susceptibility of citrus cultivars. Two cultivars Meiwa and Naghmi had no lesions on leaves and categorized as immune while Kozan and Tahiti lime had minute infection were highly resistant. Four cultivars viz; Valencia late, Olinda Valencia, Musambi and Honey were rated as moderately susceptible whereas Pummelo white, Shamber grapefruit and Rough lemon were found susceptible. Other fifteen varieties behaved as resistant.

1867-1871 Download
49
ENHANCEMENT OF Cr6+ REMOVAL BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER RH19 USING A BIOFERMENTER
RANI FARYAL*, MARIA YUSUF**, KIRAN MUNIR**, FAHEEM TAHIR*** AND ABDUL HAMEED**

ENHANCEMENT OF Cr6+ REMOVAL BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER RH19 USING A BIOFERMENTER
ABSTRACT:
Microbial bioremediation is an emerging technology for environmental cleanup. Microorganisms are advantageous for metal detoxification as they are easy to grow, resulting in a rapid production of biomass, and are part of natural environment. In the present study, Cr6+ biosorption potentials of four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp. RH69, Bacillus sp. RH70, Bacillus pumilis RH84 and Bacillus fumus RH109), and two fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger strains, RH17 and RH19, were determined. Bacillus fumus RH109 showed maximum tolerance against Cr6+ of 1000 mg/L and Aspergillus niger RH19 exhibited resistance up to 275 mg/L. Bacillus sp. RH69, in VB mineral salt media, containing 25 mg/L Cr6+, showed 42.60% removal at 30°C (pH 5.0) within 24 hours, but soon after that desorption took place. On the other hand, Aspergillus niger RH19 removed 46.00% Cr6+ from the same initial concentration of Cr6+ at identical pH, temperature and agitation. Growth conditions for this strain were optimized. In batch biosorption studies, Aspergillus niger RH19 removed 74.00% Cr6+ at 30°C with pH 8.0 from aqueous solution containing 25 mg/L Cr6+ at 100 rpm agitation. A pilot study was then conducted to scale up biosorption of Cr6+ using stirred tank biofermenter. Cr6+ removal by Aspergillus niger RH19 was recorded as 60.00% at pH 6.0, 35oC

1873-1881 Download
50
ABRUS SUCROSE AGAR A NEW MEDIUM FOR THE GROWTH OF FUNGI
ISHRAT RANI, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL, SHAISTA AKHUND AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

ABRUS SUCROSE AGAR A NEW MEDIUM FOR THE GROWTH OF FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Mycelial growth and early spore formation of some fungal strains in Czapek’s Dox Agar, Potato Dextrose agar and a complex medium containing sucrose, agar and Abrus seed powder were evaluated. Abrus contains nitrogenous compounds like Abrin, Paraglobulin and µ- Phytalbumose. Abrus medium showed high affinity for growth of mycelium and early spore formation in Penicillium lilacinum, Paecilomyces variotti, Aspergillus ochraceous, Penicillium funiculosum and Spadiocoides stoveri while comparatively low affinity with Czapek’s Dox Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar.

1883-1885 Download
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