Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 28/03/2019 Uploaded: 15/02/2019
Uploaded: 21/01/2019

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 4
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALKALINE METAL SALTS AND AN ACID ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF PINUS NIGRA SSP. PALLASIANA
ERSIN YÜCEL

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALKALINE METAL SALTS AND AN ACID ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF PINUS NIGRA SSP. PALLASIANA
ABSTRACT:
Ecotoxicological effects of different concentrations of alkaline metal salts (NaCl, KNO3) and strong acid (H2SO4) on the germination of P. nigra ssp. pallasiana (Black Pine) seeds of different origins were investigated. Seeds were exposed to four different concentrations of NaCl, KNO3 and H2SO4 (0.05% to 3%). The results revealed that seed germination rate and germination speed of the Black Pine seeds collected from 14 origins responded differently to the toxicity of NaCl, H2SO4, and KNO3. The results indicated that, while low NaCl concentrations (0.5 to 1%) had no effects on seed germination rates, high concentrations (2 to 3%) had significant inhibitory effects, all concentrations reduced germination speed of the seeds. 0.5 to 2% concentrations of KNO3 had no effects, but 3% concentration had significant inhibitory effect on germination rate, it reduced germination speed as well. H2SO4 had significant inhibitory effects, reduced both germination percentage and speed, inhibiting or preventing germination altogether.

1331-1340 Download
2
THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM ON THE BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.) SEEDLINGS
F.R. SHAH 1 , N. AHMAD1, K.R. MASOOD2 AND D.M. ZAHID3

THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM ON THE BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
The present study investigated the effects of Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) on the growth of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) seedlings. Metal elements were applied in the form of Cd(SO4)2 and K2CrO4 at variegated concentrations of 0

1341-1348 Download
3
MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
RAHEELA JABEEN, MUHAMMAD SHAHID, AMER JAMIL AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
ABSTRACT:
Seed extracts of Moringa oleifera were assayed for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Pasturella multocida, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphlocuccus aureus) and fungal (Fusarium solani and Rhizopus solani) strains. The crude, supernatant, residue and dialyzed samples inhibited the growth of all microbs to various extents. The zones of growth inhibition showed greater sensitivity against the bacterial strains as compared to the fungal strains. The extracts worked in dose dependent manner and resulted in crippled and distorted hyphae and apical branching in fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) extracts revealed that Pasturella multocida and Bacillus subtilis were most sensitive strains. However, the activity of the extracts was antagonized by cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+). Maximum activity was found between temperature 4 -37 OC and pH 7.

1349-1358 Download
4
ETHNOECOLOGY OF POISONOUS PLANTS OF TURKEY AND NORTHERN CYPRUS
MUNİR OZTURK1 , ISMET UYSAL2, SALİH GÜCEL3, TUBA MERT4, EREN AKCICEK5 AND SEZGİN CELIK6

ETHNOECOLOGY OF POISONOUS PLANTS OF TURKEY AND NORTHERN CYPRUS
ABSTRACT:
Interest in plants is increasing and much work is being carried out these days on their multipurpose uses. A great impetus has been given to this during the last 3 decades. Several publications have been made by different investigators. Large number of naturally growing plants are collected and sold at the markets. Nearly 500 plants are used for primary health care in Turkey and a 23 in Cyprus. However, not much is known about the poisonous plants. Some of these are toxic and others cause reaction. Plant poisoning lies around 6 %, rurals suffer more from the consumption of naturally growing plants as compared to urban dwellers. One has to be very cautious before using these plants as the plants used for the purpose of treatment of diseases as a whole or parts thereof or consumed by the public directly could prove dangerous for the health. This paper describes ethnoecological aspects of the widely distributed major poisonous plants in Turkey and Northern Cyprus which can prove fatal if used unknowingly. Major applications and active constituents of plant taxa are outlined.

1359-1386 Download
5
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS FROM SOONE VALLEY OF SALT RANGE (PAKISTAN)
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1 , MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2, RASHID AHMAD3 AND ASGHAR ALI4

SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS FROM SOONE VALLEY OF SALT RANGE (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, spatio-temporal variations in biochemical and physicochemical parameters of Adiantum shoots during different seasons and sites of Soone Valley in Salt Range were investigated. Adiantum was located only at two sites i.e. at Knotty Garden during all the four seasons and at Dape Sharif site only during spring. All the parameters studied varied significantly during different seasons and at both sites. It was observed that dry matter, fiber and total mineral contents were the maximum during winter whereas, moisture, fat and protein contents were the highest during autumn at Knotti Garden. In contrast, NFES and NFE were found higher during spring at Dape Sharif. Among the ionic contents studied, Ca, P and Fe were higher during spring at Dape Sharif where as N and K contents were more during autumn at Knotti Garden. Mg and Zn were the maximum during summer and spring at Knotti Garden respectively. Partial RDA of the data revealed that phenols and flavonoids were associated with spring at Knotti Garden where as, alkaloids were associated with spring at Dape Sharif. It was concluded that association of phenolics and falvonoids with Knotti Garden was due to low temperature stress, where that of alkaloids with Dape Sharif with high pH and EC of the site.

1387-1398 Download
6
MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND TRANSPLANTATION ATTEMPTS ON SOME ENDEMIC SPECIES OF NORTHERN CYPRUS
SALIH GÜCEL1 AND KEMAL YILDIZ2

MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND TRANSPLANTATION ATTEMPTS ON SOME ENDEMIC SPECIES OF NORTHERN CYPRUS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of 10 endemic taxa Pimpinella cypria, Ferulago cypria, Limonium albidum subsp. cyprium, Onosma caespitosum, Origanum syriacum var. bevanii, Salvia veneris, Sideritis cypria, Phlomis cypria var. cypria, Scutellaria sibthorpii and Teucrium cyprium subsp. kyreniae distributed in Northern Cyprus. These belong to the families Apiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Lamiaceae. All these species are distributed only on the Beshparmak mountains in the northern part of Cyprus and are under a threat of extinction due to severe habitat degradation arising from human activities, forests fires and stone queries. The micrographs of the seeds were taken by means of trinocular stereo dissection microscope, and detailed morphological features recorded from the fresh and dried samples collected during 2001-2004. An attempt has been made for transplantation of these species to some protected sites.

1399-1410 Download
7
BREEDING HIGH YIELDING AND DISEASE RESISTANT MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) GENOTYPES
GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK , IQBAL SAEED AND SYED ANWAR SHAH

BREEDING HIGH YIELDING AND DISEASE RESISTANT MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variability was created for seed yield and its components in mungbean through hybridization by using local and exotic germplasm and through induced mutations only in local germplasm during summer and kharif 2004, respectively. The stable and high yielding genotypes developed through selections from the segregating populations were screened for Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) during kharif 2006 and evaluated in replicated yield trials for seed yield and some important agronomic traits at NIFA, Peshawar during summer 2007. The mutants/recombinants with significantly higher seed yield than check variety showed seed yield of 2250 to 3042 kg ha-1. The 1000 seed weight, days to flowering and physiological maturity of all the evaluated mutants/recombinants ranged from 39 to 51g, 40 to 49 days and 79 to 84 days, respectively. The MYMV rating of the mutants/recombinants was from resistant to highly resistant.

1411-1417 Download
8
DNA BASED GENETIC VARIATION FOR RED ROT RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE
A. K. ALVI1 , J. IQBAL1, A. H. SHAH1 AND Y. -B. PAN2,

DNA BASED GENETIC VARIATION FOR RED ROT RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Genetic difference between twelve red rot resistant and five susceptible genotypes of sugarcane cultivated in Pakistan were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initial screening was done using 300 markers and four genotypes (two resistant and two susceptible for red-rot). From these 300 markers

1419-1425 Download
9
EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES ON YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF FIVE PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) GENOTYPES
M. J. SEGHATOLESLAMI1 , M. KAFI2 AND E. MAJIDI3

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES ON YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF FIVE PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
In order to examine the responses of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) to drought stress in different growth stages, four breeded genotypes and a local one of proso millet were selected and planted in a split-plot design with five irrigation treatments and three replications. This experiment was conducted in two locations, Birjand and Sarbisheh, east of Iran. Irrigation treatments included well- watered, drought stress at vegetative stage, ear emergence stage, seed filling stage and vegetative and seed filling stages were considered as main- plots. The first five mentioned genotypes were considered as sub-plots. Drought stress caused a great reduction in grain yield and WUE at ear emergence stage. This reduction represented itself in the number of seed per ear and the weight of seeds, but it didn’t have any effects on the number of ear per plant. At ear emergence stage, the drought stress increased the floret death and loss of seed size which resulted in the reduction in the harvest index of both ear and seed per plant. Comparison of genotypes indicated that K-C-M.4 had a greater number of ears and K-C-M.9 had heavier seeds that had higher grain yield. These two genotypes had the highest WUE and their harvest indices were relatively higher. Due to the salinity of water and infertility of soil in Birjand, the grain yield was lower compared with Sarbisheh. Based on these results, genotype K-C-M.4 proved to be more suitable for both areas.

1427-1432 Download
10
NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM , MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. were used in this experiment. One population of each of two grass species was collected from drought-hit area ‘‘Salt Range’’ and other from often irrigated Faisalabad. Each population of these of grass species were subjected to three different levels of water stress (control, 75% and 50% of field capacity. Imposition of water stress markedly decreased the shoot fresh and dry biomasses, shoot, P, N and Ca2+. However, populations of both grasses collected from the Salt Range were better in growth than Faisalabad region. Each population of both grasses collected from Salt Range accumulated high K+, Ca2+, N and P concentrations. The higher growth of the Salt Range populations of both grass species could be related to the greater accumulation of K+, N, and Ca2+ in the shoots as compared with the populations from Faisalabad.

1433-1440 Download
11
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GRAIN YIELD, WATER-USE EFFICIENCY AND GROWTH PARAMETERS IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES
JAVED AKHTER , S. ALI SABIR, ZAHID LATEEF1 M. YASEEN ASHRAF AND M. AHSANUL HAQ

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GRAIN YIELD, WATER-USE EFFICIENCY AND GROWTH PARAMETERS IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
The present studies were conducted to identify high yielding wheat genotypes for target environments and establish relationship between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency (WUE), and other parameters. A set of eight wheat genotypes screened previously for variation in Δ and higher GY were grown under four water regimes; well-watered (WW), medium-watered (MW), low-watered (LW) and stored soil moisture (SSM) conditions. Early leaf and grain samples collected at maturity were analysed for Δ. Plant parameters, such as number of tillers (NT), plant height (PH) heading days (HD), and maturity days (MD) were recorded. At harvesting spike length (SL), number of grains per spike (NGPS), thousand grains weight (TGW), biomass yield (BY), GY, harvest index (HI) and WUE on biomass basis (WUEB) and grain basis (WUEG) were determined. Significant effects of genotype and treatments on Δ of leaf (L) and grain (ΔG), BY, GY, HI, WUEB, WUEG, HD, NT, PH, NGPS, TGW and SL were observed. Genotype x treatment interaction had a significant effect on HI, PH, SL, TGW, HD and MD, but the effect was non-significant on other traits. In all these genotypes L and ΔG showed a variation of 1.3 and 0.91‰, respectively. All genotypes exhibited higher L than ΔG under different water regimes. Water stress reduced both L and ΔG and highly significant correlation (0.946**) was found between L and ΔG. GY showed a wide variation among these genotypes and water stress resulted in a marked decrease in GY. Genotype Sitta produced highest mean GY (4.4 Mg ha-1) with highest WUEG (16.99 kg ha-1 mm-1) averaged across the treatment. GY showed significant positive correlations with L (r=0.779*) and ΔG (r=0.753*). GY was also strongly and positively correlated with HI (r=0.845**), SL (r=0.779**) and TGW (r=0.899**). GY had a significant negative correlation with NT (r=-0.884*) and HD (r=-0.708*). WUEG was positively correlated with L (r=0.846*), ΔG (0.707*), HI (r=0.846**), SL (r= 0.784*), TGW (r=0.892**). WUEG was negatively correlated with NT (r=-0.814*) and HD (r= -0.743*). Sitta and FD-83 genotypes were found high yielder with greater increase in WUE under water stress and can be exploited to obtain high GY in rain-fed and water limited environments of the country. The results highlight significant positive correlations between Δ and GY or WUEG in bread wheat and carbon isotope discrimination as indirect selection criterion for grain yield in Pakistan.

1441-1454 Download
12
EARLY WINTER SPRAY OF LOW BIURET UREA IMPROVES MARKETABLE YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SWEET ORANGES
BASHARAT ALI SALEEM 1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1, MUHAMMAD MAQBOOL2, ISLAM-UD-DIN3, MUHAMMAD FAROOQ4, AND ISHTIAQ AHMAD RAJWANA5

EARLY WINTER SPRAY OF LOW BIURET UREA IMPROVES MARKETABLE YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SWEET ORANGES
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum time of low-biuret urea (LBU) applied as a foliar spray to improve marketable yield and fruit quality of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck.) cv “Blood Red”. Two percent solution of LBU was sprayed on 15 years old plants to the point of run off, on 15th of October, November and December in 2004. Simple water spray was used as control. Plants selected for the experiment were grafted on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) rootstock and were grown at University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Latitude 31° 25' North; Longitude: 73° 09'), Pakistan. Experiment was laid out in RCBD, using single plant as a treatment unit with three replicates. Foliar spray of 2% LBU on 15th November

1455-1465 Download
13
ESTIMATION OF FIXED OILS FROM VARIOUS EXPLANTS AND IN VITRO CALLUS CULTURES OF JOJOBA (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)
FAHEEM AFTAB , SADAF AKRAM, AND JAVED IQBAL1

ESTIMATION OF FIXED OILS FROM VARIOUS EXPLANTS AND IN VITRO CALLUS CULTURES OF JOJOBA (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation was conducted for the estimation of fixed oils from various explants and respective callus cultures in jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Leaves, nodes, internodes, shoot apices and cotyledons were used as explants. MS media containing different concentrations of growth regulators were used for callus induction. Quantitative estimation of oils of different explants revealed that cotyledonary explant contained highest amount of oil. Leaves contained second highest amount, followed by shoot apices, nodes and internodes. Comparison of oil yield from explants with six or nine weeks-old callus cultures indicated that explants had highest amount of oil content followed by nine and six weeks old callus cultures.

1467-1471 Download
14
GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
SARFRAZ AHMAD1, SHAISTA KOUKAB1, MUHAMMAD ISLAM1, KHALIL AHMAD1 SOHAIL ASLAM1, AMINULLAH1, AND ASLAM GILL2

GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae)] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citrates, Artemisia drancunculus, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare). Aromatic plants (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis) and medicinal plants (Tanacetum parthenium, Hyssopus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Achillea celifolium, Achillea millefolium, Borago officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Oenothera biennis, Crocus sativus). Available germplasm of annually sown crops like (Foeniculum vulgare, Carum copticum, Linum usitatissimum, Anethunm sowa and Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum) were also evaluated and characterized for morphological description and registration with the Federal Seed Registration and Certification Department. These crops have also been introduced among the farming communities in different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan. The results indicate that medicinal and aromatic plants have great potential for commercial scale cultivation in Balochistan subject to provision of better and sustainable marketing avenues.

1473-1479 Download
15
ECO-PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. : A PLANT SUITABLE FOR COMBATING DESERTIFICATION
M. S. SAKCALI 1, H. BAHADIR1 AND M. OZTURK2

ECO-PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. : A PLANT SUITABLE FOR COMBATING DESERTIFICATION
ABSTRACT:
Capparis spinosa from the family Capparidaceae is widely distributed on varying habitats in Turkey. Recently, it has been recommended for the evaluation of degraded arid lands in the country. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the diurnal time course of water relations of C. spinosa L. growing on healthy and degraded sites. Water stress was analysed on the basis of stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (w) and transpiration rate. The species appeared to be a drought resistant with lower WSIS (16 MPa h), showing a negligible difference between the two sites. A high gs, with lowest WSIS value shows that despite being a water spender, C. spinosa dynamically recovers even in the warmest hours of the day and under drought conditions. The long roots and wide ecological amplitude allow it to withstand harsh environments. The species thus appears to be a suitable candidate for the protection of degraded areas.

1481-1486 Download
16
EFFECT OF SUCROSE INDUCED OSMOTIC STRESS ON CALLUS GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF TWO WHEAT GENOTYPES
FARRUKH JAVED AND SUMAIRA IKRAM

EFFECT OF SUCROSE INDUCED OSMOTIC STRESS ON CALLUS GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF TWO WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The research work was carried out to study the effect of sucrose induced osmotic stress on callus growth and biochemical aspects of two wheat genotypes (S-24 and MH-97). The seeds were cultured on Linsmaier and Skoog medium containing 30g sucrose, 8g agar, 5mg L-1 thiamine HCl and 3mg L-1 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. One month old calli were subcultured for 15 d in liquid LS-medium supplemented with same concentration of thiamine HCl and 2,4-D. and different concentrations of sucrose [control, (3%), 4%, 6% 5% and 8%]. After 15 d of sucrose induced osmotic stress the results revealed that relative growth rate (fresh), macro cations (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ )and micro cations (Mn2+, Fe2+) significantly decreased, while dry weight, free proline, total soluble carbohydrates contents and water relation parameters significantly increased (more negative) as concentration of sucrose increased in the culture medium. The effects of sucrose induced osmotic stress was greater on MH-97 than S-24.It is concluded that increasing sucrose concentrations in the medium above control caused osmotic stress and it also been found that accumulation of free proline and total soluble carbohydrates accumulated in greater amount responsible for turgor maintenance and increase in callus dry weights.

1487-1495 Download
17
AN OVERVIEW OF THE GEOBOTANICAL STRUCTURE OF TURKISH PINUS SYLVESTRIS AND CARPINUS BETULUS FORESTS
SALİH GÜCEL1 , KÜRŞAT ÖZKAN2, SEZGİN ÇELİK3, ERSİN YÜCEL4 AND MÜNİR ÖZTÜRK5

AN OVERVIEW OF THE GEOBOTANICAL STRUCTURE OF TURKISH PINUS SYLVESTRIS AND CARPINUS BETULUS FORESTS
ABSTRACT:
Pinus L. and Carpinus L. are the two widely distributed genera of gymnosperms being represented by 80 and 170 species respectively. The former has 5 species in Turkey and latter 2 species namely; P.pinea, P.halepensis, P.brutia, P.sylvestris, P.nigra ssp. pallasiana, Carpinus betulus and C.orientalis. In this paper an attempt has been made to present an overview of the geobotanical structure of Pinus sylvestris L. and Carpinus betulus L. in Turkey. Out of 20.2 million hectares of forests in Turkey yellow pine covers nearly 1.3 million ha and hornbeam species around 10 thousand ha. The forests of P. sylvestris are found in North, Northeast Anatolia, on Murat mountains around Kutahya and C. betulus mainly in Thrace, Marmara, Black Sea and Inner Anatolia. P. sylvestris is represented by 9 associations; Pinus sylvestris-Vaccinum myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris - Daphne glomerata, Pinus sylvestis - Astragalus adzharicus, Pinus sylvestris-Lilium ciliatum, Pinus sylvestris-Daphne pontica, Pinus sylvestris-Populus tremula, Populo-Pinetum sylvestris, Pinus sylvestris-Orthilio secundo, Pinus sylvestris f.lazica-Epimedium pinnatum subsp.colchicum, Triseto-Pinetum sylvestris, whereas C. betulus has only 6 associations Carpinus betulus-Scaligeria tripartita, Carpinus betulus-Acer campestre, Quercus petraea ssp. iberica-Carpinus betulus, Carpinus betulus-Quercus petrae ssp. iberica, Fagus orientalis-Carpinus betulus. P.sylvestris associations are floristically rich having 275 taxa as compared to C.betulus forests which embody only 121 taxa. The life form spectrum of P.sylvestris forests includes 146 chamaephytes, 44 hemicryptophytes, 40 phanerophytes

1497-1520 Download
18
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
M. YASIN ASHRAF1 , FAQIR HUSSAIN1, JAVED1 AKHTAR1, ATTIYA GUL1, MARCUSS ROSS2 AND GEORG EBERT2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26) and sensitive (CP-77400) using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1) as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate) and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26) had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400). Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N) uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1) under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1) but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

1521-1531 Download
19
PLANTS OF JAHAN NAMA PROTECTED AREA, GOLESTAN PROVINCE, N. IRAN
S. M. JAFARI AND H. AKHANI

PLANTS OF JAHAN NAMA PROTECTED AREA, GOLESTAN PROVINCE, N. IRAN
ABSTRACT:
Jahan Nama Protected Area is located in the eastern parts of Alborz Mountains, between 36º35′ and 36º42′ northern latitudes and 54º08′ and 54º36′ eastern longitudes, with an altitude ranging from 800 to 3100 m. The complicated topography and habitat heterogeneity, in addition to influencing the area by humid Caspian climate at the north and Mediterranean-like climate at the south have caused formation of diverse vegetation types including deciduous montane forests, cold-resistant Juniper woodlands, montane steppes, grasslands and meadows, cliff and riverine vegetation. Based on collection of about 1350 specimens during 1999

1533-1554 Download
20
EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON YIELD, WUE AND SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHENOLOGICAL TRAITS OF THREE MILLET SPECIES
M. J. SEGHATOLESLAMI1 , M. KAFI2 AND E. MAJIDI3

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON YIELD, WUE AND SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHENOLOGICAL TRAITS OF THREE MILLET SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Selection of drought adapted genotypes and efficient use of water are among the most important goals in the breeding programs. In order to study drought tolerance of three important species of millets, Proso millet (Panicum miliaseum), Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) were planted in a split-plot design with two irrigation treatments (well watered and 50% of irrigation requirement) and four replications in Birjand Agricultural Research Station, Iran. Deficit irrigation declined yield by reduction of seed number per ear and ear number per plant. This reduction was greater in Proso millet than the other two species. In addition, although, drought stress caused a reduction in WUE of Proso millet, it increased WUE in the other ones. Harvest index also reduced in the presence of drought stress due to of both seed per ear and per plant reduction. Tillering started earlier in Proso millet than the other millets. Although, stem elongation started earlier in foxtail millet than the other millets, but its ear was emerged very late. Water stress caused reduction in the number of tiller and ear, peduncle and ear length and plant height. On the whole, foxtail millet showed the greatest yield in both stress and non-stress conditions.

1555-1560 Download
21
PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME CULTIVATED SPECIES OF GENUS HIBISCUS FROM NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE (N.W.F.P.) PAKISTAN
NOREEN BIBI 1, MANZOOR HUSSAIN2 AND NAVEED AKHTAR3

PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME CULTIVATED SPECIES OF GENUS HIBISCUS FROM NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE (N.W.F.P.) PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of four species and three cultivars belonging to genus Hibiscus of family Malvaceae from North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) of Pakistan were examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen morphology of the family is fairly uniform. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal, pantoporate or polyporate. Tectum uniformly echinate, medium to finely perforated, or punctate with granules or scabrae in between spines.

1561-1569 Download
22
MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF SOME GRASSES FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
MANSOOR HAMEED , NARGIS NAZ, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD, ISLAM-UD-DIN1 AND ATIF RIAZ2

MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF SOME GRASSES FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Three potential salt tolerant forage grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Sporobolus arabicus) were collected from the salt affected habitats in the Salt Range, Pakistan. Ecotypes of all the three grasses were also collected from normal non-saline habitats within the Faisalabad region. Mechanism of adaptation to saline environments is very specific, which is not only for grass species but also for ecotypes. Ecotypes of all three grasses from Faisalabad showed stunted growth under salt stress, perhaps to save energy for normal developmental and other metabolic processes. Salt tolerant ecotypes from the Salt Range had better growth and survival under saline conditions and had less reduction in shoot growth at the highest salt level as compared to those collected from non-saline habitats. Leaf area of tolerant genotypes was less affected by salinity than salt sensitive genotypes. Increased root growth as observed in C. dactylon and S. arabicus, can be attributed to better salt tolerance in the populations from the Salt Range. The ecotypes of all three grasses, C. dactylon, I. cylindrica and S. arabicus from the Salt Range performed better under high salinities than their counterparts from the Faisalabad region. On the basis of various morphological characteristics and growth attributes, the ecotype of S. arabicus from the Salt Range has been categorized the most tolerant among all the grasses and ecotypes. It was followed by the ecotypes of C. dactylon and I. cylindrica from the Salt Range.

1571-1578 Download
23
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF ZINNIA ELEGANS CV. BLUE POINT
ATIF RIAZ , MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, ADNAN YOUNIS, ATIQ RAZA AND MANSOOR HAMEED1

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF ZINNIA ELEGANS CV. BLUE POINT
ABSTRACT:
Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different growing media on the growth and flowering of Zinnia elegans cv. Blue Point. Five different growth media including coconut compost, silt, soil, leaf manure, leaf manure mix (silt + leaf manure + coconut compost; 1:1:1) were used for growing zinnia. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design giving equal importance to treatments. Number of flowers, blooming period, number of lateral branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, plant height (cm), leaf area(cm2), days to first flower emergence, size of flower and flower quality were determined. The properties of each medium, including water holding capacity (saturation percentage), pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were also determined. Plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, number of side branches, days to first flower emergence and number of flowers were affected significantly when plants were grown in leaf manure mix. Coconut compost gave maximum size of flowers which was significantly greater than soil. Flower quality was found to be non-significantly affected with the use of various growth media. It is therefore opined that the utilization of coconut compost, silt and leaf manure is a good source of NPK. Therefore, utilization of growing media in combinations proves more effective for the good growth and flowering of zinnia.

1579-1585 Download
24
MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING
MUHAMMAD AMIN1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1 , MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR1, ISLAM-UD-DIN2, MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID1

MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING
ABSTRACT:
AND SAEED AHMAD1

1587-1593 Download
25
VERBASCUM OZTURKII (SCROPHULARIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM EAST ANATOLIA, TURKEY
FAIK AHMET KARAVELİOGULLARI1 , M. ERKAN UZUNHISARCIKLI1 AND SEZGIN CELİK2

VERBASCUM OZTURKII (SCROPHULARIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM EAST ANATOLIA, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
A new species Verbascum ozturkii Karavel., Uzunh. & S.Çelik sp. nov. (Sect. Bothrosperma Murb.), has been described here. It was collected from East Anatolia in Turkey. The species is related to V. oocarpum Murb. and thus a comparison was made. It differs from V. oocarpum Murb. Mainly in its hair situation, basal leaves, inflorescence, pedicels, calyx, corolla, stamens and capsule features.

1595-1599 Download
26
INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF ROOTING MEDIUM APPLICATION OF PHOSPHORUS AND NACL ON PLANT BIOMASS AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
GULSHAN NAHEED, MUAHMMAD SHAHBAZ AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF ROOTING MEDIUM APPLICATION OF PHOSPHORUS AND NACL ON PLANT BIOMASS AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the influence of rooting medium application of phosphorus on mineral nutrients status of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under normal or saline conditions. There were four levels (control

1601-1608 Download
27
NEW APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF D-MANNOSE IN WHEAT ROOTS
AMJAD HAMEED1 , NAYYER IQBAL1 AND SALMAN A. MALIK2

NEW APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF D-MANNOSE IN WHEAT ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of D-mannose on antioxidant defense response, apoptotic internucleosomal nuclear DNA (nDNA) degradation, and protease activity was studied in roots of wheat seedlings during early growth. Mannose (1%) induced apoptotic internucleosomal nDNA fragmentation after 96 hours of treatment when it was not observed in control. Superoxide dismutase activity was down regulated parallel to induction of apoptosis. Protease activity was enhanced prior to induction of apoptosis which shows involvement of proteolysis in apoptotic induction process. More over a sharp increase in membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA content) was also observed during apoptosis induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities were increased 24 hours before apoptotic induction while down regulated at time of induction. Total phenolic content was down regulated 48 hours before induction of apoptosis. Collectivity antioxidant defense was down regulated and proteases activities and lipid peroxidation were enhanced during induction of apoptosis and thus play a key role in controlling D-mannose induced apoptotic process. New apoptotic effect of D-mannose in wheat roots in connection with antioxidants and proteases activities is discussed in detail.

1609-1620 Download
28
INHERITANCE OF FREGO BRACT AND ITS LINKAGE WITH FIBRE AND SEED TRAITS IN COTTON
SAJID-UR-RAHMAN1, TANWIR AHMAD MALIK 2, M. ASHRAF3 AND SAMINA MALIK3

INHERITANCE OF FREGO BRACT AND ITS LINKAGE WITH FIBRE AND SEED TRAITS IN COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Narrow and twisting flower bract exists in addition to normal broad bract in cotton germplasm which has been named as frego bract. In this bract type, bracteole is reduced; hence do not provide shelter to eggs/nymphs of insects and has been reported to provide resistance against some insect pests like bollworms and boll weevil. Inheritance of this trait was studied by crossing normal and frego bract genotypes. In the F2 population normal bract and frego bract plants were in the ratio of 3:1 showing monogenic inheritance of the trait, frego bract being recessive. The test cross ratio of 1:1 confirmed the monogenic inheritance. The F2 population was used to study linkage relationship of frego bract with fibre (staple length, fibre fineness, fibre strength) and seed traits (ginning out turn, seed index and seed volume). There was positive correlation of bract type with fibre strength (normal bract allele and alleles for strong fibre seemed to be on the same chromosome). The absence of correlation of the gene for frego bract with the other traits, shows that it segregates independently in relation to those traits. Hence frego bract type plants may be tailored with good combination of agronomic traits.

1621-1626 Download
29
CLONING, SEQUENCING AND IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN GENE 1 PROMOTER FROM ORYZA SATIVA L. SSP. INDICA
TAYYABA YASMIN1, TARIQ MAHMOOD2, M. ZEESHAN HYDER, SAMINA AKBAR AND S. M. SAQLAN NAQVI

CLONING, SEQUENCING AND IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN GENE 1 PROMOTER FROM ORYZA SATIVA L. SSP. INDICA
ABSTRACT:
Germin and germin-like proteins constitute a large family of plant proteins which are also considered as germination markers due to their high expression levels during germination/early growth. These proteins are known to be involved in many stress related processes as well, but their biochemical functions and physiological roles have not been fully described. In order to gain insight into the functions and regulation of a rice germin-like protein gene 1, about 1.2 kb of its upstream region was amplified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Analysis showed that this promoter has a very little homology with the promoters of other GLP genes within rice genome. The promoter contains putative regulatory elements of diverse functions and has distinct copy number, location and clustering pattern of regulatory elements in its sequence. This promoter being unique requires further characterization to explore its regulatory role.

1627-1634 Download
30
TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS SALICORNIA L. (CHENOPODIACEAE) IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN IRAN
HOSSEIN AKHANI1

TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS SALICORNIA L. (CHENOPODIACEAE) IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN IRAN
ABSTRACT:
Salicornia is a most complicated vascular plant group which its taxonomy and species circumscription is considered as a night-mare. This first revision of Iranian species is based on long-term field studies, co-cultivation of plants in the laboratory, ecological, cytological and molecular studies and determination of carbon isotope composition. In this paper the species of Central and Southern Iran are dealt with which will be followed by another paper on the Northern and Northwestern parts of Iran. In this paper the presence of four species, one subspecies and one putative hybrid in the area is accepted. In addition to recently described S. persica Akhani from Central Iran, four more new taxa and one new putative hybrid are described for science:

1635-1655 Download
31
ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID: GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
SIBGHA NOREEN AND *MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID: GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to assess whether exogenously applied SA as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on sunflower plants. Two lines of sunflower (Hisun-33 and SF-187) were grown under normal or saline (120 mM NaCl) conditions. Different levels of salicylic acid (0

1657-1663 Download
32
HIGH EFFICIENCY SHOOT AND ROOT FORMATION FROM COTYLEDONARY NODES OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
İBRAHIM İLKER ÖZYİĞİT 1 AND NERMİN GÖZÜKIRMIZI 2

HIGH EFFICIENCY SHOOT AND ROOT FORMATION FROM COTYLEDONARY NODES OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient micropropagation system for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a worldwide commercially important fiber crops. In this study, successful shoot and root induction were achieved from cotyledonary nodes of two different cotton genotypes, Nazilli 84S and Çukurova 1518 which are widely planting in Turkey. Plant tissue culture systems were established on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various plant growth regulators using cotyledonary nodes with hypocotyl pieces as explant. Explants were placed on different MS media supplemented with different combinations of kinetin (KIN) and α-Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA). Seven-day-old explants were used and germination, regeneration and rooting processes were consisted in 5 weeks. The best regeneration responses were from cotyledonary nodes of Nazilli 84S - 80 % and Çukurova 1518 - 75 %. Successful direct regeneration and rooting were obtained and significant differences were not seen between two genotypes. In addition, regenerated young plants were phenotypically normal and they set seeds. This rapid in vitro regeneration and rooting procedure can be also available for use of particle gun and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

1665-1672 Download
33
PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND ITS APPLICATION AS A DEPILATING AGENT IN LEATHER PROCESSING
HAMID MUKHTAR AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND ITS APPLICATION AS A DEPILATING AGENT IN LEATHER PROCESSING
ABSTRACT:
The work describes the production of alkaline protease in a lab scale fermentor from Bacillus subtilis IH-72. The production of alkaline protease was enhanced by optimization of cultural conditions in a stirred fermentor. The alkaline protease so produced was applied to the goat skin for the removal of hair. The skin pieces were treated in three different ways; singly with the enzyme, in combination with the lime sulphide and singly with lime sulphide. The best results with the skin processing were obtained, when skin was treated with crude enzyme in combination with 7 % lime sulphide. The quality of pelt (color, grain, stretch, scud etc) and physical properties of the finally prepared leather (tensile strength, tear strength, bursting strength etc) were also improved with the use of proteolytic enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis IH-72.

1673-1679 Download
34
QUANTIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RICE DUE TO PLANTING MODES
ABID MAJEED AND ASGHARI BANO

QUANTIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RICE DUE TO PLANTING MODES
ABSTRACT:
The objectives of the research project were to evaluate the effect of planting modes based on varying moisture levels on the growth and yield of two lowland rice cultivars viz. KS-282 (coarse cultivar) and BAS-385 (fine cultivar) under natural conditions at three successive stages (viz. tillering, soft dough and mature grain stages) of grain filling. The two cultivars were grown in two different planting modes i.e. beds and flat fields at Kala Shah Kaku (KSK), Lahore. The endogenous level of growth promoting hormones Gibberellic Acid (GA) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) as well as sugar and protein content of leaves and grain increased at tillering and soft dough stages but decreased at mature grain stage. The magnitude of increase was more in flat field (FF) as compared to raised beds (RB) in both the cultivars. The stomatal resistance of flag and penultimate leaves was higher in flat field as compared to raised beds at tillering stage in both the cultivars. Root length, weight and plant height was significantly higher in BAS-385 as compared to KS-282 under both planting modes. It was concluded that difference in the moisture availability significantly affected the physiology of plants leading to higher yield in FF planting modes as compared to RB. The endogenous level of plant hormones (IAA and GA) affected the translocation of assimilates. KS-282 cultivar performed better with respect to yield. However, leaves and grains of BAS-385 contained more sugar and protein content than KS-282.

1681-1491 Download
35
PRODUCTION OF GLUCOAMYLASE BY RHIZOPUS SP. IN LIQUID CULTURE
S. NAHAR , F. HOSSAIN, B. FEROZA1 AND M. A. HALIM

PRODUCTION OF GLUCOAMYLASE BY RHIZOPUS SP. IN LIQUID CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Seventeen Rhizopus isolates were used for the production of glucoamylase. An extensive screening program was carried out to select the potential isolates. Among those, Rhizopus-RFF showed the 100% relative activities and farther investigations were carried out by the Rhizopus-RFF. To optimize the suitable environmental condition for the production of maximum activities of glucoamylase, some of their physicochemical parameters such as temperature, range of pH, incubation period, and nitrogen sources were separately tested. 10% potato starch was used as substrate for fermentation process. The highest percentage of enzyme activity was observed at 45ºC with pH 4.5. Combined use of 0.3% polypeptone and 0.3% yeast extract was yielded 8.33 /gm the highest activities of enzyme.

1693-1698 Download
36
EVALUATION AND ESTIMATION OF HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCEMENT FOR YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT LINES
WAQAR-UL-HAQ1 , M. F. MALIK1, M. RASHID1, M. MUNIR2 AND Z. AKRAM2

EVALUATION AND ESTIMATION OF HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCEMENT FOR YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT LINES
ABSTRACT:
Ten wheat genotypes were evaluated for estimation of heritability and genetic advance of various yield related parameters viz. spike length, number of spikes per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike

1699-1702 Download
37
COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF AUXIN AND ITS PRE-CURSOR APPLIED THROUGH COMPOST FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE
R. AHMAD1, M. KHALID2 , M. NAVEED2, S.M. SHAHZAD2 Z.A. ZAHIR2, AND S.N. KHOKHAR

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF AUXIN AND ITS PRE-CURSOR APPLIED THROUGH COMPOST FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study compost was prepared from waste fruit and vegetables and enriched with 25% (44 kg ha-1) of full dose (175 kg ha-1) of N fertilizer for maize. Pure auxin, indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and L-TRP (precursor) were blended with respective batches @ 10 mg kg-1 compost for the value addition of N-enriched compost (NEC). Comparative effectiveness of IAA or L-TRP-blended NEC was studied, in the presence or absence of 50% (88 kg N ha-1) of full dose of N fertilizer, through pot and field trials. Compost was applied @ 300 kg ha-1. Results indicated that IAA-blended NEC supplemented with half dose of N fertilizer was as effective as NEC in improving growth and yield of maize. However, precursor (L-TRP)-blended NEC was found better than pure auxin (IAA)-blended, when both were compared with NEC. It significantly improved growth, yield and nutrient uptakes (up to 8.4, 8.6 and 11% respectively) of maize over NEC in the presence of 88 kg N ha-1. The technology bears its promise not only to improve crop yield on sustainable basis but also reduce huge piles of organic wastes causing environmental pollution.

1703-1710 Download
38
IDENTIFICATION OF DNA MARKER FOR NECTARILESS TRAIT IN COTTON USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA TECHNIQUE
SAJID-UR-RAHMAN1, TANWIR AHMAD MALIK2, M. ASHRAF3 AND M. AHSAN2

IDENTIFICATION OF DNA MARKER FOR NECTARILESS TRAIT IN COTTON USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Nectaries are nectar producing epidermal glands located on lower side of cotton leaves. Nectar is sugar rich food source for insect pests. The leaf nectaries provide nectar source long before the plants begin to flower and attract insects. Double recessive genotype produces nectariless phenotype which confers resistance to pink bollworm. Incorporation of double recessive trait would be easier if DNA marker for the trait is developed and used in marker assisted selection/backcrossing. Random Amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to identify DNA markers linked with this trait. More than 300 RAPD primers were used to find linkage with the trait. Only one primer GLE-11 was found linked to the nectariless trait, this primer amplified a polymorphic DNA fragment of 1145bp between the parents and bulks. Three recombinants were observed out of 30 individual plants showing the presence of this marker at 10cM distance from the nectariless loci. This DNA marker was named as GLE-111145. This marker can be converted into SCAR and may be used in breeding.

1711-1719 Download
39
DETECTION OF QTLs FOR BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA GENOTYPES WITH DNA BASED MARKERS
HINA ALI , NAYYER IQBAL, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA AND AMJAD HAMEED

DETECTION OF QTLs FOR BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA GENOTYPES WITH DNA BASED MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei is one of the major diseases in Pakistan and other chickpea growing regions of the world. Different QTLs for resistance against the fungus have been identified in both inter and intraspecific crosses and are located on Linkage Group (LG) 2, 4a, 4b and 6. The objective of the present study was to screen local genotypes for the QTLs involved in resistance against blight. For this screening SSR, SCAR, ISSR and RAPD techniques have been tried to detect the reported QTLs in 21 mutants/local genotypes. The screening for Ascochyta blight of these genotypes has been carried out in the Ascochyta blight screening nursery for three years at NIAB. The results revealed that QTL linked with STMS, RAPD and ISSR markers on LG2, 4a and 6 are not involved in conferring resistance in local genotypes. Another important QTL on LG 4b is saturated with RAPD, SCAR and STMS markers and our studies of local genotypes showed strong linkage of STMS and SCAR markers with blight resistance on this linkage group.

1721-1728 Download
40
SAMPLING SPECIES DIVERSITY IN A MALAYSIAN RAIN FOREST: THE CASE OF A LOGGED-OVER FOREST
I. FARIDAH-HANUM , L. PHILIP AND A.G. AWANG NOOR

SAMPLING SPECIES DIVERSITY IN A MALAYSIAN RAIN FOREST: THE CASE OF A LOGGED-OVER FOREST
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out in a logged-over forest at Compartment 14, Ayer Hitam Forest, Puchong, on a randomly chosen 5-ha area (200mx250m). The 5-ha plot contained a total of 6621 trees (for trees greater than 5cm dbh) which belonged to 319 species in 148 genera and 51 families and that is 11% species

1729-1733 Download
41
INTEGRATED USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACTERIA AND P-ENRICHED COMPOST FOR IMPROVING GROWTH, YIELD AND NODULATION OF CHICKPEA
S.M. SHAHZAD, A. KHALID , M. ARSHAD, M. KHALID AND I. MEHBOOB

INTEGRATED USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACTERIA AND P-ENRICHED COMPOST FOR IMPROVING GROWTH, YIELD AND NODULATION OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
The plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) may improve growth and nodulation of leguminous crops through their ACC-deaminase activity. Their plant growth promoting activity can further be improved by adding recycled organic material which could act as a carrier to enhance microbial activities under field conditions. Three bacterial strains with ACC-deaminase were evaluated for their potentials to improve growth, yield and nodulation of chickpea (Cicer arientum L.) in the presence and absence of composted organic material enriched with P, both under pot and field conditions. The integrated use of PGPB and P-enriched compost resulted in a highly significant increase in fresh biomass (84%), number of pods plant-1 (97%), grain yield (79%) and number of nodules plant-1 (87%) compared to uninoculated control (without compost). The findings imply that inoculation with PGPB containing ACC-deaminase in the presence of P-enriched compost could be highly effective in improving growth, yield and nodulation of chickpea than sole application of either PGPB or P-enriched compost.

1735-1441 Download
42
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REGENERATION OF HERBALS IN KOHAT REGION
IHSAN ILAHI

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REGENERATION OF HERBALS IN KOHAT REGION
ABSTRACT:
Kohat Division comprises of around three distinct ecological zones with severe cold in winter and mild summers with snow covered peaks to the west and north west comprising of Parachinar and agencies like Orakzai and FATA areas. In the south lies a vast sandy terrain adjoining mountains comprising of stony soil inhabited by Zizyphus sp and other xerophytes. Summer temperatures usually shoot above 500C with mild winters. The central Kohat region exhibits a weather in between the above two extremes. As reported the flora is rich with herbals which have been over exploited resulting in deterioration of the habitat. As an alternate and to save the environment from further degradation, selected herbals were grown in the Medicinal Plants Farm of the University. This experience has been successful with increased biomass and medicinal ingredients production. The findings are reported in the following sections.

1743-1753 Download
43
EXPLOITATION OF POTENTIAL TARGET TISSUES TO DEVELOP POLYPLOIDS IN CITRUS
MUHAMMAD USMAN1 , BILQUEES FATIMA1, KAZIM ALI GILLANI1, MUHAMMAD SARWAR KHAN2, MUHAMMAD MUMTAZ KHAN1

EXPLOITATION OF POTENTIAL TARGET TISSUES TO DEVELOP POLYPLOIDS IN CITRUS
ABSTRACT:
One of the rich sources of germplasm development to improve citrus crop is the ploidy management through in vivo and in vitro techniques. In vitro and in vivo applications of colchicine change the chromosome number by interfering with chromosomal segregation at anaphase, restricting cell wall formation and yielding polyploid cells. Further, endosperm culture under aseptic conditions also allows regeneration of plants with variable genetic make up. We report here the development of polyploids through in vitro culturing of endosperm and application of colchicine. Somatic embryos were developed from ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) and ‘Succari’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) on basal medium modified with higher concentrations of BA and NAA (10mgL-1 and 2mgL-1, respectively) from calli induced on Murashige and Tucker (MT) medium supplemented with BA

1755-1766 Download
44
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA ROEM. (ROSACEAE) AS A BIOMONITOR FOR CD, PB AND ZN IN MUGLA PROVINCE (TURKEY)
NİHAN AKGÜÇ, İBRAHİM İLKER ÖZYİĞİT AND CELÂL YARCI

PYRACANTHA COCCINEA ROEM. (ROSACEAE) AS A BIOMONITOR FOR CD, PB AND ZN IN MUGLA PROVINCE (TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
This study was firstly aimed to find out the measures of Cd, Pb and Zn as the heavy metal pollution in Mugla Province, and secondly if Pyracantha coccinea Roem. (firethorn) can be used as a biomonitor and phytoremediation. P. coccinea samples were collected from 34 localities in four different areas of Mugla Province, during vegetation period in 2006. The Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of unwashed and washed leaf samples and unwashed branch samples were measured by ICP-OES. As a result of measurements, the average highest value of Cd accumulation has been reached in unwashed leaf samples, which were collected near highways. The value was 0.36±0.60 μg g-1 dw. The lowest value was detected as 0.16±0.04 μg g-1 dw, in washed leaf samples which were found in industrial area. The average highest value of Pb (14.93±1.23 μg g-1 dw) was determined in the branch samples collected in industrial area whilst the lowest (5.60±1.47 μg g-1 dw) were in washed leaf samples collected in industrial area too. The highest Zn (15.57±1.66 μg g-1 dw) was measured in the branch samples collected in city center, whilst the lowest was measured in the branch samples (8.99±1.32 μg g-1 dw) collected in city center too. It was proven that P. coccinea can be used as a biomonitor species for these heavy metals. It was also observed that this species could be used for phytoremediation procedure.

1767-1776 Download
45
ESTIMATION OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AMONG SOME YIELD PARAMETERS OF WHEAT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ZAHID AKRAM , SAIF ULLAH AJMAL AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR

ESTIMATION OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AMONG SOME YIELD PARAMETERS OF WHEAT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Correlation studies were conducted in F2 progenies of an 8x8 complete diallel cross of wheat genotypes, sown at the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2002. The association among different yield contributing traits was studied at genotypic and phenotypic levels. The results revealed positive correlation in case of number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight with grain yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. However, number of tillers per m2 and spike length contributed negatively towards grain yield at both levels. Plant height was positively correlated with grain yield at genotypic level, whereas negatively correlated at phenotypic levels. It was, therefore, suggested that number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.

1777-1781 Download
46
A CONTRIBUTION TO SOME ETHNOBOTANICAL ASPECTS OF BIRJAND FLORA (IRAN)
SHOLEH GHOLLASSI MOOD

A CONTRIBUTION TO SOME ETHNOBOTANICAL ASPECTS OF BIRJAND FLORA (IRAN)
ABSTRACT:
Birjand is located near the Afghanistan border in eastern part Iran at the 57° 45´ to 50° 60´ latitude and 10° 31´ to 33° 15´ northern longitude with an altitude of 1419 m, and a surface area of 31704 Km. In this contribution some floristic and ethnobotanical aspects of the area are given according to the conventional methods used in taxonomical and ethnobotanical studies. All collected plants were identified using available flora. A total of 37 families

1783-1791 Download
47
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF SEED EXTRACT OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS
ISHRAT RANI, SHAISTA AKHUND AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF SEED EXTRACT OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS
ABSTRACT:
The antimicrobial activity of crude water extract, Supernatant as well as Methanolic extract of Raphanus sativus were investigated in vitro using Agar well diffusion method. All Extracts were tested against two gram negative, two gram positive bacteria and four fungal cultures. Plant extracts exhibited concentration dependent antimicrobial properties. The extracts displayed highest antibacterial activity against Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter agglomerans, Lactobacillus and Bacillus thuringiensis while fungal species viz. Penicillium lilacinum, Paecilomyces variotii, Spadicoides stoveri, Penicillium funiculosum showed variable degrees of inhibition even at lower concentration.

1793-1798 Download
48
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTISTAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF AN ENDEMIC SALVIA CHRYSOPHYLLA STAPF. NATURALLY DISRIBUTED DENIZLI PROVINCE (TURKEY) AND ITS VICINITY
IDRIS ARSLAN AND ALI CELIK

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTISTAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF AN ENDEMIC SALVIA CHRYSOPHYLLA STAPF. NATURALLY DISRIBUTED DENIZLI PROVINCE (TURKEY) AND ITS VICINITY
ABSTRACT:
In present study, antistaphylococcal activity of endemic Salvia chrysophylla Stapf. naturally distributed in Denizli (Turkey) and its vicinity was investigated. The antistaphylococcal activity of the crude extracts was evaluated against two strong microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Cowan liyofili. The activity was detected by using broth microdilution methods. When compared with other studies, mic value of our study is further low. The essential oils of endemic Salvia chrysophyla in Denizli was analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents of the oil of S. chrysophyla were 3-oktanol, α-phellandren-8-ol, camphor and limonene.

1799-1803 Download
49
YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS WITH RELATION TO PLANT HEIGHT IN SEMI-DWARF WHEAT
K.D. JAMALI AND SYED ASHRAF ALI

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS WITH RELATION TO PLANT HEIGHT IN SEMI-DWARF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Eighteen genotypes including two check varieties were compared for yield and yield components. In this yield comparison lines 04 and 08 had the highest grain yield per plot. The subsequent line which had higher grain yield was 06. The possible reasons for the highest grain yield in line 04 could be due to the longest spike length, the highest number of spikelets per spike, higher number of grains per spike, higher grain yield of main spike and higher grain weight. Correlations were calculated for pooled yield and yield components data of various genotypes. Plant height showed positive and highly significant correlation with spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and main spike grain yield but no correlation with number of grains per spikelet. Main spike grain yield exhibited positive and highly significant correlation with plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per main spike and number of grains per spikelet.

1805-1808 Download
50
ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX IN MEIOCYTES OF DATURA INNOXIA
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF , ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ AND MIR AJAB KHAN

ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX IN MEIOCYTES OF DATURA INNOXIA
ABSTRACT:
At the ultrastructural level Synaptonemal Complexes were studied in Datura innoxia, a polyploid. The attachment of the chromosome ends with the nuclear membrane is documented. In addition, our study has revealed the general features of synaptonemal complexes associated with centromeres (CM) and recombination nodules (RNs). The present paper also describes first time a close relationship between nucleolus and chromosomes.

1809-1815 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1290273, Today's: 735, Yesterday's: 2167, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");