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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 3
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
OBITUARY - DR. KHUSHNOOD AHMED SIDDIQUI (8TH JUNE 1937-18TH MARCH 2009)
MUHAMMAD AFZAL ARAIN

OBITUARY - DR. KHUSHNOOD AHMED SIDDIQUI (8TH JUNE 1937-18TH MARCH 2009)
ABSTRACT:
OBITUARY: Dr. Khushnood Ahmed Siddiqui, a world renowned geneticist/agriculture scientist of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) died on 18th March 2009 at Tando Jam due to heart failure. May Almighty Allah shower His countless blessings upon the departed soul and may his soul rest in peace in heaven. Aameen.

985-986 Download
2
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LXIII. MORINGACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LXIII. MORINGACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 2 species of the family Moringaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate, sub-prolate to oblate-spheroidal. Sexine slightly thinner than nexine or as thick as nexine. Tectum sub-psilate, sparsely punctate. On the basis of polar length two distinct pollen types viz., Moringa concanensis–type and Moringa oleifera-type are recognized.

987-989 Download
3
A PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ENDEMIC TAXA FROM NORTHERN CYPRUS
KEMAL YILDIZ1,*, SALIH GÜCEL2 AND MEHMET Y. DADANDI3

A PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ENDEMIC TAXA FROM NORTHERN CYPRUS
ABSTRACT:
Palynology of 19 endemic plant taxa belonging to 9 families distributed in North Cyprus was investigated by both light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pollen grains were measured and their aperture characteristics and surface ornamentation determined. The systematic positions of the taxa as well as the genera they belonged to were investigated according to the data obtained. The largest pollen grains were found in Salvia veneris Hedge and the smallest ones in Onosma caespitosum Kotschy. The pollen type was generally termed trizonocolpate, pollen shapes spheroidal, prolate, subspheroidal, perprolate, supraprolate, pollen structure tectate and semitectate, and ornamentation scabrate, striate, microechinate, microperforate, reticulate, microreticulate, bireticulate, psilate and rugulate.

991-1007 Download
4
POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF THREE MANGO CULTIVARS (MANGIFERA INDICA L., ANACARDIACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF THREE MANGO CULTIVARS (MANGIFERA INDICA L., ANACARDIACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination capacity and viability of 3-mango cultivars viz., Chaunsa, Dasheri and Langra were investigated up to 48 weeks. Pollen germination was standard by hanging drop technique in different concentration of sucrose solutions (5%-50%) with 1% agar and 0.001% boric acid. The stored conditions were refrigerator (4ºC), freezer (-20ºC, -30ºC), freeze drier (-60ºC), in vacuum over silica gel and in organic solvents (acetone, benzene, chloroform). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at 4ºC and fresh. Among three cultivars variety langra showed better pollen germination at all stored conditions except at -20ºC. Variety chaunsa and dasheri also showed good germination of pollen.

1009-1012 Download
5
EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON YIELD OF MUNGBEAN IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN
SHAKIL AHMED

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON YIELD OF MUNGBEAN IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted with two commonly grown mungbean varieties viz., M-28 and 6601, in open top chambers and ambient field conditions with the aim of ascertaining the effects of air pollution on yield. The 8-h daily mean ozone concentrations were 41-73 nl litre-1. A considerable reduction of 47.06% and 51.12% in seed yield for M-28 and 6601, respectively were found which are substantially more than might be predicted elsewhere. These reductions in economic yield were due to decrease in both numbers of seed per pod and individual seed weight.

1013-1021 Download
6
STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
SAJIDA BIBI, M. UMAR DAHOT1, IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHATRI AND M.H. NAQVI2

STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Twelve wheat genotypes developed through hybridization programme were screened for genetic diversity through RAPD marker. A total of 102 loci were amplified with 14 primers out of which 91 (89.2%) were polymorphic and only 11(10.8%) were monomorphic. Fragments size ranged from 142bp-5.3kb and fragments produced by various primers ranged from 1-11 with an average of 7.1 fragments per primer. The highest number of loci (13) was amplified with primer A-10, while the lowest number

1023-1027 Download
7
MIXED CROPPING EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETENUM L.)
S. GILL1, M. ABID2 AND F. AZAM1

MIXED CROPPING EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETENUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of mixed cropping of wheat and chickpea on their growth and nodulation in chickpea. The plants were grown to maturity alone and in a mixture and data on different plant parameters collected after 2, 3, and 4 (maturity) months of seed sowing. When grown in mixture, wheat had an inhibitory effect on root proliferation, total biomass and grain yield of chickpea; the value of different parameters in mixture being one third of that determined when chickpea was grown as a sole crop. This inhibition was also reflected in the number of nodules per plant and was assumed to result at least partially from physiological malfunctioning of roots as reflected by a drastic and significant decrease (p = 0.05) in tissue water concentration. The inhibition intensified with time and severity of damage to chickpea roots maximized at maturity as suggested by a sharp decrease in root/shoot ratio. Interestingly, the weight of individual nodules was significantly better when chickpea was grown in mixture. Contrary to chickpea, biomass yield of wheat increased by >100% due to the companion crop. The improvement was observed in all the plant components except for 100-grain weight that showed a significant decrease (p = 0.05); harvest index and green-ness of flag leaf was not affected.

1029-1036 Download
8
N- BANDING PATTERNS OF HETEROCHROMATIN DISTRIBUTION IN HORDEUM JUBATUM CHROMOSOMES
BUSHREEN JAHAN* AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY

N- BANDING PATTERNS OF HETEROCHROMATIN DISTRIBUTION IN HORDEUM JUBATUM CHROMOSOMES
ABSTRACT:
The N-band patterns of heterochromatin distribution in Hordeum jubatum chromosomes was studied to identify general patterns or preferential sites for heterochromatin. Mean number of Giemsa N-bands indicated that they are located mostly on the intercalary and centromeric regions and rarely on the terminal ends. Heterochromatic N-bands located at terminal and distal positions respectively on the satellites of first two pairs and the third pair had two bands in the middle and terminal portion of the satellite.

1037-1041 Download
9
LACK OF PLANT RESISTANCE AGAINST APHIDS, AS INDICATED BY THEIR SEASONAL ABUNDANCE IN CANOLA, (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
MARGHUB AMER, MUHAMMAD ASLAM, MUHAMMAD RAZAQ* AND MUHAMMAD AFZAL1

LACK OF PLANT RESISTANCE AGAINST APHIDS, AS INDICATED BY THEIR SEASONAL ABUNDANCE IN CANOLA, (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to develop insect pest management strategy by exploring host plant resistance in canola, Brassica napus L., and seasonal abundance of aphids at Multan, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan in Southern Punjab, Pakistan Two aphid species, Brevicoryne brassicae L., and Lipahis eyrsimi Kalt. were observed as the most devastating pests. Populations of B. brassicae were more than that of L. eyrsimi. All the varieties evaluated were found susceptible and weekly population of both the species of aphids did not differ significantly from their appearance till maturity of the crop. Appearance of aphids at all the locations was not uniform. However, highest population was recorded during last week of February to second week of March. The seasonal activity of the aphids is described and it is recommended that application of insecticides is inevitable to avoid economic damage. Development of insect pest management strategy against aphids by exploring sources of plant resistance and seasonal abundance of aphids on B. napus is reported from this region for the first time.

1043-1051 Download
10
SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF ATRIPLEX STOCKSII FROM A COASTAL MARSH ALONG THE ARABIAN SEA COAST
FARHAT AGHA1, BILQUEES GUL2 AND M. AJMAL KHAN2*

SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF ATRIPLEX STOCKSII FROM A COASTAL MARSH ALONG THE ARABIAN SEA COAST
ABSTRACT:
The productivity of Atriplex stocksii population located near the coast (Gizri Creek) of Karachi, Pakistan was studied for two years. The net biomass production showed seasonal variation and productivity appeared to be influenced by rainfall during both years. Belowground and above ground biomass showed no change during the dry year, however, considerable biomass was produced after the availability of moisture. The above ground dead biomass remained unchanged during 1997-98 but it registered a substantial promotion during the wet season. The ion concentration of root was much higher than shoot. Na+ and Cl- remained high however, the concentration of other ions did not change much during both seasons. Root fresh weight was significantly promoted at low salinity and increase in salinity inhibited root and shoot growth. Fresh weight of shoots at low density was not affected by low salinities, however, at higher salinity concentrations there was no effect of density. Root fresh and dry weight were higher at low density and low salinity, however under high salinity, density had no effect. Succulence on dry weight basis was also higher at higher densities. However, succulence decreased substantially at high salinities on per plant basis. Shoots of A. stocksii accumulated large quantities of Na+ and Cl- whereas other ions were found in lower amount. Na+ and Cl- in root increased but were much lower in comparison to shoot.

1053-1068 Download
11
ADAPTABILITY PERFORMANCES OF SOME SOFT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM VAR. AEST. L.) CULTIVARS IN THE MARMARA REGION OF TURKEY
RAMAZAN DOĞAN* AND MEHMET AYCICEK

ADAPTABILITY PERFORMANCES OF SOME SOFT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM VAR. AEST. L.) CULTIVARS IN THE MARMARA REGION OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to determine the adaptability and stability of 7 wheat cultivars, viz., Cumhuriyet-75, Momtchill, Tosun-22, Gemini, Katea-1, Kırkpınar-79 and Atilla-12 under Bursa conditions for nine years between 1986 and 1996. The trials were conducted at the Research and Application Center of Faculty of Agriculture located at Görükle Campus of Uludag University. Cultivars were sown in October in 10 x 12-m plots, which were arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the study in which grain yield was used a criterion to determine stabilities of soft wheat cultivar, three stability parameters: regression coefficient (b), mean squares of deviation from regression (S2) and determination coefficient (r2) values were calculated. The years were considered as an environment in the study. According to the results, genotype x environment interactions for grain yield was highly significant. Thus, the stabilities of seven soft wheat genotypes were different for grain yield. According to the stability parameters, Momtchill, Katea-1, Gemini and Kırkpınar-79 were stable, while Atilla-12, Tosun-22 and Cumhuriyet-75 were no stable for grain yield. Genotypes Tosun-22 and Atilla-12 could be considered as having high adaptability to poor condition, but Cumhuriyet-75 adapted to good environments. On the other hand, the genotypes Momtchill, Kate-1 and Kırkpınar-79 whose yields were higher than mean yield of trial (5310 kg ha-1) could be considered as having good adaptability to all environments.

1069-1076 Download
12
09-07-09
DISTRIBUTION OF OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) GENOTYPES IN THE SOUTHERN MARMARA REGION OF TURKEY

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
ERDOGAN BARUT, AHMET IPEK*, HATICE GULEN

1077-1080 Download
13
THE CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM TURGIDUM VAR. DURUM L.) IN WEST ANATOLIA CONDITIONS
RAMAZAN DOĞAN

THE CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM TURGIDUM VAR. DURUM L.) IN WEST ANATOLIA CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 growing seasons with 7 different “durum wheat” genotypes under West Anatolia conditions. The correlations among plant height, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike

1081-1089 Download
14
09-07-09
AN INVESTIGATION OF DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION AND MONITORING ON POACEAE (GRAMINEAE) SPECIES GROWING NATURALLY IN BILECIK PROVINCE AT THE INTERSECTION OF THREE PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS (NORTHWEST ANATOLIA – TURKEY)

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
ATİLA OCAK1, CENGİZ TÜRE*2, A. BARAN ŞENMERDAN1 AND HARUN BÖCÜK2

1091-1106 Download
15
09-07-09
GENETIC ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY SUITABLE PARENTS FOR HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1*, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ, TARIQ RAFIQUE2, ATIF KAMRAN3 AND ASIF ALI KHAN3

1107-1116 Download
16
EVALUATION OF WINTER VEGETABLES FOR GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOTYPES
S.N. QURESHI1, R. ANWAR, M. KASHIF AND A. GHAFOOR*

EVALUATION OF WINTER VEGETABLES FOR GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous germplasm of winter vegetables (radish, turnip, coriander and fenugreek) were evaluated for genetic divergence and characterization under field conditions during 2003. High variance observed for most of the characters indicated the worth of local landraces. Medium to high genetic diversity was observed for radish, turnip and coriander, whereas in the case of fenugreek, the level of genetic diversity was low. Among all the vegetables desirable agronomic traits were identified which could be exploited for vegetable improvement. It was observed that areas with greater environmental stresses represented high biodiversity even in the same vicinity as the case of Attock and TT Singh (radish), Sahiwal (turnip) and DG Khan (coriander), whereas in some areas low diversity might be associated with vegetable growing culture in the area.

1117-1126 Download
17
09-07-09
DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LINKAGE MAP OF LEAF RED COLOUR IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) USING DNA MARKERS

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
IFTIKHAR ALI1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF*, MEHBOOB-UR-REHMAN**, YUSUF ZAFAR**, MUHAMMAD ASIF**, ABIDA KAUSAR, SANA RIAZ, MUBASHIR NIAZ, ABDUL WAHID* AND SYED QAISER ABBAS

1127-1136 Download
18
09-07-09
NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME FORAGE PLANTS FROM HARBOI RANGELAND, KALAT, PAKISTAN

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND MUFAKHIRAH JAN DURRANI2

1137-1154 Download
19
09-07-09
MICROPROPAGATION OF ANTHURIUM ANDRAEANUM FROM LEAF EXPLANTS

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
ÇIMEN ATAK AND ÖZGE ÇELIK*

1155-1161 Download
20
ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PIPER METHYSTICUM AND PEPPER BY AFLP
JIANG SHIA, LI XIN1, YAN YANG2, XUEQIN ZHENG3*, XIANGSHENG KONG1, ZHIYONG LI1, XIAOLING WANG1, SHUANGCHENG GAO1

ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PIPER METHYSTICUM AND PEPPER BY AFLP
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the research was to discuss the genetic relationships among Piper methysticum, Pepper and it wild relatives. With 28 germplasms including 6 materials of P. methysticum

1163-1171 Download
21
CHANGES IN ABSCISIC ACID IMMUNOLOCALIZATION IN HEAT-STRESSED PEPPER SEEDLINGS
LIU TONG-XIANG1, ZHANG ZONG-SHEN2*, WAMG JIAN-BO3 AND LI RONG-QIAN3

CHANGES IN ABSCISIC ACID IMMUNOLOCALIZATION IN HEAT-STRESSED PEPPER SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
The heat stress-responsive abscisic acid (ABA) subcellular distribution in pepper mesophyll and root cap cells was investigated by colloidal gold labeling technique. The results showed that the ABA was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of two cell types in the seedlings under normal temperature, with relatively a higher accumulation in the root cap cells. As the seedlings were transferred to 40oC for heat stress, the ABA levels in both mesophyll and root cap cells increased markedly, especially in the later. With a sustained heat stress, the ultrastructure of mesophyll cell was severely damaged and more ABA accumulated in the nucleus of mesophyll cells; comparably, the root cap cell maintained intact ultrastructurally, and a concomitant drastic increase in ABA in the nucleus of root cap cells was also observed. The above results imply that ABA might be one of the heat stress signaling members in plant cells, whereas the mechanism by which ABA functions during this process remains poorly understood.

1173-1178 Download
22
SOME ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WHEAT PLANT (TRITICUM DURUM CV. GONEN) GROWN IN GYPSUM SOILS
M. GEMICI*, A. GUVENSEN AND M. KOYUNCU

SOME ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WHEAT PLANT (TRITICUM DURUM CV. GONEN) GROWN IN GYPSUM SOILS
ABSTRACT:
In our studies, gypsiferous soils were compared with garden soil. Five research groups were formed with gypsiferous soils from Middle Anatolia of Turkey. When plant lengths were compared in all groups, there was a decrease in gypsum. When the results were evaluated according to weights, there was a decrease in root weight in all groups compared to control soil and when spike weights were evaluated, there was a decrease of 17.57% in gypsum. Maximum seed weight per root was found to be in control group. When all groups were evaluated in terms of total chlorophyll content, the gypsum + soil mixture groups had more photosynthetic chlorophyll content than control. As for harvest, the best development in stem length, spike weight, seed number per root and seed weight per root were observed in soil without gypsum. Better yields in 100 seed weight, spika lenght, root weight and root lenght were observed in wheat groups where low gypsum mixtures were used. There was a decrease in amounts of salt (%) and beneficial K20 in all study groups at harvest when compared with the beginning values, whereas organic material and CaCO3 (%) amounts increased.

1179-1187 Download
23
INDUCED QUANTITATIVE VARIABILITY BY GAMMA RAYS AND ETHYLMETHANE SULPHONATE ALONE AND IN COMBINATION IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.).
MUHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN AND ABDULLAH KHATRI

INDUCED QUANTITATIVE VARIABILITY BY GAMMA RAYS AND ETHYLMETHANE SULPHONATE ALONE AND IN COMBINATION IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.).
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variability induced by gamma rays (750 Gy

1189-1195 Download
24
RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO FOLIAR AND SOIL APPLICATION OF UREA AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES
PARVEZ KHAN*, MUHAMMAD YOUSUF MEMON, MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ AND MUHAMMAD ASLAM

RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO FOLIAR AND SOIL APPLICATION OF UREA AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of urea applied in different concentrations and at different stages on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cv. “Kiran-95” under agro-climatic condition of Sindh. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design having two factors with four repeats. Six concentrations of urea i.e., 0

1197-1204 Download
25
EFFECT OF GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS ON SEED GERMINATION OF HALOGETON GLOMERATUS FOR ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS
M. AJMAL KHAN*1, BILQUEES GUL1 AND DARRELL J. WEBER2

EFFECT OF GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS ON SEED GERMINATION OF HALOGETON GLOMERATUS FOR ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
.

1205-1212 Download
26
INFLUENCE OF MICROCUTTING SIZES AND IBA CONCENTRATIONS ON IN VITRO ROOTING OF OLIVE cv. ‘DOLCE AGOGIA’
INAM UL HAQ, TOUQEER AHMAD, ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ AND NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*

INFLUENCE OF MICROCUTTING SIZES AND IBA CONCENTRATIONS ON IN VITRO ROOTING OF OLIVE cv. ‘DOLCE AGOGIA’
ABSTRACT:
Different microcutting sizes and various levels of IBA @ 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75

1213-1222 Download
27
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF AUXINS ON IN VITRO ROOTING OF OLIVE CULTIVAR ‘MORAIOLO’
ANSAR ALI, TOUQEER AHMAD, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI* AND ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF AUXINS ON IN VITRO ROOTING OF OLIVE CULTIVAR ‘MORAIOLO’
ABSTRACT:
The inability to induce adventitious roots is often a limiting factor in conventional cuttings and tissue culture. In this study, several criteria were taken into consideration in determining the best rooting treatment in olive cultivar Moraiolo. Among the indolebutyric acid (IBA) and Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) hormones, tested for maximum percentage of rooted shoots, root number, root length and quality of roots, IBA at 1.5 mg l-1 concentration proved to be the best one for rooting of Moraiolo cultivar of olive producing maximum root initiation in 86.67% shoots, 5.03 number of roots per rooted explant and 4.95 cm root length. The roots produced on IBA were longer with better quality shoots whereas NAA produced poor response with necrotic leaves and leaf abscission.

1223-1231 Download
28
IN VITRO REGENERATION POTENTIALITY OF OIL SEED BRASSICA GENOTYPES WITH DIFFERENTIAL BAP CONCENTRATION
MOHAMMAD MAHBUBUL ALAM KHAN1, LUTFUL HASSAN1, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMAD2, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2 AND FARHAT BATOOL3*

IN VITRO REGENERATION POTENTIALITY OF OIL SEED BRASSICA GENOTYPES WITH DIFFERENTIAL BAP CONCENTRATION
ABSTRACT:
Petiole of six genotypes of oilseed Brassica viz., Tori-7, Sampad, Kallyania, BARI Sarisha-7, BARI Sarisha-8 and MM 20-3 were cultured in MS medium with different concentrations of BAP, NAA and AgNO3 for callus induction and subsequent plant regeneration. The highest percentage of callus induction (91.43%) was observed in Tori-7 with the media supplemented with 2 mgL-1BAP, 0.1 mgL-1 NAA and 2.0 mgL-1 AgNO3. Calli were maintained in order to get sufficient number of regenerants. With the increased concentration of BAP, the highest percentage (57.14) of regenerants were found in Tori-7 followed by Sampad (33.13%) and BARI Sarisha-8 (31.42%) in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mgL-1 BAP, 0.1mgL-1 NAA and 2.0mgL-1 AgNO3. Root formation from the regenerants was found best in half MS medium supplemented with 0.5mgL-1 NAA in genotype Tori-7. Regenerated plantlets of 4 genotypes (Tori-7, BARI Sarisha-8, Kallyania, BARI Sarisha-7) were successfully established in the field.

1233-1239 Download
29
SEASONAL GROWTH, RADIATION INTERCEPTION, ITS CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF ORYZA SATIVA L. UNDER DIVERSE AGRO-ENVIRONMENTS IN PAKISTAN
A. AHMAD1, S. IQBAL1, S. AHMAD2*, T. KHALIQ1, W. NASIM1, Z. HUSNAIN2, A. HUSSAIN1, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ2 AND G. HOOGENBOOM3

SEASONAL GROWTH, RADIATION INTERCEPTION, ITS CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF ORYZA SATIVA L. UNDER DIVERSE AGRO-ENVIRONMENTS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The effects of major agronomic practices on growth and above-ground dry biomass production have been studied individually or in combinations of two, but not studied collectively and deeply. This research was carried out to study the effects of transplanting dates, and split nitrogen application on (I) growth (Leaf area index; LAI, crop growth rate; CGR, leaf area duration; LAD, mean net assimilation rate; NAR), (II) intercepted photosynthetically radiation (IPAR) & radiation use efficiency (RUE) and (III) above-ground total dry matter (ATDM) production of two fine rice cultivars under diverse agro-environmental conditions. Field trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in kallar tract (conventional rice zone) of Pakistan. The results revealed that early transplanting (1st week of July) enhanced LAI over late transplanting (3rd week of July) significantly throughout the growth period. Peak LAI values were reached at 75 DAT in all the treatments. Similarly, early transplanting significantly enhanced cumulative IPAR (R2 = 94.4–97.9%). Seasonal differences in ATDM production were mainly associated with the amount of IPAR and to a lesser degree on its efficiency of conversion. RUE for ATDM varied from 1.18 g MJ-1 to 1.94 g MJ-1 IPAR at different locations of conventional rice belt of Pakistan.

1241-1257 Download
30
MORPHOLOGICAL AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF ORYZA SATIVA L. AS AFFECTED BY POPULATION DYNAMICS, NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION REGIMES
S. AHMAD1*, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ1, H. ALI1, A. AHMAD2, M.A. KHAN1, T. KHALIQ2, Z. HUSNAIN1, A. HUSSAIN2 AND G. HOOGENBOOM3

MORPHOLOGICAL AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF ORYZA SATIVA L. AS AFFECTED BY POPULATION DYNAMICS, NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Quality of the produce is as much important as quantity in all walks of life and particularly in directly consuming commodities. The present study was conducted to compare the morphological and quality of the field grown rice as effected by population dynamics, nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes. Field experiments were carried out at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF), Pakistan for two years. The results revealed that population dynamics did not significantly effect the quality parameters. However, nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes have significant and linear impact upon quality attributes of fine transplanted rice under field conditions. From the two years data it can safely be recommended that application of 200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen and 48 plants m-2 is the most appropriate to obtain optimum response of yield and kernel quality under the prevailing conditions. Moreover, irrigation regime of 107.5 cm seems more appropriate than lower or higher rates of irrigation application under the water scarcity situations. In the present scenario the severity of water shortage is increasing in Pakistan, therefore, deficit irrigation should be applied. Simple correlation coefficients were also studied between grain yield and yield components of rice crop for both experiments, having highly positive and highly negative relation.

1259-1269 Download
31
STUDY OF FIBER QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON USING ADDITIVE-DOMINANCE MODEL
NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, GUL HASSAN2, MOULA BUX KUMBHAR3, FARHATULLAH1, ZAHOOR AHMAD SOOMRO3, NAEEM KHAN2, AISHA PARVEEN1 AND UMM-E-AIMAN1

STUDY OF FIBER QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON USING ADDITIVE-DOMINANCE MODEL
ABSTRACT:
Diallel analysis was studied in F1 and F2 hybrids by crossing six upland cotton cultivars (CIM-109, CIM-240, CIM-1100, FH-682, BH-36 and CRIS-9) following Hayman’s diallel approach using Mather’s concept of D, H components of variation for additive and dominance genetic variances, respectively. The objectives were to study the additive-dominance model, nature of gene action, heritability and genetic gain in F1 and F2 hybrids and mean performance of the selections (made in F2 population) in advanced segregating generations (F3, F4 and F5) in upland cotton. Genotypes mean values differed significantly for all the fiber quality traits. Additive-dominance model was adequate for fiber length, fiber fineness, and uniformity ratio, while showed partially adequate for fiber strength in F1 generation. In F2s, fiber fineness showed the adequate data, while other three traits manifested partial adequacy. Additive component (D) was found significant for all the traits in F1 and F2 generations. Dominance components (H1, H2) were also significant for all the traits in F1s except the fiber fineness, while were insignificant for all the traits in F2 generation. In F1s the additive gene action was somewhat partial, while in F2s all the traits were controlled by additive gene action as confirmed by average degree of dominance (ÖH1/D

1271-1283 Download
32
CADMIUM STRESS STIMULATES NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY WHEAT ROOTS
TARIQ MAHMOOD1,2,*, KAPUGANTI J. GUPTA1,3, WERNER M. KAISER1

CADMIUM STRESS STIMULATES NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY WHEAT ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Study was conducted to elucidate the nitrite-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production by wheat roots grown in hydroponics under cadmium (Cd) stress. In a long-term Cd exposure experiment, plants were grown for 4 weeks under 1 µM Cd. The root Cd concentration in the Cd-stressed plants was 2.5 mM compared to 0.1 mM in the untreated plants. Most of the Cd taken up by plants was restricted to roots where its concentration was 9 times higher than that in shoots. Despite the high Cd concentration in roots and shoots, the plant growth was not affected. However, Cd stress caused a 1.7-fold decrease in the root respiration, whereas it produced a 2.4-fold increase in NO emission (detected by gas phase chemiluminescence). In a short-term Cd exposure experiment, freshly harvested Cd-free roots were exposed to 10 µM Cd for 3 h. Here also, the root respiration decreased by 42% and NO production increased by 73%, thus confirming the stimulatory effect of Cd stress on NO production by wheat roots.

1285-1290 Download
33
DOES EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE AS A PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT IMPROVE GROWTH AND REGULATE SOME KEY PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT PLANTS GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS?
TAHIR MAHMOOD, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF* AND MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ

DOES EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE AS A PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT IMPROVE GROWTH AND REGULATE SOME KEY PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT PLANTS GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS?
ABSTRACT:
The ameliorative effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with glycinebetaine (GB) on growth attributes, gas exchange characteristics, and root and shoot mineral nutrients of wheat was observed under water deficit conditions. Five wheat cultivars viz., SARC-I, Inqlab-91, MH-97, Bhakkar and S-24 were grown under well-watered and 60% field capacity. Three levels of GB (0, 50 and 100 mM) were applied as pre-sowing seed treatment. Drought stress caused reduction in shoot fresh and dry biomass, shoot length, leaf area per plant, grain yield, net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates, and stomatal conditions. However, exogenous application of GB as a pre-sowing seed treatment increased shoot fresh biomass and leaf area per plant while its effect was non-significant on net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency, and shoot and root N, K+, Ca2+ and P. Overall, GB applied @ 50 mM showed the maximum effect in ameliorating growth of wheat plants under drought stress. Cultivars SARC-I, Inqlab-91 and S-24 were better as compared to others in their response to drought or GB application.

1291-1302 Download
34
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES
AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1,2*, G.S. MARKHAND1, A.R. MAHAR1, SAEED AKHTER ABRO3 AND NISAR AHMED KANHAR

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were carried out to study the effect of different water stresses applied at different crop development stages on the yield and yield components of 25 wheat varieties. In a complete randomized block design, replicated 4 times, the 5 water stress treatments i.e. T1 (control), T2 (post flowering drought), T3 (Pre-flowering drought), T4 (Tillering stage drought) and T5 (terminal drought) were applied. Water stress significantly reduced the plant height, spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and 1000grain weight of all 25 wheat varieties. The highest reduction in all parameters was found in T5, while T2 and T3 affected the 1000 grain weight significantly. The varieties Sarsabz and Kiran-95 showed significantly good performance than other wheat varieties in control as well as at terminal drought stress.

1303-1310 Download
35
INDUCING SALT TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE AND PROLINE: RESPONSE AT THE INITIAL GROWTH STAGES
HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR1,2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, ABDUL WAHID2 AND AMER JAMIL3

INDUCING SALT TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GLYCINEBETAINE AND PROLINE: RESPONSE AT THE INITIAL GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess whether exogenous application of glycinebetaine and proline could induce salt tolerance in canola, two canola cultivars Dunkled (salt tolerant) and Cyclone (salt sensitive) were allowed to germinate and grow at 0, and 120 mM NaCl for two weeks. Varying concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5

1311-1319 Download
36
NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF INDIGENOUS CULTIVAR OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ITS FIXED AND ESSENTIAL OIL
MUHAMMAD TAUSEEF SULTAN1*, MASOOD SADIQ BUTT1, FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM1, AMER JAMIL2, SAEED AKHTAR3 AND MUHAMMAD NASIR1

NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF INDIGENOUS CULTIVAR OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ITS FIXED AND ESSENTIAL OIL
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants gained momentous support in the recent era for their therapeutic potential. The core objective of the research study was to characterize the indigenous variety of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), locally known as “Kalonji” and its fixed and essential oils. Compositional analysis revealed that it contains appreciable quantities of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Moreover, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium were predominant minerals, whilst considerable quantities of sodium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper were also present. Characterization of fixed oil enumerated that polyunsaturated fatty acids were the dominating fraction i.e., 60.17±1.53% as compared to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids i.e.

1321-1330 Download
37
STUDY ON AGROMORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN GERMPLASAM OF LASIURUS SCINDICUS FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1*, IBRAR HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2, SAJIDA NOUREEN3 AND MUHAMMAD MUKHTAR4

STUDY ON AGROMORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN GERMPLASAM OF LASIURUS SCINDICUS FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Agro-morphological variations in 11 accessions of Lasiurus scindicus collected from different areas of the Cholistan desert in 2004-2005 were evaluated. The most widely varied variables were number of fertile branches per plant, number of tillers per plant and height of the plant. Considerable range of variation was recorded in number of leaves on main tiller, flag leaf area, length of inflorescence and 4th node leaf area of main tiller, whereas very low variation was noted in number of internodes on main tiller and length of internode covered by leaf sheath at the 4th node of main tiller. The accessions DG1/6 collected from Din Garh Fort area, SWT1/2 collected from Sullah Wala Toba, DR1/2 collected from Derawar Fort area, BLT1/2 collected from Bailah Wala Tibba, KWT1/2 collected from Khokhran Wala Toba and CHP1/1 collected from Channanpir area appeared as the best genotypes based on their agro-morphological variation detected in this study.

1331-1337 Download
38
IS BORON REQUIRED TO IMPROVE RICE GROWTH AND YIELD IN SALINE ENVIRONMENT?
EHSAN-UL-HAQ MEHMOOD1*, RIZWANA KAUSAR2, MUHAMMAD AKRAM1 AND SHER MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD2

IS BORON REQUIRED TO IMPROVE RICE GROWTH AND YIELD IN SALINE ENVIRONMENT?
ABSTRACT:
The nutritional functions of boron were investigated in improving rice growth and yield, both in solution and soil culture environments. Three rice cultivars [viz., KS-282 (salt-tolerant), BG-402-4 (mixed behavior) and IR-28 (salt-sensitive)] of differential salinity tolerant were used to investigate the ameliorative nutritional aspects of boron. Boron was applied @ 25, 50

1339-1350 Download
39
YIELD RESPONSE OF FINE RICE TO NP FERTILIZER AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
EHSAN ULLAH*, ATIQUE-UR-REHMAN, QAISAR ARSHAD AND S. SHAMSHAD HUSSAIN SHAH

YIELD RESPONSE OF FINE RICE TO NP FERTILIZER AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
ABSTRACT:
Investigations were conducted to examine the effect of plant nutrition and weed management practices on weed biomass, yield contributing parameters and grain yield of fine rice cultivar Basmati-2000. The crop was treated with N and P @ 100 and 80 kg ha-1; half of it; and no fertilizer. Weed controlling practices included different weedicides; hoeing at 30 and 45 days after transplanting in addition to weedy check. Weed biomass (fresh and dry) with and without fertilizer was significantly decreased by hoeing the crop 30 and 45 days after transplanting as compared to other weed control measures. The grain yield increased significantly with N and P (100 and 80 kg ha-1) and by controlling the weeds through interculture twice at 30 and 45 days after transplanting. The increase in grain yield was due to increase in number of total tillers m-2.

1351-1357 Download
40
NUTRITIONAL LEVELS OF INDIGOFERA GERARDIANA WALL AND CRATAEGUS SONGRICA K. KOCH
MUHAMMAD NISAR1*, SHAFIQ AHMAD TARIQ2 AND IHSANULLAH3

NUTRITIONAL LEVELS OF INDIGOFERA GERARDIANA WALL AND CRATAEGUS SONGRICA K. KOCH
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, various physio-chemical parameters i.e. moisture, ash, fiber, protein, fats, oils and carbohydrates were determined in the whole plants samples of Indigofera gerardiana and berries of Crataegus songrica. The percent levels of moisture (4.8), ash (4.79) and fats (3.03) were higher in Crateagus songrica compared to the levels of moisture (3.06), ash (4.23) and fats (2.37) in Indigofera gerardiana. The % levels of protein (3.7) and fibers (17.8) were same in both plants while the level of carbohydrate (68.84) was higher in Indigofera gerardiana as compared to the levels of carbohydrate (65.88) in Crataegus songrica.

1359-1361 Download
41
PHOTOSYNTHATE PARTITIONING IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AS AFFECTED BY ROOT-ZONE SALINITY AND FORM OF N
ASMA LODHI1*, MUZAFFAR HUSSAIN SAJJAD1, ANSAR MAHMOOD1, SHERMEEN TAHIR1 AND FAROOQ-E-AZAM2

PHOTOSYNTHATE PARTITIONING IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AS AFFECTED BY ROOT-ZONE SALINITY AND FORM OF N
ABSTRACT:
Carbon-14 pulse labeling technique was used to study the effect of rooting medium salinity and form and availability of N on growth and rhizodeposition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Of the applied 14C pulse, 83% was determined in plants, while 89% and 11% was determined in the shoot and root portions, respectively. Salinity showed a depressing effect on different plant parameters particularly on roots. However, NO3--fed plants showed better growth than NH4+-fed plants at all the three salinity levels. Presence of NaCl in the rooting medium led to a decrease in the water content of both root and shoot portions. The proportion of assimilated 14C released into the rooting medium as rhizodeposits varied between 1.5 and 3.2%, while 8-13% was unaccounted for and assumed to be respired. Rooting medium salinity led to higher rhizodeposition and lower loss of 14C. Relatively higher proportion of 14C was released as rhizodeposits and retained in root and shoot portions of plants fed with NH4+ or NH4++ NO3- than those with NO3- while less was respired. The specific activity of the rhizodeposits was also higher under saline conditions. The rhizodeposits in NH4+-fed plants were more highly labeled as compared to NO3--fed plants.

1363-1372 Download
42
DEMONSTRATION OF GROWTH IMPROVEMENT IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY THE USE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
RAFIQ AHMAD1 AND NUSRAT JABEEN2

DEMONSTRATION OF GROWTH IMPROVEMENT IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY THE USE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiment was performed with an objective to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers viz., vermicompost and biogas slurry on various parameters of vegetative and reproductive growth of sunflower irrigated with different concentration of sea salt. Application of only biogas slurry or vermicompost enhanced the vegetative and reproductive yield of sunflower but the highest yield was recorded in combined treatment of the both. Hence this study revealed that application of biogas slurry and vermicompost could be undertaken to replace chemical fertilizers in organic farming for cultivation of sunflower.

1373-1384 Download
43
EFFECTS OF SILICON LEVELS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT IN SILTY LOAM SOIL
SAEED A. ABRO1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI 2, FATEH M. SOOMRO3, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR4, AND G.S. JAKHAR5

EFFECTS OF SILICON LEVELS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT IN SILTY LOAM SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Silicon is the abundant mineral in soil, present exclusively in the form of silicic acid (H4SiO4). It is absorbed by plants in the form of silicic acid. The different levels of silicic acid were tested in a pot experiment to assess their effects on improvement of growth and yield in wheat. In a complete randomized block design the seeds of three varieties viz., Mehran, Abadgar and Kiran-95 were sown in pots filled with 2 kg of silty loam soil. The silicic acid was added to soil in a concentration of no silicic acid (T1), 0.25% silicic acid (T2), 0.50% silicic acid (T3) and 0.75% silicic acid (T4). The silicic acid concentrations affected crop positively as well as negatively as all the varieties produced highest plant growth and yield at 0.25% and 0.50% silicic acid application while the lowest plant growth and yield was found under 0.75% silicic acid. The highest plant growth and yield was observed in Abadgar followed by Mehran wheat variety.

1385-1390 Download
44
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) USING TREATED WASTEWATER FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
MOAZZAM A. KHAN, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT AND M. ALTAF KHAN

GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) USING TREATED WASTEWATER FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of treated wastewater and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents of sunflower was examined. Fresh water with basal fertilizer and treated wastewater significantly increased plant height compared to controls (fresh water) at vegetative stage. Leaf area was significantly increased over the controls by both basal fertilizer and the treated wastewater. Moisture content of leaves and the chlorophyll a and b contents remained unchanged by the treatments. The capitulum diameter, number of seeds/plant, total seed weight/plant as well as 100 seed weight were substantially increased by the treated wastewater. Irrigation with wastewater significantly increased the concentrations of Na, Ca and Mg in sunflower leaves. The level of micronutrient Mn was also elevated in roots. Nutrient levels in other plant parts remained unchanged.

1391-1399 Download
45
EFFECT OF DICYANDIAMIDE ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN THE RHIZOSPHERE AND BULK SOILS UNDER COTTON
REHMAT ALI1, JAVED IQBAL2, UM-E-ROBAB1 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD1*

EFFECT OF DICYANDIAMIDE ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN THE RHIZOSPHERE AND BULK SOILS UNDER COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to elucidate the effects of dicyandiamide (DCD, a nitrification inhibitor) on microbial activity in the root-zone and bulk soils under cotton fertilized with two levels (60 and 120 mg kg–1) of urea-N. Dicyandiamide applied @ 15–30 mg kg–1 effectively inhibited nitrification at relatively high soil temperatures (19.5–33°C) prevailing during the four-week experiment period by the end of which 25–46% of the mineral N was found in NH4+ form in DCD-treated pots. Application of DCD caused a minor leaf tip necrosis but without negative effects on the biomass and N yields. Averaged across treatments, microbial activity (aerobic and anaerobic soil respiration, denitrification potential, microbial biomass carrying capacity and dehydrogenase activity) was highest in the root-zone soil followed by planted-bulk and unplanted soils. Averaged across soil types, microbial activity parameters generally showed higher values in the DCD-treated soil. The stimulatory effect of DCD was more pronounced at lower N application rate, and was consistently observed in the root-zone, planted bulk and unplanted soils. At higher N application rate, however, DCD had no effect on the microbial activity of the unplanted soil. Results suggested that relatively high concentrations of DCD required to inhibit nitrification under warm climates may not be phytotoxic but may have significant implications in soil microbial processes.

1401-1409 Download
46
PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF CELLULOSE-DEGRADING ENZYMES FROM A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
SIBTAIN AHMED, AMMARA BASHIR, HUMA SALEEM, MUBSHARA SAADIA AND AMER JAMIL*

PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF CELLULOSE-DEGRADING ENZYMES FROM A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
ABSTRACT:
The major components of plant cell walls are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, with cellulose being the most abundant component. Cellulose degrading-enzymes provide a key opportunity for achieving tremendous benefits of biomass utilization. Trichoderma harzianum, a filamentous fungus, produces cellulose degrading enzymes and has been exploited by the industry. In this study, three cellulases, exoglucanase (EXG), endoglucanase (EG) and b-glucosidase (BGL) were partially purified from T. harzianum. The optimal pH, temperature and incubation time for cellulases production was found to be 5.5

1411-1419 Download
47
AIRBORNE FUNGAL FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
TOQEER AHMED RAO, ABDUL HAKEEM SHAIKH AND MOINUDDIN AHMED

AIRBORNE FUNGAL FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Investigations in the airborne mycoflora of Karachi was carried out using Spore Trapper technique along with culture media Petri plate technique. In order to collect different types of airborne fungal spores, five sites were selected for installing the spore trappers. In the course of collected spores, different types of fungal spores were identified. The study revealed that the fungal spores were the major components of the air micro flora of the environment of Karachi. These microorganisms were present throughout the year with different mean values in different seasons. Normally fungi were recorded more in summer than in winter season. During the study, different types of spores viz., Alternaria solani, Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. wentii, Curvularia clavata, Drechslera dematioidea and Penicillium notatum were found from five selected sites. These fungi are the major spora of the atmospheric air of Karachi in all seasons.

1421-1428 Download
48
A REPORT OF THERMOMYCES LANUGINOSUS TSIKLINSKY ON HUMANS FROM PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS*, MUBASHIR NIAZ*, ARIF MAAN**, JAVED IQBAL**, MUHAMMAD WAQAS*, HUSSAIN AHMED*, ASIFA LIAQAT* AND SIDRA*

A REPORT OF THERMOMYCES LANUGINOSUS TSIKLINSKY ON HUMANS FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thermomyces lanuginosus Tsiklinsky is for the first time reported on two female patients from

1429-1432 Download
49
HOSTS OF BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA, THE MAJOR PATHOGEN OF SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ANJUM MUNIR, AMIR SULTAN AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD*

HOSTS OF BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA, THE MAJOR PATHOGEN OF SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus) is the causal agent of common root rot, leaf spot and seedling blight, head blight of wheat and barley and black point of grains. It causes significant yield losses in South Asian countries and considered as a serious foliar disease constraints in warmer growing areas. Numerous plant species other than wheat and barley are identified as the host of B. sorokiniana world wide. Fifteen crops including Arachis hypogea, Avena sativa, Brassica compestris, Cicer arientenum, Glycine max, Halianthus annus,Hordeum vulgare, Lens culinaris,Oryza sativa, Pennisetum amaricanum,Sesamum indicum, Sorghum bicolor, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, and Zea mays which are grown in different agro-ecological zones of wheat production were tested against local isolate of B. sorokiniana by In vitro technique. Eleven crops viz., Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Brassica compestris, Glycine max, Lens culinaris, Vigna radiata, Sesamum indicum, Vigna mungo, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays and Pennisetum amaricanum are found to be the hosts of B. sorokiniana.

1433-1436 Download
50
A NEW FOLIAR FUNGAL PATHOGEN, ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA ISOLATED FROM CHENOPODIUM ALBUM IN PAKISTAN
IFFAT SIDDIQUI*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND ARSHAD JAVAID

A NEW FOLIAR FUNGAL PATHOGEN, ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA ISOLATED FROM CHENOPODIUM ALBUM IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
No Abstract

1437-1438 Download
51
FUNGICIDAL POTENTIAL OF SOME LOCAL TREE SEEDS FOR CONTROLLING ROOT ROT DISEASE
ZAINAB MUSHTAQ AHMED, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND MARIUM TARIQ

FUNGICIDAL POTENTIAL OF SOME LOCAL TREE SEEDS FOR CONTROLLING ROOT ROT DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
Effect of seeds powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., in the control of root rot diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium spp., on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants were examined. The results obtained from screen house application of A. pavonina, L. leucocephala and Eucalyptus spp., @ 0.1 and 1% w/w showed significant control of root rot fungi viz., M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., and enhanced plant growth in term of shoot length, shoot weight, root length and root weight on mung bean and chick pea. There was complete suppression of Fusarium spp., and R. solani infection on mung bean when soil was amended with seeds powder of A. pavonina @ 1% w/w. Of the four local trees seed powder used, A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp., @ 0.1 and 1% w/w reduced the infection of root infecting fungi followed by L. leucocephala and A. indica.

1439-1444 Download
52
CYTOKININ PRIMING AS A TOOL TO INDUCE IN VITRO GROWTH AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SOME SOIL FUNGI
GHAZALA NASIM1* AND MEMOONA RAHMAN2

CYTOKININ PRIMING AS A TOOL TO INDUCE IN VITRO GROWTH AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SOME SOIL FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Effect of different concentrations of cytokinin on growth of 4 species of soil fungi viz., Aspergillus oryzae, A. terreus, A. niger and Alternaria alternata was studied. The hormone was applied singly in various concentrations. Increased growth rate and biomass production revealed significant values when treated with dilute solutions of cytokinin at 15, 30 and 45 mgL-1. For all test fungi fresh weights and dry weight values dropped significantly when treated with 60 mgL-1 concentration of the hormone solution. The data on fresh and dry biomass revealed that the highest biomass increase was obtained for Alternaria alternata. Fresh biomass of Alternaria alternata showed 39.9% increase when treated with 45 mgL-1 concentration of hormone solution in comparison to control, whereas an increase of 43.75% was obtained in the case of dry weight. At 60 mgL-1, a significant fresh biomass suppression of 17.9% and 17.64% was observed for Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae, respectively. The highest loss for dry biomass was noticed in Alternaria alternata (18.75%).

1445-1452 Download
53
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SALVIA CABULICA
REHANA RASHID1*, FARAH MUKHTAR2 AND MIRZA MOHAMMAD NIAZ2

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SALVIA CABULICA
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, Salvia cabulica an endemic plant of Balochistan, was screened for different biological activities for the first time. For this purpose, 6 crude extracts i.e., petroleum ether (A), dichloromethane (B), ethyl acetate (C), acetone (D), butanol (E) and aqueous (F) (Fig. 1) were obtained from 80% ethanolic extract of the dry plant of Salvia cabulica and screened for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Extracts B, D and E showed low antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However extracts A, E and F showed moderate antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusis and Microsporum canis, while extract B showed significant phytotoxicity and insecticidal activities.

1453-1462 Download
54
RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF WHEAT GERMPLASM (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AGAINST STRIPE RUST DISEASE UNDER RAINFED CLIMATE OF PAKISTAN
SYED NADEEM AFZAL1,. I. HAQUE*1, M.S. AHMEDANI2, M. MUNIR3, SYEDA SADIQA FIRDOUS4, ABDUL RAUF1, I. AHMAD5, A. R. RATTU5 AND M. FAYYAZ5

RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF WHEAT GERMPLASM (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AGAINST STRIPE RUST DISEASE UNDER RAINFED CLIMATE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Enduring resistance based on partial resistance is very noteworthy and successful way to combat against the stripe rust dilemma (Puccinia striiformis West. tritici) in wheat crop. For this purpose, field-based screening to evaluate partial resistance is very important for the plant breeders of developing countries, who usually handle hundreds of lines at a time. A two years study was conducted during 2005-2007 to determine variability for field based-partial resistance against stripe rust among 188 wheat breeding lines grown at the experimental area of the PMAS - Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, along with Morocco as susceptible check. The wheat lines and commercial varieties were tested in the field under natural climatic conditions of arid zone of Pakistan. Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI) and Relative Resistance Index (RRI) values of two-year trial showed that out of 188 cultivars

1463-1475 Download
55
AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF POTATO USING PLRV-REP. AND PVY CP GENES AND ASSESSMENT OF REPLICASE MEDIATED RESISTANCE AGAINST NATURAL INFECTION OF PLRV
M. ARIF1, P. E. THOMAS2, J. M CROSSLIN2 AND C. R. BROWN3

AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF POTATO USING PLRV-REP. AND PVY CP GENES AND ASSESSMENT OF REPLICASE MEDIATED RESISTANCE AGAINST NATURAL INFECTION OF PLRV
ABSTRACT:
Replicase-and coat protein gene-mediated resistances against potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, demonstrated to be an effective way of protecting potato against two major virus problems (PLRV & PVY) world-wide. Potato cultivar Desiree was transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens with LBA4404pBinplusPLRV-replicase construct. A total of 25 lines were generated from kanamycin-resistant calli. Shoots were excised and placed onto shoot medium containing 250mg/L cefotaxime and 50mg/L kanamycin sulfate in tissue culture tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted from shoot samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was done using specific primers. A total of 116 plants of 25 lines were tested and most of the plants were positive showing a band of 449bp specific to PLRV-replicase gene insert. The plants showing maximum PCR reaction were selected. Potato cultivar Desiree and Norkotah Russet were also transformed using two constructs containing a coat protein gene of PVY (RC4pBinPAubi3P and RC435S). The efficiency of transformation of Desiree with RC435S was high but only a few lines of Norkotah Russet were generated with RC4pBinPAubi3P construct. A total of 13 lines of Desiree were generated from kanamycin resistant calli using RC435S PVY CP construct. On the basis of PCR analysis of 42 putative transformants

1477-1488 Download
56
MUTAGENESIS OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS THROUGH ETHYL METHANESULFONATE FOR ALPHA AMYLASE PRODUCTION
IKRAM-UL-HAQ, S. ALI, A. SALEEM AND M.M. JAVED

MUTAGENESIS OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS THROUGH ETHYL METHANESULFONATE FOR ALPHA AMYLASE PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the improvement of Bacillus licheniformis strain GCB-30UCM for alpha amylase production in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. Chemical mutation using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS 50-300 µ/ml) was undertaken for 10-60 min. Twenty eight isolates were selected on the basis of clear zones of starch hydrolysis. Only one isolate designated as B. licheniformis EMS-20040 gave 102.78±2.01 U/ml/min enzyme activity. The enzyme production was found to be maximal when fermentation medium containing (g/l) lactose 10.0, bactopeptone 14.0, yeast extract 6.0, KCl 1.0, CaCl2 0.25, MgCl2 0.2, MnSO4 0.001, FeSO4 0.0005, pH 6.5 was incubated at 37oC for 72 h. The volume of medium (50 ml) and size of inoculum (4.0 %) were also optimized. The optimal enzyme activity was determined as a function of buffer pH (7.0) and temperature (60ºC).

1489-1498 Download
57
PRODUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOUNDS BY FREE AND IMMOBILIZED BACILLUS PUMILUS SAF1
FARIHA HASAN, SAMIULLAH KHAN, AAMER ALI SHAH* AND ABDUL HAMEED

PRODUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOUNDS BY FREE AND IMMOBILIZED BACILLUS PUMILUS SAF1
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, Bacillus pumilus SAF1, capable of producing antimicrobial compounds, was indigenously isolated from soil. Antimicrobial substances were found to be produced by Bacillus pumilus SAF1 against Micrococcus luteus (ATCC # 10240) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC # 6538) used as test organisms. Maximum production of antimicrobial compounds by Bacillus pumilus SAF1, was observed at pH 7, 3% glucose and after 48 hours of incubation at 30oC, on the basis of zones of inhibition against Micrococcus luteus (ATCC # 10240) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC # 6538). Whole cells of Bacillus pumilus SAF1 were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel, sodium alginate and agar-agar, and checked for antibiotic production by Agar Diffusion Assay, against Micrococcus luteus (ATCC # 10240) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC # 6538), and various parameters [pH (6-9), incubation period (0-72 hours) and glucose concentration (1-5%)] were optimized for maximum production of antibiotics. Maximum activity in the form of zone of inhibition (32mm) was observed at pH 7, 3% glucose, and after 72 hours of incubation in polyacrylamide gel. As a whole, the antimicrobial activity was higher in sodium alginate and agar-agar as compared to free cells fermentation. As the activity of antibiotic production increased in case of immobilized cells, so it can be concluded that in the present study, immobilization proved to be a better process, as compared to production of antibiotic from free cell.

1499-1510 Download
58
VARIETAL CHANGES IN NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT KERNEL (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CAUSED BY KHAPRA BEETLE INFESTATION
MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AHMEDANI1, M.I. HAQUE*2, SYED NADEEM AFZAL2, M. ASLAM1 AND S. NAZ3

VARIETAL CHANGES IN NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT KERNEL (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CAUSED BY KHAPRA BEETLE INFESTATION
ABSTRACT:
Wheat and other stored products are vulnerable to attack of Khapra beetle, which deteriorates quality of the infested commodities, depletes nutrition value and makes them unfit for human consumption. The present investigations revealed radical changes in nutritional composition of the grains of different wheat varieties when subjected to artificial infestation with 10 pairs of Trogoderma granarium larvae for six months. Maximum changes in protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and ash contents were observed in wheat variety BWP-97, whereas minimum changes were recorded in case of Wafaq-2001. Although protein, fat, fiber and ash contents increased with the increase in infestation level, yet the increase was just a percent increase due to depletion of carbohydrate and loss in total weight. Factually these variables decreased with the increase in infestation level.

1511-1519 Download
59
LEVELS OF TOTAL AMINO ACIDS, SOLUBLE PROTEINS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN FORAGES IN RELATION TO REQUIREMENTS OF RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE SALT RANGE (PUNJAB), PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*

LEVELS OF TOTAL AMINO ACIDS, SOLUBLE PROTEINS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN FORAGES IN RELATION TO REQUIREMENTS OF RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE SALT RANGE (PUNJAB), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Soone Valley (Salt Range) Punjab, Pakistan is a rich habitat of a large number of plant and animal species. Various leguminous and non-leguminous species are indigenous to this Valley which are grazed by a large number of ruminants. Levels of total amino acids, soluble proteins and phenolic compounds were appraised in pods and leaves in the leguminous plant species therein, because metabolites are important constituents of nutrition for ruminants, The data obtained after analysis showed that amino acids and soluble proteins varied from 37.18 to 50.87 and 22.27 to 35.47 mg g–1 fresh weight in leaves respectively whereas in pods they ranged from 50.22 to 53.98and 30.67 to 35.48 mg g–1 fresh weight respectively in all species studied. Phenolic compounds ranged from 0.15 to 0.48 mg g–1 dry weight in leaves while they varied from 0.11 to 0.32 mg g–1 dry weight in pods, respectively, in all species under investigation in all pastures. Based on observations recorded for all the attributes, it was concluded that the forage plant species were palatable because all species, contained sufficient amount of amino acids and proteins. Furthermore, the effects of high levels of phenolic found in the leguminous species of the range need to be investigated on the grazing livestock therein particularly in relation to the toxicosis of these compounds on animals.

1521-1526 Download
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