Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 21/01/2019 Uploaded: 26/06/2018
Uploaded: 29/05/2018

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 1
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXV. BERBERIDACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER1

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXV. BERBERIDACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 12 species representing 2 genera of the family Berberidaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar or apolar, spheroidal or sub-prolate.Spiroaperturate rarely colpate (3-more), sexine thicker than nexine. Tectal surface mostly foveolate-fossulate or sub-psilate, often rugulate - reticulate. On the basis of apertutal types and exine ornamentation four distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Berberis calliobotrys-type, Berberis jaeschkeana-type, Berberis kunawurensis-type and Epimedium elatum-type.

1-6 Download
2
STUDIES ON THE ABNORMALITY OF EMBRYO SAC AND POLLEN FERTILITY IN AUTOTETRAPLOID RICE DURING DIFFERENT GROWING SEASONS
MUHAMMAD QASIM SHAHID1, SUN JIANFAN1, WEI CHANGMIN1, ZHANG PENG1 AND LIU XIANG-DONG1*

STUDIES ON THE ABNORMALITY OF EMBRYO SAC AND POLLEN FERTILITY IN AUTOTETRAPLOID RICE DURING DIFFERENT GROWING SEASONS
ABSTRACT:
Autotetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in autotetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and autotetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in autotetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 autotetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in autotetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in autotetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of autotetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the autotetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes.

7-19 Download
3
STUDIES ON FLORAL BIOLOGY OF PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA SPP.)
KUNDAN KISHORE1*, K.A. PATHAK2, ROHIT SHUKLA3 AND RINKU BHARALI4

STUDIES ON FLORAL BIOLOGY OF PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA SPP.)
ABSTRACT:
Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4

21-29 Download
4
MEDICINAL PLANTS OF USHERAI VALLEY, DIR, NWFP, PAKISTAN
ALI HAZRAT*, JEHANDAR SHAH, SHUJAAT AHMAD, MOHAMMAD NISAR, ABDUL KHALIQ JAN AND SIKANDAR

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF USHERAI VALLEY, DIR, NWFP, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley.

31-34 Download
5
CONSERVATION STATUS OF CADABA HETEROTRICHA STOCKS (CAPPARACEAE): AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN PAKISTAN
HAIDER ABBAS1*, MUHAMMAD QAISER2 AND JAN ALAM3

CONSERVATION STATUS OF CADABA HETEROTRICHA STOCKS (CAPPARACEAE): AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The conservation status of Cadaba heterotricha Stocks in Pakistan was determined according to IUCN 2001, Red Data List Categories and Criteria. Based on four years extensive field studies including population size, geographic range and habitat. Cadaba heterotricha is classified as Endangered (EN) species in Pakistan.

35-46 Download
6
MICROMORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF FAGOPYRUM MILL., AND RUMEX L. OF POLYGONACEAE
GHAZALAH YASMIN*, MIR AJAB KHAN, NIGHAT SHAHEEN AND MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF FAGOPYRUM MILL., AND RUMEX L. OF POLYGONACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Leaf epidermal studies have been carried out on eleven species belonging to Fagopyrum Mill., and Rumex L. of the family Polygonaceae. Comprehensive micromorphological studies of Fagopyrum Mill., and Rumex L. species have been made for the first time. The use of light microscopy has made possible in depth to study leaf surface features such as shape of epidermal cells, stomatal pattern, their distribution on adaxial and abaxial leaf surface and trichome types. Epidermal cell shapes are variable but generally polygonal. Five different stomatal patterns are reported for Polygonaceae. Variation among glandular and non glandular trichomes is also noted. Crystalliferous cells are recorded for the first time in Rumex nepalensis Spreng. This anatomical study has taxonomic importance, on the basis of which identification keys are prepared

47-57 Download
7
MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF CENTAUREA CALCITRAPA L. SSP. CILICICA (BOISS. & BAL.) WAGENITZ AND CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS L. SSP. CARNEOLA (BOISS.) WAGENITZ ENDEMIC FOR TURKEY
ZAFER KAYA1, NERMİN ORCAN2, RIZA BİNZET3*

MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF CENTAUREA CALCITRAPA L. SSP. CILICICA (BOISS. & BAL.) WAGENITZ AND CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS L. SSP. CARNEOLA (BOISS.) WAGENITZ ENDEMIC FOR TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, morphological, anatomical and palynological properties of Centaurea calcitrapa L. ssp. cilicica (Boiss. & Bal.) Wagenitz and C. solstitialis L. ssp. carneola (Boiss.) Wagenitz which are endemic for Turkey were investigated. In the morphological studies, the properties of these endemic subspecies were determined and measurements made on the materials and compared with floristic-systematical references. The morphology of capitula, involucra, involucral leaves (phyllaries) and achene have been investigated. In the anatomical studies; the transverse sections were taken from the root, stem, phyllaries and leaves of the subspecies. In the palynological researches Polar diameter, equatorial length and apertures were measured in detailed. Microphotographs of pollen and anatomical structures are also presented.

59-69 Download
8
GENETIC DIVERSITY STUDIES AMONG COLOURED COTTON GENOTYPES BY USING RAPD MARKERS
AZEEM IQBAL KHAN*, FAISAL SAEED AWAN, BUSHRA SADIA, RASHID MEHMOOD RANA AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN

GENETIC DIVERSITY STUDIES AMONG COLOURED COTTON GENOTYPES BY USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Estimation of genetic diversity and the relationship between varieties are valuable sources of cotton breeding. Present study employed 11 colored cottons (10 genotypes belonging to Gossypium hirsutum and one to Gossypium arboreum) and five white-linted genotypes (4 of these belonging to Gossypium hirsutum and one to Gossypium arboreum) collected from different research stations of Pakistan for genetic diversity assessment via RAPDs. Out of 45 decamer randomly sequenced primers applied for RAPD analysis

71-77 Download
9
A MOLECULAR STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO) PLANTATION OF NWFP, PAKISTAN
*MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ, RABIA RIASAT AND SOBIA TABASSUM*

A MOLECULAR STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO) PLANTATION OF NWFP, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity of 22 accessions of Dalbergia sissoo that were collected from the canal, road and farmer’s field and forest sites of N.W.F.P, Pakistan has been studied, by using a finger printing technique “RAPD” (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA). Out of 20 primers OPA-2 was the primer that allows distinguishing the diseased and healthy accessions. The selected primer was used for identification and for establishing a profiling system to estimate genetic relationships and to evaluate the genetic variability among the accessions. A total of 126 DNA bands or fragments were amplified by using the primers. The UPGMA cluster analysis revealed 2 main clusters among 22 accessions of Dalbergia sissoo based on coefficient of similarity and dissimilarity. Overall 72% similarity and 98% dissimilarity were observed. Low level of genetic variation and high level of genetic relatedness occurred among the canal, road, farmer’s field and forest sites. The accessions were closely related with each other and showed mix pattern of genetic diversity. Thus RAPD markers have the potential to characterize and establish genetic relationships among the accessions of Dalbergia sissoo.

79-88 Download
10
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS FROM BALOCHISTAN PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
ASIF ALI KHAN*, AHSAN IQBAL, FAISAL SAEED AWAN AND IFTIKHAR A. KHAN

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS FROM BALOCHISTAN PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Productivity of wheat varieties being bred for the last many years is stagnant in Pakistan, apparently because of the narrowed genetic base of their parental lines. As a part of the national wheat germplasm characterization programme, we examined genetic diversity among 75 accessions of wheat using RAPD markers and assessed the relationship and genetic distance between them. The accessions surveyed were comprised of landrace populations of Triticum aestivum L., collected from various districts of the Balochistan province of Pakistan, which is considered a reservoir of genetic diversity, particularly for wheat. The genetic similarity revealed by RAPD markers among the wheat accessions was medium to high. The accessions collected from Sibi and Pishin districts had the greatest similarity. The polymorphism revealed in the wheat accessions, appeared to be distributed with the location of collections. The high degree of similarity even among the presumably landrace material emphasises the need for the expansion of germpalsm resources and development of wheat varieties with diverse genetic background, which could substantiate the wheat breeding programmes to increase its productivity.

89-96 Download
11
MORPHOMETRIC AND GENETIC VARIATION IN PUERARIA MIRIFICA CULTIVARS ACROSS THAILAND
TRIN SUWANVIJITR1, JIRATTIKARN KAEWMUANGMOON1, WICHAI CHERDSHEWASART2 AND CHANPEN CHANCHAO2*

MORPHOMETRIC AND GENETIC VARIATION IN PUERARIA MIRIFICA CULTIVARS ACROSS THAILAND
ABSTRACT:
Pueraria mirifica is a leguminous herbal plant whose tuberous roots are used in estrogen replacement. Leaves were collected for 39 locations across Thailand with seed pods and flowers also collected when available from a subset of 14 and 11 of these locations respectively. Morphometric analysis revealed a low level of variation between cultivars. Linear regression analysis suggested that leaves trended to decrease in size from the West to the East whilst pods trended to increase in size from the South to the North and also the West to the East. Genetic analysis was conducted by direct sequencing of one nuclear (rDNA ITS region) and one chloroplast (trnLF) region, and also by random genome analysis by RAPD-PCR using five primers. All chloroplast sequences obtained revealed a low level of variation between isolates although the rDNA ITS sequences displayed a divergence of up to 25.2 %. All of 93 bands generated by the five RAPD primers were polymorphic. The average genetic distance varied from 0 to 42. NJ based phylogenies derived from ITS and RAPD data revealed poor resolution. In summary, both analyses indicate low variation amongst cultivars.

97-109 Download
12
HERITABILITY STUDIES OF YIELD AND YIELD ASSOCIATED TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT
KHALIL AHMED LAGHARI*, MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, M. AFZAL ARAIN, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1, A. J. PIRZADA2, M.U. DAHOT3

HERITABILITY STUDIES OF YIELD AND YIELD ASSOCIATED TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
AND S.M. MANGRIO2

111-115 Download
13
AFLP ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN POPULUS CATHAYANA REHD ORIGINATING FROM SOUTHEASTERN QINGHAI-TIBETAN PLATEAU OF CHINA
KE CHEN1 AND YOUHONG PENG2*

AFLP ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN POPULUS CATHAYANA REHD ORIGINATING FROM SOUTHEASTERN QINGHAI-TIBETAN PLATEAU OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The wide geographical and climatic distribution of Populus cathayana Rehd indicates that there is a large amount of genetic diversity available, which can be exploited for conservation, breeding programs and afforestation schemes. In our study, genetic diversity was evaluated in the natural populations of P. cathayana originating from southern and eastern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China by means of AFLP markers. For four primer combinations, a total of 175 bands were obtained of which 173 (98.9%) were polymorphic. Six natural populations of P. cathayana possessed different levels of genetic diversity, high level of genetic differentiation existed among the populations (GST=0.489) of P. cathayana. Individuals cluster and PCO analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient also showed evident population genetic structure with high level of population genetic differentiation. The long evolutionary process coupled with genetic drift within populations, rather than contemporary gene flow, are the major forces shaping genetic structure of P. cathayana populations. Moreover, there was no correspondence between geographical and genetic distances in the populations of P. cathayana, seldom gene exchange among the populations and different selection pressures may be the causes. Our findings of different levels of genetic diversity within populations and high level of genetic differentiation among the populations provided promising condition for further breeding and conservation programs.

117-127 Download
14
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON UPTAKE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN SUNFLOWER AT EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI, SAFDAR ALI KAYANI AND AZHAR HANIF

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON UPTAKE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN SUNFLOWER AT EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE
ABSTRACT:
A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of 4 different levels of salinity (EC = 1.19, 9.54

129-139 Download
15
SCREENING FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS AT AN EARLY SEEDLING STAGE
MUHAMMAD AKRAM3*, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2*, RASHID AHMAD1, EJAZ AHMED WARAICH1, JAVED IQBAL4 AND MUHAMMAD MOHSAN5

SCREENING FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS AT AN EARLY SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
An efficient and simple mass screening technique for selection of maize hybrids for salt tolerance has been developed. Genetic variation for salt tolerance was assessed in hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) using solution-culture technique. The study was conducted in solution culture exposed to four salinity levels (control, 40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Seven days old maize seedlings were transplanted in themopol sheet in iron tubs containing ½ strength Hoagland nutrient solutions and salinized with common salt (NaCl). The experiment was conducted in the rain protected wire house of Stress Physiology Laboratory of NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Ten maize hybrids were used for screening against four salinity levels. Seedling of each hybrid was compared for their growth under saline conditions as a percentage of the control values. Considerable variations were observed in the root, shoot length and biomass of different hybrids at different salinity levels. The leaf sample analysed for inorganic osmolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) showed that hybrid Pioneer32B33 and Pioneer30Y87 have high biomass, root shoot fresh weight and high K+/Na+ ratio and showed best salt tolerance performance at all salinity levels on overall basis.

141-154 Download
16
TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) VAR. MONEYMAKER
ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY1, SIDRA ABBAS2, AZRA YASMIN2, HAMID RASHID3*, HABIB AHMED1 AND MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM4

TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) VAR. MONEYMAKER
ABSTRACT:
A protocol was developed for callus induction and regeneration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) var. Moneymaker. Hypocotyl and leaf disc explants of tomato were used as a starting material for callus induction. Explants were cultured on MS medium having different concentrations of hormones. Maximum callogenesis from hypocotyls was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (5 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 65.2% for hypocotyls. For leaf discs maximum callogenesis was achieved on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 81.3% for leaf discs. Calli were cultured on MS medium having concentrations of Zeatin (1 mg/l) and IAA (1 mg/l) for regeneration. They showed maximum regeneration of 69.2% from hypocotyls. Minimum regeneration of 2.8% was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). Tomato shoots were shifted to ½ MS medium containing IBA (0.1 mg/l) and BAP (0.0025 mg/l) for rooting and all responded positively to rooting.

155-163 Download
17
08-03-10
CLIMATE RESPONSE FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF ABIES PINDROW (ROYLE) SPACH. PRELIMINARY RESULTS

08-03-10
ABSTRACT:
MOINUDDIN AHMED, NASRULLAH KHAN AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB

165-171 Download
18
INTERFERENCE OF HORSE PURSLANE (TRIANTHEMA PORTULACASTRUM L.) WITH MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES
MUHAMMAD SAEED, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT*, GUL HASSAN, AZIM KHAN AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN

INTERFERENCE OF HORSE PURSLANE (TRIANTHEMA PORTULACASTRUM L.) WITH MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES
ABSTRACT:
To quantify the impact of horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum) on the yield and yield components of maize, experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan for two crop seasons viz.

173-179 Download
19
EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE TREATMENTS ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LOQUAT FRUIT DURING STORAGE
ATTIQ AKHTAR, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE TREATMENTS ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LOQUAT FRUIT DURING STORAGE
ABSTRACT:
In order to study the effectiveness of Calcium chloride treatments on postharvest quality and storage behavior of “Surkh” cultivar of loquat, fruit was dipped in three concentrations (1%

181-188 Download
20
EXPLORING CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR UNDERDEVELOPED AND SHRIVELLED SEEDS: A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR SPONTANEOUS POLYPLOIDY
B. FATIMA, MUHAMMAD USMAN1, IQRAR A. KHAN, MUHAMMAD SARWAR KHAN2 AND M. MUMTAZ KHAN

EXPLORING CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR UNDERDEVELOPED AND SHRIVELLED SEEDS: A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR SPONTANEOUS POLYPLOIDY
ABSTRACT:
Citrus cultivars were explored for seed development in response to genotype and plant sides. Number of developed, under-developed and shrivelled seeds per berry per cultivar was found different. Kinnow showed the highest number of shrivelled seeds 3.7 per berry compared with Feutrell’s early, Musambi and Succari cultivars that ranged 2.1-2.4 seeds per berry. The interaction of different plant sides i.e., east, west, north and south with seed development and number has shown a significant impact. Sweet orange cultivars showed better root and shoot growth In vitro compared to mandarins.

189-200 Download
21
DORMANCY AND GERMINATION IN SHORT-LIVED LEPIDIUM PERFOLIATUM L. (BRASSICACEAE) SEEDS
AN-JUN TANG 1

DORMANCY AND GERMINATION IN SHORT-LIVED LEPIDIUM PERFOLIATUM L. (BRASSICACEAE) SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
2, 3, MEI-HUA TIAN2, CHUN-LIN LONG 1, 3*

201-211 Download
22
SOYBEAN MOTHER PLANT EXPOSURE TO TEMPERATURE STRESS AND ITS EFFECT ON GERMINATION UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS
SHAD K. KHALIL1

SOYBEAN MOTHER PLANT EXPOSURE TO TEMPERATURE STRESS AND ITS EFFECT ON GERMINATION UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS
ABSTRACT:
2*, JOHN G. MEXAL2, ABDUR REHMAN1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, SAID WAHAB3, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR4, I.H. KHALIL 5 AND FIDA MOHAMMAD5

213-225 Download
23
THE ROLE OF SEED COAT PHENOLICS ON WATER UPTAKE AND EARLY PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DURING GERMINATION OF DIMORPHIC SEEDS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPH
ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

THE ROLE OF SEED COAT PHENOLICS ON WATER UPTAKE AND EARLY PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DURING GERMINATION OF DIMORPHIC SEEDS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPH
ABSTRACT:
Role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis of Halopyrum mucronatum dimorphic seeds during germination were tested. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed seed texture with differential deposition of secondary metabolites in both morphs. Ability of both seed morphs to retain secondary deposition was dependent on exposure to either saline or non-saline conditions. More phenols leached from the brown seed during the initial hours of soaking when compared to black seeds. Water uptake pattern was slightly different in both seed type particularly during initial hours when imbibition in black seeds showed little water uptake while in brown seeds absorption was quick in the first hour under both saline and non saline condition. Change in total protein was somewhat similar in both seeds morphs showing early increase (4 and 8 h), reaching to the maximum (12 h) and decreasing (24 and 48 h) afterward. The results are discussed in relation to seed coat phenolics, water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination.

227-238 Download
24
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS TO DIFFERENT LEAD CONCENTRATIONS
NEELOFER HAMID, NOSHEEN BUKHARI AND FAIZA JAWAID

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS TO DIFFERENT LEAD CONCENTRATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out on the phytotoxicity of lead on some physio-biochemical parameters that is chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and phenolic content of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings were treated with 25, 50 and 100 ppm concentration of lead acetate and a control (without any treatment) and sown in pots. Increasing lead acetate levels lead to several disruptions of Phaseolus vulgaris plants, which are reflected by reductions of protein, chlorophyll, carbohydrate DNA and RNA content. However phenolic content of plants were increasing with increasing levels of heavy metal lead. The effect of lead toxicity was more pronounced at 100 ppm as compared to 25 and 50 ppm lead concentration.

239-246 Download
25
EFFECT OF PRIMING WITH POTASSIUM NITRATE AND DEHUSKING ON SEED GERMINATION OF GLADIOLUS (GLADIOLUS ALATUS)
A. RAMZAN, I.A. HAFIZ*, T. AHMAD AND N.A. ABBASI

EFFECT OF PRIMING WITH POTASSIUM NITRATE AND DEHUSKING ON SEED GERMINATION OF GLADIOLUS (GLADIOLUS ALATUS)
ABSTRACT:
Gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus), belonging to the family Iridaceae is rated as the most popular flower in the world at commercial scale. The effect of different concentrations of KNO3 (1

247-258 Download
26
RELATIONSHIP OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND GRAIN YIELD IN RECOMBINANT INBRED WHEAT LINES GROWN UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS
A. J. KHAN*, F. AZAM AND A. ALI

RELATIONSHIP OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND GRAIN YIELD IN RECOMBINANT INBRED WHEAT LINES GROWN UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length

259-267 Download
27
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS ON MUTANT-CUM-HYBRID LINES OF BREAD WHEAT
MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, M. AFZAL ARAIN, M. UMAR DAHOT1, G. SARWAR MARKHAND2, KHALIL A. LAGHARI, S.M. MANGRIO3, AMEER A. MIRBAHAR4 AND MAZHAR H. NAQVI

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS ON MUTANT-CUM-HYBRID LINES OF BREAD WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman.

269-277 Download
28
ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS., FROM THE SALT RANGE PAKISTAN, TO SALINITY STRESS. I. ROOT AND STEM ANATOMY
MANSOOR HAMEED*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, NARGIS NAZ AND F. AL-QURAINY†

ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS., FROM THE SALT RANGE PAKISTAN, TO SALINITY STRESS. I. ROOT AND STEM ANATOMY
ABSTRACT:
A naturally adapted salt tolerant population of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., from highly saline soils of Uchhali Lake, the Salt Range, Pakistan was evaluated for root and stem anatomical modifications. A population from the normal (non-saline) soils of the Faisalabad region was also collected for comparison. Both populations were subjected to salt stress hydroponically. The salt treatments used were: control (0 mM salt), 50

279-289 Download
29
HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND ACCUMULATION IN SOIL AND WILD PLANT SPECIES FROM INDUSTRIAL AREA OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK1, SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN1 AND ISHFAQ NAZIR1

HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND ACCUMULATION IN SOIL AND WILD PLANT SPECIES FROM INDUSTRIAL AREA OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cr in the soil and plant samples of 16 plant species collected from industrial zone of Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentration, transfer and accumulation of metals from soil to roots and shoots was evaluated in terms of Biological Concentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF) and Bioaccumulation Coefficient (BAC). Total metal concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Cr in soils varied between 2.0-29.0, 61.9-172.6, 8.9 to 357.4, 7.3-24.7, 41.4-59.3, and 40.2-927.2 mg/kg. Total metal concentrations pattern in roots were: Cu>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Co. Grasses showed relatively higher total Zn concentration. Accumulation of Cu was highest in shoots followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Co and Ni. None of plant species were identified as hyperaccumulator; however, based on BCFs, TFs, and BACs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Parthenium hysterophoirus L., and Amaranthus viridis L., is suggested for phytoextraction of Pb and Ni, whereas, Partulaca oleracea L., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & Hubb., Solanum nigrum L., and Xanthium stromarium L., for phytostabilization of soils contaminated with Pb and Cu.

291-301 Download
30
VEGETATIVE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER NaCl SALT STRESS
ZAHIR MUHAMMAD AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN

VEGETATIVE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER NaCl SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21 (Control) 5.0, 7.5

303-316 Download
31
IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER OF QUETTA CITY ON BIOMASS, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
SAEED-UR-REHMAN KAKAR1*, ABDUL WAHID2, RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN1, SIRAJ AHMAD KAKAR3, MARRIAM TARIQ4, SAFDAR ALI KAYANI1

IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER OF QUETTA CITY ON BIOMASS, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal wastewater effluents of Quetta city on the biomass, physiology, and productivity of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars viz., Oscar and Rainbow. Plants were grown in pots from seed to maturity during 2005-2006 growth season. Different concentrations of effluents (T1: 20%; T2: 40%; T3: 60%; T4: 80; T5: 100%) were supplied to plants as a soil drench compared to control plants (T0) receiving normal tap water. The wastewater effluents were highly alkaline in nature along with very high Electrical Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Total Suspended Solids and minerals concentrations have found well above threshold limits set for the usage of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes. Growth performance of both canola cultivars showed statistically significant effects on some physiological attributes. All treated plants showed reductions in growth and yield parameters, but T5 treated plants were most affected compared to control. There were significantly higher reductions in stomatal conductance (49% in Oscar; 53% in Rainbow), transpiration rate (62% Oscar; 67% in Rainbow), and photosynthetic rate (62% in Oscar; 69% in Rainbow) of T5 treatment plants compared with control. Both pigments of chlorophyll (a and b) responded efficiently to the applied stress of wastewater effluents showing reductions in chlorophyll a and b by 68-82% in cv. Oscar and 74-86% in cv. Rainbow. Similarly, fresh and dry biomass also showed reductions in different effluents treated plants (T1 to T5) ranging from 2-78% in both the cultivars of canola. Drastic reductions were recorded in the number of siliqua per plant (70-72%), seeds per plant (84-85%), seed weight per plant (87-90), and in the harvest index (72-74%) in cultivars Oscar and Rainbow, respectively than that of control. The overall result of the municipal wastewater impacts on canola cultivars are alarming, as Pakistan is an agrarian country and the agriculture sector bears the brunt of country’s economy. This study urged the vital significance of recycling the liquid wastewater effluents before discharge otherwise these could seriously affect the growth and productivity of plants.

317-328 Download
32
ROOT-TO-SHOOT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN RICE UNDER SALT STRESS
ASGHARI BANO

ROOT-TO-SHOOT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN RICE UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
This paper describes the impact of salt stress on changes in the level of Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins as signal molecules communicated through root-to-shoot in rice. The study focus to investigate the time related changes in the salt induced ABA and cytokinins accumulation concomitant with the changes in water potential and stomatal conductance of salt stressed plants. Seeds of 3 rice varieties were grown in plastic pots in phytotron. The changes in the level of abscisic acid (ABA), transzeatin riboside (t-zr) and 2-isopentyl adenine (2-ipa) were monitored in xylem sap and leaves of three rice varieties viz. BAS-385 (salt-sensitive), BG-402 (moderately tolerant) and NIAB-6 (tolerant). The salt solution (NaCl,1.2 dS m-1) was added to the rooting medium after transplanting when plants were 50 d old. There was delay in response of stomata to salt treatment in BAS-385 as opposed to earlier increase in leaf resistance in BG-402 and NIAB-6. The stem water potential increased sharply in all the varieties following salt treatment but the decrease in stomatal conductance of leaves preceded the decrease in stem water potential. The concentration of xylem ABA increased significantly greatly reaching a peak in BAS-385 much earlier (24 h of salt treatment) than that of other varieties. The ABA accumulation was delayed and the magnitude of ABA accumulation was greater in BG-402 and NIAB-6.The xylem flux of ABA followed a similar pattern. The concentration of xylem t-zr showed a short- term increase in all the varieties but the magnitude of increase was greater in BAS-385 at all the measurements till 96h of salt treatment .The concentration of xylem 2-ipa was higher in BAS-385 till 48 h of salt treatment . The flux of both the t-zr and 2ipa was greater in the tolerant variety 96h after salt treatment. The basal level of ABA and cytokinin appears to play important role in determining the response of a variety to salt stress. The xylem flux of ABA and cytokinin (2-ipa and t-zr) in response to salt stress determines the sensitivity of the tissue to stomatal resistance. Salt induced modulation in the level of ABA and CK has been discussed.

329-339 Download
33
CADMIUM AND ZINC TOXICITY EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)
MOHAMAD ABOU AUDA1* AND EMAD EL SHAKH ALI2

CADMIUM AND ZINC TOXICITY EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was carried out in two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007 on carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantesa superior) at the Ministry of Local Government (Al Zahra Municipality), Gaza Strip, Palestine. It aimed to study the effect of (Cd and Zn) at different rates (10

341-351 Download
34
SENSITIVITY TO ABSCISIC ACID REGULATES STOMATAL OSCILLATION AND CLOSURE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
QIU MU-QING1*AND ZHANG HAO2

SENSITIVITY TO ABSCISIC ACID REGULATES STOMATAL OSCILLATION AND CLOSURE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:
Stomatal oscillation has been described as an efficient mechanism to prevent water from loss, decrease the transpiration rate and to improve water use efficiency under severe drought conditions. Former researches demonstrated that ABA-induced H2O2 production and H2O2-activated Ca2+ channels were important mechanism for ABA-induced stomatal oscillation. In this study, the sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) for regulation of stomatal oscillation was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (abi1-1, insensitive to ABA and era1-2, hypersensitive to ABA) and wild type. The results showed that

353-359 Download
35
SEVERE DISEASE OF MELON IN NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH SIMULTANEOUS INFECTION OF TWO RNA VIRUSES
AAMIR H. MALIK, SHAHID MANSOOR*, SHAZIA IRAM, ROBERT W. BRIDDON AND YUSUF ZAFAR

SEVERE DISEASE OF MELON IN NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH SIMULTANEOUS INFECTION OF TWO RNA VIRUSES
ABSTRACT:
During a search for cucurbit viruses in NWFP, a very severe disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.) characterized by leaf curling, chlorotic spots, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf distortion and enations on the upper leaf surface was identified in commercial fields in Mardan District, NWFP. Symptomatic plants were screened for the presence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immounosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Plants were also tested for the presence of begomoviruses by polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization using general probes. No sample was found positive for begomoviruses. The presence of CMV and ZYMV was confirmed by DAS-ELISA. Our results show that the severe disease found on melon in Mardan district is caused by multiple infections of two viruses and the severity result from synergism between two viruses.

361-367 Download
36
ISOLATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH SHISHAM TREES AND THEIR EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING MORTALITY
NASIR AHMED RAJPUT*1, M.A. PATHAN1,2, A. QAYOOM RAJPUT3, M.M. JISKANI1, A. MUBEEN LODHI1, SABIT AHSAN RAJPUT4

ISOLATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH SHISHAM TREES AND THEIR EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING MORTALITY
ABSTRACT:
AND M.I. KHASKHALI5

369-374 Download
37
INFLUENCE OF INOCULATION WITH ASCOCHYTA LENTIS ON MINERAL CONTENTS (NA, CA, MG, ZN, CU AND FE) OF SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT LINES OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1*, M. USMAN GHAZANFAR1, M. AFZAL3, WAQAS WAKIL2 AND AMER HABIB1

INFLUENCE OF INOCULATION WITH ASCOCHYTA LENTIS ON MINERAL CONTENTS (NA, CA, MG, ZN, CU AND FE) OF SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT LINES OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to determine the mineral contents of the healthy and inoculated plant of lentil and their relationship toward the Ascochyta lentis disease. The results revealed that magnesium, copper and zinc contents of un-inoculated lentil lines, included in susceptible group were higher than those included in resistant group whereas, sodium, calcium and iron contents were more in the resistant as compared to the susceptible group. Upon inoculation with Ascochyta lentis, the cause of lentil blight disease, sodium, calcium, zinc, copper and iron contents increased invariably in both the susceptible and resistant groups of lentil lines. On the other hand, magnesium contents increased in susceptible group but decreased in resistant group. The over all results proved that considerable variation exists in micromineral contents of resistant and susceptible lines of lentil.

375-382 Download
38
MOLECULAR IMPLICATIONS FROM SSR MARKERS FOR STRIPE RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F.SP.TRITICI) RESISTANCE GENE IN BREAD WHEAT LINE N95175
ALI, M.2, W.Q. JI1, Y.G. HU1, G.M. BALOCH2, H.ZHONG1 AND C.Y. WANG1

MOLECULAR IMPLICATIONS FROM SSR MARKERS FOR STRIPE RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F.SP.TRITICI) RESISTANCE GENE IN BREAD WHEAT LINE N95175
ABSTRACT:
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat in China as well as in Pakistan. In the present studies F2 population was established by crossing N95175 resistant to stripe rust race CYR32 with two susceptible lines Huixianhong and Abbondanza to molecularly tag resistance gene existing in wheat line N95175. The segregation of phenotype was accorded with an expected 3:1 ratio in both combinations studied and fit the model of a single dominant gene controlling stripe rust resistance in N95175. Thirty five SSR primer pairs were screened on the parents and bulks and also on individuals since resistance gene to be located in chromosome 1B. The result indicated that most of resistant plants amplified same band as resistant parent while susceptible plants amplified same as susceptible parents studied and considered that markers co-segregated with resistant loci in N95175. This yellow rust resistance gene was considered to be Yr26 originally thought to be also located in chromosome arm 1BS linked to marker loci Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 with genetic distances ranging from 1.075cM to 2.74cM in both combinations studied. However, the closest loci were observed 2.67cM for Xgwm273 and 1.075cM for Xgwm11 in Huixianhong XN95175 and Abbondanza XN95175 crosses respectively. Hence, it has been concluded that the PCR-based micro satellite markers Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 located in chromosome 1B were shown to be very effective for the detection of Yr26 gene in segregating population and can be applied in future wheat breeding strategies.

383-390 Download
39
EFFECT SIDA PAKISTANICA S. ABEDIN AND SENNA HOLOSERICEA FRESEN ON GROWTH AND ROOT ROT DISEASES OF OKRA AND MASH BEAN
ANTHONIA EMMANUAL, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND M. JAVED ZAKI

EFFECT SIDA PAKISTANICA S. ABEDIN AND SENNA HOLOSERICEA FRESEN ON GROWTH AND ROOT ROT DISEASES OF OKRA AND MASH BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaves and stem extract and powder of Sida pakistanica S. Abedin and Senna holosericea Fresen were used as seed treatment, soil drenching and soil amendment for the control of root rot diseases of okra and mash bean. Results showed that plant growth parameter enhanced and reduced the infection of Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina on mash bean and okra. Seed treatment with leaves and stem extract of S. pakistanica and S. holosericea used @ 25, 50 and 100 % w/v showed control of root rot fungi on mash bean and okra, and significantly increased the plant growth parameter in terms of shoot weight and root weight. Soil drenching with S. holosericea leaf and stem extracts were more effective in the control of Fusarium spp., R. solani and M. phaseolina on mash bean and okra plant followed by the soil and seed treatment with S. pakistanica leaf and stem extracts. Fusarium spp., was controlled by stem extract of S. holosericea @ 50 and 100% w/v. Soil amendment with leaves and stem powder of S. pakistanica and S. holosericea used @ 0.1 and 1% w/w showed reduction in infection of R. solani and M. phaseolina on okra and mash bean and significantly enhanced plant weight of mash bean. S. pakistanica stem powder and S. holosericea leaf powder @ 0.1% w/w were more effective on growth of okra and mash bean whereas S. pakistanica leaf powder @ 0.1 and 1% w/w were more effective in the control of root rot fungi on mash bean and okra.

391-400 Download
40
PREDICTION OF YIELD LOSSES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CAUSED BY YELLOW RUST IN RELATION TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN FAISALABAD
S. AHMAD*, M. AFZAL, I.R. NOORKA, Z. IQBAL, N. AKHTAR, Y. IFTKHAR AND M. KAMRAN

PREDICTION OF YIELD LOSSES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CAUSED BY YELLOW RUST IN RELATION TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN FAISALABAD
ABSTRACT:
Thirty six genotypes were screened against yellow rust to check their level of susceptibility or resistance. Among 36 genotypes screened against yellow rust

401-407 Download
41
POTENTIAL OF FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE AS AN ETIOLOGICAL AGENT OF MANGO MALFORMATION
ZAFAR IQBAL1*, M.A. PERVEZ2, B.A. SALEEM3, SALMAN AHMAD1, ALTAF AHMAD DASTI4 AND A. SALEEM5

POTENTIAL OF FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE AS AN ETIOLOGICAL AGENT OF MANGO MALFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
Taxonomy of the causal fungus of mango malformation (MM) disease has passed through different phases. The fungus at first named as F. moniliforme was elevated to species level as F. subglutinans. Two new species viz. Fusarium mangiferae and F. sterilihyphosum Britz. found responsible for causing MM have been characterized in South Africa in the year 2002. Presence of F. mangiferae in Asian clade emphasized the need to confirm the specific species in the mango orchards of Pakistan. The assay of malformed parts of mango varieties obtained from five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan revealed the association of four fungi viz., F. mangiferae, F. pallidoroseum, F. equiseti and Alternaria alternata while F. mangiferae proved to be the major infecting fungus. The colonies of F. mangiferae were tinged with purple and rosy buff color on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Macroconidia were four celled with dorsal and ventral surfaces almost parallel. Maximum within tissue infection (40.53%) in five districts was caused by F. mangiferae. The present studies reveal the infectivity and dominant association of F. mangiferae with malformed tissues of diverse origins.

409-415 Download
42
IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANT SOURCES IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
MUHAMMAD ANSAR AHMAD1, SHEIKH MUHAMMAD IQBAL2, NAJMA AYUB1, YASMIN AHMAD3 AND ABIDA AKRAM4

IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANT SOURCES IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
ABSTRACT:
Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend. Fr. f. sp. ciceris is a devastating disease of chickpea in Pakistan. In the present study 321 genotypes from different sources were evaluated under controlled condition to identify genetic sources of resistance against this disease at seedling and reproductive stage. Disease reaction at two stages revealed considerable variation among the genotypes. At seedling stage disease incidence varied from 0 to 29.3% whereas at reproductive stage ranged from 0 to 57%. At seedling stage 173 genotypes were resistant, 54 were tolerant and 94 were susceptible, whereas at reproductive stage

417-426 Download
43
08-03-10
MYCOFLORA OF POULTRY FEEDS AND MYCOTOXINS PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

08-03-10
ABSTRACT:
MUHAMMAD KASHIF SALEEMI1, MUHAMMAD ZARGHAM KHAN1*, AHRAR KHAN1 AND IJAZ JAVED2

427-434 Download
44
MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SEEDS OF DIFFERENT SUNFLOWER CULTIVARS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
RUKHSANA AFZAL1, S.M. MUGHAL2, MUBASHRAH MUNIR1, KISHWAR SULTANA2, REHMATULLAH QURESHI1,*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1 AND M.K. LAGHARI3

MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SEEDS OF DIFFERENT SUNFLOWER CULTIVARS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to isolate fungi associated with seeds of seven cultivars of sunflower by using agar and blotter paper methods. A total of 13 phytopathogenic fungal species including Alternaria alternata and A. helianthi, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera tetramera, Fusarium solani and F. moniliforme, Macrophomina phaseolina, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium and Rhizopus spp. were identified. The isolated fungi were found to reduce seed germination by 10-20% and seedling mortality by 10-12%. Two systemic fungicides viz., Topsin and Bayleton were found to be significantly effective in the elimination of seed-borne fungi. Among the plant material, best antifungal activity was achieved by extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem), and Allium sativum (garlic) at the concentration of 0.015%.

435-445 Download
45
EFFECT OF URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS INFECTION ON TOTAL SOLUBLE PROTEIN AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN BLACKGRAM PLANTS
M. ASHFAQ1*, M. ASLAM KHAN2, N. JAVED2, S.M. MUGHAL1, M.SHAHID3 AND S.T.SAHI2

EFFECT OF URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS INFECTION ON TOTAL SOLUBLE PROTEIN AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN BLACKGRAM PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a common, wide spread, destructive and economically important disease causing systemic infection in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), resulting in extreme crinkling, curling, puckering and rugosity of leaves, and yield reductions. Effect of viral infection was investigated on total soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity in two genotypes viz., Mash-88-susceptible and CM-2002-resistant, at different growth stages under both the inoculated and un-inoculated conditions. ULCV infection resulted in significant increase in total soluble protein contents of the leaves in both genotypes. In healthy plant, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) showed similar activity levels. In inoculated plants of Mash-88, SOD and PO activities decreased and increased non-significantly at all growth stages, respectively. The activities of PO and SOD increased and decreased significantly after 15 and 30 days of inoculation in resistant genotype, respectively. No significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity were detected in ULCV-infected leaves over the control. It was concluded that the superoxide dismutase and peroxidases might be associated with resistance/susceptibility to ULCV infection.

447-454 Download
46
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA VARIETIES AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA
SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, SAFIA JABEEN1, SAIQA ILYAS1 FARKHANDA MANZOOR2, FARAH ASLAM1 AND AAMIR ALI3

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA VARIETIES AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Crude extracts of curcuminoids and essential oil of Curcuma longa varieties Kasur, Faisalabad and Bannu were studied for their antibacterial activity against 4 bacterial strains viz., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Azotobacter using agar well diffusion method. Solvents used to determine antibacterial activity were ethanol and methanol. Ethanol was used for the extraction of curcuminoids. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and diluted in methanol by serial dilution method. Both Curcuminoids and oil showed zone of inhibition against all tested strains of bacteria. Among all the three turmeric varieties, Kasur variety had the most inhibitory effect on the growth of all bacterial strains tested as compared to Faisalabad and Bannu varieties. Among all the bacterial strains B. subtilis was the most sensitive to turmeric extracts of curcuminoids and oil. The MIC value for different strains and varieties ranged from 3.0 to 20.6 mm in diameter.

455-462 Download
47
SCREENING AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HEMOLYSINS FROM BACILLUS SP.: STRAIN S128 & S144 ARE HEMOLYSIN B (HBL) PRODUCERS
SAMINA NAZ MUKRY, AQEEL AHMAD AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

SCREENING AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HEMOLYSINS FROM BACILLUS SP.: STRAIN S128 & S144 ARE HEMOLYSIN B (HBL) PRODUCERS
ABSTRACT:
The potential of 130 different strains of the genus Bacillus for hemolysin production and their effects against erythrocytes from different sources was examined. Complete hemolytic units (CHU) of three randomly selected strains of B. cereus group viz. S128, S140(c) and S144 were determined at different temperatures and pH. The highest CHU in yeast extract-tryptone (YT) broth was found at pH 5 & 7 for S140(c); pH 7 and 9 for S144 and S128, respectively. Hemolysins from the strains S128 and S140(c) remained stable at 50°C for 30 min, while hemolysin from strain S144 completely lost its activity at this temperature. However, no hemolytic activity was noted at 60°C in any of the test strains. Strains S128 and S144 showed discontinuous pattern of hemolysis which is an indication of hemolysin BL (HBL) producers.

463-472 Download
48
PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM A RANDOMLY INDUCED MUTANT STRAIN OF BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS AND ITS APPLICATION AS A DESIZER IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
I. HAQ*, S. ALI, M.M. JAVED, U. HAMEED, A. SALEEM, F. ADNAN AND M.A. QADEER†

PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM A RANDOMLY INDUCED MUTANT STRAIN OF BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS AND ITS APPLICATION AS A DESIZER IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the improvement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UNG-16 for alpha amylase production. The bacterial culture was exposed to UV irradiation at 1.6×102 J/m2/S for 15-60 min. However, UV induced viables did not give improved alpha amylase production; therefore chemical mutation using ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS 50-300 µl/ml) was undertaken for 10-60 min. The mutant B. amyloliquefaciens EMS-6 gave 102.78±2.22 U/ml/min enzyme activity which was 1.4 fold higher than the parental strain. In stirred fermentor, the incubation period was reduced from 72 to 48 h after inoculation. The production of alpha amylase was found to be maximal when the 60% volume

473-484 Download
49
CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TEA CULTIVARS
H. RAHMAN1*, I.H. KHALIL1, F.M. ABBASI2, Z.T. KHANZADA1, S.M.A. SHAH1, ZAHIR SHAH3 AND HABIB AHMAD2

CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TEA CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5mm) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8mm). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs.

485-495 Download
50
SEASONAL PATTERN OF SEED DORMANCY IN PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.
ARSHAD JAVAID*, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

SEASONAL PATTERN OF SEED DORMANCY IN PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.
ABSTRACT:
Earlier non-conclusive results have been reported on the initial dormancy status of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) seeds. The present study reports the seasonal dormancy pattern of parthenium in Lahore, Pakistan where there are four distinct seasons viz. summer, autumn, winter and spring in a year. Mature parthenium seeds were collected on the last day of each month from January to December 2006 and investigations for their germination percentage and rate of germination were started on the next day. Parthenium seeds collected during coldest months of January and December showed highest germination of 100% with germination rate of 33.3% per day. Conversely, seeds collected in summer months of April to September exhibited lowest germination of 0–7% and germination rate of 0–1.75% per day. Seeds collected in rest of the months showed variable final germination percentage and germination rate ranging from 30–97% and 3.8–17.4%, respectively. Both the final germination and germination rate showed a highly significant negative correlation with the solar radiation and environmental temperature during the seed development period. The present study concludes that dormancy in parthenium seeds depends upon the temperature and solar radiation during the seed development period.

497-503 Download
51
RESPONSE OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) GENOTYPES TO SALT STRESS
HUSEYIN BASAL*

RESPONSE OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) GENOTYPES TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The response of 15 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes to salt stress was studied in terms of their biomass production and reduction ratios under salt stress. The cotton varieties were grown at different salt concentrations (0

505-511 Download
52
HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT CROSSES AMONG POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE GENOTYPES
EMRE İLKER1, FATMA AYKUT TONK1, MUZAFFER TOSUN1

HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT CROSSES AMONG POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this research was to investigate heterotic effects between five powdery mildew resistant wheat lines derived from CIMMYT and three susceptible commercial wheat varieties growing in Turkey and to determine mode of gene actions of the parents for yield characters in F1 generation. All 15 F1 crosses and their parents were planted in randomized complete block design in three replications. Measurements were done for plant height, spike length, spikelet and kernel number per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000-kernel weight. Promising findings of the crosses 72 x Golia, 70 x Golia, 70 x Basribey, 48 x Basribey, 48 x Atilla-12 and 72 x Atilla12 were obtained to breed new varieties or pure lines having shorter plant height and taller spike length, more number of spikelet and kernel per spike, besides higher grain yield than their mid or better parents to improve powdery mildew resistant varieties.

513-522 Download
53
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
MUHAMMAD NISAR1*, MUGHAL QAYUM2*, MUHAMMAD RAZA SHAH3, WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM2, IHSAN ALI1 AND M. ZIA-UL-HAQ4

ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
ABSTRACT:
Extracts of Impatiens bicolor Royle obtained from n-hexane (A); dichloromethane (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), aqueous (E) as well as crude (F) were tested In vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against 6 bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi indicated that crude and its fractions had no activity at all against any microorganism. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against 6 fungi viz., Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The extracts showed moderate activity against different fungal strains.

523-526 Download
54
ASSESSING NITROGEN SUPPLY POTENTIAL AND INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF LETTUCE AND AMARANTHUS OF DIFFERENT AGED COMPOSTS
M. JAVED AKHTAR1, I. YOUNG2, R.J. IRVINE AND C. STURROCK3

ASSESSING NITROGEN SUPPLY POTENTIAL AND INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF LETTUCE AND AMARANTHUS OF DIFFERENT AGED COMPOSTS
ABSTRACT:
This study assessed the potential of different composts at different maturity stages to supply N and their effect on the vegetative growth of lettuce and Amaranthus. Five composts aged 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were mixed with soil @ 5%

527-536 Download
55
CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (SCHENK) R. WIGHT AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT OCCURRING IN SAND DUNES OF KARAK, N.W.F.P., PAKISTAN
IHSAN ILAHI, ZAFAR IQBAL AND SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN

CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (SCHENK) R. WIGHT AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT OCCURRING IN SAND DUNES OF KARAK, N.W.F.P., PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight of the family Orobanchaceae has been found growing as a parasite for the first time on Capparis decidua L (Capparidaceae). It is reported for the first time from District Karak (N.-W.F.P.) Pakistan. It was also found growing on Calligonum polygonoides L (Polygonaceae), Calotropis procera L. (Asclepiadaceae) and Tamarix indica Willd (Tamaricaceae). The seed germinates on the host root which is near the soil surface and produces haustoria which then penetrate into the deeper layers of the root i.e. to the centre of metaxylem to tap the nutrition from the host, where it is parenchymatous in nature. The nature and habit of both the host and parasite are described in detail.

537-547 Download
56
SHOOT LOCATION AND COLLECTION TIME EFFECTS ON MERISTEM TIP CULTURE OF SOME APPLE ROOTSTOCKS
CEVRİYE MERT* AND ARİF SOYLU

SHOOT LOCATION AND COLLECTION TIME EFFECTS ON MERISTEM TIP CULTURE OF SOME APPLE ROOTSTOCKS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of explant source and collection time on meristem tip culture from M9, MM106, and MM111 clonal apple rootstocks. Meristem tips were collected on 3 different times, from the terminal and lateral shoots of 1-2 year old potted plants. After surface sterilization of the explants, the meristem tips were excised and placed in tubes containing MS (1/2xNH4 NO3 and K NO3) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /l BAP, 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. The multiplication medium consisted of MS, supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. After two consecutive sub culture the shootlets were excised and transferred to the rooting medium containing MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Shoot formation ratios from the meristem tips were good for the rootstocks, but the collection time and source of the meristem affected these ratios. Higher shoot formation was 95.4% for the M9 from terminal shoots collected on June the 8th, 93.3% for the MM106 from lateral shoots and 81.2% for the MM111 from terminal shoots collected on June the 16th. The optimum explant collection time was the time when the shoots tend to decrease their growth rate. One of the main problems during shootlet formation and multiplication steps was vitrification especially for M9 rootstock. Tissue browning in the explants immediately after establishment in the medium or during early stage of development of the shootlets was also higher especially for MM111 rootstock. General averages of the multiplication coefficients for the rootstocks were as follow: 4.16 for M9, 5.33 for MM106, and 5.74 for MM111. Rooting ability of the shootlets was higher (62.5-90.3%) for MM106, medium (53.6-66.6%) for M9, and low (12.1-40.0%) for MM111. We found that meristem tip culture are difficult with M9 and MM111 but feasible with MM106 rootstock.

549-557 Download
57
RESPONSE OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE WHEAT CULTIVARS TO SALT STRESS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES: LEAF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS
MUHAMMAD ARSLAN ASHRAF1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF12* AND QASIM ALI1

RESPONSE OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE WHEAT CULTIVARS TO SALT STRESS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES: LEAF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth.

559-565 Download
58
ESTIMATION OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG YIELD AND YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT LINES
WAQAR-UL-HAQ1, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2 AND ZAHID AKRAM2

ESTIMATION OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG YIELD AND YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT LINES
ABSTRACT:
The experimental material was sown in the experimental area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2004-2005, comprising of 10 wheat genotypes viz., Chakwal-86, Iqbal-2000, Uqab-2000, GA-2002, 00FJ03, IC-001, IC-002, NR-234, 3C061 and 3C062 for determination of interrelationships among yield and yield related characters. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits. The correlation coefficient indicated that spike length, number of spikes per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, number of tillers per m2

567-573 Download
59
JATROPHA CURCAS SEED OIL AS A VIABLE SOURCE FOR BIODIESEL
UMER RASHID1,2, FAROOQ ANWAR1,*, AMER JAMIL1 AND HAQ NAWAZ BHATTI1

JATROPHA CURCAS SEED OIL AS A VIABLE SOURCE FOR BIODIESEL
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for biodiesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65°C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214.

575-582 Download
60
NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON MORUS ALBA FROM FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN I.
SYED QAISER ABBAS1, IFTIKHAR ALI2, MUBASHIR NIAZ2, RUBAB AYESHA2 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2

NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON MORUS ALBA FROM FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN I.
ABSTRACT:
Five fungi have been reported on Morus alba from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three of them viz., Tetracoccosporium aerium, Gliomastix novae–zelandiae and Septoria cytisi, have been reported for the first time from Pakistan. Ahmad (1969) reported Pseudocercospora mori as Cercospora mori from Faisalabad and Lasiodiplodia undulata was also reported on Morus alba from Faisalabad, Pakistan.

583-592 Download
61
ISOTHERM STUDIES FOR DETERMINATION OF REMOVAL CAPACITY OF BI-METAL (Ni AND Cr) IONS BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
KIRAN MUNIR2, MARIA YUSUF2, ZOBIA NOREEN1, ABDUL HAMEED2, FAUZIA YUSUF HAFEEZ1 AND RANI FARYAL1*

ISOTHERM STUDIES FOR DETERMINATION OF REMOVAL CAPACITY OF BI-METAL (Ni AND Cr) IONS BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan is among the developing countries where there is a need to establish new industries to meet the demands of a growing population. This has led to industrial setup in various sectors, without proper planning and consideration for treatment of contamination, leading to disposal of untreated wastewater into nearby land and water bodies. This study was planned to investigate an indigenous Aspergillus niger for development of biosorbent for the removal of metal ions. The Aspergillus isolate’s Ni and Cr removal efficiency was determined in batch mode over various pH (4.0-10.0) and temperature (25-40ºC) as single as well as bimetal ions. Using a single metal ion, maximum biosorption potential was obtained at pH 5.0-6.0 and 30-35ºC for both ions. On the other hand, Ni removal was reduced in the presence of Cr, while Ni removal influenced Cr removal with an increase showing maximum removal at an initial adsorbate concentration of 50mg/L, pH 6.0 and 35ºC. Effect of presence of bimetal in a solution on biosorption potential of Aspergillus niger was predicted by using equilibrium modelling. Adsorption trends for both nickel (R2 0.9916) and chromium (R2 0.8548) followed Langmuir isotherm in single metal removal system, but under bimetal condition chromium adsorption fitted better to Freundlich model and that of nickel followed Temkin isotherm, suggesting considerable change in behaviour and interaction between biosorbent and metal ions. Therefore, we concluded that Aspergillus niger a viable strain for development of a biosorbent for removal of a mixture of metal ions.

593-604 Download
62
GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MUTATED POPULATION OF SUGARCANE CLONE NIA-98 THROUGH MOLECULAR MARKERS (RAPD AND TRAP)
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, SAJIDA BIBI, SHAFQUAT YASMIN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, NIGHAT SEEMA AND SHAHID AFGHAN*

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MUTATED POPULATION OF SUGARCANE CLONE NIA-98 THROUGH MOLECULAR MARKERS (RAPD AND TRAP)
ABSTRACT:
Variability obtained from mutation breeding (gamma rays) was examined through molecular marker techniques (RAPD). A total of 85 loci were amplified, out of which 76.47% were polymorphic and 23.53% were monomorphic. Fragments size ranged from 220bp-2.1kb and fragments produced by various primers ranged from 3-13 with an average of 5 fragments per primer. The highest number of loci (13) was amplified with primer B-07, while the lowest number 3 with primer B-01. Results revealed that mutant P1 (20Gy) contained a specific segment of 2.03kb. Genetically most similar genotypes were P2 (10Gy) and P4 (20Gy) (95.55%) while most dissimilar genotypes were P4 (10Gy) and P3 (20Gy) (63.2%). On the basis of results achieved, the mutants could be divided into four clusters and three groups. Mutants P4 (40 Gy) and P4 (10 Gy) were genetically distinct from other mutants.

605-614 Download
63
GENETIC VARIATION AND HERITABILITY FOR COTTON SEED, FIBER AND OIL TRAITS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, GUL HASSAN2, FARHATULLAH1, SUNDAS BATOOL1, KHADIJAH MAKHDOOM1, WAQAS AHMAD3 AND HABIB ULLAH KHAN4

GENETIC VARIATION AND HERITABILITY FOR COTTON SEED, FIBER AND OIL TRAITS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The research work pertaining to the study of genetic variability, heritability, genetic gain and correlation for cottonseed, fiber and cottonseed oil % in Gossypium hirsutum cultivars was conducted during 2005 at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Analysis of variance manifested highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits except seeds per locule. Genetic potential range of eight cotton cultivars for different parameters was recorded i.e. seeds locule-1 (6.33 to 6.60), seeds boll-1 (26.10 to 28.47), seed index (8.61 to 9.69 g), lint index (5.35 to 6.05 g), lint % (35.17 to 38.13 %), seed cotton yield (1200 to 2450 kg ha-1) and cottonseed oil % (27.52 to 30.15%). Genetic variances were found almost greater than the environmental variances for all the traits except seeds locule-1 and seed index. High broad sense heritability and selection response were also formulated for seeds boll-1 (0.67, 0.84), seed index (0.77, 0.47 g), lint index (0.96, 0.33 g), lint % (0.96

615-625 Download
64
COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1 *, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Line × tester experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 27 F1 hybrids along with 12 parents in Basmati rice. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among treatments, parents, parents vs. crosses and crosses for number of tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, fertility percentage

627-637 Download
65
EFFECT OF CULTIVARS AND CULTURE MEDIUM ON CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYOS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
RAZIUDDIN1, JEHAN, BAKHT2*, ZAHOOR AHMAD SWATI2, MOHAMMAD SHAFI3, FARHAT ULLAH AND1 AND MOHAMMAD AKMAL3

EFFECT OF CULTIVARS AND CULTURE MEDIUM ON CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYOS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to investigate callus induction, plant regeneration and somaclonal variations in 9 locally developed wheat cultivars viz., Ghaznavi-98, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Inqilab-91, Tatara, Takbeer, Margalla, Pirsabak-85, SARC-3 and Khattakwal and one line from ICARDA (ICP-3) on hormones free and various concentrations of 2,4-dichorophenoxyaceitc acid (2, 4-D) in LS/MS medium. Cultivars responded differently to medium and 2, 4-D concentration for callus induction. Maximum calli induction (67.5%) was noted in ICP-3 followed by SARC-3 (65.5%) on MS. In our studies MS medium was more effective for all the wheat cultivars compared with LS medium for callus induction. When the effect of different concentration of 2, 4-D on callus induction was studied, MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D produced the greatest number of calli. Morphology of these cultivars were further studied on both LS/MS medium containing only 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D. Embroyogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed in all the cultivars studied. Embryogenic calli were generally compact and rapidly growing whereas non-embryogenic calli were loose and slow growing. For regeneration, LS/MS medium was supplemented with various combinations of IAA and BAP. Significant differences were detected in plant regeneration, culture efficiency and regeneration capacity when mature embryos of 9 locally developed cultivars and one line from ICARDA (ICP-3) were compared. Six cultivars responded efficiently to LS medium while four showed better performance on MS medium for plant regeneration. Majority of the somaclones regenerated in this study were found to be inferior for agronomic traits except plant height, days to heading and maturity when compared with their respective controls. Our results showed that callus derived from this wheat cultivar is amendable and could be used for genetic transformation studies.

639-652 Download
66
CHEMOTAXONOMIC VALUE OF ALKALOIDS IN SOLANUM NIGRUM COMPLEX
AYESHA MOHY-UD-DIN1*, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN2, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1 AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM KASHMIRI3

CHEMOTAXONOMIC VALUE OF ALKALOIDS IN SOLANUM NIGRUM COMPLEX
ABSTRACT:
The comparison of alkaloidal profile of delimited species in the 5 locally available taxa of S. nigrum complex were used to establish the boundaries among close taxonomic groups. Several glycoalkaloids (Solasonine, α-Solamargine, β-Solamargine and α-Solanine) and their aglycones (Solasodine and Solanidine) were analysed that were shown to be a valuable tool to resolve the international taxonomic controversy based on morphological characters. HPLC and GC-MS were used for the first time for the analysis of alkaloids in S. nigrum complex. Qualitative and quantitative comparison by cluster analysis demonstrated significant distances among S. chenopodioides and S. villosum as well as in S. americanum and S. nigrum, in their respective clusters, indicated them as distinct species. But S. retroflexum did not show such a marked difference and hence might be regarded as a variety or subspecies of S. nigrum.

653-660 Download
67
VEGETATION PATTERN AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KARACHI
M. KABIR, M. ZAFAR IQBAL, Z.R. FAROOQI AND M. SHAFIQ

VEGETATION PATTERN AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
A quantitative phytosociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri & Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO3, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area.

661-678 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1158079, Today's: 1707, Yesterday's: 2232, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");