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Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue SI
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
LOTUS ALIANUS, A NEW SPECIES FROM CABO VERDE AND NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON LOTUS SECTION PEDROSIA (FABACEAE)
JOSEPH H. KIRKBRIDE, JR.

LOTUS ALIANUS, A NEW SPECIES FROM CABO VERDE AND NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON LOTUS SECTION PEDROSIA (FABACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antão and São Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotype is designated for L. pseudocreticus Maire, Weiller & Wilczek. The distribution of L. jacobaeus L. is clarified as endemic to Cape Verde, and a neotype is designated for L. linearis Walp. Lotus oliveirae A. Chev. is the correct name for the species previously known as L. latifolius Brand.

1-10 Download
2
PHYLOGENETIC PLACEMENT OF PODOLOTUS SUGGESTS INDEPENDENT ORIGIN OF LOMENTACEOUS FRUITS IN CORONILLA AND HIPPOCREPIS (LEGUMINOSAE: LOTEAE)
GALINA V. DEGTJAREVA, TAHIR H. SAMIGULLIN*, CARMEN M. VALLEJO-ROMAN AND DMITRY D. SOKOLOFF

PHYLOGENETIC PLACEMENT OF PODOLOTUS SUGGESTS INDEPENDENT ORIGIN OF LOMENTACEOUS FRUITS IN CORONILLA AND HIPPOCREPIS (LEGUMINOSAE: LOTEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Tribe Loteae has major diversity centres in the Mediterranean region and in California. However, four monospecific genera are restricted to other parts of Africa and Asia. This paper is focused on the monospecific Asian genus Podolotus, which is crucial for understanding evolution of Loteae. Evidence from four DNA markers (nrITS, psbA-trnH, petB-petD and rps16 intron) is used to infer phylogenetic relationships of Podolotus. Analysis of the combined data set strongly suggests that Podolotus is closest to Coronilla. These two genera share several important morphological features but differ in fruit type (dehiscent vs. lomentaceous). Traditionally, Coronilla was thought to be closest to two other genera with lomentaceous fruits, Hippocrepis and Scorpiurus. Our data support the view that lomentaceous fruits evolved in Coronilla independently from all other members of Loteae that bear this fruit type. At least five independent origins of lomentaceous fruits took place in evolution of Loteae. Molecular phylogenetic rooting of the tribe Loteae is discussed.

11-25 Download
3
FOUR NEW ASTRAGALUS SPECIES (LEGUMINOSAE) FROM CHINA AND BHUTAN
DIETER PODLECH

FOUR NEW ASTRAGALUS SPECIES (LEGUMINOSAE) FROM CHINA AND BHUTAN
ABSTRACT:
Four new species of Astragalus (Leguminosae) from China and Bhutan are described and illustrated. During the preparation of a revision of all Old World Astragalus-species, four new species could be detected. They are described here.The paper is dedicated to Prof. Dr. S. I. Ali who has contributed considerably to our knowledge of Astragalus in Pakistan and neighbouring countries.

27-34 Download
4
THE GENUS CICERBITA WALLR. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) IN PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ROOHI BANO AND M. QAISER*

THE GENUS CICERBITA WALLR. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) IN PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano & Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano & Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano & Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished.

35-56 Download
5
TWO NEW SPECIES OF PAPAVER L. (PAPAVERACEAE) FROM KASHMIR HIMALAYA, INDIA
GH. HASSAN DAR1, TABINDA RASHID2, A. R. NAQSHI3, ANZAR A KHUROO4 AND AKHTAR H MALIK5

TWO NEW SPECIES OF PAPAVER L. (PAPAVERACEAE) FROM KASHMIR HIMALAYA, INDIA
ABSTRACT:
While revising the genus Papaver L. (Papaveraceae) occurring in the Kashmir Himalaya, two new species – P. kachroianum Tabinda, Dar & Naqshi, and P. pamporicum Tabinda, Dar & Naqshi are described and illustrated from this part of the North-west Himalaya. The relationship of both the species is discussed P. kachroianum is allied to P. lacerum Popov, and 8-10 stigmatic rays. P. pamporicum resembles P. dubium L., by its simple, petals,. A key for all the species of Papaver reported from Kashmir, incorporating the new species, is also provided.

57-62 Download
6
A NEW SPECIES OF SALVADORA (SALVADORACEAE) FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR, MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT AND FARZANA KOREJO

A NEW SPECIES OF SALVADORA (SALVADORACEAE) FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A new species Salvadora alii belonging to family Salvadoraceae is described from Sindh Pakistan. Taxonomic description and a key to distinguish it from other species of Salvadora from this region has been provided, and its status is discussed.

63-66 Download
7
GAGEA ALEXII (LILIACEAE), A NEW RECORD FROM SUBNIVAL ZONE OF SOUTHERN IRAN WITH KEY AND NOTES ON SECT. INCRUSTATAE
YOUSEF AJANI1, JALIL NOROOZI2 AND IGOR G. LEVICHEV3

GAGEA ALEXII (LILIACEAE), A NEW RECORD FROM SUBNIVAL ZONE OF SOUTHERN IRAN WITH KEY AND NOTES ON SECT. INCRUSTATAE
ABSTRACT:
Gagea alexii Ali & Levichev (G. sect. Incrustatae Levichev) is recorded from the subnival zone of the southern mountains of Iran, the Hezar Mts. (Kerman province). Plant associates and some ecological aspects of the habitat of the species are discussed. A distribution map and expanded description of the G. alexii, including a cross-section of the peduncle is given. The morphological comparison of this species with its close relatives is also provided. The characters of the G.sect. Incrustatae and a key for specific identification are presented. The occurrence of this species in the subnival zone of the Hezar Mts. is a further evidence of the close floristic affinity of the southeastern Zagros with the Hindu Kush and Central Asia especially at high altitudes.

67-77 Download
8
THE GENUS ANTHEMIS L.( COMPOSITAE-ANTHEMIDEAE) IN ARABIAN PENINSULA: A TAXONOMIC STUDY
ABDUL GHAFOOR

THE GENUS ANTHEMIS L.( COMPOSITAE-ANTHEMIDEAE) IN ARABIAN PENINSULA: A TAXONOMIC STUDY
ABSTRACT:
The genus Anthemis L. (Compoistae-Anthemideae) from Arabian peninsula is revised. In all 19 species belonging to sections Odontostephana, Maruta, Anthemis, and Rascheyana are recognised including A. tenuicarpa is recorded as new to Saudi Arabia. Artificial key for species identification, detailed description of each species and ecological information has also been furnished.

79-98 Download
9
SALVIA PLEBEIA R. BR.: TAXONOMY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY, AUTOGAMY AND MYXOSPERMY
F. SALES²*, I.C. HEDGE¹ AND F. CHRISTIE¹

SALVIA PLEBEIA R. BR.: TAXONOMY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY, AUTOGAMY AND MYXOSPERMY
ABSTRACT:
Different attributes of the remarkable Salvia plebeia R.Br. (Lamiaceae) are reviewed. Its range is from Iran throughout Asia to Australia. The curious distribution disjunction of c. 4000 km between SE Asia and E Australia and its status, native or introduced, are discussed. The name is here typified with a specimen from Australia. In Asia, S. plebeia almost always grows in secondary habitats. In Australia, where it is the only representative (excluding aliens) of the genus, it usually grows in undisturbed habitats. Everywhere, it is remarkably oligomorphic. It has some of the smallest corollas in the genus and our observations showed that it is frequently autogamous, a rare occurrence in Salvia. Using innovative SEM technology, the mucilage produced by wetted nutlets was studied. Pollen from four separate areas of its range was examined with light microscopy and SEM. In both these investigations, and the morphological ones, we did not detect significant differences to support recognizing infra-specific taxa the species merits a broad-based molecular analysis.

99-110 Download
10
MOLECULAR DATA AND PHYLOGENY OF FAMILY SMILACACEAE
ZABTA K. SHINWARI1 AND SHEHLA SHINWARI2

MOLECULAR DATA AND PHYLOGENY OF FAMILY SMILACACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Family Smilacaceae’s higher order taxonomy remained disputed for many years. It was treated as an order “Smilacales” and was also placed under Liliales by several taxonomists. Even some considered as part of family Liliacaeae. In present paper, we investigated the family’s higher order phylogeny and also compared its rbcL gene sequence data with related taxa to elucidate its phylogeny. The data suggests that its family stature is beyond dispute because of its advanced karyotype, woody climbing habit and DNA sequence data. The data suggest that Smilacaceae may be a sister group of order Liliales and it forms a clear clade with the order.

111-116 Download
11
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE TRIBE SENECIONEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND NIDA ALI

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE TRIBE SENECIONEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features.

117-133 Download
12
TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SEED MICROMORPHOLOGY IN HIMALAYAN BEGONIAS: SEM ANALYSIS
SANGEETA RAJBHANDARY AND KRISHNA K. SHRESTHA

TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SEED MICROMORPHOLOGY IN HIMALAYAN BEGONIAS: SEM ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology plays an important role for the taxonomic purposes, but inspite of the importance and stability of seed characters in systematics, very little work has been done on seed morphology of Begonia. The seeds of Begonia are small and not differentiated easily with the naked eye. In fact, they are so small that observation of many of their taxonomically important features is possible only with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this paper, the external morphology of the seeds of 23 Nepalese Begonia species, belonging to five sections (Diploclinium, Monopteron, Platycentrum, Putzeysia and Sphenanthera) was studied with SEM techniques. It has been revealed that the differences in seed characteristics were not sufficient to use for sectional delimitation of Nepalese Begonia, but helped to separate the Begonia at species level.

135-154 Download
13
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SOME ASIATIC SPECIES OF GENUS SALSOLA (CHENOPODIACEAE) AND ITS TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS
K. NIKOLAEVNA TODERICH 1, E. VIKTOROVNA SHUYSKAYA2, MUNIR OZTURK3*, ALEKSANDROVNA JUYLOVA1 AND LILYA GISMATULINA1

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SOME ASIATIC SPECIES OF GENUS SALSOLA (CHENOPODIACEAE) AND ITS TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS
ABSTRACT:
Comparative studies on the pollen grain morphology of 27 Asiatic species of the genus Salsola were conducted by using scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis) in order to assess the taxonomic value of pollen traits. The pollen are radially symmetrical isopolar, pantopolyporate, spherical or subspheroid. The pollen characters like size, pore number, chord (C/D ratio), pore diameter, exine thickness, level of sinking of pore, convexness of mesoporial exine, spinule and minute-hole densities and number of spines on pore membrane appeared to be useful characters in distinguishing the species. Interesting intraspecific variations in pollen grain morphology were recorded for the C/D ratio. This parameter is highly specific, supporting the delimitation of Salsola species, and appears to be more conservative than some flower and fruit characters. The numerical value of form index comprising the ratio between the length of polar axis and diameter (P/E) also was an informative trait for delimitation of the species investigated here. Three pollen types were recognized. Euclidean distance was used to compute the dissimilarity matrix and a cladogram prepared. The quantitative characters of pollen morphology allowed clustering of groups and ordination analyses of species from different sections/subsections within genus Salsola. These features indicated that overall pollen traits reflect the current taxonomic boundaries, except for the Salsola species allocated to Climacoptera and Halothamnus, which should be accepted as separate genera.

155-174 Download
14
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN – LXVII: ACANTHACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN – LXVII: ACANTHACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 30 species of the family Acanthaceae belonging to 11 genera has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Acanthaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate rarely prolate-spheroidal or sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, generally tricolporate or heterocolporate rarely colpate or porate. Exine ornamentation varies from medium to coarse reticulate, or often lopho-reticulate with luminae perforated to baculate or scabrate. On the basis of apertural type, exine ornamentation and colpal membrane eight distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Pollen type-I: Barleria cristata-type, Pollen type-II: Blepharis ciliaris-type, Pollen type-III: Hygrophila polysperma – type, Pollen type-IV: Justicia adhatoda-type, Pollen type-V:Lepidagathis incurva-type, Pollen type-VI:Peristrophe paniculata-type, Pollen type-VII:Ruellia patula-type and Pollen type-VIII: Strobilanthes atropurpureus – type. Within the family pollen diversity is significant enough for delimiting the tribes, subtribes and genera.

175-191 Download
15
CONSERVATION THROUGH RESTORATION: STUDY OF A DEGRADED GRAVEL PLAIN IN SOUTH-EASTERN ARABIA
SHAHINA A GHAZANFAR AND JOANNA OSBORNE

CONSERVATION THROUGH RESTORATION: STUDY OF A DEGRADED GRAVEL PLAIN IN SOUTH-EASTERN ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
The cultural set up in Arabia for holding large stocks of camels and goats, and the long history of grazing beyond the carrying capacity of rangelands have left vast areas in south-eastern Arabia highly degraded. Coupled with that, road building, and unsustainable development of amenity parks and resorts has left an indelible mark on the landscape. Not only there is a lack of regeneration of key plant species, there is also a discernable loss of both floral and faunal diversity. In several countries of the Arabian Peninsula there is now a growing concern for the restoration of damaged landscapes. Through sustainable restoration the loss of biodiversity can be halted, and the species can be brought back and conserved. In order to restore the vegetation of an area, an indepth knowledge of the species present there is necessary. In this paper we describe the vegetation of a gravel plain in south-eastern Arabia and the steps that will have to be taken to restore and eventually conserve this area.

193-204 Download
16
CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF GAILLONIA CHITRALENSIS (RUBIACEAE)
HAIDAR ALI1 AND M. QAISER2

CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF GAILLONIA CHITRALENSIS (RUBIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Gaillonia Chitralensis Nazim .(Rubiaceae) is endemic to Chitral district, Pakistan. This species was previously known from type locality only. After 3 years of extensive field studies, it is now reported from 15 new localities, but could not be found in the type locality. Based on population size, Extant of occurrence (EOO), Area of occupancy (AOO) and fragmented populations, it is classified as Endangered (EN) Category according to IUCN Red List categories and criteria 2001. In order to save the taxon from extinction, there is an urgent need to develop specific conservation strategies at ground and national level.

205-212 Download
17
SPECIES DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NANDIAR VALLEY WESTERN HIMALAYA, PAKISTAN
FAIZ UL HAQ¹, HABIB AHMAD², MUKHTAR ALAM3, ISHTIAQ AHMAD¹ AND RAHATULLAH2

SPECIES DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NANDIAR VALLEY WESTERN HIMALAYA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Species diversity of Nandiar Valley District Battagram, Pakistan was evaluated with special reference to vascular plant diversity of the area. Floristically the area is placed in Western Himalayan Province. It is located on the western edge of Himalayas, dominated by Sino-Japanese elements. Aim of the study was to document the vascular plant resources, conservation issues and usage of the selected plants. An ethno-botanical survey was also carried out for collecting information regarding the various indigenous uses of the vascular plants in different parts of Nandiar Valley. Field observations showed that vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to unwise of local communities. The trend of urbanization, deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation, unscientific extraction of natural vegetation, introduction of the exotic taxa and habitat loss were the visible threats. Sum 402 taxa belongs to 110 families of vascular plants were evaluated. Among the 402 species reported

213-229 Download
18
PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HYRCANIAN RELICT FORESTS, N IRAN: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FLORA, VEGETATION, PALAEOECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
HOSSEIN AKHANI1*, MORTEZA DJAMALI1,2, ATEFEH GHORBANALIZADEH1, AND ELIAS RAMEZANI3

PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HYRCANIAN RELICT FORESTS, N IRAN: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FLORA, VEGETATION, PALAEOECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
The Hyrcanian forests stretch from Talish in Republic of Azerbaijan and cover the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains in North Iran, in Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. The vegetation is composed mostly of deciduous forests. In the lower altitudes it is represented by a number of relict Arcto-Tertiary thermophilous species such as Parrotia persica, Gleditsia caspica, Zelkova carpinifolia and Pterocarya fraxinifolia. The diversity of tree species increases at higher elevations where the subalpine forests and scrubs of low shrubs of the timber-line are replaced by alpine grasslands in the northern slopes and the Irano-Turanian thorn-cushion steppe at the exposed summits and southern slopes. So far, 3234 species belonging to 856 genera and 148 families of vascular plants have been reported from the northern provinces of Iran and Talish in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Main vegetation types of the Hyrcanian forest zone include: i) sand dune vegetation along the Caspian Sea coasts; ii) C4-dominated grass communities on rocky outcrops; iii) aquatic vegetation on wetlands; iv) riverine and valley forests; v) alluvial and lowland deciduous forests; vi) submontane and montane deciduous forests; vii) subalpine deciduous forests (Quercus macranthera); viii) successional and transitional scrub and woodlands; ix) Cupressus sempervirens and Thuja orientalis woodlands; x) juniper woodlands; xi) subalpine and alpine meadows; xii) montane steppe dominated by xerophytic and thorn-cushion species; xiii) rock cliff communities; xiv) halophytic communities; xv) Artemisia spicigera steppe and desert like dunes; xvi) ruderal habitats and xvii) cultural landscapes and artificial forests. Evidence from studies on loess/palaeosol sequences, long-term Caspian Sea-level fluctuations, and peat/lake deposits in northern Iran give some indication of the climate and vegetation history of the south Caspian region. Based on these investigations, during the early-Pleistocene, at least parts of the area were covered by steppe-like vegetation and the climate was slightly warmer than today. It is also postulated that northern Iran was an extensive area of increased dust accumulation and loess formation during the Pleistocene glaciations, which is contemporaneous with and similar to major climatic changes as in SE Central Europe and Central Asia. These studies further suggest pronounced climate changes for the north of the country in which a dry and cool climate changed to moist and warm conditions during the Pleistocene glaciations. Similarly, a markedly dry period occurred during the early Holocene for the south Caspian area, parallel to the climatic optimum in Europe. Palynological studies have also shown intensified human impact on the lowland forest composition and structure of the area over the last centuries. The forests of the south Caspian area are severely degraded and deforested; in particular, in the alluvial lowlands where only small remnants exist. There are several protected areas in the Alborz Mountains and south Caspian area which suffer from mis-management. Therefore, improving their protection quality and increasing their area or addition of new sites are crucial to guarantee conservation of this very important natural heritage of SW Asia.

231-258 Download
19
DESTRUCTIONS OF ACACIA WOODLANDS AND JUNIPER FORESTS IN ASIA AND EASTERN AFRICA
SHAUKAT ALI CHAUDHARY

DESTRUCTIONS OF ACACIA WOODLANDS AND JUNIPER FORESTS IN ASIA AND EASTERN AFRICA
ABSTRACT:
The paper deals with the status of the woodlands, notably Acacia woodlands, and juniper forests in Africa and Asia and the causes of destruction and or damage observed in recent times to some of these communities.

259-266 Download
20
ADVANCED MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES TO INVESTIGATE VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEX OF PINE FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI, MOINUDDIN AHMED, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT AND NASRULLAH KHAN

ADVANCED MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES TO INVESTIGATE VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEX OF PINE FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Forty one stands of conifer forests of moist temperate areas, covering the natural limits of this forest type, in northern Pakistan were investigated. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative method and TWINSPAN a divisive method) as well as ordination (DECORANA) were used to explore vegetation composition and structure of canopy trees and understorey (shrubs and herbs) vegetation and their relationship with the associated environmental factors. Classification of overstorey trees derived by TWINSPAN and Ward’s methods showed some similarities in groups. Among the topographic variables, only elevation was found to be significant (P < 0.01) while edaphic variables showed no significant difference in group means. For understorey vegetation some similarities were also recorded between TWINSPAN and Ward’s method. Among environmental variables elevation (P < 0.001), aspect (P< 0.05), canopy cover (P < 0.001) and soil pH (P < 0.01) were found to be significant. In many cases relationship of axes in DCA stand ordination and environmental variables were also significantly correlated, however axis two of understorey ordination did not show any significant correlation with any environmental variables. Present study showed similarities between Ward’s cluster analysis of tree vegetation and understorey vegetation data, despite a long history of anthropogenic disturbance in these areas.

267-293 Download
21
TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES FROM UPPER INDUS BASIN OF KARAKORUM RANGE, PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, NASRULLAH KHAN, MUHAMMAD USAMA ZAFAR AND *JONATHAN PALMER

TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES FROM UPPER INDUS BASIN OF KARAKORUM RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Four coniferous species i.e. Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss, Cedrus deodara D. Don, Pinus gerardiana Wall. Ex Lamb. and Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. were sampled from seven catchments in the Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan. The purpose of this investigation was to explore dendrohydrological potential of these species. Core samples of these species show good inter-and intra-species cross-matching, despite being collected from different areas. The quality control program, COFECHA showed that wood samples of these species exhibit 0.68 to 0.92 correlation with master chronologies and 0.23 to 0.42 mean sensitivity. Standardized dated chronologies of these species are presented which span from 212 years to 486 years with a wide range of growth rates. Residual chronologies show higher mean sensitivity (0.205-0.411) while in general, higher serial correlation was recorded in arstan chronologies. Values of expressed population signals (EPS) were higher than 0.850, which are encouraging for future advanced tree-ring investigation. It is suggested that these chronologies have a high potential for dendrohydrological investigation. However, there is a need for larger sample sizes and further extension of these chronologies into the past.

295-307 Download
22
GEOGRAPHICAL BARRIERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INDIGINOUS KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL FLORA
1MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN*

GEOGRAPHICAL BARRIERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INDIGINOUS KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL FLORA
ABSTRACT:
2ANIQA BATOOL

309-317 Download
23
OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS PADINA (DICTYOPHYCEAE, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
K. AISHA AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS PADINA (DICTYOPHYCEAE, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Six fan-shaped, striated species of Padina Adanson were collected from northernmost part of the Arabian Sea and taxonomically investigated. This the first detailed taxonomic study of the algal genus from the coast of Pakistan, based on a large survey (1989-1996) of different coastal areas of Karachi. This study revealed two new records from Pakistan et al,. P. fraseri (Greville) Greville and P. vickersiae Hoyt and two new species i.e. P. afaqhusainii Aisha et Shameel and P. nizamuddinii Aisha et Shameel. Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and P. vickersiae were found to exhibit an unusual phenomenon, syntagmatic in situ germination, i.e. all the species dividing and merging into one

319-340 Download
24
WEED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN
KHAN B. MARWAT, SAIMA HASHIM AND HAIDAR ALI

WEED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers.

341-353 Download
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