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Year 2012 , Volume  44, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
α-AMYLASE ACTIVITIES DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT AND GERMINATION IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) TREATED WITH SALICYLIC ACID
GHULAM MURTAZA1 AND REHANA ASGHAR2*

α-AMYLASE ACTIVITIES DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT AND GERMINATION IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) TREATED WITH SALICYLIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
The effects of salicylic acid on α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) activities during seed development and germination in pea (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated. The crops were planted in split-split plot fashion following randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The main plots were assigned to pea cultivars Climax, Meteor, Greenfeast and Rondo, with salicylic acid concentrations (0mM, 0.1mM and 0.01mM in water) as subplots and modes of application of salicylic acid (seed treatment; seed treatment plus foliar spray and foliar spray only) as sub-sub-plots. Samples were collected at phenological stages i.e., BBCH 73, BBCH 77, BBCH 83 and BBCH 88. The seeds obtained from the crop were used for germination experiment. The samples were collected at phenological stages BBCH 01, BBCH 03 and BBCH 05. Although a significant difference was recorded for varieties with respect to α-amylase activity during year 2003-04 and 2004-05 at all phenological growth stages. A non-significant difference was found for salicylic acid concentrations and modes of application. However a significant difference in α-amylase activity was observed for salicylic acid concentrations during both years at all phenological growth stages for BBCH 01, BBCH 03 and BBCH 05.

1823-1829 Download
2
CITRIC ACID MEDIATED PHYTOEXTRACTION OF CADMIUM BY MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
S. ANWER1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2*, M. HUSSAIN1, M. ASHRAF AND A. JAMIL3

CITRIC ACID MEDIATED PHYTOEXTRACTION OF CADMIUM BY MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the investigation was to determine the potential of citric acid for accumulation and translocation of cadmium and their effect on maize growth. The plants were grown in small plastic glasses and treated with 300 mg kg-1 CdCl2 and 0, 0.25, 0.5

1831-1836 Download
3
EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITRIC OXIDE ON GLYCINEBETAINE METABOLISM IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SEEDLINGS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
LIXIN ZHANG1,2*, YONGGUI ZHAO1, YOUYA ZHAI1, MEI GAO1, XIFENG ZHANG1, KAI WANG1, WEIGE NAN AND JIANCHAO LIU1

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITRIC OXIDE ON GLYCINEBETAINE METABOLISM IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SEEDLINGS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenously applied nitric acid (NO) source i.e., sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NO scavenger i.e.

1837-1844 Download
4
EFFECT OF NaCl SALINITY ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SEVEN WHEAT GENOTYPES
ZAHIR MUHAMMAD1* AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN2

EFFECT OF NaCl SALINITY ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SEVEN WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of seven wheat genotypes were subjected to 0.02 (control)

1845-1850 Download
5
EFFECT OF PRE-SOWING MAGNETIC FIELD TREATMENT TO GARDEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) SEED ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH
MUNAWAR IQBAL1*, DIL MUHAMMAD2, ZIA-UL-HAQ2 AND YASIR JAMIL2, M. RAZA AHMAD2

EFFECT OF PRE-SOWING MAGNETIC FIELD TREATMENT TO GARDEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) SEED ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT

1851-1856 Download
6
ROOT MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LESPEDEZA DAVURICA (L.) INTERCROPPED WITH BOTHRIOCHLOA ISCHAEMUM (L.) KENG UNDER WATER STRESS AND P APPLICATION CONDITIONS
BING-CHENG XU1,2,*, FU-RONG NIU1, DONG-PING DUAN1, WEI-ZHOU XU1 AND JIN HUANG1,2

ROOT MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LESPEDEZA DAVURICA (L.) INTERCROPPED WITH BOTHRIOCHLOA ISCHAEMUM (L.) KENG UNDER WATER STRESS AND P APPLICATION CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Root morphological traits such as root surface area (RSA), root average diameter (RAD), total root length (TRL), specific root area (SRA) and specific root length (SRL) per plant of Lespedeza davurica L. (a C3 perennial leguminous subshrub) were investigated, when intercropped with Bothriochloa ischaemum (Linn.) Keng (a C4 perennial herbaceous grass) in a pot experiment using a replacement series design. The two species were planted in the same pot at density ratios of 12:0

1857-1864 Download
7
ALLELOPATHIC IMPACT OF TWO WEEDS, CHENOPODIUM MURALE AND MALVA PARVIFLORA ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
NAJWA S. AL-JOHANI, AMEERA A. AYTAH AND TAHAR BOUTRAA*

ALLELOPATHIC IMPACT OF TWO WEEDS, CHENOPODIUM MURALE AND MALVA PARVIFLORA ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
ABSTRACT:
The allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of 2 weeds Malva parviflora and Chenopodium murale on growth and photosynthesis of barley was investigated. The barley plants were sown in plastic pots containing a compost:sand mixture and placed in growth chambers. Plants were treated with the following weed aqueous extract concentrations; 0%

1865-1872 Download
8
EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH AND OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
FAIZAN ULLAH, ASGHARI BANO AND ASIA NOSHEEN

EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH AND OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Growth regulators have previously been documented to enhance growth and improve oil and protein content of plants. This paper documents the effects of Salicylic acid (SA) and Putrescine (Put) on growth and oil quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) when exposed to drought stress. Two canola cultivars cvv. Rainbow and Dunkeld were grown under natural environmental conditions. Drought stress was imposed for 10d during flowering (90 days after sowing) until the soil moisture content decreased from 22%-9%. The growth regulators salicylic acid and Putrescine were applied @ 10-5mol/L as foliar spray 3 days after drought induction. Drought stress significantly reduced leaf relative water content (LRWC), chl a, chl b, carotenoids and soluble proteins but augmented the leaf proline, seed glucosinolates and oil erucic acid (C22:1) contents. Growth regulators were highly effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of drought stress on both the canola cultivars. The applied growth regulators maintained the water budget of canola plants, augmented the accumulation of osmolyte proline and protected photosynthetic pigments from adverse effects of drought stress. The SA was effective to reduce the drought induced accumulation of glucosinolates and erucic acid in canola oil and both the growth regulators overcame the drought induced decrease in oleic acid (C18:1). It is inferred that SA is economical and environment friendly alternative and can be implicated to improve the plant growth and oil quality of canola in current scenario of drought and climate change.

1873-1880 Download
9
TRAFFIC DENSITY, CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND SEASONAL GROWTH OF SAMANEA SAMAN (Jacq.) Merr. ON DIFFERENT POLLUTED ROADS OF KARACHI CITY
M. KABIR*, M. ZAFAR IQBAL AND M. SHAFIQ*

TRAFFIC DENSITY, CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND SEASONAL GROWTH OF SAMANEA SAMAN (Jacq.) Merr. ON DIFFERENT POLLUTED ROADS OF KARACHI CITY
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted during July 2008 to May 2009 to investigate the effects of traffic density and climatic conditions on the growth of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr., growing along different polluted roads of Karachi. Reduction in growth parameters such as leaf area, leaf fresh and dry weight, pods length, breadth, weight, seed length, breadth, weight and number of seeds per pod of S. saman were recorded at University Campus, University road, Board office road, Shaheed-e-millat road and Shahrah-e-Faisal during different seasons of the year. Some visual observations as canopy, fruit, seed production and leaf color were also recorded periodically which showed variation at different sites. Results indicated that S. saman at control site are growing as fast as they are given the favorable resources such as climatic factors which includes heat index, chill, humidity, temperature and wind speed available to them but road-side pollution stressed the growth. Climatic conditions were comparatively different on the city roads as compared to University Campus. The automobiles density has significantly (p<0.05) reduced the leaf area of S. saman at Shahrah-e-Faisal in summer season. This might be that during summer, growth was already slow, therefore the effects of pollutants on plants were more pronounced. These findings demonstrated that traffic density and harsh climatic conditions showed poor appearance and reduction in the reproductive parts and biomass of S. saman.

1881-1890 Download
10
IMPACTS OF RICE PLANT ROOTS ON THE VARIATION IN ELECTRO-PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL WATERS
MUHAMMAD FARRAKH NAWAZ1,2*, GUILHEM BOURRIÉ3, SADAF GUL4, FABIENNE TROLARD3, IRFAN AHMAD1, M. AYYOUB TANVIR1 AND JEAN-CLAUDE MOURET5

IMPACTS OF RICE PLANT ROOTS ON THE VARIATION IN ELECTRO-PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL WATERS
ABSTRACT:
Lowland rice crop is cultivated under continuous flooding and anaerobic conditions but rhizospheric region of the rice plants can have different physico-chemical conditions than in the absence of roots. However, it is very difficult to measure all physico-chemical parameters instantaneously in the rhizosphere because this region, being highly dynamic, altering rapidly those parameters of surrounding soil waters. Present study has compared the evolution of electro-physico-chemical properties (pH, redox potentials (pe), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and temperature) of soil waters during a complete day at two different phenological stages in the presence of rice roots (rhizosphere) and in the absence of roots to analyse the effect of rhizosphere on soil waters. In the rhizosphere, pH of soil waters was found comparatively low (<7) as compared to absence of roots (>7). Similarly, small EC values were observed in the rhizosphere. Great fluctuations (diurnal patterns) were observed during the complete days which were directly associated to atmospheric conditions (temperature and light) and rhizospheric activity, and these fluctuations were more during vegetative phase as compared to maturation stage of rice. It was also observed that incorporation of crop residues resulted in the more reductive conditions in the rice culture.

1891-1896 Download
11
POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF BRETSCHNEIDERA SINENSIS (HEMSLEY), A RARE AND ENDANGERED TREE IN CHINA
QI QIAO1,2, HONGFENG CHEN 2*, FUWU XING 2, FAGUO WANG 2, WENCHAO ZHONG 2, XIANGYING WEN 2 AND XIAOGAI HOU 1

POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF BRETSCHNEIDERA SINENSIS (HEMSLEY), A RARE AND ENDANGERED TREE IN CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Bretschneidera sinensis, a monotypic species mainly distributed in China, was listed in National Key Protected Wild Plants as a rare and tertiary relict tree. Pollination ecology of B. sinensis was studied to reveal its floral morphology, breeding system and possible bottlenecks for its weak natural regeneration. Results indicated that B. sinensis has an outcrossing-entomophily breeding system with protogyny and a high P/O ratio, and is pollinated by a variety of insects, with the main pollinators belonging to Hymenoptera. It was the integrative factor that contributed to its low fruit production. The fragmentation of the habitat with increased inbreeding might be the most important factor for the diminution of this rare species. Other factors in reproduction also cause the low fruit production, includes low numbers of flowering individuals, low pollen transfer efficacy, weak fruit retention and the short flowering season etc. Meanwhile, bottlenecks in subsequent life history stages, such as low survivorship of seeds and lack of seedlings were also observed which indicated reduced fitness for its population development.

1897-1903 Download
12
TRADE POTENTIAL AND CONSERVATION ISSUES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DISTRICT SWAT, PAKISTAN
HAIDAR ALI1, HABIB AHMAD2, K.B. MARWAT3, M. YOUSAF4, BAKHTIAR GUL3, AND IKRAMULLAH KHAN3

TRADE POTENTIAL AND CONSERVATION ISSUES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DISTRICT SWAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Use of medicinal plants for various health disorders is a common practice especially in rural areas. Poor economic condition and lack of modern health care facilities in remote areas are the major reasons for adopting traditional medicine. Mingora is considered as the main center of trade of medicinal plants not only of Swat but of the entire Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region of Pakistan. The city was analyzed for the trade potential of local medicinal plants. The present study reported trade and marketing profile of 99 species collected locally and sold in the national and international markets. A total of 99 taxa were collected belonging to 55 families and 80 genera. Helvellaceae was at the top among the largest families with 9 taxa, followed by Asteraceae and Solanacea with 8 and 6 taxa respectively. Among the life form Chamaephyte was at the top with 27 taxa (27.27%), followed by Hemicryptophyte, Phanerophyte, Therophyte, Geophyte and Parasite with 25 (25.25%)

1905-1912 Download
13
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA var. AMBRI) PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY IN KOTLI SATIAN, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
AISHA ASGHAR1, SYEDA MARIA ALI1* AND AZRA YASMIN2

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA var. AMBRI) PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY IN KOTLI SATIAN, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Study was undertaken to investigate the long term and short term effect of climate change on apple production in Kotli Sattian area of Rawalpindi District, using Malus domestica var. Ambri L. as an indicator. Climate data for previous 30 years (i.e. 1979-2009) was correlated with net apple production per year. The study also explored other supporting ecological factors like metal content analysis and current soil status (pH, moisture content, organic matter, soil texture) of the orchard’s soil. This investigation revealed that all physico-chemical parameters were supporting production but it declined mainly due to drastic climate change aspects including unusual seasonal variations, elongated summer periods and unusual rainfall periods. In context of questionnaires results, an overwhelming number of farmers (91%) were of the opinion that climate change was the main factor behind decline apple production. The case study served as an effort to bring awareness in the local farmers about the devastating effects of climate changes to help them and improve apple production in Pakistan through enhanced agricultural practices.

1913-1918 Download
14
IDENTIFYING THE MOST PROMISING GENOTYPES IN LENTIL FOR CULTIVATION IN A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTS OF PAKISTAN USING VARIOUS YIELD STABILITY MEASURES
ASGHAR ALI1*, MUHAMMAD ASIF MASOOD2 AND M. ASHRAF ZAHID1

IDENTIFYING THE MOST PROMISING GENOTYPES IN LENTIL FOR CULTIVATION IN A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTS OF PAKISTAN USING VARIOUS YIELD STABILITY MEASURES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to identify the most promising high yielding lentil genotype for a wide range of environments of Pakistan using 8 stability measures. The experiment consisted of 12 lentil genotypes grown at 11 locations falling in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan for 2 years during 2006/07 and 2007/08 under national uniform yield testing. The General Linear Model (GLM) of MINITAB (version 15) was used for two-way analysis of variance for lentil yield data to examine the total variation into genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction. The percent variation of 2 major contributors, environment and GxE interaction, was permissible to perform stability analysis to evaluate stable genotypes across the environments. The genotype x environment interaction means were used for eight stability measures (genotype mean, genotype variance, coefficient of variation, ecovalence, interaction variance, regression slope, deviation mean square, coefficient of determination). The stability measures depicted that the genotype NARC-06-1 with high mean yield (1140 kg/ha-1), regression slope (1.09) close to unity and less statistics of remaining stability measures except high value of R2 for yield proved to be the best within the pool of studied genotypes. The results clearly suggest that the genotype NARC-06-1 may prove to be a widely adapted high yielding stable variety for a broad spectrum of environments of Pakistan.

1919-1922 Download
15
IMPACT OF SEWAGE WATER ON VEGETABLES QUALITY WITH RESPECT TO HEAVY METALS IN PESHAWAR PAKISTAN
SAJIDA PERVEEN, ABDUS SAMAD, WAJAHAT NAZIF AND SADAQAT SHAH

IMPACT OF SEWAGE WATER ON VEGETABLES QUALITY WITH RESPECT TO HEAVY METALS IN PESHAWAR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present research study was conducted to analyze the impact of sewage water on vegetables quality with respect to heavy metals in Peshawar Pakistan. Forty samples each of soil, water and vegetables leaves and edible portions were collected from 40 different localities around Peshawar city. Water from Warsak Canal and Bara River, polluted with sewage or waste water, was being used as irrigation source in these localities. The water and soil samples were analyzed for pH, EC and heavy metals (Nickel, Cadmium, Lead and Chromium). All the water samples were slightly alkaline whereas only two water samples had EC above the safe limit. The concentrations of Cr was within the safe limit in all the water samples while that of Ni, Pb and Cd were found in toxic range in 18

1923-1931 Download
16
MAIZE GROWTH AND YIELD IN PESHAWAR UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE
ABDULLAH SHAH1, M. AKMAL1*, M. ASIM1, FARHATULLAH2, RAZIUDDIN2 AND ABDUL RAFI3

MAIZE GROWTH AND YIELD IN PESHAWAR UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE
ABSTRACT:
Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24

1933-1938 Download
17
EFFECT OF WEED DENSITY ON LEAF AREA INDEX AND BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF MAIZE
MUHAMMAD SAEED1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, BAKHTIAR GUL1 AND ZAHID HUSSAIN1

EFFECT OF WEED DENSITY ON LEAF AREA INDEX AND BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Competition studies between maize and weed were undertaken during summer season of 2006 and 2007 at Agricultural Research Farm, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. A Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design was used with split plot arrangements, having twenty eight treatments and three replications. Four plant spacings viz.

1939-1942 Download
18
RESPONSE OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN POPULUS × CANESCENS UNDER CADMIUM STRESS
HUIPING DAI1,2, CHANGJUAN SHAN3, CHAO LU4,GGENLIANG JIA5, ANZHI WEI6*, SA WENQING2 AND TUXI YANG6*

RESPONSE OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN POPULUS × CANESCENS UNDER CADMIUM STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Hydroponic experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Populus canescens were exposed to different levels of Cd2+ (0

1943-1949 Download
19
ESTIMATION OF COMBINING ABILITY IN F2 POPULATION OF UPLAND COTTON UNDER DROUGHT AND NON-DROUGHT REGIMES
MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN SOOMRO1*, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND1 AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1,2

ESTIMATION OF COMBINING ABILITY IN F2 POPULATION OF UPLAND COTTON UNDER DROUGHT AND NON-DROUGHT REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
A six-by-six complete Gossypium hirsutum L., diallel cross was evaluated for general and specific combining abilities in F2 generation during 2006 under drought and non drought conditions at Shah Abdul Latif University Farm, Khairpur. The characters considered were plant height, leaf area, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, number of leaves per plant, number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant. Irrigation treatments were three; normal seven irrigations schedule upto 150 days of crop maturity, four irrigations (medium stress) upto 150 days of crop maturity and two irrigations upto 150 days of maturity (stress conditions). General and specific combining ability analysis revealed that the mean squares for GCA and SCA were significant for all the characters under all the irrigation treatments. The general combining ability estimates of parents for all the characters under study and under all the irrigation treatments were highest for CRIS-134 except for boll weight under four irrigations where CRIS-52 excelled all the parents. Similarly, CRIS-9 followed CRIS-134 in GCA estimates scoring, and ranked second in all irrigation treatments and for all the characters except for boll weight under seven irrigations (where MARVI was second highest), under four irrigations here CRIS-110 was second highest) and under two irrigations where CRIS-52 was second highest. Thus GCA estimates of parents for boll weight are affected by drought conditions and therefore in the selection of desirable parents to give desirable combinations for boll weight, only those combinations be selected with highly significant difference for boll weight towards bigger boll size. Testing of such combinations is recommended to continue upto F5 and F6 generations to get homogeneity of high performing lines/advance strains. As regards to specific combining ability estimates, hybrid CRIS-9 x CRIS-134 gave highest SCA value of 11.54 for seed cotton yield under seven irrigations treatment, while CRIS-9 x CRIS-191 gave highest SCA value of 9.91 under four irrigations treatment for seed cotton yield. Under stress conditions (two irrigations), CRIS-9 x CRIS-134 gave highest SCA value of 12.35 for seed cotton yield. As the seed cotton yield is the main and important attribute for almost all the stakeholders, therefore it is suggested that the particular hybrid CRIS-9 x CRIS-134 may be produced which in present study, has been isolated to give highest SCA values under normal as well as under drought conditions (only two irrigations).

1951-1958 Download
20
FAILURE OF SURVIVAL STRATEGIES IN ADAPTION OF HEAVY METAL ENVIRONMENT IN LENS CULINARIS AND PHASEOLUS MUNGO
SABA HAIDER1 AND RAFIA AZMAT2*

FAILURE OF SURVIVAL STRATEGIES IN ADAPTION OF HEAVY METAL ENVIRONMENT IN LENS CULINARIS AND PHASEOLUS MUNGO
ABSTRACT:
Lead (Pb)-treated Lens culinaris and Phaseolus mungo seedlings leaves showed considerable reduction in the size with enhance proline and phenol contents while peroxidase and lignin activity was Pb2+ dose dependent. The reduced leaves sizes of both seedlings were correlated with an increase in Pb2+ levels, and activities of peroxidase and lignin deposition in it. The intensification of activities of peroxidase and phenol in the Pb2+ treated plants were accompanied by an increase in the biosynthesis of the lignin contents as their function is of scavenging ROS radical. A strong correlation (r2=0.8570) was observed between Pb2+ and lignin deposition in the Lens culinaris whereas it was non-significant in Phaseolus mungo (r2=0.466). Increased in the lignin contents in the Lens culinaris as a chemical adaptation of the cell walls of various leaves tissues for endurance while decrease in the lignin contents in Phaseolus mungo at high dose of Pb2+may be attributed with the decline in the peroxidase activity. Investigations revealed that although plants adopt several biochemical strategies for their survival but toxicity of Pb2+was significant due to which plant fails to continue in stay alive.

1959-1964 Download
21
DIRECT SHOOT REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CV. DHAKKI AS A MEANS OF MICROPROPAGATION
SAIFULLAH KHAN* AND TABASSUM BI BI

DIRECT SHOOT REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CV. DHAKKI AS A MEANS OF MICROPROPAGATION
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed atin vitro multiplication of date palm (cv. Dhakki) via direct shoot regeneration. Initially, screening of media with various supplements (activated charcoal, citric acid and ascorbic acid) was carried out to evaluate the maximum survival of cultures, followed by the analysis of different explants for their competence for direct shoot regeneration. The explants were cultured on media supplemented with 1 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 3 mg/l 2-isopentenyladenin (2-iP) and 3 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP). Shoot tips revealed the highest capacity for direct shoot regeneration among all the explants tested. Following the direct emergence of 2-3 shoots, explants were shifted to various shoot proliferation media. The medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l Kinetin and 1 mg/l NAA proved effective for achieving optimum number of shoots with appropriate length. The rooting medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA resulted in maximum number of roots per shoot. However, date palm plantlets rooted on medium containing 0.5 mg/l NAA observed with highest survival efficiency after eight weeks of ex vitro transplantation.

1965-1971 Download
22
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF OILS FROM ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW
WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM1*, MUHAMMAD NISAR2, MUGHAL QAYUM3, SALIMULLAH KHAN1, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ4 AND M. I. CHOUDHARY5

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF OILS FROM ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW
ABSTRACT:
The oil obtained by solid phase extraction of the n-hexane fraction from stem (WO-1 and WO-2) and leaves (WO-5) of Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew was evaluated In vitro for their antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential. Bacterial strains used for the experiment were Bacillus subtilis, Escherchia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi Shigella flexeneri, and Staphylococcus aureus while fungal strains used were Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida glaberata, Fusarium solani, Microspoum canis and Trichophyton longifusis. The tested samples did not show any activity against any of above mentioned bacterial strains while in case of antifungal activity, fractions WO-1, WO-2 and WO-5 exhibited low activity against Microsporum canis and Aspergilus flavus respectively. The crude oil sub-fraction WO-2 and WO-5 exhibited significant phytotoxicity at higher concentration (1000 mg/mL) against Lemna minor plant. WO-1 and WO-5 revealed moderate and good insecticidal activity against Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum respectively. In brine shrimp lethality assay, no cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration by any oil fraction.

1973-1976 Download
23
CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON 14 PLANT SPECIES UNDER POLLUTED CONDITIONS
SADAF ZOHAIR1*, SURAYYA KHATOON1 AND SAHAR ZAIDI2

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON 14 PLANT SPECIES UNDER POLLUTED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Thirty four specimens of 14 species belonging to Cyperaceae and Poaceae growing in the vicinity of industries, agricultural fields and a combination of both were collected in and around Karachi. The study aimed to find out how the plants are affected by a long-term exposure to a number of pollutants focusing on the meiotic behavior (precocious chromosomes, chromosomal stickening, split spindles, lagging chromosomes), dyads formation and pollen stertility. The percentage of meiotic abnormalities in the specimens from polluted sites was significantly higher as compared to their respective controls. The specimens from polluted localities showed a greater tendency to produce dyads as compared to controls. Voucher specimens of 9 species produced significant number of sterile pollens under polluted condition.

1977-1982 Download
24
AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING SUGARBEET WITH OILSEEDS AND LENTIL
M. U. USMANIKHAIL1*, S.D. TUNIO1, G.H. JAMRO1, F.C. OAD1, SYED WASEEM UL HASSAN1, Q.D.CHACHAR1, M. ALI KHANZADA1 AND A.W. GANDAHI1

AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING SUGARBEET WITH OILSEEDS AND LENTIL
ABSTRACT:
In order to evaluate the effect of intercropping sugar beet with oilseeds (mustard and canola) and lentil, three sugar beet varieties viz., Kaweterma, Aura and Pamela were tested against 4 intercropping systems (sugar beet sole, sugar beet + mustard, sugar beet + canola, and sugar beet + lentil). The study was carried out for two successive years and results showed that the sole plantation of sugar beet varieties showed significantly higher values for growth, yield and quality traits. Sole planting of sugar beet variety Kaweterma showed superiority over rest of intercropping treatments by recording maximum beet root weight, beet yield, leaves plant-1, leaf length, leaf area, vertical diameter of beet, horizontal diameter of beet, total dry matter, Pol, sugar recovery, brix, purity, N uptake and P uptake. The minimum values of sugar beet varieties were observed in cropping system of canola and mustard. In this study sugar beet variety Kaweterma produced highest monetary benefits when planted as sole or with lentil. It is concluded that sugar beet varieties viz., Kaweterma, Aura and Pamela planted as sole had showed significantly better results and or intercropped with lentil. Among the sugar beet varieties, Kaweterma had excellent performance for growth, yield and quality traits. Sugar beet yields and monetary benefits were also maximum in lentil intercropping compared to cereals and oilseeds intercroppings. It is recommended that intercropping of sugar beet variety Kaweterma with lentil should be practised for higher qualitative, quantitative and monetary benefits.

1983-1988 Download
25
AFLP ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION AMONG CLONED, SEED PRODUCED AND WILD CAMELLIA SINENSIS VAR. ASSAMICA TEA PLANT IN YUNNAN, CHINA
PENG-ZHANG JI1,2*, JUN GAO3, MING-ZHI LIANG1 AND XING-QI HUANG1

AFLP ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION AMONG CLONED, SEED PRODUCED AND WILD CAMELLIA SINENSIS VAR. ASSAMICA TEA PLANT IN YUNNAN, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variation and differentiation in cloned, seed produced, and wild tea plants of Camellia sinensis var. assamica were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Population diversity was highest in the wild and lowest in the cloned tea plants. Analysis of molecular variance revealed great variation among the groups (31.40%). Furthermore, a dendrogram constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance and principal component analysis clustered the tea population into three groups. Taken together, our study demonstrated that there is wide genetic variation among cloned, seed produced and wild tea plants of var. assamica in Yunnan.

1989-1992 Download
26
COMPARATIVE SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING OF MUNG BEAN GENOTYPES
AMJAD HAMEED1*, MEMUNA QURESHI2, MUHAMMAD NAWAZ2AND NAYYER IQBAL1

COMPARATIVE SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING OF MUNG BEAN GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Seed storage protein profiling of mung bean genotypes was performed by SDS-PAGE. Total soluble seed proteins from mung bean seeds were resolved on 12% gels in 22 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 16 to 103 kDa. Very low level of variability was observed in tested genotypes. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data grouped the 13 genotypes into three clusters at 93% homology. A total of 5 genotypes (NM 13-1, NM 2006, NM 92, Chakwal 97 and Mung 88) were grouped together in the cluster-1. The 2nd cluster consisted of one genotype i.e. AZRI 2006 which was most divergent in the tested germplasm. Seed storage peptide i.e., MSSP-19 differentiated the genotype, AZRI 2006 from rest of tested genotypes and thus can be used for its identification. Remaining seven genotypes grouped together in the 3rd cluster. Based on seed storage protein marker i.e. MSSP-82, NM 2006, can also be differentiated from one of its parent genotype i.e., NM 92. Uniprot and NCBI protein databases were searched for already reported and characterized seed storage proteins in mung bean. Based on information retrieved from the databases and search engines, the resolved protein peptides mainly belong to 8S and 7S vicilin

1993-1999 Download
27
THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF OIL PALM SEEDLINGS TO GANODERMA BONINENSE INFECTION
K.P. CHONG1*, A. MARKUS2 AND S. ROSSALL3

THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF OIL PALM SEEDLINGS TO GANODERMA BONINENSE INFECTION
ABSTRACT:
Optimal yield production of oil palm in Malaysia and other countries of South East Asia are hampered by the presence of devastating Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. For more than 40 years, Ganoderma remained to be the most serious problem in many areas in Malaysia and Indonesia. But unfortunately, there is no single reliable application in suppressing or controlling either the disease severity or a promising resistant variety of oil palm to this pathogen. AVROS is the most commonly planted oil palm variety in Sabah derived from the Dura x Psifera (D x P) and claimed to be more resistant to G. boninense in comparison to other commercial varieties. In this paper the susceptibility of AVROS to G. boninense is compared to two other varieties; Calabar and Ekona which have the same Dura but with African origin Psifera. In general, the accumulation of the ergosterol, a specific indicator associated with fungi, increased significantly throughout the study in all the three varieties indicating increasing of infection. Varieties of Ekona and Calabar were found to be more susceptible to G. boninense based on the higher content of ergosterol found in root compared to AVROS at week four, five and six. The ergosterol results are also supported by the disease severity score as described by Horsfall and Barratt

2001-2004 Download
28
SCREENING OF SUNFLOWER POPULATIONS FOR SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS THROUGH STEP-WISE REGRESSION ANALYSIS
NAEEM AKHTAR1*, TALAT MAHOOD2, SALMAN AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, MUHAMMAD SALEEM ARIF3 AND SAEED RAUF1

SCREENING OF SUNFLOWER POPULATIONS FOR SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS THROUGH STEP-WISE REGRESSION ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Improving achene yield is the principal breeding objective for sunflower improvement and its commercial acceptance. Therefore, selection was practiced in six sunflower populations for seed yield. Step-wise regression analysis revealed two variable model including head diameter and achene weight for the improvement of sunflower populations 2 and 3 accounting 48.7 and 73.0% variability in seed yield per plant, respectively. Sunflower population 5 accounted minimum variability 42.6% for improvement by including achene weight, leaves per plant and distance from head to soil surface. However, populations 1 and 4 accounted maximum variability of 73.0 and 74.3%, respectively for seed yield per plant. Four variable (head diameter, achene weight, bird damage and stem diameter) and five variable models (achene weight, head diameter, plant height, leaves per plant and internodal length) were best fitted for sunflower populations 4 and 1, respectively. From the study it is evident that selection of head diameter and 100-achene weight may be effective for seed yield improvement in sunflower.

2005-2008 Download
29
STUDY OF TOTAL SEED PROTEINS PATTERN OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) LANDRACES VIA SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE)
FAZAL AKBAR1, NAHIDA YOUSAF2, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1 AND M. SHAHID MASOOD2

STUDY OF TOTAL SEED PROTEINS PATTERN OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) LANDRACES VIA SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE)
ABSTRACT:
The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7

2009-2014 Download
30
INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CROP RESIDUE AND N FERTILIZER FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION
MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN2, FARHATULLAH3*, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, MOHAMMAD ZAHIR AFRIDI1, AHMAD KHAN1 AND HABIB AKBAR1

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CROP RESIDUE AND N FERTILIZER FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during winter 2005-2006. The treatments consisted of crop residue (stover & legume residue), two type of fertilizer-N (NH4-N & NO3-N) and their application time i.e. at sowing and 2nd node appearance stage. Higher spikes m-2 and grain yield were recorded for nitrate-N application in split at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 in combination with legume residue. Likewise, the highest grains spike-1 was recorded for legume and cereal residue application along with nitrate and ammonium N application at the rate of 100 kg ha-1, respectively. However

2015-2019 Download
31
MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOVEL 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENOMIC SEQUENCES OF A WIDE RANGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
SADIA BANARAS1, SITWAT AMAN2, MARYAM ZAFAR2, MUDASSAR KHAN2, SAFDAR ABBAS2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1 AND SAMINA N SHAKEEL2*

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOVEL 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENOMIC SEQUENCES OF A WIDE RANGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are universally distributed and known for their functional equivalence among all the known organisms. Analysis of small-subunit rRNAs (16-18S rRNAs) can permit the accurate statistical measurement of a broad range of phylogenetic relationships due to highly conserved sequences. Therefore, we identified and partially sequenced novel isoforms of 18S rRNA gene from 7 wild, medicinal plants (Ferocactus glaucescens, Capparis decidua, Calatropis procera, Maytenus royleana, Prosopis Juliflora, Ficus carica and Mentha spicata) and three cultivated plants (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Eruca sativa and Solanum lycopersicum). The genomic sequences of 18S rRNA from all of these diverse plants were analyzed and confirmed by using bioinformatics tools and submitted to genebank. We used ClustalW for pairwise alignment of these novel sequences with other known 18S rRNA sequences to find out their phylogenetic relationships. Our results have shown highly conserved nature of 18S rRNA with variable regions might be indications of some historical signals. Secondary structure constrains of rRNA can affect their phylogenetic interpretations rarely. These novel 18S rRNA sequences can also be used as internal controls for several types of molecular analysis after accurate validations of their consistent expression in the given plant species in future studies, as less is known about these housekeeping genes of wild plants.

2021-2026 Download
32
INHERITANCE OF SEED COTTON YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
AQSA TABASUM*, IRUM AZIZ, MUHAMMAD JAWAD ASGHAR AND MUHAMMAD ZAFFAR IQBAL

INHERITANCE OF SEED COTTON YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Different genetic parameters and relationships of seed cotton yield with yield related traits were estimated among thirty upland cotton genotypes. Fuzzy seed weight and non fuzzy seed weight showed lesser genetic variability while cotyledonary leaf area, gossypol glands, emergence %, and seed cotton yield exhibited intermediate range of variability. Sufficient genetic variability was observed only for fuzz weight. Heritability values were significant and moderate to high for all the traits. High heritability estimates were found for seed cotton yield followed by cotyledonary leaf area. Fuzzy seed weight, non fuzzy seed weight, leaf area, gossypol glands and emergence % exhibited significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed cotton yield. Fuzz weight of single seed showed significant negative genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed cotton yield. Adequate genetic potential was observed in cotton genotypes under study and information generated here in regarding heritability and other genetic parameters might be useful for establishing selection criteria for improvement of seed yield.

2027-2031 Download
33
ESTIMATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG ELITE WHEAT GENOTYPES USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
SAJIDA BIBI1, IMTIAZ A. KHAN1, M. UMAR DAHOT2, ABDULLAH KHATRI1, M. H. NAQVI1, M. AQUIL SIDDIQUI1, SHAFQAT YASMEEN1 AND NIGHAT SEEMA1

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG ELITE WHEAT GENOTYPES USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty four wheat varieties/lines were assessed through RAPD for genetic diversity. Of forty primers, thirteen were able to amplify the genomic DNA and yielded 269 polymorphic bands. The percentage of the polymorphic loci was 86.22%. Nei’s genetic diversity (h) ranged from 0.248 to 0.393, with an average of 0.330. Shanon’s index (I) ranged from 0.382 to 0.567, with an average of 0.487. The proportion of genetic variation among the populations (Ds) accounted for 28.58 % of the whole gentic diversity. The level of gene flow (Nm) was 1.25. Some specific RAPD bands were also identified, variety C-591, and QM-4531 contain a specific segment of 4.9kbp. Whereas SARC-1 and PKV-1600 amplified a specific DNA segment with primer A-09. Marvi-2000 contains two specific segments of 3.2kb and 200bp amplified with primer B-07. Genetically most similar genotypes were C-591 and Pasban-90 (76%) and most dissimilar genotypes were Rawal-87 and Khirman (36.1%). On the basis of results

2033-2040 Download
34
CONSTRUCTION OF EUKARYOTIC PLANT EXPRESSION VECTOR WITH THE SAG12 PROMOTER AND THE LEAF SENESCENCE–RELATED IPT GENE AND ITS GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN RICE
PINGZHONG CAI1,2, QIUFANG QIAN1, ZHENHUI KANG1, ZHIYONG ZHANG2 AND GUIXUE WANG1*

CONSTRUCTION OF EUKARYOTIC PLANT EXPRESSION VECTOR WITH THE SAG12 PROMOTER AND THE LEAF SENESCENCE–RELATED IPT GENE AND ITS GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
A pair of primers was designed according to the sequences published by GenBank to amplify the isopentenyl transferase gene (ipt gene) of the plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain C58). The 5′-untranslated sequence of the senescence-associated SAG12 gene of Arabidopsis was isolated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we constructed the plant-expression vectors (pBI121-ipt and pCAMBIA1301-SAG12-ipt), which were regulated by the SAG12 promoter and the ipt gene. The plant-expression vector was used to transform the embryos of rice cultivar Zhonghua 16 with the help of the A. tumefaciens system. Plantlets were regenerated in vitro by selection on medium containing hygromycin. PCR amplification showed that the target gene was successfully integrated into the transformed plants.

2041-2046 Download
35
STUDIES ON MATURASE K SEQUENCES AND SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF BULBOPHYLLUM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
SHAHLA HOSSEINI1,4, RUSEA GO1*, KOUROSH DADKHAH2 AND AHMAD AINUDDIN NURUDDIN3

STUDIES ON MATURASE K SEQUENCES AND SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF BULBOPHYLLUM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
ABSTRACT:
Bulbophyllum Thou. is a largest genus in Orchidaceae family and a well-known plant of tropical area. In this study original nucleotide sequence data of matures K (matK) were collected froms 53 species of Bulbophyllum and used to infer the species interrelationship with maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Alignment between matK sequences from 53 species of Bulbophyllum was performed, and discovered that the average percentage sequence divergence within Bulbophyllum species was 2.4%, and maximum in-group divergence was 8.8% between Bulbophyllum tenuifolium with Bulbophyllum ovalifolium and Bulbophyllum mutabile. Furthermore, there are 179 mutation sites and 107 information sites in matK sequences, respectively 20.38% and 12.18%. Molecular systematic analysis of matK was revealed that several of the currently recognised sections are consistent in structure with the viewpoint of traditional classification except of sections Desmosanthes, Hirtula and Sestochilus which was contained misplaced elements. In addition presumably, generic status of section Cirrhopetalum cannot longer be supported, as it is deeply embedded within the genus Bulbophyllum and section Desmosanthes is a sister group to Cirrhopetalum with high nodal support.

2047-2054 Download
36
DISTRIBUTION PATTERN, ECOLOGY AND ENDEMISM OF FAMILY CRASSULACEAE IN PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

DISTRIBUTION PATTERN, ECOLOGY AND ENDEMISM OF FAMILY CRASSULACEAE IN PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassulaceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa

2055-2061 Download
37
MICRO-STRUCTURE STUDIES ON CHIRITA AND UTRICULARIA OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
CHEW MING YEE 1,2, RAFIDAH ABDUL RAHMAN 1,2 AND NOORMA WATI HARON2*

MICRO-STRUCTURE STUDIES ON CHIRITA AND UTRICULARIA OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
ABSTRACT:
Chirita Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don are herbs of limestone while Utricularia L. are small carnivorous herbs of wet habitats. Seed testa surface has proved to provide diagnostic characters for sections Chirita and Microchirita C.B.Clarke in the genus Chirita, replacing the stigma character previously used and showed less variation, therefore caused confusion in the past. Chirita lacunosa (Hook.f.) B.L. Burtt from section Chirita (the only species in this section in Peninsular Malaysia) has a reticulate testa while other species from section Microchirita possess knobbly or cannicolate testa. For the genus Utricularia, species from section Phyllaria (Kurz) Kamiénski often show variable macro-characters, but micro-characters such as seed testa are less variable and provide diagnostic characters for species determination. For example, a specimen from the highlands of Kelantan was distinguished from the similar morphology but more common Utricularia striatula Sm. by its testa and could be identified as U. furcellata Oliv., a rare species formerly recorded only from North East India. The testa cells of U. furcellata have long processes with knobbly tips, while those of U. striatula have glochidiate processes with stellate tips. SEM model JOEL and FEI were used to examine both genera.

2063-2066 Download
38
COMPARISON FOR PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FARM-GROWN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHN. WITH CONVENTIONAL TIMBERS
A.R. AWAN1*, M.I. CHUGHTAI1, M.Y. ASHRAF1, K. MAHMOOD1, M. RIZWAN 1, M. AKHTAR1, M.T. SIDDIQUI2 AND R.A. KHAN2

COMPARISON FOR PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FARM-GROWN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHN. WITH CONVENTIONAL TIMBERS
ABSTRACT:
This paper deals with physical and mechanical wood quality properties of farm-grown Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. in comparison to conventional timbers i.e., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Acacia nilotica Del. and Cedrus deodara Roxb. Tests were conducted using standardized, defect-free test specimens as per corresponding mechanical property. The mean values of wood density, static bending-MOR, maximum compressive strength parallel to grain and perpendicular to grain, maximum tensile strength, impact bending and nail holding capacity of E. camaldulensis were recorded as 0.681 g cm-3

2067-2070 Download
39
A SURVEY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS) IN THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF ROOT-KNOT DISEASE CAUSED BY MELOIDOGYNE SPP.
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD HUSSAIN1, TARIQ MUKHTAR2,*, MUHAMMAD ZAMEER KAYANI3, MUHAMMAD NAVEED ASLAM4 AND M. IRFAN UL-HAQUE2

A SURVEY OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS) IN THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF ROOT-KNOT DISEASE CAUSED BY MELOIDOGYNE SPP.
ABSTRACT:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is one of the important vegetables of the tropical and subtropical areas. In Pakistan okra is cultivated on thousands of hectares but the yield obtained is relatively lower, for which there are many constraints including prevalence of diseases caused by different pathogens. Among various pathogens responsible for the low yield, the root-knot disease incited by Meloidogyne spp., is of considerable economic importance and cause annual losses in tropics to an extent of 22 per cent. As there is meager information regarding the association of root-knot nematodes with okra in the country, the present studies were conducted in 17 districts of the Punjab province of the country to determine the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of root-knot nematodes in okra cultivations in the vegetable growing areas of Punjab. The survey revealed that root-knot nematodes prevailed in 85.28% of okra fields with an average incidence of 38.89%. Hundred per cent prevalence was recorded in Multan, Okara, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan and Rawalpindi districts and a minimum prevalence of 22.4% was found in Lodhran district. The incidence was above 60% in Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Vehari and was only 4.44% in Lodhran. The severity of infection of the nematodes was highest in Bahawalnagar and Vehari, while it was the lowest in Lodhran. Of the four most common root-knot species, M. incognita constituted 74.74%, M. javanica 24.02%, M. arenaria 1.57% and M. hapla 0.78%.

2071-2075 Download
40
INCIDENCE OF ROOT ROT DISEASES OF SOYBEAN IN MULTAN PAKISTAN AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY THE USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
M. INAM-UL-HAQ1, SAJID MEHMOOD2, HAFIZ MUJEEBUR REHMAN4, ZAHID ALI3 AND M.I. TAHIR1

INCIDENCE OF ROOT ROT DISEASES OF SOYBEAN IN MULTAN PAKISTAN AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY THE USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil borne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries.

2077-2080 Download
41
USE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI FOR THE CONTROL OF MUSTARD APHID (LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI) ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
AZIZ AHMED UJJAN* AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

USE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI FOR THE CONTROL OF MUSTARD APHID (LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI) ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out to assess the virulence of 4 local and 3 exotic entomopathogenic fungal strains against mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) under laboratory and screen house conditions. According to LC50 and LT50 values, four strains viz., Lecanicillium lecanii (PDRL922), Paecilomyces lilacinus (PDRL812), Beauveria bassiana (PDRL1187) and Metarhizium anisopliae (PDRL526) are found to be effective against the mustard aphid. The strain PDRL711 of M. anisopliae was found less effective, whereas, strains PDRL738 of M. anisopliae and PDRL1029 of L. lecanii were found avirulent. Based on the lab bioassays, each entomopathogenic fungal strain was used @ 107 c.f.u. ml-1 to evaluate its efficacy against mustard aphid infestation on canola plants under screen house conditions. Data showed a non-significant reduction in efficacy of different strains under screen house conditions as compared to lab bioassays. Strain PDRL922 reduced its efficacy from 98 to 83%, strain PDRL812 from 100 to 73% and Strain PDRL1187 from 88 to 77%. However, strain PDRL526 showed as increase in efficacy from 72 to 83% and strain PDRL711 from 44 to 70%. Strains PDRL1029 and PDRL738 appeared to be avirulent during lab as well as screen house trials. The study revealed that the strain PDRL526 of M. anisopliae, PDRL922 of L. lecanii, PDRL1187 of B. bassiana, PDRL812 of P. lilacinus, and PDRL711 of M. anisopliae have potential for use as bio-pesticides against mustard aphid under field conditions.

2081-2086 Download
42
SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COLONIZATION AND SPORE NUMBERS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA L. AND TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.
GUORONG XIN1*, SHAOPING YE1, 4, EN WU2, YUTAO WANG1 AND KAZUO SUGAWARA3

SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COLONIZATION AND SPORE NUMBERS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA L. AND TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.
ABSTRACT:
The seasonal dynamics in the colonization of the rhizosphere of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the production of spores in an artifical Japanese grassland was investigated over 12 months (between December 2001 and December 2002). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization fluctuated seasonally in the rhizosphere of both pastures. The total AM fungal colonization of the two pastures decreased during winter, then increased from March to June as the pastures grew, but slightly decreased again in July and August, and again followed an increase in September. There was significant difference of the colonization by arbuscules and vesicles between the two pastures (p<0.05). Besides, the vesicular colonization of orchardgrass was higher than that of white clover, but the opposite trend was observed for arbuscular colonization. Similarly, the numbers of AM fungal spores in the pastures varied throughout the year, decreasing from spring to summer, then slowly increasing in late summer, reaching peak levels in winter. There is significant correlation between the frequency of spores in the rhizosphere soil and both soil temperature and pH.

2087-2092 Download
43
A NEW SPECIES OF TIAROSPORELLA AZADARICHTA AND NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON AZADIRACHTA INDICA FROM PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, IFTIKHAR ALI1, NABILA IFTIKHAR1 AND ALIA ABBAS2

A NEW SPECIES OF TIAROSPORELLA AZADARICHTA AND NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON AZADIRACHTA INDICA FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A new species of Tiarosporella azadarichta has been described on Azadirachta indica and some new fungal records viz., Diplozythiella bambusina, Ulocladium chartarum, Cladosporium nigrellum, Cladosporium oxysporum. Didymostilbe coffeae, Muellerella pygmaea, Lasiodiplodia paraphysaria, Monochaetinula terminalae, Trimmatostroma sp., and Epidermophyton floccosum are reported on Azadirachta indica for the first time from Pakistan.

2093-2102 Download
44
GLUCOAMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER BY USING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION PROCESS
MUHAMMAD IMRAN1, MUHAMMAD JAVAID ASAD1, MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2, * HINA GUL1, NAZISH MANZOOR1 AND ARSHAD NAWAZ CHOUDHARY 3

GLUCOAMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER BY USING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION PROCESS
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of this study was to produce glucoamylase under optimum conditions and to study the effect of chemical mutagenesis on Aspergillus niger for the production of glucoamylase. The maximum activity of glucoamylase (3.185±0.020 IU/mL/min.) by mutant Aspergillus niger and (2.085±0.021 IU/mL/min.) for wild Aspergillus niger was recorded in the culture filtration after 96 hours of Solid State Fermentation of growth medium with 70% moisture level and in presence of 0.3% yeast extract, 0.4% peptone, and 4 mL Tween-80 at pH 4.8. The maximum fraction value after gel filtration for wild Aspergillus niger was 2.850 IU/mL/min and for mutant Aspergillus niger was 2.980 IU/mL/min. Purification through the SDS PAGE revealed the indication of glucoamylase purification from Aspergillus niger. The high value of Km shows that substrate had great affinity for glucoamylase. Glucoamylase enzyme has many useful applications in food processing industry and fermentation biotechnology.

2103-2110 Download
45
THREE HITHERTO UNREPORTED MACRO-FUNGI FROM KASHMIR HIMALAYA
SHAUKET AHMED PALA*, ABDUL HAMID WANI, ROUF HAMZA BODA AND RIYAZ AHMED MIR

THREE HITHERTO UNREPORTED MACRO-FUNGI FROM KASHMIR HIMALAYA
ABSTRACT:
The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of ‘hub’ of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account.

2111-2115 Download
46
IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON BROCCOLI, BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA
REZA FARZINEBRAHIMI1, ROSNA MAT TAHA1, MEHRAN FADAINASAB2AND SOLMAZ MOKHTARI1

IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON BROCCOLI, BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA
ABSTRACT:
Leaf and shoot tip explant of Brassica oleracea var. italica were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with various concentrations of (BAP) and (IBA), alone and in combinations to achieve plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from İn vitro and İn vivo plant parts. The highest mean numbers of shoot was observed on combinations of 1 mg l-1 and 1.5 mg l-1 of BAP and IBA, 9.49 and 8.69, respectively. The highest number of shoot produced (11.55) per shoot tip explant was recorded on 2.5 mg l-1 BAP. In addition, highest percentage of roots (100%) and highest mean number of roots produced per leaf explant (8.47) occurred on medium with combination of 1.5 mg l-1 IBA and BAP by shoot tip explant (4.51). The highest antioxidant activity (70%) and 2 mm inhibition zone in antibacterial activity were observed in leaf extract compared to Callus extract.

2117-2122 Download
47
PERIODIC EFFECT OF COWPEA AND MUNG BEAN PELLETED SEEDS WITH AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSSK.) VIERH PARTS POWDER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE
MARIUM TARIQ AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR*

PERIODIC EFFECT OF COWPEA AND MUNG BEAN PELLETED SEEDS WITH AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSSK.) VIERH PARTS POWDER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE
ABSTRACT:
Cowpea and mung bean seeds pelleted with Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh parts powder including leaves, stem, pneumatophore were investigated at different intervals of 0 and after 30, 60, 90

2123-2128 Download
48
FIRST REPORT OF THE ATHECATE, CHAIN FORMING DINOFLAGELLATE COCHLODINIUM FULVESCENS (GYMNODINIALES) FROM PAKISTAN
SONIA MUNIR1*, TAHIRA NAZ1, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN1, P.J.A SIDDIQUI1 & STEVE L. MORTON2

FIRST REPORT OF THE ATHECATE, CHAIN FORMING DINOFLAGELLATE COCHLODINIUM FULVESCENS (GYMNODINIALES) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium fulvescens is reported for the first time from northern boarding of Arabian Sea, Karachi, Pakistan. During a phytoplankton monitoring program between May 2002-July 2003, Cochlodinium was observed from two localities of Manora Channel. Highest abundance was recorded during October 2002 at 926 cells l-1 during a period of high temperature and high salinity value. Taxonomical characters were studied by using light microscopy, epiflouresence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Identification of Cochlodinium fulvescens was confirmed by the presence of granular shaped chloroplast, different cell structure, large size, and intermediate position of sulcus between the cingulum and degree of torsion makes more than 1.5 turns. Emergence of the C. fulvescens in northern Arabian Sea has great concern from a fisheries viewpoint since this species has been implicated in considerable economic losses worldwide.

2129-2134 Download
49
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF TEN MORE SPECIES OF COSMARIUM FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA1*, WAQAR-UL-HAQ1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF TEN MORE SPECIES OF COSMARIUM FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ten more species of the algal genus Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (phylum Volvophycota Shameel) were collected from different freshwater habitats in Azad Kashmir as well as provinces of the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa of Pakistan during April 2004 and September 2006. They were collected mainly in spring and summer, only a few collections were made during autumn and winter. The specimens were identified and described for the first time from their area of collection. Among these species, C. margasitatium (Boldt) West et West, C. nymannianum Grunow in Robenhorst, C. polygonum (Nägeli) Archer in Pritchard and C. pseudomeneghinii Foster are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

2135-2138 Download
50
DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS AND PROTEINS FROM THE FRESH WATER ALGA CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII CC 2137 AND ITS ANTAGONISM AGAINST AQUATIC BACTERIA
KANNAPPAN SUDALAYANDI1,2, ANIL KUMAR2, RICH SESSLER2, RICHARD T SAYRE2, VANESSA FALCOA2, UZO IHEMERE2, JOSEPH NDUNGURU2 AND NARAYANAN NARAYANAN2

DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS AND PROTEINS FROM THE FRESH WATER ALGA CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII CC 2137 AND ITS ANTAGONISM AGAINST AQUATIC BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a wild-type algal strain (CC 2137) was grown on tris acetate phosphate agar (TAP) medium. The growth curve values showed 2.0 logs till 6 days and declined thereafter. Later, the cells were harvested and extracted for fat using chloroform and methanol (2:1). The extract was hydrolyzed, lyzed and found to have unsaturated fatty acids like linolenic, linoleic, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acids viz. myristic, palmitic and stearic acid,using gas chromatography as well as mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Cell wall bound iron containing fatty acid elongation (FAE1) proteins of CC2137 were extracted and their size (ranging from 25-250 KD) was detected by SDS PAGE. The FAE1 protein was inhibitory to Bacillus cereus as evidenced by “Agar Spot Assay”. Organic extracts of CC2137 cells with hot and cold extraction were tested against marine bacteria. In cold extraction, methanolic extracts showed highest inhibition (11.0 mm) to Vibrio harveyi (MM30) and subsequently acetone and ethyl acetate extracts showed inhibition to V. harveyi (MM32). In hot extraction, highest inhibitions were observed by ethanol and ethyl acetate (13.0 mm) to MM30 followed by methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts (12.0 mm) to MM32. Extracts of ethyl acetate and acetic acid showed maximum and identical inhibitions (8.0 mm) against Pseudomonas putida (PP) and lowest by methanoles and chloroform (6.0 mm) in cold extraction. Under hot extraction, the highest inhibition was shown by ethanol extract to PP followed by methanol and acetone (11.0 mm) and lowest by chloroform and acetic acid extracts (6.0 mm).

2139-2144 Download
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