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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 1
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THE GENUS ACACIA S.L. IN PAKISTAN
S.I. ALI

THE GENUS ACACIA S.L. IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The molecular studies clearly indicate that Acacia s.l. is non-monophyletic and there is robust support for the recognition of five genera. Hence the classical identity of Acacia has to change. The pros and cons of typifying and retypifying Acacia by different types are discussed. It is argued that under the circumstances, the only option available is to accept the decision taken at the XVIII International Botanical Congress at Melbourne. Consequently the current position of various taxa present in Pakistan, formerly placed in Acacia s.l., have been transferred to Acacia s.s. Vachellia and Senegalia. This has resulted in five new combinations in the genus Vachellia and one new combination in Senegalia

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ILLUSTRATED WEED FLORA OF COTTON CROP OF KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RABIA ASMA MEMON1*, G. RAZA BHATTI2, SHAHIDA KHALID3 AND SHAKEEL AHMED2

ILLUSTRATED WEED FLORA OF COTTON CROP OF KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey was carried out for the composition of weed flora of cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan. Thirtysix weed species belonging to 16 families were noted. Poaceae was found to be most dominant family representing seven species followed by Asteraceae and Papilionaceae, each with five species. Botanical descriptions and illustrations/line drawings of all the recorded taxa were prepared in order to identify the weed species.

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A PRELIMINARYFLORISTIC CHECKLIST OF THAL DESERT PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
HUMAIRA SHAHEEN1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, ABIDA AKRAM, M. GULFRAZ AND DANIEL POTTER2

A PRELIMINARYFLORISTIC CHECKLIST OF THAL DESERT PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The floristic survey of the Thal desert, Punjab, Pakistan was carried out during 2010 to 2013. So far, 248 species distributed across 166 genera and 38 families were identified during the report period. Besides, one species viz., Themeda triandra was recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Of them, one fern, 4 monocots and 33 dicots families were determined. The most dominating family was Poaceae that contributed 52 species (21.49%), followed by Fabaceae (34 spp., 13.05%) and Amaranthaceae & Asteraceae (17 spp., 7.02% each). The largest genera were Euphorbia (6 spp.), Cyperus, Eragrostis and Solanum (5 spp. each), Mollugo, Heliotropium and Cenchrus (4 spp. each), Acacia, Prosopis, Tephrosia, Corchorus, Boerhavia and Ziziphus (3 spp. each). This checklist consists of updated systematic families and plants names that will provide a useful starting point for further ecological and bioprospective research of the area under study.

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AN APPRAISAL OF ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HERBACEOUS FLORA AT CHANGA MANGA PARK LAHORE, PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, SUMMRA ERUM1, SAALEHA MEHBOOB KHAN1 AND MUHAMMAD NAWAZ2

AN APPRAISAL OF ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HERBACEOUS FLORA AT CHANGA MANGA PARK LAHORE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The forest ground flora plays a vital role in cycling of nutrients, habitat preservation and rejuvenation of shrubs. The vegetation consociated with the forest plays a vital role in the protection, function of the forest ecosystem. Effective management of forest vegetation serves the forest ecosystem in assaying the balance of harmful effects of vying vegetation. Relationship of ecology between environment and vegetation and their ordination techniques and classification methods has become vital means in the research field vegetation ecology. Classification depends on the abundances of ground vegetation species. Multivariate technique is an important technique in ecology and biology for the group prediction. Classification of different plant communities had been accomplished by carrying out TWINSPAN analysis using PC-ORD. The results were shown in a two-way cluster dendrogram. A dendrogram is a hierarchical representation of species in graphical form. The encompassing survey has been conducted in the Changa Manga Forest (CMF) which resulted in the identification of the 45 species belonging to 24 families from all over the forest area. The TWINSPAN results of CMF ascertained the following dominant species in all of the four zones, Cynadon dactylon, Malvestrum cormendalianum, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Desmostachya bipinnata.

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DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF RUSH COMMUNITIES FROM THE PHRAGMITO-MAGNO-CARICETEA CLASS IN PAMIR ALAI MOUNTAINS (MIDDLE ASIA: TAJIKISTAN)
ARKADIUSZ NOWAK1, SYLWIA NOWAK1 AND MARCIN NOBIS2

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF RUSH COMMUNITIES FROM THE PHRAGMITO-MAGNO-CARICETEA CLASS IN PAMIR ALAI MOUNTAINS (MIDDLE ASIA: TAJIKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
The study presents results of geobotanical investigations conducted in rush vegetation from the Phragmito-Magno- Caricetea class in the central Pamir-Alai Mts (Tajikistan, Middle Asia). Studies were carried out mainly within the Syr- Daria, Pyandzh, Zeravshan, Kafirnighan, Khanaka and Surkhandaria river valleys in the years 2008‒2012. The research was focused on the classification of rush plant communities developing within this poorly-investigated area. Habitat conditions were checked for all vegetation plots, including pH reaction, water depth, inclination and altitude. Altogether 231 phytosociological releves using the Braun-Blanquet method were sampled. The analyses classified the vegetation into 28 plant communities, including 26 associations. Eight new plant associations were proposed: Scirpetum hippolytii, Mentho asiaticae-Nasturtietum microphyllae, Juncetum brachytepali, Sparganietum stoloniferi, Eleocharitetum argyrolepis, Eleocharitetum mitracarpae, Caricetum songoricae and Rorippo palustris-Alismatetum graminei. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. Rush vegetation from the Phragmito- Magno-Caricetea class is spread throughout all river valleys of the research areas in montane and subalpine as well as in alpine zones. The vegetation patches occur mainly along the shores of water bodies and in ditches. Only sporadically have rush communities been noted within rice fields, where communities of the class Oryzetea sativae prevail. The study shows that riverside habitats with rush vegetation can harbour a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia.

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STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE VEGETATION OF HUB DAM CATCHMENT AREA, PAKISTAN
SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT1, MOAZZAM ALI KHAN1, MICHAEL METT2 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI 3

STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE VEGETATION OF HUB DAM CATCHMENT AREA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita’s index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often.

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DISTRIBUTION OF PARTHENIUM WEED IN PESHAWAR VALLEY, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA- PAKISTAN
HAROON KHAN*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT, GUL HASSAN, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN AND SAIMA HASHIM

DISTRIBUTION OF PARTHENIUM WEED IN PESHAWAR VALLEY, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA- PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a weed of national significance in Pakistan. Although infesting many districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but more affected districts are Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar where it is highly invasive and invaded most of the open spaces roadsides, etc and threatening the local biodiversity. Field survey of four districts of the Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz. Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar were carried out during May-June, 2009-2010 to study the distribution and invasion of parthenium weed. Twenty five locations were sampled from each district. Data regarding absolute and relative density, frequency, relative frequency, importance valve %, average importance value, constancy classes and importance value constancy index of parthenium weed and other weeds of the area were recorded by using (1x1 m2) quadrate. The mean data across the surveyed districts reveals that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 42.68% among all species. It was followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus, with relative densities of 15.17, 13.49 and 5.96, respectively. At different locations, it was observed that parthenium weed is competing with Cannabis sativa which is not so aggressive and problematic weed. While in some areas parthenium weed has already replaced Cannabis sativa. Mean distribution data showed that parthenium weed infestation was abundant and almost not uniform in all districts, however highest relative frequency of 26.14% was recorded for parthenium weed followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus having relative frequency of 15.17, 13.49 and 9.14, respectively. Rumex crispus and Xanthium strumarium infatuated the smallest relative frequency at most of the locations studied thereby indicating them as insignificant among the weed flora of the study area. Importance value data revealed that P. hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Coronopus didymus having IV % of 34.41, 16.30 13.42 and 7.14, respectively. Looking at the overall distribution of flora in Peshawar valley, parthenium weed is spreading rapidly along the roadsides, into agricultural fields and on wastelands. The dominance of parthenium weed is attributable to its invasive ability due to its allelopathic properties, higher growth rate, rapid flowering and higher fecundity.

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KARYOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME PHLOMIS L TAXA (LAMIACEAE) CANAN OZDEMĐR1, CENK DURMUSKAHYA2, HAKAN SEPET1 AND BAHATTĐN BOZDAĞ1
In present study the chromosome number and morphology of some species of the genus Phlomis Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) were investigated using karyological techniques. The seeds of Phlomis grandiflora H.S. Thompson, var. grandiflora and Phlomis lunariifolia Sm.w

KARYOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME PHLOMIS L TAXA (LAMIACEAE) CANAN OZDEMĐR1, CENK DURMUSKAHYA2, HAKAN SEPET1 AND BAHATTĐN BOZDAĞ1
ABSTRACT:
1Celal Bayar University, Science and Art Faculty, Biology Department, Manisa, Turkey

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THE CHARACTERISTICS VARIATION OF THE FLOWERS OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. DURING THE EXTENDED FLOWERING PROCESS AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE RATE OF SEED-SETTING
MEI-LIN YANG1,2 , LIN-KE YIN1,3* , CHENG YAN1,3 , MING-LI ZHANG1 , FAN-KUI KONG1,2 AND SHU-JUAN LI1,2

THE CHARACTERISTICS VARIATION OF THE FLOWERS OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. DURING THE EXTENDED FLOWERING PROCESS AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE RATE OF SEED-SETTING
ABSTRACT:
The reproductive characteristics of Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) were examined at the Turpan Eremophytes Botanical Garden in Xinjiang, China. The flowering period was approximately five months long (from May to mid-October of 2011), during which time, two main and overlap flowering peaks emerged. Several significant differences between the two peaks were found: the number of flowers and duration of the flowering period for male flowers were identical in both peaks, but differed for perfect flowers(contain stamens and pistil); the filaments of both long and short stamens in male and perfect flowers in the first peak were longer than those in the second, whereas anther length showed the opposite trend; the frequency of fruit set and size in the first peak was respectively higher and larger than the second; and the seeds produced in the first peak were smaller and lighter than the second. These results provide that the continuously blooming C. spinosa and the variation in the proportion of male and perfect flowers have played a positive role in ensuring a continuous supply of pollen and controlling the investment of fruit.

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CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF 48TITANIUM (48TI) ON MERISTEMATIC CELLS OF ROOT TIPS OF LENS CULINARIS MED.
HAKAN SEPET1, MURAT CANLI2, ALĐ OZDEMĐR3, BAHATTĐN BOZDAĞ1 AND CANAN OZDEMĐR1*

CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF 48TITANIUM (48TI) ON MERISTEMATIC CELLS OF ROOT TIPS OF LENS CULINARIS MED.
ABSTRACT:
Cytogenetic effects of 48Titanium (48Ti) on meristematic cells of root tips belonging to the plant (Lens culinaris Medik.) have been Investigated. Seeds of the plant, prepared were kept in 48Ti standart for different time period as control during 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours. Seeds treated with 48Ti were made sprout and the root tips obtained were prepared for microscopic examination. At the end of the microscopic examinations, some abnormalities as chromosome breakings, chromosome dispersion, bridge chromosome, chromosome adherence, ring chromosome were observed. Abnormalities were seen at each treatment depended on the time periods. Variety and number of abnormality were usually seen to be increasing, depending on the increase of treatment time. The results obtained were evaluated statistically.

101-110 Download
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EFFECT OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NITRIC OXIDE ON WATER RELATIONS AND IONIC COMPOSITION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
NOMAN HABIB1 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3*

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NITRIC OXIDE ON WATER RELATIONS AND IONIC COMPOSITION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present experiment was to assess the effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide on water relation attributes and pattern of uptake of inorganic ions in rice plants under salt stress. The experiment comprised four rice cultivars, two coarse (KS-282 and IRRI-6) and two fine (Shaheen Basmati and Basmati PB-95) rice cultivars, two NaCl levels (0 and 80 mM), and three levels (0, 0.1, and 0.2 mM) of nitric oxide. Salt stress caused a significant increase in leaf water and osmotic potentials while decreased leaf turgor potential and relative water content in all four rice cultivars. Of inorganic ions, shoot and root Cl- and Na+ concentrations increased significantly, while in contrast, K+ and Ca2+ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio decreased markedly. Pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide significantly decreased leaf osmotic and water potentials and shoot and root Cl- and Na+ concentrations, while it increased leaf relative water content, leaf turgor potential, K+ and Ca2+ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio in both shoots and roots of salt stressed rice plants. Of nitric oxide levels, 0.1 mM was more effective, while of the four rice cultivars, Shaheen basmati and IRRI-6 performed better as compared to the other two cultivars.

111-116 Download
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ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN MODULATING THE RESPONSES OF TWO APPLE ROOTSTOCKS TO DROUGHT STRESS
LINSEN ZHANG1, XUEWEI LI 1, LIXIN ZHANG2*, BINGZHI LI 1, MINGYU HAN 1, FUTING LIU1, PENG ZHENG 2 AND ASHOK K. ALVA 3

ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN MODULATING THE RESPONSES OF TWO APPLE ROOTSTOCKS TO DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100μmol/L and 50μmol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress.

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22
IODINE APPLICATION INCREASED ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT AND MODIFIED THE VASCULAR TISSUE IN OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA L.
HERMILA TRINIDAD GARCÍA OSUNA1, ADALBERTO BENAVIDES MENDOZA2*, CATALINA RIVAS MORALES1, EUFEMIA MORALES RUBIO1, JULIA VERDE STAR1 AND RENÉ MIRANDA RUVALCABA3

IODINE APPLICATION INCREASED ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT AND MODIFIED THE VASCULAR TISSUE IN OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA L.
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO3, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO3, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue.

127-134 Download
23
EXOGENOUS POTASSIUM DIFFERENTIALLY MITIGATES SALT STRESS IN TOLERANT AND SENSITIVE MAIZE HYBRIDS
G.H. ABBASI1*, JAVAID AKHTAR2, M. ANWAR-UL-HAQ2, SHAFAQAT ALI3, ZHONG-HUA CHEN4 AND WAQAS MALIK5

EXOGENOUS POTASSIUM DIFFERENTIALLY MITIGATES SALT STRESS IN TOLERANT AND SENSITIVE MAIZE HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the role of potassium (K) in extenuating the injurious effect of salt stress on maize hybrids differing in salt tolerance. Two salt-sensitive viz., 33H25 and 8441 and two salt-tolerant viz. 26204 and Hysun-33 maize hybrids were grown for four weeks in half strength Hoagland’s solution. The nutrient solution was salinized by three salinity (0, 70 and 140 mM L-1 NaCl) levels and supplied with three levels of potassium (3, 6 and 9 mM L-1). Salt stress significantly reduced the plant growth as reflected by a decrease in the plant height, leaf area, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), chlorophyll contents (chl), transpiration rate (E), photosynthetic rate (A), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), K+/Na+ ratio and increased the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) at 70 mM NaCl, but activities of SOD, POD and CAT declined at 140 mM NaCl for all four maize hybrids. Salinity induced diminution in all these attributes was significantly greater in salt sensitive maize hybrids as compared to salt tolerant maize hybrids. However, application of potassium counteracted the unsympathetic effects of salinity on the growth of salt tolerant maize hybrids, particularly at 9 mM L-1 level. Potassium enhanced growth of salt-stressed maize hybrids 26204 and Hysun-33 was associated with increased CAT activity, higher photosynthetic capacity, and accumulation of K+ in the leaves. These results suggested that potassium application counteracted the unfavorable effects of salinity on growth of maize by civilizing photosynthetic capacity of maize plants against salinity-induced oxidative stress and maintaining ion homeostasis, however, these alleviating effects were cultivar specific.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM STRESS ON SOME MACRO AND MICRO-NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF THE SEEDLINGS OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. BY USING SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
GÜLER ÇOLAK1*, M. CELALETTIN BAYKUL2, REMZI GÜRLER3, ERCAN ÇATAK1 AND NECMETTIN CANER4

INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM STRESS ON SOME MACRO AND MICRO-NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF THE SEEDLINGS OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. BY USING SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
ABSTRACT:
This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area ∼50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (∼24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series.

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25
IMPACT OF SALINE-ALKALI STRESS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF SOLIDS IN TOMATO FRUITS
NOOR ELAHI JAN1, 2 *, JALAL-UD-DIN1 AND SANEYUKI KAWABATA2

IMPACT OF SALINE-ALKALI STRESS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF SOLIDS IN TOMATO FRUITS
ABSTRACT:
Growing of tomato plants in saline conditions, having high rhizospheric EC, is often reported with high solid content in fruits. However, saline-alkali stress conditions, having high rhizospheric pH as well as high EC, have never been studied to evaluate its impact on the solid content of tomato fruits. In this study, we investigated the impact of saline-alkali stress (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mM NaHCO3) on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to plants highly increased pH as well as EC of the soil leachate in 90 and 120 mM NaHCO3 treatments in comparison to control treatment. Saline-alkali stress treatments did not influence the fruit dry weight, nonetheless, the content of fruit dry matter was increased significantly from 6.5% at control to 8.5% at 90 and 120 mM treatments. The content of soluble sugar was increased to 3% in 90 mM treatment in comparison to control (2%), owing to significant accumulation of hexose as well as sucrose in ripe fruits. In addition to carbohydrates, saline-alkali stress influenced the accumulation of organic acids in fruits, as well. Citric acid, being the major acid, showed positive correlation with the salt concentration, and was significantly high at stress treatments of higher than 30 mM. These results suggested that saline-alkali stress conditions, in spite of high pH, can increase the contents of fruit solids in tomato, as is usually observed in saline stress conditions.

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26
YIEDS OF ALFALFA VARIETIES WITH DIFFERENT FALL DORMANCY LEVELS IN NORTHEAST CHINA
JI-SHAN CHEN1,2#, RUI-FEN ZHU1#, YUE-XUE ZHANG1,2*, GAO CAO1 AND GUI-LI DI 1

YIEDS OF ALFALFA VARIETIES WITH DIFFERENT FALL DORMANCY LEVELS IN NORTHEAST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Fall dormancy (FD) is an important indicator of winter hardiness in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the relationship between FD and the yield potential of alfalfa varieties were investigated to survey annual dry matter (DM) yields with FD levels in the northeast regions with cold winters. During three consecutive years, all varieties of five FD levels survived over the winter without any persistency problems and there were no differences in annual DM yields of varieties among FD levels. Among the same FD varieties, DM yields for some of the dormant, semi-dormant and non-dormant varieties were found no correlated with FD levels. In conclusion, it suggests that different FD levels no effected on yields of alfalfa in the cold regions, such as North-east China.

167-172 Download
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GROWTH AND PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE OF SORGHUM PLANTS IN SALT AFFECTED SOIL AS AFFECTED BY ORGANIC MATERIALS COMPOSTED WITH ROCK PHOSPHATE
MUHAMMAD SHARIF1*, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, TANVIR BURNI2, FARMANULLAH KHAN1, BISMILLAH JAN1 AND INAMULLAH KHAN3

GROWTH AND PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE OF SORGHUM PLANTS IN SALT AFFECTED SOIL AS AFFECTED BY ORGANIC MATERIALS COMPOSTED WITH ROCK PHOSPHATE
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of different organic materials, Farm yard manure (FYM), Humic acid (HA) and Press mud (PM) and their composts prepared with rock phosphate on the growth and phosphorus (P) uptake of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block design with three replication in salt affected soil at research farm of botanical garden Azakhel Nowshera during kharif 2012. Fertilizers were applied at the rate of 120- 90-60 kg ha-1 N, P and K, respectively. The source of N was urea and organic materials in composted and non composted form. Single super phosphate, rock phosphate, organic materials and their composts were used as P source, while sulphate of potash was used as source of K. The organic materials were applied before crop sowing at recommended level on the basis of their P content. The maximum and significantly (p≤0.05) increased sorghum total dry matter yield of 23733 kg ha-1, emergence m-2 of 142 and plant height of 147 cm were observed in the treatment where composts of FYM, HA and PM were applied in combination. Increase in soil organic matter content was recorded by the application of composts of different organic materials, while decreasing trend was found in the values of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Maximum plant N uptake of 159 kg ha-1, P uptake of 62.5 kg ha-1 and K uptake of 557 kg ha-1 were noted in the treatment where a combination of composts of FYM, HA and PM were added. Results suggest that the use of composts of different organic materials and RP are environment friendly and have the potential to improve sorghum growth, plants nutrient uptake and ameliorate salt affected soils

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EVALUATION OF DIVERSE WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR POTENTIAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION THROUGH PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AT SEEDLING STAGE UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK1*, MARTIN A. J. PARRY2, JOHN ANDRALOJC2, IQBAL SAEED1 AND SHAMS-UR-REHMAN1

EVALUATION OF DIVERSE WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR POTENTIAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION THROUGH PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AT SEEDLING STAGE UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Thirty wheat genotypes from UK, CIMMYT and Pakistan were evaluated under controlled environment conditions for their potential biomass production by measuring stomatal conductance (gs; porometry), leaf photosynthesis (IRGA), carbon isotope discrimination and carbon content (isotope ratio and mass analysis) at Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK during 2011. Amongst the dwarf genotypes, Rht2 and Rht3 showed lower stomatal conductance than Seri 32B, Seri 87B and Bathoor-07. For these 5 genotypes and another genotype ‘Inqalab’ photosynthetic performance was determined by means of IRGA measurements. Of these genotypes Inqalab had the highest photosynthetic activity (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) and leaf intercellular CO2 but it also had the lowest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). Seri-87B had the greatest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). All the Pakistani genotypes had large stomatal conductances and high 13C delta (Δ) and thus may be expected to produce high biomass under irrigations and optimum inputs.

181-184 Download
29
THIDIAZURON ENHANCED REGENERATION AND SILYMARIN CONTENT IN SILYBUM MARIANUM L.
MUBARAK ALI KHAN, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI* AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI

THIDIAZURON ENHANCED REGENERATION AND SILYMARIN CONTENT IN SILYBUM MARIANUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Silybum marianum, of family Asteraceae is renowned for production of biologically important silymarin, which has shown multi-dimensional medicinal properties. It has a high protective role against jaundice and hepatitis C worldwide. We hereby established a feasible and efficient method for indirect regeneration of S. marianum for production of consistent plantlets. Calli were induced from leaf explants of seed-derived plantlets on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with several concentrations of different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Highest callogenic response (89%) was recorded for 4.4µM Thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 6.6µM Kinetin (Kn). Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture, on medium with similar compositions of PGRs induced shoot organogenesis. Highest shoot induction frequency (86%) with maximum mean multiple shoots (26 shoots per explant) were recorded for 11µM TDZ after 4 weeks of transfer. Longest shoots (4.1 cm) were recorded for MS medium augmented with 6.6µM TDZ and 4.4µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Furthermore, rooted plantlets were developed on MS medium containing different concentrations of indole acetic acid (IAA). Silymarin was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 8.47 mg/g DW silymarin was detected in the regenerated plantlets. This study contributes to a better understanding of the different mechanisms involved in morphogenesis and production of biologically active principle in Silybum marianum.

185-190 Download
30
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROFILING OF PROMISING MANGO CULTIVARS GROWN IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF MULTAN, PAKISTAN
SAFINA NAZ1, MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM1, SOBIA CHOHAN2, SAEED AKHTAR3 AND BUSHRA SIDDIQUE4

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROFILING OF PROMISING MANGO CULTIVARS GROWN IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF MULTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present scenario, Pakistani mango is facing serious apprehension about production decline and export, consequently present study was planned to categorize the paramount mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivar in relation to its physical, chemical and sensorial attributes. Physiologically fully mature fruits of eight mango cultivars were picked and subjected for physical and proximate analysis. Among the eight cultivars, Fajri produced the maximum green and ripe fruit weight, fruit length and perimeter and physiological weight loss (453.0g, 403.0g, 13.80 cm, 21.57cm and 10.97%), respectively. The higher softness values were noticed in Aman Dusahri. The mark variations were observed among all the cultivars for proximate composition. There is an increase in pH values (5.47, 5.40 and 5.33) among Samar Bahisht Chaunsa, Aman Dusahri and Anwar Ratual, respectively with a progressive decrease in ascorbic acid and titrable acidity during ripening period. Likewise, maximum moisture and ash contents were observed in the mango pulp of Fajri and Sindhri (92.20% and 0.78%, respectively). Whereas appreciably higher total sugar contents were observed in pulp of Langra, Samar Bahisht Chaunsa and Anwar Ratual (20.67%, 20.43% and 20.33%, respectively. 19.83% TSS and 0.64% protein contents were recorded in Langra while the Fajri contained higher fat contents. The sensorial attributes varied significantly according to cultivars. Out of eight cultivars Langra obtained higher scores, while Anwar Ratual found to be highly satisfactory followed by Samar Bahisht Chunsa for flavor and taste. Both of these cultivars were equally acceptable for overall acceptability. However non of the cultivar is rejected by the panelists regarding the sensory evaluation.

191-198 Download
31
COMPARISON OF LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS GROWN IN FAISALABAD REGION
ALI NOMAN1, QASIM ALI1, MANSOOR HAMEED2, TAHIR MEHMOOD1 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*

COMPARISON OF LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS GROWN IN FAISALABAD REGION
ABSTRACT:
The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder’s white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder’s white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments.

199-206 Download
32
VARIATION IN PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE IN DIFFERENT DISEASE-RESISTANT VARIETIES OF CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
ZHIHUA CAO, QINGLONG SHU*, CHUANYUAN DONG AND XIN ZHANG

VARIATION IN PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE IN DIFFERENT DISEASE-RESISTANT VARIETIES OF CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
ABSTRACT:
Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme s(Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera.

207-212 Download
33
MODELING SITE PRODUCTIVITY OF ANATOLIAN BLACK PINE STANDS IN RESPONSE TO SITE FACTORS IN BULDAN DISTRICT, TURKEY
SERKAN GULSOY1*, HALIL SUEL2, HALIL CELIK3, SERKAN OZDEMIR1 AND KURSAD OZKAN1

MODELING SITE PRODUCTIVITY OF ANATOLIAN BLACK PINE STANDS IN RESPONSE TO SITE FACTORS IN BULDAN DISTRICT, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was performed to determine modeling height growth of Anatolian black pine (Pinusnigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) stands according to the site factors in the Buldan forest district. Site index and environmental data obtained from 19 sample plots in the district were fitted by Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis (SMRA) and Regression Tree (RT) using SPSS 17.0 and DTREG softwares. Schist structured quartzites, slope position and clay percent of B horizon (R2 =0,67) were determined as the most significant variables for the model obtained from SMRA. Two different models were determined by RT statistics. The first one was represented by slope position and altitude (R2 =0,67), while slope position and surface stoniness were the most important variables in the second model and prediction values of site index were separately calculated by all these models. Consequently, R2 =0,84 was the most significance level when the average of these prediction values correlated with the actual site index values.

213-220 Download
34
YELLOW BERRY, PROTEIN AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS IN BREAD WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF NITROGEN AND IRRIGATION IN NORTHWEST MEXICO
FRANCISCO RODRÍGUEZ-FÉLIX1, BENJAMÍN RAMIREZ-WONG1*, PATRICIA ISABEL TORRES-CHÁVEZ1, ALFONSO ÁLVAREZ-AVILÉS2, SERGIO MORENO-SALAZAR2, MARÍA EUGENIA RENTERIA-MARTÍNEZ2 AND LUIS ARTURO BELLO-PÉREZ3

YELLOW BERRY, PROTEIN AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS IN BREAD WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF NITROGEN AND IRRIGATION IN NORTHWEST MEXICO
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and number of irrigations on the YB disorder of wheat cultivar Tarachi, as well as its relationship with protein content, and the agronomic characteristics. The experiment was conducted in northwestern Mexico, during the fall-winter season, 2009-2010. Three levels of nitrogen (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (3, 4 or 5 irrigations) were studied. Increasing the nitrogen rate decreased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; and increased the protein content and the number of grains per spike. The number of irrigations did not affect the number of grains per spike. However, increasing the number of irrigations increased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; on the other hand, the protein content decreased. A negative correlation between protein content and percentage of YB was presented. It was concluded that the presence of the disorder YB in bread wheat, Tarachi, is due to a low nitrogen rate in the soil and an increase in number of irrigations.

221-226 Download
35
PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZERS DOSES
NIGHAT SEEMA1, FATEH CHAND OAD2, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM KEERIO2 AND SHAMSSUDDIN TUNIO2 1

PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZERS DOSES
ABSTRACT:
In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones.

227-232 Download
36
EXOGENOUS APPLICATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS INFLUENCE THE REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF CITRUS SINENSIS OSBECK CV. BLOOD RED
A.S. KHAN1*, T. SHAHEEN2, A.U. MALIK1, I.A. RAJWANA3, S. AHMAD1 AND I. AHMAD1

EXOGENOUS APPLICATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS INFLUENCE THE REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF CITRUS SINENSIS OSBECK CV. BLOOD RED
ABSTRACT:
To study the influence of exogenous applications of plant growth regulators on the reproductive behaviour of low bearing sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) trees, three separate experiments were conducted on twelve years old ‘Blood Red’ Sweet orange trees budded on Rough Lemon (Citrus jambheri L.) root stock. In the first experiment, trees were sprayed with 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at mid bloom (MB) stage, whilst in the second and third experiments 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination were sprayed at MB + 6 weeks after MB, and at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB stages, respectively. A single tree was selected as an experimental unit and each treatment was replicated four times. Data regarding the flowering intensity, flower drop, fruit set, fruit drop and fruit harvest percentages (%) were collected and analyzed statistically. In all experiments exogenous application of 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination to Blood Red sweet orange trees reduced the flower drop % and increased the fruit set % as compared to untreated trees. Application 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at MB did not affect the fruit drop % and fruit harvest % in contrast to untreated trees. The trees sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 alone or in combination with 2, 4-D at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB exhibited highest reduction in the fruit drop % compared to control trees. In conclusions application GA3 (20 mg L-1) alone or in combination of 2, 4-D (20 mg L-1) at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB can be used effectively to increase the fruit set and reduce the fruit drop in ‘Blood Red’ sweet oranges.

233-238 Download
37
HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN INTROGRESSED SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF BRASSICA
SIDRA IQBAL, FARHATULLAH*, ADNAN NASIM, MAHWISH KANWAL AND LAILA FAYYAZ

HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN INTROGRESSED SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF BRASSICA
ABSTRACT:
Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations.

239-243 Download
38
EFFECT OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN (SAR) ON SOME MORPHOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF MASH (VIGNA MUNGO L.)
MUHAMMAD ASIF IMRAN1*, SHOAIB HUSSAIN2, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD NAWAZ CH.2 AND AKBAR ALI MEO3

EFFECT OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN (SAR) ON SOME MORPHOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF MASH (VIGNA MUNGO L.)
ABSTRACT:
The studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated acid rain (SAR) at early plant growth on some morphochemical characters of two varieties of Mash (Vigna mungo L.) namely Mash 97 and Var. 95009. Different pH values were made by using H2SO4, HNO3, and combination of both. The data revealed that low pH (3.5) of either sulphuric acid or the combination of H2SO4 and HNO3 affected more severely at all parameters including number of leaves, shoot: root ratio, water contents of shoot and Potassium ion concentration. Whereas for a few parameters like plant height and number of branches the simulated acid rain of solution of pH 4.5 and 3.5 by using HNO3 proved a bit better for plant growth, the root length was increased in case of SAR of solution of pH 3.5 by using H2SO4+HNO3. Foliar application of SAR of solution of pH greater than 4.5 showed some improvement in crop growth due to fertilizer effect of solution’s components.

245-250 Download
39
RUST RESISTANCE EVALUATION OF ADVANCED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES USING PCR-BASED DNA MARKERS
ZAHIDA PARVEEN, NAEEM IQBAL*, SAJID-UR-RAHMAN1, MUHAMMAD YOUNIS1, MUHAMMAD NAWAZ2, S. HAMMAD RAZA AND M. ZAFFAR IQBAL1

RUST RESISTANCE EVALUATION OF ADVANCED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES USING PCR-BASED DNA MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The most effective and environmental friendly approach for the control of wheat rust disease is the use of resistant genotypes. The present study was conducted to explore rust resistance potential of 85 elite wheat genotypes (36 varieties and 49 advanced lines) using various types of DNA markers like STS, SCAR and SSR. DNA markers linked with different genes conferring resistance to rusts (Leaf rust=Lr, Yellow rust=Yr and Stem rust=Sr) were employed in this study. A total of 18 genes, consisting of eleven Lr (lr1, lr10, lr19, lr21, lr28, lr34, lr39, lr46, lr47, lr51 and lr52), four Yr (yr5, yr18, yr26 and yr29) and three Sr genes (sr2, sr29, and sr36) were studied through linked DNA markers. Maximum number of Lr genes was found in 17 advanced lines and 9 varieties, Yr genes in 26 advanced lines and 20 wheat varieties, and Sr genes in 43 advanced lines and 27 varieties. Minimum number of Lr genes was found in advanced line D-97 and variety Kohinoor-83, Yr genes in wheat variety Bwp-97 and Sr genes in 6 advanced lines and 8 varieties. Molecular data revealed that genotypes having same origin, from a specified area showed resistance for similar type of genes. In this study, an average similarity of 84% was recorded among wheat genotypes. Out of 18 loci, 15 were found to be polymorphic.

251-257 Download
40
AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME EXOTIC COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
FAHAD KARIM AWAN1*, MUHAMMAD YASIR KHURSHID2, OBAID AFZAL2, MUKHTAR AHMED2 AND ARSHAD NAWAZ CHAUDHRY3

AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME EXOTIC COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirteen exotic and local genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for various agronomic and morphological characters under rainfed conditions of Islamabad, Pakistan during February-May

259-264 Download
41
GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BRASSICA F2 POPULATIONS DEVELOPED THROUGH INTER AND INTRA-SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION
LAILA FAYYAZ1, FARHATULLAH1*, SIKANDAR SHAH1, SIDRA IQBAL1, MEHWISH KANWAL1 AND SAJID ALI2

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BRASSICA F2 POPULATIONS DEVELOPED THROUGH INTER AND INTRA-SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Assessment of variability and the heritable proportion of this variability are crucial to estimate the genetic advance in oilseed Brassica improvement, as in all crops. These may be variable in different segregating populations, including the F2 populations of different crosses and should be studied to select the appropriate segregating population for further improvement. We; therefore, report on the estimation of variability, heritability and genetic advance for ten parental lines and the four intraspecific and four interspecific F2 populations of brassica at New Developmental Farm, of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar for biochemical parameters. The experimental material studied was grown in the 1st week of October

265-269 Download
42
HABITAT INFLUENCES COMPOSITION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN ALLIUM VICTORIALIS VAR. PLATYPHYLLUM
JAE KYUNG YANG1,5, JI SU KIM1, JI YOUNG JUNG1, MI JIN JEONG1, HYUN JIN SONG1, CHUNG WEON YUN2, HYONG HO KIM1,5, EUN SU DO3, JUN POK CHANG3, S. CHANDRAKANT KARIGAR4, MYUNG SUK CHOI1,5, AND HYUN SHIK MOON1,5*

HABITAT INFLUENCES COMPOSITION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN ALLIUM VICTORIALIS VAR. PLATYPHYLLUM
ABSTRACT:
The composition of volatile constituents from tissues of Korean wild garlic, Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum collected from different habitats of Ulleung Island, Korea, was determined. The concentrations of total volatile constituents in garlic bulbs and stems were variable. The most abundant volatile compound in A. victorialis bulb extract was alanine (47–65%), followed by dimethyl tridisulfide (5.1–10.3%) and allyl disulfide (0.1–12.1%). Dimethyl trisulfide (5.2–10.3%), diallyl disulfide (0.1–12.1%) and dimethl pentasulfide (0–0.3%) were abundant in stem tissues. Very significant differences in the composition of volatile sulfides in stems and bulbs of A. victorialis were noticed. Finally principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to know the chemical-population structure of the garlic extracts. Habitat of garlic plant appreciably affected the proportions of alk(en)yl group (methyl, m-propyl and allyl radicals) in the of bulb and stem tissues.

271-278 Download
43
EFFECT OF SUCROSE, BENZYLAMINOPURINE AND CULTURE CONDITION ON IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. AND ZINGIBER AROMATICUM VAL.
MELATI YULIA KUSUMASTUTI1, ARVIND BHATT3*, GUNAWAN INDRAYANTO2 AND CHAN LAI KENG1

EFFECT OF SUCROSE, BENZYLAMINOPURINE AND CULTURE CONDITION ON IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. AND ZINGIBER AROMATICUM VAL.
ABSTRACT:
Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber aromaticum, are important medicinal species of the Zingiberaceae family. They are used in traditional medicine known as Jamu. This study reports on the presence of sucrose and BA (benzylaminopurine) supplements in the culture medium and also the effect of varying culture condition on In vitro propagation of these two species. Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BA and 30 g L-1 sucrose, incubated under total darkness, induced the highest number of multiple shoots in C. xanthorrhiza while the Z. aromaticum produced the highest number of multiple shoot in the same medium incubated under continuous light. The increase in sucrose concentration reduced shoot height in both species. Rooting of micro-shoots was not affected by the different culture treatments. The acclimatized plantlets of C. xanthorrhiza and Z. aromaticum were normal with 83.3-100% percentage when transferred to the outside environment.

279-288 Download
44
WEED CONTROL IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill.) THROUGH MULCHING AND HERBICIDES
TAMANA BAKHT* AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN

WEED CONTROL IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill.) THROUGH MULCHING AND HERBICIDES
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012 and 2013 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.). Variety ‘Roma’ was planted on a plot size of 4.8m x 3m using a randomized complete block (RCB) design in split plot arrangements, having four replications. The experiment comprised of row spacing in main plots and ten treatments in the subplots that included five mulches viz., white polyethylene, black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust; three herbicide treatments i.e. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, s-metolachlor along with a hand weeding treatment and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m-2 at 20 days after treatments, plant height, fruit yield (kg ha-1). All the studied parameters were significantly affected by the row spacing (factor A) and weed management treatments (factor B); however, the interaction effects were non-significant. An increase in weed density was observed with increase in row spacing, having weed density of 3.39, 4.19 and 4.53 weeds m-2 for 40, 60 and 80 row spacing, respectively. The overall weed density m-2 ranged between 3.24 to 4.30 m-2. A maximum plant height of 62.44cm was recorded in weedy check and minimum 53.31cm plant height was observed in hand weeding treatments. As regards the fruit yield, a highest yield of 2.51 t ha-1 was recorded at row spacing of 60 cm (factor A) and the application of poly ethylene black plastic resulted in significantly highest fruit yield (4.04 t ha-1) among factor B treatments.

289-292 Download
45
RICE HUSK AS DYES REMOVAL FROM IMPREGNATED COTTON WASTES GENERATED IN SPORTS INDUSTRIES OF SIALKOT, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD JUNAID1, MUHAMMAD USMAN KHAN1, FAROOQ AHMAD2*, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

RICE HUSK AS DYES REMOVAL FROM IMPREGNATED COTTON WASTES GENERATED IN SPORTS INDUSTRIES OF SIALKOT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The current study was designed to the potential dyes removal present in solid wastes of cotton (Generated from sports industries). Sport products were colored with different shaded dyes with the help of cotton that are disposed to the different environmental compartment. Cost effective and eco-friendly adsorbents (rice husk) has been collected and used as an ideal alternative to the conventional method of dyes removal for disposed cotton wastes. The effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, shaking speed and amount of dyes solution of rice husks on dyes removal have been evaluated and optimized. Maximum and efficient dyes removal was observed at pH (3.0), contact time (240 min), adsorbent dose (8.0 g), shaking speed (300 rpm) and amount of dyes solution (200 ml). All these conditions have ensured dyes removal up to 91, 93, 92, 90 and 93% respectively. This process highlighted the advantage of recovery of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and dyes which may be used again after modification. Furthermore the present study encourages that the rice husks generated as biological waste can be used as promising tool for dyes removal.

293-297 Download
46
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN GRAINS COUNT AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLIMATIC FACTORS FROM KHAIRPUR; SINDH, PAKISTAN
ANJUM PERVEEN1*, SHAISTA ZEB2, MUNEEBA KHAN2 AND MUHAMMAD QAISER3

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN GRAINS COUNT AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLIMATIC FACTORS FROM KHAIRPUR; SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This is the first aerobiological survey of Khairpur, Sindh. The survey was conducted from January-December

299-306 Download
47
THE EFFECTS OF SUCROSE CONCENTRATION AND LIGHT CONDITION ON LILY’S BULBLET-IN-TUBE PRODUCTION AND INCLUSION CONTENT
MĐNGFANG ZHANG1 AND GUĐXĐA JĐA2*

THE EFFECTS OF SUCROSE CONCENTRATION AND LIGHT CONDITION ON LILY’S BULBLET-IN-TUBE PRODUCTION AND INCLUSION CONTENT
ABSTRACT:
The effects of sucrose concentration and light condition on bulblet-in-tube’s regeneration were investigated. Results revealed that explants (‘Siberia’ bulb scale) cultured on media containing 3 g.L-1 sucrose induced fast (23.33 days) with the highest inducement rate (88.91%) and most buds (13.78/explants). In 75 days of swelling period, the diameter of bulblet on media with 8 g.L-1 sucrose increased most (350.44%) with best roots formation. Explants provided with 16-h photoperiod light condition (L) differentiated fast (27.60 days) with highest proliferation multiple (6.4). Besides, most of them (67.36%) induced adventitious buds. While plants in continuous darkness condition (D), most of explants (78.69%) developed bulblets directly. After swelling, bulblets induced and swelled in D had the highest diameter increase rate (443.70%) with most (14.53 roots/bulblet) and longest roots (36.82 mm). Interestingly, the bulblets differentiated in L and swelled in D (L-D) only increased to 245.33% with least (7.31 roots/bulblet) and shortest roots (7.96 mm). Carbohydrate contents of bulblet cultured in various light conditions showed significant difference. L condition applied in all phases was best for carbohydrate accumulation of bulblets and L-D (differentiate in light and swell in dark condition) was worst. Endogenous hormones contents of bulblets provided with different light conditions showed slight difference. During dormancy breaking period, all index above exhibited similar change trend with lily commercial bulb and there was slight difference among different bulblets. Ex vitro performances of those bulblets were also compared. The surviving rate in L-L (differentiate in light and swell in light condition) was 66.7% which was also the highest immediately followed by bulblet in D-D (Differentiate in dark and swell in dark condition) (53.3%). The bulblets in L-D survived least (26.7%).

307-315 Download
48
INDUCTION OF MUTANTS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF CV. SAMRA) USING GAMMA IRRADIATION
MAJED ALBOKARI

INDUCTION OF MUTANTS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF CV. SAMRA) USING GAMMA IRRADIATION
ABSTRACT:
A mutation breeding program was initiated in 2008 emphasizing the main constraints for sustainable production of durum wheat in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the program was to develop moderate or high yielding semi-dwarf/lodging tolerant, early maturing mutants with drought and disease tolerance from a local durum wheat cultivar (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Samra) which has the main defects of longer crop duration, lodging habit and low grain yield. Dry seeds of Samra were subjected to 150 and 200Gy doses of gamma irradiation and each treatment consisted of 2500 seeds. Irradiated seeds were grown as M1 population along with parental variety as control at Almuzahmiah Research Station of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decrease in germination (%) and survival rate (%) of plants was observed. A wide variation in days to flowering and plant height was found in the M1 populations. Three seeds from each spike per plant of M1 plants were collected, bulked dose wise and grown separately as M2 in 2009 growing season. From these M2, 17 desirable putative mutant plants which varied significantly with the mother were visually selected. These putative mutants were found to be semi-dwarf and early maturing in nature with other improved agronomic traits including lodging reaction and grain yield. The selected plants, when grown in progeny lines as M3 in 2010, more or less maintained their superiority over the mother for many traits. Most of the mutant lines showed homogeneity for most of characters studied. Eleven of these 17 lines were found to be promising in respect of days to flower, plant height (for semi-dwarf) and other traits including grain yield.

317-324 Download
49
IN VITRO REGENERATION OF SALVIA SANTOLINIFOLIA
TOUR JAN* AND KHALIDA KHATOON

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF SALVIA SANTOLINIFOLIA
ABSTRACT:
In vitro shoots of Salvia santolinifolia were produced under the influence of different types of cytokinins supplementation by nodal segments on MS media. Excised young nodal segments of Salvia santolinifolia obtained from adult field-grown plants, successfully regenerated plant lets through organogenesis. Addition of BA at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l produced maximum number and length of shoots. The multiplication of shoots was always slow in primary cultures and increased during subculture. Regenerated shoots produced roots on transfer to medium containing 2.5 mg/l of IBA. Plant lets thus obtained were grown in sterile soil and sand mixture (1:1).

325-328 Download
50
IN VITRO ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION FROM COTYLEDON EXPLANT OF BRASSICA OLERACEA SUBSP. ITALICA AND BRASSICA OLERACEA SUBSP. CAPITATA USING TDZ AND NAA
SEYED ALI RAVANFAR1,2, MAHERAN ABDUL AZIZ*1,2, AZMI ABDUL RASHID1 AND SHAHIDA SALIM1

IN VITRO ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION FROM COTYLEDON EXPLANT OF BRASSICA OLERACEA SUBSP. ITALICA AND BRASSICA OLERACEA SUBSP. CAPITATA USING TDZ AND NAA
ABSTRACT:
Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) andɑ-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies.

329-335 Download
51
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF LIPID FRACTION OF SELECTED EDIBLE NUTS
DOROTA DEREWIAKA*, EWA SZWED AND RAFAŁ WOŁOSIAK

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF LIPID FRACTION OF SELECTED EDIBLE NUTS
ABSTRACT:
The study presents the characteristics of oil fraction of 8 types of edible nuts available on the Polish market. All tested nuts were characterized with high content of dry matter. Fatty acid and sterol composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Squalene and tocopherol profiles were examined by HPLC with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence detectors (FLDs). The highest level of fat was found in macadamia (75.4 g/100 g) and the lowest in cashew nuts (46.9 g/100 g). Fatty analysis showed that nuts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in most cases, with the exception of Brazilian nuts, walnuts and pine nuts which were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. β-Sitosterol was the main sterol of nuts, and its content ranged from 96.9 mg/100 g of oil (in macadamia) to 474.8 mg/100 g of oil (in pistachio). γ-Tocopherol homologue was predominant among its fraction with the largest content determined in pistachio (8.3 mg/100 g of oil) and walnuts (8.6 mg/100 g of oil). The presence of squalene was confirmed in seven types of nuts, and the richest source of it were Brazilian nuts (145.8 mg/100 g of oil). The study proofs the variation of nut oil composition, especially phytosterol and tocopherol content and can be used for better characterization of nuts derived from different geographic areas or cultivars.

337-343 Download
52
ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC STUDIES OF RANUNCULUS MURICATUS L. AGAINST SOME INDIGENOUS BACTERIA
SUNNIYA RASOOL1, SIKANDER ALI2* AND TAHIRA A. MUGHAL1

ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC STUDIES OF RANUNCULUS MURICATUS L. AGAINST SOME INDIGENOUS BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, antibacterial activity of the whole plant methanolic extract of Ranunculus muricatus L., was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus pumilus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Methanol was regarded as an excellent solvent for antimicrobial activity. It was observed as best bactericidal at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1-10 µg/ml against all the bacterial cultures viz. B. pumilus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeroginosa and S. typhimurium. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respect to solvent extract of leaves of Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander, Withania somnifera, whole plant of Heliotropiaum curassavicum and fruits of Citrullus colocynthis. Synergistical study revealed the best antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and B. pumilus at a level of 1 µg/ml except E. coli and S. aureus.

345-352 Download
53
REAL-TIME PCR (QPCR) ASSAY FOR RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ANASTOMOSES GROUP AG2-2 IIIB
SAYED JAFFAR ABBAS1,2*, BASHIR AHMAD1 AND PETR KARLOVSKY2

REAL-TIME PCR (QPCR) ASSAY FOR RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ANASTOMOSES GROUP AG2-2 IIIB
ABSTRACT:
Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group AG2-2 IIIB is a severe sugar beet and maize pathogen. It causes crown and root rot disease which leads to yield losses world-wide. The soil-borne pathogen is difficult to detect and quantify by conventional methods. We developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantification of genomic DNA of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IIIB based on the ITS region of rDNA genes. The limit of quantification of the assay is 1.8 pg genomic DNA. The amplification efficiency was 96.4. The assay will be helpful in the diagnoses of Rhizoctonia solani infection of sugar beet and maize roots and in the quantification of R. solani AG2-2 IIIB inoculum in plant debris and soil.

353-356 Download
54
LOW TEMPERATURE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION OF GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS WOLL. AND TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM RIFAI
SAIFULLAH1 AND NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2

LOW TEMPERATURE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION OF GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS WOLL. AND TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM RIFAI
ABSTRACT:
Low temperature scanning electron microscopic (LTSEM) studies revealed that Trichoderma harzianum infected mature potato cysts nematode eggs by penetrating directly the cyst wall or via natural opening of mouth. Mycelial penetration on cyst wall or egg surface has been seen. The penetration of cyst wall or egg surface was either chemical or mechanical (directly or with appresorium) or both. Freeze fractionation showed the presence of mycelia inside the eggs.

357-361 Download
55
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS AND TAGETES PATULA AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS
MUHAMMAD MEDRAR HUSSAIN1*, BASHIR AHMAD1, ELISA RASHID1, SAIMA HASHIM2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3, ASAD JAN4

IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS AND TAGETES PATULA AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present study was to screen the antimicrobial activities of extracts of leaves and stems of Adiantum capillus veneris and Tagetes patula against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Extracts from the leaves and stems of these plants were extracted with methanol and water and tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against ten MDR bacterial strains i.e., Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Providencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Leaves methanol extract (LME) of Adiantum showed maximum Zone of Inhibition (ZI) against Providencia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi, whereas its stem methanol extract (SME) was very active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Similarly LME of Tagetes showed highest ZI against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae while SME showed highest ZI to Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Providencia, Shigella and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Leaves water extract (LWE) of Adiantum was very active against all ten bacterial strains while its stem water extract (SWE) showed maximum ZI against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, Shigella, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia. LWE of Tagetes was only active against Vibrio cholerae whereas SWE was very active against Salmonella typhi and active against P. vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii and Vibrio cholerae. It was concluded from this study that extracts of both Adiantum and Tagetes have prominent activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and needs further studies for utmost benefits.

363-368 Download
56
MYCOFLORA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SOME WILD PLANTS AROUND KARACHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
SHAHNAZ DAWAR*, MASOOMA BATOOL, MARIUM TARIQ AND M. JAVED ZAKI

MYCOFLORA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SOME WILD PLANTS AROUND KARACHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
ABSTRACT:
This paper deals with data regarding rhizosphere mycoflora of wild plants including Amaranthus viridis L., Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz and Tridax procumbens L. which were collected from different location around Karachi University campus. Result recorded for the properties of rhizosphere showed texture of soil as sandy loam soil, moisture content ranged between 15-31% and basic pH of C. barbata while acidic in case of A. viridis and T. procumbens. 21 fungal species belonging to 16 genera were isolated from rhizospheric soil of wild plants by direct plate method while 28 species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild plants by serial dilution method. The result showed that greatest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution method. Maximum number of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere soil of C. barbata whereas lowest number of fungi were recorded from rhizosphere soil of A. viridis.

369-373 Download
57
INTEGRATED USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA, BIOGAS SLURRY AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MAIZE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED CONDITIONS
MAQSHOOF AHMAD1*, ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR2, MOAZZAM JAMIL1, FARHEEN NAZLI3, MUHAMMAD LATIF1 AND M. FAKHAR-U-ZAMAN AKHTAR1

INTEGRATED USE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA, BIOGAS SLURRY AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MAIZE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils.

375-382 Download
58
THE IMPACT OF SIDEROPHORE SECRETION BY PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI TO CHELATING Cu METAL IN SOLUTION CULTURE
RAFIA AZMAT

THE IMPACT OF SIDEROPHORE SECRETION BY PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI TO CHELATING Cu METAL IN SOLUTION CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
This article discuss the interaction of siderophores (which are low molecular weight, secreted metabolites) of microorganisms (Pseudomonas stutzeri) separately and simultaneously with Cu metal in the solution culture on the roots of 4d old seedlings of Vigna radiata. Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in plant growth due to the release of pigment. It is a coloring compound (siderophore) showed high chemical oxygen demand (COD), lowers the pressure of oxygen. This lowers the nutrient uptake by the roots due to which reduced plant growth with metabolic disorder was observed in the whole plant. A wide range of phenomena from simple to complex interactions was observed between microorganisms and Cu metal in relation with plant root growth such as adsorption, oxidation/reduction of pigment, solubilization. Results showed that microbial strain showed a significant effect on weight of root in aqueous culture whereas nutrient medium support the root growth. Biochemical analysis reflects that lipids were main target of both abiotic and biotic stress that may utilizes to overcome the stress due to which protein contents were seemed to be unaffected at highest concentration of metal or it may also be related with the degradation of lipids due to the biotic and abiotic stress.

383-387 Download
59
THE DINOFLAGELLATE OF THE GENUS CERATIUM SCHRANK COLLECTED IN THE GRAND-LAHOU LAGOON (CÔTE D’IVOIRE)
KOMOÉ KOFFI, KASSI N’DJA JUSTIN AND SORO DODIOMON

THE DINOFLAGELLATE OF THE GENUS CERATIUM SCHRANK COLLECTED IN THE GRAND-LAHOU LAGOON (CÔTE D’IVOIRE)
ABSTRACT:
A taxonomic survey of the dinoflagellate genus Ceratium Schrank was conducted on ten stations in the Grand-Lahou lagoon. A total of 27 species have been identified and described. Three species and one variety (Ceratium arietinum, Ceratium dens, Ceratium pulchellum and Ceratium furca var. Berghii) are new records for Côte d’Ivoire.

389-398 Download
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MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE)
SAIMA HASHIM1*, TAMANA BAKHT1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2 AND ASAD JAN3

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine) belongs to family Zygophyllaceae and it is a herbaceous, mat forming plant in nature. It extensively grows in warm dry tropics all over the world and ecologically adaptated as a typical C4 xeromorphic plant. T. terrestris is a noxious weed along with its use in many countries as a folk medicine for different purposes from time immemorial. Ancient records describe various medicinal properties of T. terrestris as a popular source to cure variety of different disease conditions in China, India, and Greece. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a main component for production of a number of medicines and food supplements such as for physical rejuvenation, therapy for the conditions affecting liver, kidney, cardiovascular system and immune systems. Also it is used as a folk medicine for increased muscle strength, sexual potency and in treatments of urinary infections, heart diseases and cough. It is considered invigorating stimulant, aphrodisiac, and nutritive. This review discusses the most commonly recognized medicinal properties of this herb. The chemistry of T. terrestris extracts to establish the relationship between medicinal properties of this important plant will also be reviewed.

399-404 Download
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