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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 3
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1
MOLECULAR ANALYSES OF THE GENERA EREMOPYRUM (LEDEB.) JAUB. & SPACH AND AGROPYRON GAERTNER (POACEAE) BY PCR METHODS
REMZİYE YILMAZ1, EVREN CABİ2* AND MUSA DOGAN3

MOLECULAR ANALYSES OF THE GENERA EREMOPYRUM (LEDEB.) JAUB. & SPACH AND AGROPYRON GAERTNER (POACEAE) BY PCR METHODS
ABSTRACT:
RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Post PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Melting Curve Analysis (MCA) have been used to investigate the pattern of genetic variation among some species in the genera Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach and Agropyron Gaertner (Poaceae). Thirteen primers have been used in the study based on the RAPD-PCR and MCA analyses. Each species produced a distinct pattern of DNA fragments which have been used as a measure of the degree of relationship between species by means of using the RAPD-PCR results with three primers selected for identifying the genetic similarities. Polymorphic melting profiles have been obtained with Post PCR MCA method using three primers. Genetic similarities are calculated for all the species studied with RAPD-PCR and MCA methods, the dendrograms are obtained with the MVSP (Multi Variate Statistical Package) software using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages) and Jaccard’s Coefficient. Polymorphism between 18 populations of Eremopyrum and 6 Agropyron populations and within the species are determined by using RAPD-PCR and Post PCR melting curve analysis (MCA) respectively.

769-774 Download
2
SYSTEMATIC POSITIONS OF MEDICAGO EDGEWORTHII AND M. ARCHIDUCIS-NICOLAI (LEGUMINOSAE) INFERRED FROM PLASTID TRNK/MATK, NUCLEAR GA30X1 AND ITS SEQUENCES
DIE HU1,2, FEIFEI LI1,2, JIE LIU1,2, YANXIA SUN1,2, XINWEI Li1, JUAN YAN1*AND JIANQIANG LI1*

SYSTEMATIC POSITIONS OF MEDICAGO EDGEWORTHII AND M. ARCHIDUCIS-NICOLAI (LEGUMINOSAE) INFERRED FROM PLASTID TRNK/MATK, NUCLEAR GA30X1 AND ITS SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
This paper characterizes the systematic positions of Medicago edgeworthii and M. archiducis-nicolai. The combined data set of chloroplast trnK/matK, nuclear GA3ox1 and ITS sequences provided a substantial amount of informative characters. The methods of Maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and Maximum likelihood were employed. The results showed that M. edgeworthii formed a monophyletic group with M. biflora and M. brachycarpa, both of which are members of section Lunatae; M. archiducis-nicolai is closely related to M. platycarpa and M. ruthenica. Our study supports the previous view that M. edgeworthii belongs to section Lunatae, and M. archiducis-nicolai belongs to section Platycarpae. In addition, the study suggests that M. lupulina is a member of a clade having M. tenoreana and M. minima, which indicates that M. lupulina and M. secundiflora should probably not be placed in the same section.

775-778 Download
3
GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF BRASSICA NAPUS/BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS PROGENIES USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
LAILA FAYYAZ1, FARHATULLAH1*, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2, SIDRA IQBAL1 MEHWISH KANWAL1 AND IFFAT NAWAZ1

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF BRASSICA NAPUS/BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS PROGENIES USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity and relationship of F2 segregating progenies of interspecific crosses between B. napus N-501/B. campestris C-118 were studied. A set of 90 genotypes (2 parental lines and their 88 F2 progenies) was characterized separately using 24 microsatellite or SSR markers to cover the diversity as broadly as possibly present in them. In initial screening only 12 out of 24 SSR primers combination amplified DNA fragments, while the remaining 12 SSR primers did not amplify DNA fragment therefore those 12 SSR molecular markers were not used for further analysis. The 12 SSR primer combinations generated a total of 33 alleles, of that 32 were polymorphic loci, whereas only one was monomorphic locus. Primers BRMS-19 and BRMS-40 were highly polymorphic producing 4 bands each. Primer Ra2-D04 was less polymorphic and it produced only one band. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 95.83% which indicates high genetic diversity among the progenies. The average number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.66. The PIC values ranged from 0.395 for primer Ra2-E03 to 0.726 for primer BRMS-019 with an average genetic diversity (PIC value) of 0.584 per locus. Seven primers showed PIC values above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Pair-wise similarity indices among 90 genotypes ranged from 0.3 to 0.95. Dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering of F2 progenies depicted eight main groups using similarity coefficient of 0.70. The progenies could be similar to their parents if they have the same banding patterns as that of the parents and could be distinguished from each other by the combination of fragments which are repeatedly present in one progeny and absent in the other. Considerable genetic diversity has been found among the F2 segregating progenies and their parents using SSR markers thus, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool.

779-787 Download
4
LEAF PROTEOME ANALYSIS OF CLEMATIS CHINENSIS: A TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM) BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL
ELECTROPHORESIS TECHNIQUE

LEAF PROTEOME ANALYSIS OF CLEMATIS CHINENSIS: A TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM) BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL
ABSTRACT:
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ1*, MEHWISH MAQBOOL1, TANVEER HUSSAIN1, SHEHZAD AZAM1 AND YI WANG2

789-801 Download
5
IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF ABA-INSENSITIVE3 FROM ROSA CANINA
YANG HUI-FANG1, XU KE-DONG2, KOU YA-PING1, ISHAK ABDURAZAK1, LI JUN-XIANG1 AND ZHAO LIANG-JUN1*

IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF ABA-INSENSITIVE3 FROM ROSA CANINA
ABSTRACT:
ABA-insensitive 3 (ABI3), initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, is intermediary in regulating ABA-responsive genes during seed dormancy inception and seed germination developmental program. In order to study whether the ortholog of ABI3 from Rosa canina was functional, we isolated the ortholog by a combination of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It encodes 718 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 79.9kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.78. The predicted amino acid sequence of the RcABI3 is most closely related to the ABI3 orthologs identified in Prunus avium (PaABI3 and PaVP1). Expression analysis revealed that RcABI3 was expressed in seeds and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs), but not in roots, stems, leaves and flowers. On a cellular level, we localized the RcABI3::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells, which was consistent with the nuclear localization of PsABI3 in Pisum sativum. The RcABI3 is able to restore the Arabidopsis abi3-6 mutant seed dormancy ability and almost completely rescue the ABA sensitivity during seed germination, which suggest that it is a functional ABI3 ortholog. These results suggest that RcABI3 is appropriate for application in genetic engineering strategies aimed at regulating seed dormancy and germination in R. canina or even in Rosa plants.

803-810 Download
6
SDS-PAGE BASED GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*, HINA REHMAN1 AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI2

SDS-PAGE BASED GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm, comprising of 116 accessions was characterized using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The germplasm was acquired from different countries of the world. Total seed proteins were separated through electrophoresis polyacrylamide gels using standard protocols. Eighteen (60%) of the protein bands detected were polymorphic, the rest being monomorphic. Eight bands (14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24 and 25) were more than 80% common in all accessions. Similarity coefficients among the accessions ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. Accessions 16327 and 26752 were the most divergent genotypes having maximum dissimilarity with all the other accessions used. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was used which is based on dissimilarity matrix. The dendrogram obtained separated all accessions into four main clusters (I, II, III and IV) and two independent individual genotypes. Four major clusters comprised of 23, 75, 8 and 8 accessions, respectively. This technique did not reveal genetic variability of significant value in safflower genotypes, hence advanced molecular and biochemical markers are recommended for further studies. This study will be helpful for the future breeding program of safflower accessions.

811-815 Download
7
INVESTIGATION OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS OF PAKISTANI AND JAPANESE MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) THROUGH SDS-PAGE MARKERS
JAVED IQBAL1,2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1* AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI2

INVESTIGATION OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS OF PAKISTANI AND JAPANESE MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) THROUGH SDS-PAGE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The assessment of genetic diversity among the members of a species is of vital importance for successful breeding and adaptability. In the present study 83 genotypes of maize of Pakistani and Japanese origin were evaluated for the total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) through vertical slab unit. The total protein subunits were separated on 12% polyacrylamide gel using standard protocols. A total of 18 protein subunits were noted out of which 7 (39%) were monomorphic and 11 (61%) were polymorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 122 kDa. Coefficients of similarity among the accessions ranged between 0.89 and 1.00. The dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering method showed two main clusters: 1 and 2. First cluster comprised of 9 genotypes including Sahiwal-2002, while second cluster contained 74 genotypes including Aaiti-2002 and Sadaf. Over all a low level of polymorphism was observed in total seed storage protein patterns of maize genotypes from Pakistan as well as Japan. It is inferred from the present study that more genotypes of maize could be brought under study and more advanced biochemical techniques with more reliable results could be followed to bring assessment of genetic diversity of maize for planning breeding programs.

817-822 Download
8
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CODON USAGE BIAS AND COLD RESISTANT GENES
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI* AND MUHAMMAD DIN

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CODON USAGE BIAS AND COLD RESISTANT GENES
ABSTRACT:
This research is based on synonymous codon usage which has been well-known as a feature that affects typical expression level of protein in an organism. Different organisms prefer different codons for same amino acid and this is called Codon Usage Bias (CUB). The codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in responses to environmental stimuli. Cold stress is a major abiotic factor that limits the agricultural productivity of plants. In the recent study CUB has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana cold resistant and housekeeping genes and their homologs in rice (Oryza sativa) to understand the cold stress and housekeeping genes relation with CUB. Six cold resistant and three housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and their homologs in rice, were subjected to CUB analysis. The three cold resistant genes (DREB1B, RCI and MYB15) showed more than 50% (52%, 61% and 66% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. On the other hand three cold resistant genes (MPK3, ICE1 and ZAT12) showed less than 50% (38%, 38% and 47% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The three housekeeping genes (Actin, Tubulin and Ubiquitin) showed 76% similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. This study will help to manage the plant gene expression through codon optimization under the cold stress.

823-826 Download
9
CHARACTERIZATION OF TOMATO GERMPLASM THROUGH SEEDS THROUGH RAGE PROTEIN PROFILING BY SDS-PAGE
AMJAD HAMEED1*, AYESHA GUL2 AND TAHSIN GULZAR2

CHARACTERIZATION OF TOMATO GERMPLASM THROUGH SEEDS THROUGH RAGE PROTEIN PROFILING BY SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
The 24 tomato genotypes, including 5 hybrids (Avinash-ΙΙ, CKD-1092, CKD-1093, CKD-1695, CKD-1088), seven germplasm lines (07039, 09091, 27-07, 42-07, 07011, 09076, 09078) and twelve cultivars (Excellence, Nagina, Naqeeb, Advanta-1202, PTM-1431, Pakit, Rio Grande, Lyp#1, Roma, Continental, VCT-Ι, Peto-86), were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for total soluble seed storage proteins on 10% gels. A low level of variability was observed in protein profiles of tomato genotypes. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the 24 genotypes in four major groups. All germplasm lines illustrated identical profiles, therefore could not be differentiated on the basis of seed storage protein profiles. However, among tomato cultivars, VCT-l found to be the most divergent and could be distinguished from others on the basis of two peptides i.e. 58 kDa and 15 kDa. Similarly, in case of hybrids, a peptide of 58 kDa was absent in Avinash while present in all other hybrids. Another peptide of 64 kDa was unique to Avinash and absent in all other hybrids. Therefore, among hybrids, Avinash can be distinguished from others based on these peptide differences. Uniprot and NCBI protein databases were searched for already reported and characterized seed storage proteins in tomato. Among 42 resolved peptides, eleven could be identified from databases. On the basis of molecular weight similarity, identified peptides were SSP-83 as Alkaline alpha-galactosidase, SSP-78 as BiP, SSP-66 as vicilin, SSP-64 as DELLA Protein, SSP-58 as SNF1, SSP-41 as SNF4, SSP-36 as putative galactinol synthase 1, SSP-33 as Xyloglucan endotransg-lycosylases, SSP-26 as expansin family, SSP-10 as Putative vicilin and SSP-8 as albumin protein. In conclusion, seed storage profiling by SDS-PAGE can economically be used to asses the genetic variation in different tomato genotypes.

827-832 Download
10
THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO ENDEMIC CROCUS L. (IRIDACEAE) SPECIES OF TURKEY
YURDANUR AKYOL1*, CENK DURMUSKAHYA2, OKAN KOCABAS3, SINEM PEKÖNÜR3 AND CANAN ÖZDEMIR3

THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO ENDEMIC CROCUS L. (IRIDACEAE) SPECIES OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The paper reports morphological and anatomical features of Crocus asumaniae Mathew and Crocus mathewii Kerndorff et Pasche, endangered plants. Transvers sections of plant parts stem, scape and leaf were investigated. Characteristically, style is dividing into 3 slender yellow to orange branches, flowering takes place in autumn and is hysteranthous. In anatomical studies, the walls of root endodermal cells of both species show thickenings completely and hairs are found on the abaxial epidermis of leaf. Presence of sclerenchymatic tissues around the vascular bundles of the leaf is a characteristic feature.

833-839 Download
11
PHYTODIVERSITY AND PLANT LIFE OF KHANPUR DAM, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*, HUMAIRA SHAHEEN, MUHAMMAD ILYAS, WASIM AHMED AND MUBASHRAH MUNIR

PHYTODIVERSITY AND PLANT LIFE OF KHANPUR DAM, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to record the flora of Khanpur Dam, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed during 2009 to 2010 for the collection of plant specimens. A total of 221 plant species of 169 genera and 66 families were recorded from the study area, including two ferns, one gymnosperm, 39 monocots and 179 dicots. Poaceae was found as the most dominant family in the flora of the project area that contributed 33 species (14. 86%), followed by Asteraceae 26 spp. (11.71%), Fabaceae 13 spp. (5.86%), Amaranthaceae & Lamiaceae 9 spp. each (4.05% each), Euphorbiaceae & Solanaceae 8 spp. (3.60% each), Polygonaceae 7 spp. (3.15%) and Brassicaceae 6 spp. (2.70%), while rest of the families shared 1-5 species. It was observed that most of the taxa were perennials (49.32%) followed by annuals (47.51%) and biennial (3.17%). Herbs were dominating fraction in the floristic composition that contributed 57.47%, followed by shrubs (14.03%), grasses (10.86%) and trees (9.50%), whereas rest of 5 categories were in the range of 3.17-0.45%. Therophytes were the most abundant life form that constituted 42.53% of the total flora, followed by phanerophytes (27.15%), hemicryptophytes (18.55%), chamaephytes (7.24%) and cryptophytes (4.52%). Two species viz., Alternanthera paronychioides and Boerhavia diandra are reported for the first time from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

841-849 Download
12
PISTIA STRATIOTES L. (ARACEAE): PHYTOCHEMISTRY, USE IN MEDICINES, PHYTOREMEDIATION, BIOGAS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, BAKHTIAR GUL1, FAZLI WAHID1, HAROON KHAN1 AND SAIMA HASHIM1

PISTIA STRATIOTES L. (ARACEAE): PHYTOCHEMISTRY, USE IN MEDICINES, PHYTOREMEDIATION, BIOGAS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Pistia stratiotes L. commonly known as water lettuce belongs to Araceae. It has been used in various medicines for the treatment of eczema, leprosy, ulcers, piles, stomach disorder, throat and mouth inflammation, a few to mention. This review article is a compilation of the updated information regarding phytochemical, pharmacological, medicinal, bioremediation potential, allelopathy, utilization and management of water lettuce. In Pakistan it was first reported from Razmak, South Waziristan in 1972, but now it is widespread throughout the country. Information regarding the uses and effects of different extract (ethanolic and methanolic) of this plant is also documented. Pistia stratiotes possess different useful activities like, diuretic, antidiabetic, antidermatophytic, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties against harmful diseases. It has great potential for absorption of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) without developing any toxicity or reduction in growth due to metal accumulation and has shown a wide range of tolerance to all the selected metals and therefore can be used for water purification and to combat water pollution in waste water bodies such as drainage ditches and channels carrying industrial effluents. This article provide bases and encourages further study on any of the above mentioned aspects of P. stratiotes for creation as well as confirmation of the information and also to reveal therapeutic effects, bioremediation and bioaccumulation potential with possible isolation of active bio-moieties and their mechanism of action.

851-860 Download
13
PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF AMMI VISNAGA (APIACAE)
SAIMA HASHIM1*, ASAD JAN2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3 AND MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1

PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF AMMI VISNAGA (APIACAE)
ABSTRACT:
Ammi visnaga (bisnaga, toothpick weed or khella) belongs to the family Apiaceae and it is a herbaceous medicinal plant. It is found mainly in the Mediterranean regions and also distributed abundantly throughout the world as introduced species. Many times, A. visnaga is weed as well as used in many countries as herbal medicine for different purposes. Ancient records reveal various medicinal properties of A. visnaga as a popular source to cure variety of different ailments. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a component for production of a number of herbal medicines used in the cure of renal colic, ureteric stones, angina pectoris, the coronary vessels, cardiovascular disorders and asthma. Also it is used as a folk medicine for vitiligo and psoriasis. This review highlights the commonly recognized medicinal uses of A. visnaga, its chemistry and ethnobotanical uses and will also serve as ready reference for future research.

861-867 Download
14
ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R.Br.- PLANTED BIOINDICATOR ALONG DIFFERENT ROAD-SIDES OF LAHORE CITY
SOHAIB MUHAMMAD1*, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1, AYESHA ZAHEER2, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3*, MUHAMMAD FAISAL MASOOD4 AND ATTA MUHAMMAD SARANGZAI5

ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R.Br.- PLANTED BIOINDICATOR ALONG DIFFERENT ROAD-SIDES OF LAHORE CITY
ABSTRACT:
A research work was carried out during 2009-2011 to investigate the biomonitoring potential of a road avenue tree, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. against the culminating pressure of aerial pollution in Lahore city. For this purpose seven busiest roads were selected on the basis of the flux of traffic and three leaf samples were taken for various biochemical and physiological attributes from each of the A. scholaris tree of respective road. The geographic coordinates on the map can be used for future reference. Various floral attributes of plant were selected i.e., amount of dust (g), percent (%) leaf moisture content, photosynthetic rate (μMm-2S-1), transpiration rate (μMm-2S-1), stomatal conductance (mMm-2S-1), chlorophyll contents (mg/g) and amount of carotenoids (mg/g) in the leaf samples. In case of % leaf moisture content, significant variation between the control (61.95) and road side plants (50.76) was observed. While minute differences between the control and road side plants were recorded in photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll contents and carotenoids, which is an indication that day by day increasing air pollution pressure in Lahore city is playing pivotal role, not only in the morphological features of the plant but also affecting the physiological and biochemical

869-873 Download
15
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PARENT MATERIALS ON LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN THE EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION
NACİDE KIZILDAĞ1*, CENGİZ DARICI1 AND HÜSNİYE AKA SAĞLIKER2

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PARENT MATERIALS ON LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN THE EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION
ABSTRACT:
Litter decomposition is the fundamental pathway for the turn of carbon, nitrogen and nutrients to terrestrial ecosystem and strongly influenced by climatic variables, litter quality and microbial activity. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of two different parent materials (conglomerate and marl) on litter decomposition and the relationships between litter quality and decomposition rate of Pinus pinea L. and Ceratonia siliqua L. in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Fresh fallen litters from P. pinea and C. siliqua plants were determined contents of C, N, P, lignin and cellulose. The litter bag method was used to determine their mass loss in the sampling area for 544 days. Litter mass loss in decomposition varied in the following order: Ceratoniamarl>Ceratoniacong>Pinuscong>Pinusmarl. There were no significant differences among the samples in terms of lignin contents of initial litter while cellulose content was only statistically significant between Pinuscong and Ceratoniacong (p<0.05). These results suggested that litter decomposition is affected from different parent materials (conglomerate and marl) and plant diversity.

875-879 Download
16
DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH AND VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION OF TWO CO-OCCURRING EMERGENT MACROPHYTES ALONG
A WATER TABLE GRADIENT

DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH AND VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION OF TWO CO-OCCURRING EMERGENT MACROPHYTES ALONG
ABSTRACT:
XINSHENG CHEN1,2, ZHENGMIAO DENG1,2, YONGHONG XIE1,2*, FENG LI1,2 AND XU LI1,2

881-886 Download
17
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
GHULAM DASTAGIR¹*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN¹ AND MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI²

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Abstract : In the present study with few exceptions, most of the minerals concentrations were higher in winter than in summer in all the investigated plants of family Zygophyllaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Calcium content in Fagonia cretica, Peganum harmala and Chrozophora tinctoria was significantly higher in winter than summer while in Tribulus terrestris and Ricinus communis it was significantly lower in winter. Potassium significantly increased in winter compared to summer in all the tested plants. Sodium in winter significantly differed in all the tested plants. Copper increased insignificantly in winter than summer in all plants. Mn also increased in winter as compared to summer in all the plants. The Mo was less in winter in F. cretica and T. terrestris while it increased in P. harmala, C. tinctoria and R. communis during winter and all plants means showed that they were significantly different from each other. Zinc was poor in winter than summer in F. cretica, P. harmala and T. terrestris, and it increased in C. tinctoria and R. communis. Aluminum was less in winter in F. cretica, P. harmala and R. communis which increased in T. terrestris and C. tinctoria winter.

887-896 Download
18
SYNSEED PRODUCTION FOR STORAGE AND CONSERVATION OF OCHRADENUS BACCATUS DELILE
FAHAD AL-QURAINY, MOHAMMAD NADEEM*, SALIM KHAN, SALEH ALANSI, MOHAMED TARROUM AND ABDULHAFED AL-AMERI

SYNSEED PRODUCTION FOR STORAGE AND CONSERVATION OF OCHRADENUS BACCATUS DELILE
ABSTRACT:
Ochradenus baccatus is a medicinal plant of high value, spread over sandy and stony places of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and most of the desert regions of Egypt. This species contains several flavanoids and specific constituents which are important as these have already been effectively used in lowering cholesterol in the blood of rats and high inhibition potential of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Synseeds were produced from stem segments and apical bud of O. baccatus growing In vitro. Two sets of synseeds were produced, one non-dried and the other dried under running laminar air-flow for 30 min. Regeneration and regrowth were evaluated for 16 weeks storage under various temperatures (4, 8 and 12ºC). The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets was achieved on the MS medium containing 1.0 μM BA in encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4ºC. Rooting in these shoots was induced by the pulse treatment of 100 μM IBA for 10 days, and the rooted shoots were transferred on the MS medium devoid of any PGR. Fair percent rooting occurred after one week of transfer on the MS medium. Plantlets were successfully established. No phenotypic variations were observed between the synseed originated plants with mother plant. Genetic stability of synseed grown plants and mother plant was evaluated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The mother plant as well as regenerated plants from synseed resulted in a monomorphic banding pattern developed from ISSR markers confirming genetic stability among the clones. This protocol will help multiply and conserve the plant as well as for short-term storage of germplasm for commercial use and exchange.

897-902 Download
19
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. - LAMIACEAE)
NOURIN AMAN AND HUMERA AFRASIAB*

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. - LAMIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from young leaf explants of rosemary with 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyaceti acid (2, 4-D) in different concentrations (0.45, 2.25, 4.52, 6.75, 9.04 µM) in combination with Benzyladenine (BA) using modified woody plant medium (WPM). The best frequencies of induction were obtained in a medium supplemented with 2.25 µM 2, 4-D and 0.45 µM BA, in which 100% of the calli produced somatic embryos. Subculture of primary somatic embryos on modified WPM without hormones gave rise to clusters with secondary somatic embryos and embryogenic calli. These clusters were sub-cultured every 4 weeks, and an average of 10% of the secondary somatic embryos developed into plantlets in each subculture. The same culture on WPM containing Abscisic acid (ABA) in different concentrations (3.48, 7.67, 11.35 µM) also yielded de novo secondary embryos and whitish embryogenic calli.

903-909 Download
20
THE EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. SEEDLINGS
GÜLER ÇOLAK1*, M. CELALETTIN BAYKUL2, REMZI GÜRLER3, ERCAN ÇATAK1 AND NECMETTIN CANER4

THE EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
This study was planned to contribute the views examining the physiological mechanisms of selenium-induced growth reductions with regard to selenium and plant nutrient interactions. Growth inhibition in the seedlings and the changes in nutrient compositions of epidermal cells with administration of increasing concentrations of selenium were investigated at the initial growth stage, which is the most stress-sensitive stage, of plant. The effects of selenium on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. seedlings were investigated by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) analysis of the regions, approximately 450 mm x 500 mm in size, with use of low-vacuum (~ 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscope, and SEM images were obtained. Increasing concentrations of selenium in the nutrient solution led to decreased cell growth particularly in the hypocotyl and roots, and to increased selenium content in the cells. The growth inhibitions were found at the selenium concentrations of ≥ 100 ppm. Development of the glandular hairs in the hypocotyl epidermal system was significantly reduced with the administration of ≥ 200 ppm of selenium. Development of the absorbing hairs in the roots was decreased in parallel with the increasing selenium concentrations in the nutrient solution; and because the development of the root is often limited to only to the development of radicula at the selenium concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm, no absorbing hairs was found in these roots. Some macro- and micronutrient contents of radicle and hypocotyl epidermal cells were changed in response to selenium toxicity. In conclusion, ≥ 200 ppm of selenium administered in the form of SeO2 was certainly toxic for the initial growth period of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. H-2274.

911-920 Download
21
GROUND BIOMASS ASSESSMENT OF SHRUB SPECIES IN TEHSIL TAKHT-E-NASRATI, PAKISTAN
MUSHARAF KHAN1&2*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, SHAHANA MUSHARAF3 AND IMDADULLAH4

GROUND BIOMASS ASSESSMENT OF SHRUB SPECIES IN TEHSIL TAKHT-E-NASRATI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The shrub biomass of different species of Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati was different at different altitude. In the present study it was found that the average shrub biomass was decreasing with increasing altitude. Result confirms that the biomass of Saccharum bengalense was high 5020.38 Kg.hec-1 in phase 1 and phase 2 (4331.58 Kg.hec-1). The highest ground biomass 1125.1 Kg.hec-1 of Zizyphus nummularia was found in Phase 3. Furthermore in Phase 4 the biomass of Capparis deciduas was high 437.79 Kg.hec-1. Along with shrubs average biomass of Saccharum bengalense was high 2665.12 Kg.hec-1 and low 13.47 Kg.hec-1 of Cassia angustifolia. With seasons the biomass of Saccharum bengalense (13800 Kg.hec-1) was greater during winter at Phase 1 and Periploc aaphylla (12.35 Kg.hec-1) biomass was lowers during spring at Phase 4. In comparison in season the biomass was high in winter due to the dormant stage of shrubs in phase 1 while it was low in summer in phase 4. In winter the grazing process was stop due to agriculture point of view while in hilly area the grazing was high and the low percentage of rain fall consequently the biomass was high in plain area as contrast to hilly area. The biomass of shrubs is high in winter while it was low in summer as the grazing and palatability rate was high in summer as well as low in winter. The assessment of shrub biomass in research area is a requirement for successful management at the same time as it gives a complete documentation for the area in complexity and work out unpredictable resources to help imagine shrubs potency and behavior.

921-926 Download
22
A CEREAL CROP CANOPY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS MODEL BASED ON MULTIPLE FACTORS – MODELING AND SIMULATION
XUMENG LI1,2,3, XIAOHUI WANG2, HUANG HUANG1,3* AND XIAOPING LI2

A CEREAL CROP CANOPY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS MODEL BASED ON MULTIPLE FACTORS – MODELING AND SIMULATION
ABSTRACT:
Canopy light distribution and photosynthesis modeling is fundamental to cereal crop cultivation, breeding and crop informatics. It also has a great theoretical and practical significance for the evaluation and optimization of plant types and computer simulations of crop growth. This study has developed a cereal crop canopy photosynthesis model based on the improved “stratified-clipping method", which combines morphology, physiology and optics. This model includes a canopy shape model, a single leaf photosynthesis rate model, a canopy light distribution model and a photosynthetic rate model. In this study we carried out a numerical simulation of the photosynthetic rates of the 15625 rice plant types. The numerical results showed that the photosynthesis rate was closely related to the following five factors: leaf density, leaf nitrogen content, leaf length, leaf width and leaf angle. The model led us to the conclusion that the ideal rice plant type has large values around the vectors for the five factors in the upper part of the canopy, but should decreases downwardly along the canopy

927-937 Download
23
ENHANCED PLANT REGENERATION IN LEMNA MINOR BY AMINO ACIDS
LIN YANG1, 2, HUAJUN HAN1, ZHAOJIANG ZUO1, KAIQIANG ZHOU1, CONG REN1, YERONG ZHU1, YANLING BAI1 AND YONGWANG1*

ENHANCED PLANT REGENERATION IN LEMNA MINOR BY AMINO ACIDS
ABSTRACT:
In present study we investigated the effects of different L-amino acids on the plant regeneration from callus of Lemna minor, and established an efficient protocol. Among the 20 L-amino acids, only L-Ser and L-Gly showed significant improving effect, with the optimal concentration being 1 mM and 1.5 mM, respectively. A regeneration frequency of 46% was observed when the callus transferred to the regeneration medium with addition of 1 mM L-Ser for 11 days. After 26 days of cultivation, the frond regeneration achieved 100% and 94% for 1 mM L-Ser and 1.5 mM L-Gly treatment, respectively.

939-943 Download
24
UV-C IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON YOUNG TOMATO PLANTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS
DONATO CASTRONUOVO, GIUSEPPE TATARANNI, STELLA LOVELLI, VINCENZO CANDIDO, ADRIANO SOFO* AND ANTONIO SCOPA

UV-C IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON YOUNG TOMATO PLANTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS
ABSTRACT:
Ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C = 100-280 nm) is strongly affected by ozone levels, so that the amount of this radiation reaching the Earth's surface is extremely low. In the future, UV-C radiation is expected to increase as the result of stratospheric ozone depletion due to atmospheric pollution, with strong negative effects on economically important crops. To assess the effect of UV-C irradiation on young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; cv Cuore di bue), an experiment was conducted in controlled conditions, using a black chamber equipped with an UV-C lamp. Tomato plants were divided in four groups on the basis of UV-C irradiation time (10, 30, 60, and 120 min), and non-irradiated plants were kept as controls. Plant gas exchange, leaf color and morphologic traits were recorded before and after UV-C treatments. The photosynthetic apparatus was influenced by UV-C treatment, as shown by the strong increase in intracellular CO2, particularly evident in the 120 min treatment (338 μL L–1). This was due both to the stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition of the assimilation activity due to UV-C exposure. In 10 and 30-min treated plants, leaf color, measured immediately after the irradiation, did not statistically change, whereas the 60 and 120-min treatments were characterized by a deep senescence with a general stem and leaf yellowing. The results demonstrate that high UV-C doses determined irreversible damages, both at physiological and morphological levels, that lead plants to death, whereas lower irradiations (up to 60 min) allowed plants to partially recovery their normal physiological status.

945-949 Download
25
IN VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION OF FIVE CITRUS SPECIES
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

IN VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION OF FIVE CITRUS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using “hanging drop” technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4ºC, -20ºC, -30ºC and -60ºC. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60ºC) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii.

951-956 Download
26
HEAT-INDUCED REGULATION OF ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN HEXAPLOID BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MUHAMMAD AZHAR ZIA1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3*, NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM4 AND MUJTABA HUSSAIN1

HEAT-INDUCED REGULATION OF ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN HEXAPLOID BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50°C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same.

957-971 Download
27
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PISUM SATIVUM PLANT TO EXOGENOUS ABA APPLICATION UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS
HANAN HELMY LATIF

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PISUM SATIVUM PLANT TO EXOGENOUS ABA APPLICATION UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using foliar ABA application with different concentrations (50,100 and 150 µg/L-1) in order to decrease the adverse effect of water-deficit stress. The main parameters of interest were; growth parameters; endogenous phytohormones, proline; pigments contents; number and shape of stomata; minerals concentrations; isozymes; and SDS -PAGE protein profile in Pisum sativum plant at 36 days under drought and ABA treatments. The results showed that ABA reduces the reduction in both fresh and dry weights shoot and root of Pisum induced by drought stress. Proline content was increased in response to drought and ABA treatments. Water-stress caused significant reduction in Chl. a, b, whereas application of ABA significantly increased in total chlorohpyll. Water stress significantly decreased IAA, GA concentrations and increased ABA level in leaves than these of the control. ABA treatment partially overcame the decrease in IAA and GA contents. Water stress and ABA increased the activity of (POD) and (ACP) enzymes in Pisum plants. Proteins profile of Pisum sativum in shoot revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, also appearance or disappearance of some bands. After 54 days the yield harvested and total carbohydrates and SDS -PAGE protein profile in seed were investigated. The data showed that total carbohydrates contents were significantly decreased in plant under drought and ABA partially alleviate the adverse effect of water-deficit stress.

973-982 Download
28
SCREENING OF POTENTIAL BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS FROM OBLIGATE HALOPHILIC FUNGI, ISOLATED FROM A MAN-MADE SOLAR SALTERN LOCATED IN PHETCHABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND
IMRAN ALI1,2,4*, NAPA SIWARUNGSON3, HUNSA PUNNAPAYAK4*, PONGTHARIN LOTRAKUL4, SEHANAT PRASONGSUK4, WICHANEE BANKEEREE4 AND SUDIP K. RAKSHIT1

SCREENING OF POTENTIAL BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS FROM OBLIGATE HALOPHILIC FUNGI, ISOLATED FROM A MAN-MADE SOLAR SALTERN LOCATED IN PHETCHABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND
ABSTRACT:
This is the continuation study of obligate halophilic fungi isolated from a man-made solar saltern located in Phetchaburi province, Thailand. The isolation site was hypersaline extreme habitat. Six halophilic fungi which were screened for applications belonged to 4 species and 5 strains of Aspergillus genus namely A. flavus, A. gracilis, A. penicillioides (2 strains) and A. restrictus. A yeast namely, Sterigmatomyces halophilus was also one of the isolate screened for biotechnological potentials. Antibacterial, antioxidant and enzymatic activity were determined for each of the strains. All of the isolates in this study were found to have at least one of the applications screened. A. flavus, A. gracilis and A. penicillioides (1) were found to have high antibacterial potential. A. flavus and A. penicillioides (2) showed the most antioxidant activity while A. gracilis and A. restrictus were found to be most promising candidates for enzymes (of the five enzymes tested) having activity under saline conditions.

983-988 Download
29
ASSESSMENT OF GERMPLASM USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SPRING WHEAT
SYED BILAL HUSSAIN*1, MUHAMMAD ATIF WAHID1, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR2, MUHAMMAD BABAR3 AND KASHIF WAHID1

ASSESSMENT OF GERMPLASM USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SPRING WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Present study was designed to find diversity patterns among fourteen lines of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Nine quantitative traits were determined phenotypically. Moreover the grain properties were also determined by laboratory procedures. Cluster analysis categorized cultivars into four groups. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the first seven components explained over 88% of genetic variation. Cluster analysis based on PCA using the first seven principal components indicated four separate groups of genotypes, with the maximum genetic distance observed between the genotypes in each cluster. Grain diameter, grain weight, gluten content, protein content, fiber, fat and starch contributed towards significant principal components (PCs). The genotypes 88146, Fareed-06, 6317 and 88132 were concluded as more diverse parents. Diverse parents from various clusters are helpful in planning and broadening the breeding programme by planning the crosses and increased use of heterosis and genetic diversity especially for grain quality in Pakistan.

989-994 Download
30
EVALUATION OF HERBICIDE POTENTIAL OF SESQUITERPENE LACTONE AND FLAVONOID: IMPACT ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH INDICES AND ROOT LENGTH IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
M. IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN1,2* AND MANUEL J. REIGOSA1

EVALUATION OF HERBICIDE POTENTIAL OF SESQUITERPENE LACTONE AND FLAVONOID: IMPACT ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH INDICES AND ROOT LENGTH IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:
Plants produce a vast array of natural products that mediate their interaction with the environment. Artemisinin is important sesquiterpene lactones, mostly isolated from the Artemisia annua plant, has a wide range of biological activities, including insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal, antifeedants, and allelopathic properties. Flavonoids (rutin) have attracted attention, primarily as natural antioxidants, and many are allelopathic agents, commonly present in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. In the present study, phytotoxic effect of artemisinin and rutin on germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana were tested under controlled bioassays. Total germination % age was reduced in A. thaliana after treatment with artemisinin at 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µM concentration; while maximum reduction in germination %age was observed at highest concentrations of 160 and 80 µM. Rutin at 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mM concentration decreased germination % age in A. thaliana but the concentration 1000 mM proved to be most deleterious. Artemisinin at 10, 50, 40, 80, 160 mM concentration inhibited the speed of germination (S) of A. thaliana. Similarly, Rutin-delayed the A. thaliana “S” at all the concentration tested and maximum inhibition was recorded at 1000 mM concentration. The effect of artemisinin and rutin on radicle length (RL) of A. thaliana was concentration dependent. There was a gradual decrease in RL of A. thaliana due to rutin at all concentration. Seedling vigour index (SVI) of A. thaliana was decreased after treatment with both artemisinin and rutin at all concentration while the maximum reduction was observed at highest concentration tested.

995-1000 Download
31
FLOODING TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AT EARLY VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH STAGES
ALTAF HUSSAIN1,2, ZAFAR ULLAH ZAFAR2 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2*

FLOODING TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AT EARLY VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Periodic flooding at any growth stage greatly affects growth and yield of crops. In order to develop flooding tolerant cotton cultivar and to identify the most sensitive growth stage to periodic flooding, a field experiment was conducted in which 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were subjected to two week flooding at seedling/early vegetative, flower and boll formation growth stages. Pre- and post-flooding soil analysis was also carried out. Nitrate-N was greatly reduced due to flooding applied at all growth stages, whereas NH4-N increased significantly. Similarly, Fe and Mn were also increased to many folds in flooded soils. Under hypoxic conditions, depletion of nitrates and toxic effects of accumulated NH4, Fe and Mn caused severe damages to cotton plants and even death of plants. Of the three growth stages, early vegetative growth stage is most sensitive to two week flooding. Flooding imposed at the flowering and boll formation growth stages caused a substantial amount of yield penalty. On the basis of survival percentage, the 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were categorized into tolerant (≥61%), moderately tolerant (31≥60%) and sensitive (31% ≥) to short term flooding. At the seedling or early vegetative growth stage, genotypes DPL-SR-2 followed by 124-F and MNH-427 were most tolerant to flooding, while AET-5, N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were ranked as sensitive to flooding stress. At the flowering stage, the genotype NIAB-92 followed by S-14 and MNH-427 were highly tolerant to flooding. At the boll formation stage, genotypes DPL-70010-N followed by GH-11-9-75 and B-2918-2 were highly tolerant waterlogging. More than 50% of the genotypes maintained the degree of flooding tolerance at three growth stages. However, on the basis of survival percentage at three growth stages, genotypes MNH-564, FH-114, MNH-786 and CIM-573 were included in the tolerant group and the genotypes N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were included in the sensitive group. These genotypes/cultivars maintaining high degree of stress tolerance at different growth stages are of considerable importance for the development of tolerant cultivar.

1001-1009 Download
32
EVALUATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS EFFLUENT EFFICIENCY ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRITIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLUSTER BEANS (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.) TAUB.
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN*, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT, AAMIR ALAMGIR AND SYED ADNAN HASAN

EVALUATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS EFFLUENT EFFICIENCY ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRITIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLUSTER BEANS (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.) TAUB.
ABSTRACT:
South Asian countries including Pakistan are facing chronic shortage of water supply which is anticipated to be aggravated in future. These countries are agribased where the continued water supply is crucial for sustainable economy. One of the possible alternatives to overcome the problems of water scarcity is the used of treated wastewater which is gaining much importance even in the western world. The treated wastewater can be used as a liquid fertilizer which could provide dual benefits both in terms of saving of fresh water as well as inorganic fertilizers. The potential of treated effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth and nutritive quality of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Taub. was investigated under field conditions. Treated effluent significantly increased fresh weight of leaves and stems. Dry weight of stem was also significantly higher with the treatment of WSP effluent as compared to the use of basal fertilizer and fresh water. Fresh and dry fruit weights, number of seeds per fruit and fruit length were also significantly increased in WSP effluent treatment as compared to other two treatments. Treatment with WSP effluent also improved the nutritive characteristics such as crude proteins and total carbohydrates. However, total fat and ash content percentage of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba remained unaltered. The application of WSP effluent also increased NPK and organic matter content of the soil after harvesting the crop which would be helpful for succeeding crop. The study demonstrated that treated effluent can be successfully used for unrestricted irrigation in the water deficient areas of Pakistan thereby saving huge quantities of fresh water.

1011-1018 Download
33
EFFECTS OF DRIPPER DISCHARGE AND IRRIGATION FREQUENCY ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN LOESS PLATEAU OF NORTHWEST CHINA
WANG XIUKANG1*, LI ZHANBIN1 AND XING YINGYING2

EFFECTS OF DRIPPER DISCHARGE AND IRRIGATION FREQUENCY ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN LOESS PLATEAU OF NORTHWEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China.

1019-1025 Download
34
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXI. ROSACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXI. ROSACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria–type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma–type, Cotoneaster affinis–type, Fragaria nubicola–type, Geum roylei–type, Malus pumila–type, Potentilla pamirica–type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level.

1027-1037 Download
35
TYLOSOIDS IN LATIFEROUS CANALS OF TOXICODENDRON VERNICIFLUUM
MENG ZHAO1, SHUONAN WEI2 AND ZHENGHAI HU2*

TYLOSOIDS IN LATIFEROUS CANALS OF TOXICODENDRON VERNICIFLUUM
ABSTRACT:
This study aims to investigate the ontogeny, anatomy and ultrastructure of the tylosoids in the laticiferous canals of T. vernicifluum (lacquer tree), samples were processed for light microscopy and TEM. Results showed that the tylosoids in the lumina of laticiferous canals originated from epithelia through periclinal division. Laticiferous canal invasions varied seasonally, at the beginning of traditional tapping season of raw lacquer, the quinone conglomerations dissolved, laticiferous canal function was renewed and epithelia secreted raw lacquer; at the end of the traditional raw lacquer-tapping season, tylosoids formed and blocked the laticiferous canals by quinone conglomerations until the next raw lacquer-tapping season. The irreversible invasion was mainly distributed in the nonfunctional phloem region near the periderm. These results suggested that the seasonal changes of tylosoids might provide insights into the defense mechanism of laticiferous canals against the invasion of other substances when cavity pressure decreases at the end of the tapping season of raw lacquer.

1039-1045 Download
36
FUNGITOXIC POTENTIAL OF TAGETES ERECTUS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA STRAINS OF TOMATO
TAHIR MEHMOOD, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE*, SHAZIA SHAFIQUE AND ZUNERA ZAHEER

FUNGITOXIC POTENTIAL OF TAGETES ERECTUS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA STRAINS OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) is economically the most vital vegetable crops of this world but diseases reduce tomato production to a greater extent worldwide. Plants exudates contribute a lot in fight against pathogens. The current study indicates the pathogenic potential of Alternaria alternata FCBP-573 against tomato. RAPD analysis confirmed that A. alternata FCBP-573 had variability in its genetic constitution with other two isolates; this disparity in genetic constitution might be a cause to stir up more pathogenicity in this isolate. Therefore, it was selected as the most pathogenic isolate and subjected to biological control through Tagetes erectus L. In antifungal bioassays different plant parts of T. erectus with 1-4% concentrations of aqueous, and organic extracts of each part were evaluated against A. alternata FCBP- 573. Results revealed that the growth of A. alternata FCBP-573 was greatly inhibited at 4% concentration of methanol extract followed by aqueous and n-hexane extract. Among different plant parts tested, root extract exhibited more promising results by causing 81-92% reduction in biomass. The research concludes that aqueous and organic extracts of ornamentals have potential to obstruct dreadful effect of pathogenic fungi by suppressing their growth. T. erectus conferred vital and surprisingly stable compounds having inhibitory potential against A. alternata FCBP-573.

1047-1054 Download
37
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING FUZZY LOGIC DESIGN
SIKANDER ALI* AND IKRAM UL HAQ

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING FUZZY LOGIC DESIGN
ABSTRACT:
The inherent non-linearity of citric acid fermentation from Aspergillus niger renders its control difficult, so there is a need to fine-tune the bioreactor performance for maximum production of citric acid in batch culture. For this, fuzzy logic is becoming a popular tool to handle non-linearity of a batch process. The present manuscript deals with fuzzy logic control of citric acid accretion by A. niger in a stirred tank reactor using blackstrap sugarcane molasses as a basal fermentation medium. The customary batches were termed as ‘control’ while those under fuzzy logic were ‘experimental’. The performance of fuzzy logic control of stirred tank reactor was found to be very encouraging for enhanced production of citric acid. The comparison of kinetic parameters showed improved citrate synthase ability of experimental culture (Yp/x = 7.042 g/g). When the culture grown on 150 g/l carbohydrates was monitored for Qp, Qs and Yp/s, there was significant enhancement in these variables over the control. Specific productivity of culture (qp = 0.070 g/g cells/h) was several fold increased. The enthalpy (ΔHD = 70.5 kJ/mol) and entropy of activation (ΔS = -144 J/mol/K) of enzyme for citric acid biosynthesis, free energies for transition state formation and substrate binding for sucrose hydrolysis of experimental were substantially improved.

1055-1059 Download
38
HISTOLOGY OF SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (SIMAROUBACEAE): RELEVANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENES-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION
BHAVANI BALAKRISHNAN1, SYARIFAH SHAHRUL RABIAH SYED ALWEE2, CHAN LAI KENG1 AND SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM1*

HISTOLOGY OF SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (SIMAROUBACEAE): RELEVANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENES-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
Histological analysis conducted on somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia shows the developmental structures that are remarkably similar to seeds found in the wild. The primary components of a growing somatic embryo are its shoot and root apical meristems indicated by dense layers of rapidly growing cells. The increased understanding of In vitro culture systems and anatomical changes provide information into cellular processes that govern genetic transformation of E. longifolia with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The presence of meristematic regions on cultured somatic embryos suggests that they are suitable for genetic transformation as genetic elements could be transported to these regions where growth and differentiation are centered. This allows the successful integration and expression of transferred DNA in the host organism, leading the way for an efficient A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation protocol.

1061-1064 Download
39
DETECTION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS BY COMPARATIVE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF ENZYMES FROM MYCOBACTERIA SPECIES
SABA ASAD1, MADEEHAHUSSAIN1, AYESHA SIDDEQUA1, QURRAT UL AIN1 AND HABIB BOKHARI1*

DETECTION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS BY COMPARATIVE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF ENZYMES FROM MYCOBACTERIA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Mycobacterial species are one of the most important pathogens and among these members of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and mycobacterial tuberculousis complex (MTC) are the causative agent of a relatively milder form of Tuberculosis. Traditional methods for identification of these groups of pathogens are time consuming, lack specificity and sensitivity and furthermore lead to the misidentification due to high similarity index. Therefore, more rapid, specific and cost-effective methods are required for the accurate identification of Mycobacterium species in routine diagnostics. In our study, we identified molecular markers in order to differentiate closely related cousin species of genus Mycobacterium including M. bovis, M. avium, M. leprae and M. tuberculosis. The nucleotide sequences of selected unique markers, i.e., enzymes (used previously in various biochemical tests for the identification of M. species) were selected and their ORFs were retrieved and selected functional proteins of respective biosynthetic pathways were compared in-silico. Result suggested that the variations in nucleotide sequences of the selected enzymes can be directly used for M. species discrimination in one step PCR test. We believe that the in-silico identification and storage of these distinctive characteristics of individual M. species will help in more precise recognition of pathogenic strains and hence specie specific targeted therapy.

1065-1070 Download
40
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER (BTM-26) IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
ROHEENA ABDULLAH1, NAEEMA SHAHEEN1, MEHWISH IQTEDAR1, SHAGUFTA NAZ1 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2*

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER (BTM-26) IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the isolation, screening and selection of native fungal strain for the alpha amylase production. Forty fungal strains were isolated from different soil samples. These strains were initially screened qualitatively on starch agar medium and quantitative screening was carried out in solid state fermentation. A strain of Aspergillus niger showing maximum production (432 ± 0.9 U/ml/min) of enzyme was selected and assigned the code BTM-26. The yield on various agricultural products, namely, coconut oil cake (COC), rice bran (RB), vegetable wastes or banana peel and wheat bran (WB) was compared. Wheat bran proved to be the best substrate for alpha amylase production. The effect of incubation temperature, initial pH, and inoculum size was investigated for the enzyme production. The maximum enzyme production was obtained at 30°C, pH 5, and inoculum size of 1 ml. The rate of fermentation was also studied and the highest yield of enzyme was obtained after 72 h of inoculation. Addition of 1.5% lactose as carbon source and 0.2% (NH4)2SO4 and 0.3% yeast extract as inorganic and organic nitrogen sources respectively gave enzyme production 990 ± 0.81 U/ml/min which reflects about 1.87 fold increase in alpha amylase production as compared to the medium containing wheat bran alone as substrate.

1071-1078 Download
41
OPTIMIZATION OF AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN POPULUS DELTOIDES
EDWIN JOHN, ASMA MAQBOOL AND KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK*

OPTIMIZATION OF AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN POPULUS DELTOIDES
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to develop an efficient protocol for Populus deltoides transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. Agrobacterium strain harboring binary plasmid pGA482 with Gus (uidA) gene under CamV35S promoter and Neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene under Nos promoter was used for the transformation. Nodal, internodal and leaf explants from 4-5 months In vitro and fieldgrown plants were used for the transformation. Transformation was done under different conditions including, preculture time, optical density, acetosyringone concentration, infection time and co-cultivation time. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining. Highest transformation efficiency was observed in one week precultured leaf explants from field grown source on preculture medium containing 200µM acetosyringone. Precultured explants from In vitro source also gave good results for transformation but the callus formation was found to be slow in leaf explant. Calli from the both sources did not show any transformation when infected with O.D A600nm range from 0.3-0.8. Node and internode though showed less transformation rate but the callogenesis was found to be highest in node and internode explants on CIM 1. Leaf explants from field source also gave high callus induction on CIM 5. A. tumefaciens O.D A600nm 0.3-0.5 was found to be effective. Infection time of 1-2 hour and co-cultivation time of 1day in dark were found to be optimum for the transformation. 200mg/l of timentin was found the best to control the overgrowth of Agrobacterium.100mg/l Kanamycin in growth medium was found to sufficient for selection for transformants. Selected transformants were confirmed through PCR for the presence of transgene. The present protocol for P. deltoides was found to be efficient for genetic transformation and can be used to introduce novel traits in the P. deltoides.

1087-1091 Download
42
ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF TOXIN FROM COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM: THE CAUSAL AGENT OF RED ROT IN SUGARCANE
AMBREEN KHADIJA ALVI* AND JAVED IQBAL

ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF TOXIN FROM COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM: THE CAUSAL AGENT OF RED ROT IN SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth.

1087-1091 Download
43
INHIBITION OF IN VITRO GROWTH OF SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS BY COMPOST-INHABITING INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND FUNGI
NADIA RAMZAN*, NAYARA NOREEN AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

INHIBITION OF IN VITRO GROWTH OF SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS BY COMPOST-INHABITING INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
During the present studies, compost-inhabiting microorganisms including 44 fungi and 15 bacteria isolated from different compost samples were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy against soil-borne pathogens viz., Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Compost inhabiting microbes like Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus varians and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to inhibit all the test pathogens. Acrophialophora fusispora and Penicillium citrinum reduced the mycelial growth of all the test pathogens except Sclerotium rolfsii. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium showed biocontrol activity against all the pathogens except Rhizoctonia solani. Trichoderma harzianum parasitized mycelia of all the tested pathogens and produced coiling around the mycelium.

1093-1099 Download
44
PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE (PAL) AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN RUST INFECTED TISSUES OF PAKISTANI WHEAT CULTIVARS
ADNAN RIAZ1*, ABID RIAZ1, ATIQ UR REHMAN RATTU2, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM TAHIR1 AND MUHAMMAD AZEEM3

PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE (PAL) AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BROWN RUST INFECTED TISSUES OF PAKISTANI WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Besides other factors resistance and susceptibility is the outcome of biochemical processes such as activities of defense-related enzymes. So in this study, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase activity of resistant (Inqilab-91) and susceptible (Kirin-95) wheat cultivars were determined through spectrophotometer to address the biochemical aspect related to the disease after 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of leaf rust inoculation. The results have shown that these enzymes were present in both the resistant and susceptible cultivars but the activity was more pronounced in the resistant one. The effect of PAL and peroxidase activity was also investigated among inoculated and uninoculated plants within the same cultivar. The activity of both PAL and peroxidase were more significant in inoculated ones. The results have shown that the after 72 hours of inoculation Inqilab-91 had more PAL activity i.e., 5.47 IU/ml/min than in Kirin-95 i.e., 2.08 IU/ml/min at 270 nm. While peroxidase activity in Inqilab-91 was 6.41 IU/ml/min and in Kirin-95, 3.66 IU/ml/min after 72 hours of inoculation, observed under 470 nm wavelength. Increase in one’s activity increases the other enzyme’s activity. The activity was more prominent after 72 hours of infection as pathogen had successfully established itself in the host plant tissue. The activities of these enzymes act as plants active defense mechanism against the attack of pathogen.

1101-1107 Download
45
RANDOM MUTAGENESIS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE
IKRAM UL HAQ*, ALI NAWAZ, HAMID MUKHTAR, ZINNIA MANSOOR, MARIYUM RIAZ, MADEEHA AHMED AND SYED MUHAMMAD AMEER

RANDOM MUTAGENESIS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE
ABSTRACT:
The study deals with the improvement of wild strain Aspergillus niger IIB-31 through random mutagenesis using chemical mutagens. The main aim of the work was to enhance the glucose oxidase (GOX) yield of wild strain (24.57±0.01 U/g of cell mass) through random mutagenesis and process optimization. The wild strain of Aspergillus niger IIB-31 was treated with chemical mutagens such as Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and nitrous acid for this purpose. Mutagen treated 98 variants indicating the positive results were picked and screened for the glucose oxidase production using submerged fermentation. EMS treated E45 mutant strain gave the highest glucose oxidase production (69.47 + 0.01 U/g of cell mass), which was approximately 3-folds greater than the wild strain IIB-31. The preliminary cultural conditions for the production of glucose oxidase using submerged fermentation from strain E45 were also optimized. The highest yield of GOD was obtained using 8% glucose as carbon and 0.3% peptone as nitrogen source at a medium pH of 7.0 after an incubation period of 72 hrs at 30ºC.

1109-1114 Download
46
STATISTICAL SCREENING AND SELECTION OF SWEET SORGHUM VARIETIES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
SAJJID MEHMOOD1,2, MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ2*, MUHAMMAD SULEMAN TAHIR3, MUHAMMAD SAIF UR REHMAN3, TAHIR AQIL1, TARIQ MAHMOOD4

STATISTICAL SCREENING AND SELECTION OF SWEET SORGHUM VARIETIES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
This study aims at the screening of four cultivars of sorghums as a feedstock for bioethanol production. The straw of these varieties were subjected to pretreatment (dilute sulfuric acid) followed by enzyme hydrolysis to evaluate their potential to produce sugars. Four factor full factorial experimental design (2×2×2×4=32) was used to investigate the effects of experimental factors; sorghum varieties (84-Y-01, 85-G-86, Mr. Buster and RARI S-3), acid concentration (1 and 2%), temperature (121 and 140˚C) and pretreatment time (30 and 60 min). The tested sorghum varieties follow the order 85-G-86 (47 g/100g) > Mr. Buster (44.6 g/100g) > 84-Y-01 (42 g/100g) > RARI S-3 (36 g/100g) for their sugar yield. The factors followed given order of significance; variety > temperature > acid concentration > pretreatment time. Sorghum variety (85-G-86) was selected as an appropriate feedstock for bioethanol production due to its higher sugar yield and lower concentration of by-products and furans.

1115-1120 Download
47
RESPONSE OF RICE TO INOCULATION WITH PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA IN CONTROL LAB ENVIRONMENT AND FIELD EXPERIMENT
MIDRARULLAH1,2,3*, BASHIR AHMED1 AND M. SAJJAD MIRZA2

RESPONSE OF RICE TO INOCULATION WITH PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA IN CONTROL LAB ENVIRONMENT AND FIELD EXPERIMENT
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on different growth parameters of rice variety JP-5. Three bacterial strains (Azospirillum brasilense R1, Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1) were used to inoculate rice varietyJP-5 at control lab environment and field. Plant growth promotion was observed in all inoculated treatments over non-inoculated, which was evident from increase in root area, root length, number of tillers, straw and grain yields and total weight of plant. Azospirillum brasilense R1 was more effective in plant growth promotion than other strains and showed 19% increase in the straw weight and 39.5% increase in grain weight. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1 increased grain weight by 18.5% and 13.8% respectively. The study revealed that beneficial strains of PGPR can be used as biofertilizer for rice.

1121-1124 Download
48
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MYCORRHIZAS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN CITRUS (CITRUS TANGERINA) SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH GLOMUS MOSSEAE
CHUN-YAN LIU AND QIANG-SHENG WU*

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MYCORRHIZAS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN CITRUS (CITRUS TANGERINA) SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH GLOMUS MOSSEAE
ABSTRACT:
A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5‒40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10‒40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants.

1125-1128 Download
49
GROWTH RATE OF DIATOMS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
TAHIRA NAZ*, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, SONIA MUNIR AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI

GROWTH RATE OF DIATOMS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Growth rate of diatoms were analyzed by 24 hours in situ incubation technique at coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Sampling was done at two stations, station A located inside the channel and station B outside the channel during February, 2006 and at the mouth of the channel during May, 2007. The diatom species dominated in the community were Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia logissima, Pleurosigma spp and Thalassiosira sp. Total community growth rate was negative -0.11d-1 in summer and -0.7 d-1 at station B but positive 0.1d-1 at station A in winter. The individual species have given positive response of growth even in the presence of grazers. During the summer months the differences observed from the winter months may have been due to differences in microzooplankton composition. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates have a large impact on the growth rates. Since these dinoflagellates feed on the large diatoms, it suggests that this is a major factor determine the growth rate of diatoms. Total diatom abundance at initial T0 and final T24 incubation periods coincided with the chlorophyll a values at station B in winter and summer seasons, but they did not display similar pattern at station A, suggesting that when the large grazers removed from the sample through prescreening the diatom growth increased. Presence of high concentration of nutrients near the coast could be one of the reasons of high growth rate at station A as compared to station B which was near off shore.

1129-1136 Download
50
PHYTO-THERAPEUTIC CLAIMS ABOUT EUPHORBEACEOUS PLANTS BELONGING TO PAKISTAN; AN ETHNOMEDICINAL REVIEW
ALI TALHA KHALIL1*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1, MUHAMMAD QAISER2 AND KHAN BAHADUR MARWAT3

PHYTO-THERAPEUTIC CLAIMS ABOUT EUPHORBEACEOUS PLANTS BELONGING TO PAKISTAN; AN ETHNOMEDICINAL REVIEW
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotany has attracted many researchers in the modern era in order to find novel and cheaper approaches to alleviate the human sufferings. Since ancient times, plants are used traditionally for cure. In the last few years herbal practices have attained global relevance. Among the different important plant families, the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is well known for its therapeutic potential. Different plants are used in folk medicinal practices in different forms to treat several diseases. Plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae are common in Pakistan and used for different purposes. The present communication deals with the different ethnomedicinal uses reported in the peer reviewed articles of the various species present in Pakistan.

1137-1144 Download
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