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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY IN LEAF SHAPE OF CHINESE SAGITTARIA (ALISMATACEAE) BY GEOMETRIC TOOLS
LAN-JIE HUANG1* AND YAN-CHENG LIU2

UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY IN LEAF SHAPE OF CHINESE SAGITTARIA (ALISMATACEAE) BY GEOMETRIC TOOLS
ABSTRACT:
Plants of Sagittaria generally possess different leaf shapes, but these shapes were rarely quantified. In this study, all species of Chinese Sagittaria were collected, and their leaf shapes were analyzed using two geometric tools: Topological description and geometric morphometric analysis. The leaf shapes of Chinese Sagittaria can be divided into three major groups according to topological types of the venation architecture, and the variation of leaf shape is closely related to the development degree of Sagittaria plants. Even if corresponding to the same venation pattern, many leaf shapes have evident differences which could be revealed by geometric morphometric analysis, and these differences show species specificity to a great extent. Making use of these results, some misunderstandings in the taxonomy of Sagittaria also be cleared up.

1927-1934 Download
2
THE FLORISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS IN GARDENS AND STREETS IN URBAN AREAS OF ADANA, TURKEY
HAVVA KARAKUS AND NECATTIN TURKMEN*

THE FLORISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS IN GARDENS AND STREETS IN URBAN AREAS OF ADANA, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to determine the flora of the gardens and road sides in Adana from March 2008 to April 2012. During the floristic studies, 337 vascular plant taxa belonging to 259 genera and 93 families were determined. Families with the greatest number of taxa are Asteraceae 35 species (10%), Fabaceae 30 species (9%), Poaceae 20 species (6%), Rosaceae 11 species (3%) and Lamiaceae 10 species (3%). According to the life-forms phanerophytes 134 species (40%) and therophytes 118 species (35%) are more than the others (chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, and geophytes). Forty-eight percent (162 taxa) of total flora in the area is exotic species and the rest (52%) are indigenous. Total flora consists of 62% (209 taxa) ornamental species and 38% (128 taxa) ruderal species.

1935-1944 Download
3
FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF SANTH SAROOLA, KOTLI SATTIAN, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
HUMAIRA SHAHEEN, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*, IRAM ZAHRA, MUBASHRAH MUNIR AND MUHAMMAD ILYAS

FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF SANTH SAROOLA, KOTLI SATTIAN, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The objective of present study was to record the existing flora of Santh Saroola, Kotli Sattian, Pakistan. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted in August 2009 to July

1945-1954 Download
4
SPECIES DIVERSITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON STOCK ASSESSMENTS OF A NATURAL MANGROVE FOREST IN PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES
AZYLEAH C. ABINO1,2, JOSE ALAN A. CASTILLO3, YOUNG JIN LEE1*

SPECIES DIVERSITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON STOCK ASSESSMENTS OF A NATURAL MANGROVE FOREST IN PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES
ABSTRACT:
Philippines claims international recognition for its mangrove-rich ecosystem which play significant functions from the viewpoint of ecosystem services and climate change mitigation. In this study, we assessed the species diversity of the natural mangrove forest of Bahile, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan and evaluated its potential to sequester and store carbon. Sixteen plots with a size of 10 m × 10 m were established using quadrat sampling technique to identify, record, and measure the trees. Diversity index and allometric equations were utilized to determine species diversity, and biomass and carbon stocks. Sediment samples in undisturbed portions using a 30 cm high and 5 cm diameter corer were collected in all plots to determine near-surface sediment carbon. The diversity index (H' = 0.9918) was very low having a total of five true mangrove species identified dominated by Rhizophora apiculata Bl. with an importance value index of 148.1%. Among the stands, 74% of the total biomass was attributed to the above-ground (561.2 t ha-1) while 26% was credited to the roots (196.5 t ha-1). The total carbon sequestered and stored in the above-ground and root biomass were 263.8 t C ha-1 (50%) and 92.3 t C ha-1 (17%), respectively. Sediments contained 33% (173.75 t C ha-1) of the mangrove C-stocks. Stored carbon was equivalent to 1944.5 t CO2 ha-1. These values suggest that Bahile natural mangrove forest has a potential to sequester and store substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon, hence the need for sustainable management and protection of this important coastal ecosystem.

1955-1962 Download
5
POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C.A.MEY) BUNGE IN GURBANTÜNGGÜT DESERT, CHINA
CHAOYAN LV1, 2, XIMING ZHANG1, 3* AND GUOJUN LIU1, 3

POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C.A.MEY) BUNGE IN GURBANTÜNGGÜT DESERT, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Haloxylon ammodendron(C.A. Mey)Bunge is a desert shrub with ecological and economic importance. Because of the severe drought and the over-exploitation for firewood and livestock, the species is threatened. The survivor and mortality were studied in six populations distributed along the margin of Gurbantünggüt desert. The size structures, life tables and survivor curves were constructed for the studied populations. Populations were dominated by juvenile individuals and the seedling recruitment was extremely limited. Size distributions were skewed towards larger size classes in all populations. The survivorship curves approached Deevey type III in which the highest mortality occurs in the early life stages. The results indicated that the populations of H. ammodendron are threatened and efforts are required to minimize uncontrolled exploitation. Due to the very limited seedling recruitment, conservation efforts are required to protect and develop the extant populations. For this purpose, in situ and ex situ conservation of H. ammodendron populations are strongly recommended.

1963-1973 Download
6
NPK MEDIATED IMPROVEMENT IN BIOMASS PRODUCTION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND Na+ REGULATION IN PANICUM ANTIDOTALE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
HAIBAT ALI1, 2, BILQUEES GUL1*, MUHAMMAD YOUSUF ADNAN1, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMED1, IRFAN AZIZ1, SALMAN GULZAR1, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1, 3

NPK MEDIATED IMPROVEMENT IN BIOMASS PRODUCTION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND Na+ REGULATION IN PANICUM ANTIDOTALE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) @ 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na­+ within safe limits for CO2 assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock.

1975-1979 Download
7
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY STRESS
MUHAMMAD ATHAR KHAN1*, M.U. SHIRAZI, WAJID MAHBOOB, S.M. MUJTABA, M. ALI KHAN, SABA MUMTAZ AND AISHA SHEREEN

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
To explore morpho-physiological alteration in wheat for salinity tolerance, a glass house experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, (NIA) Tando Jam, Pakistan. Studies were conducted with two levels of salinity (Control, and 12 dS m-1 NaCl) and five wheat genotypes. Due to salinity stress morphological and yield attributes like plant height, total tillers, productive tillers, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain weight per plant were decreased in all wheat genotypes, however, wheat ESW-9525 showed significantly less reduction in all these parameters than other wheat genotypes. Biochemical attributes like proline glycine betaine and total soluble sugars were increased in all the genotypes due to salinity. Wheat geotype Bakhtawar maintained the highest Na while the minimum Na contents were found in ESW-9525 that had the highest correlation with grain yield. The tolerant and stable cultivars were ESW-9525 and Sarsabz which had highest yield at 12 dS m-1 salinity than other cultivars.

1981-1985 Download
8
GLYCINEBETAINE SYNTHESIZING TRANSGENIC POTATO PLANTS EXHIBIT ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO SALT AND COLD STRESSES
RAZA AHMAD1*, JAMSHAID HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD JAMIL3, MYOUNG DUCK KIM2, SANG-SOO KWAK2, MOHAMMAD MAROOF SHAH1 EL-HENDAWY, S.E.4,5, AL-SUHAIBANI, N.A.4 AND SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN6*

GLYCINEBETAINE SYNTHESIZING TRANSGENIC POTATO PLANTS EXHIBIT ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO SALT AND COLD STRESSES
ABSTRACT:
Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes’ gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like membrane integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization.

1987-1993 Download
9
IMBIBITION, GERMINATION AND LIPID MOBILIZATION RESPONSE BY SUNFLOWER SUBJECTED TO SALT STRESS
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI

IMBIBITION, GERMINATION AND LIPID MOBILIZATION RESPONSE BY SUNFLOWER SUBJECTED TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses in arid and semi-arid regions that substantially reduce the germination, growth and average yield of major crops. The study was mainly aimed to select the most salt tolerant cultivar of sunflower. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of four different salinity levels having electrical conductivity viz., 1.19, 9.54, 16.48 and 22.38 mS/cm on the imbibition (water uptake), germination and lipid mobilization of seedlings of 4 varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) i.e., DO-728, DO-730, Hysun-33 and Suncross-843. Salinity levels were prepared by dissolving calculated amount of NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2 (4:10:5:1) in half strength Hoagland culture solution. Imbibition was studied using plastic glasses at an interval of 12 and 24 hours. While germination studies were separately carried out in plastic pots and noted after every 12 hours till 20 days. Whereas, lipid contents of the salt stress germinating seeds were determined at three time intervals viz., 48, 96 and 144 hours of germination. Results showed that there was a linear decrease in imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization as the level of salinity progressively intensifies. Maximum significant reduction in imbibition (12.88%), germination (31.03%) and lipid mobilization (38.62%) is recorded in highest dose of applied salts (22.38 mS/cm). Results further exhibited that maximum significant reduction in imbibition (17.95%) and germination (43.05%) is recorded for variety Suncross-843. While minimum for the same attributes is recorded for variety DO-728. Therefore, in term of imbibitions and germination, DO-728 could be ranked as salt tolerant. Similarly maximum reduction (14.85%) in mobilized lipids is noted for DO-728 and minimum (40.89%) for DO-730. Therefore, in term of lipid mobilization, variety DO-730 could be ranked as salt tolerant and DO-728 as salt sensitive. While remaining 2 varieties i.e., Hysun-33 and Suncross-843 is rated as salt intermediate in response, respectively.

1995-2002 Download
10
ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF SALINITY ON FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.) BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
HASHEM ABEER1*, ABD_ALLAH, E.F.2, ALQARAWI, A.A.2, EL-DIDAMONY, G.3, ALWHIBI MONA, S.1, EGAMBERDIEVA D.4 AND AHMAD, P.5

ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF SALINITY ON FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.) BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to assess the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) in presence and absence of AMF on growth, physio-biochemical and enzymatic activity in faba bean (Vicia faba). Different concentrations of NaCl showed reduction in growth and yield parameters, which indicates the deleterious effects of salinity on the plant. The total spore count and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is also decreasing at higher concentrations of NaCl. Application of AMF mitigates the effect of NaCl stress and improved the growth and yield in the present study. NaCl also decreased the nodulation as well as nodule activity and pigments content, however the supplementation of by AMF to plants treated with sodium chloride showed enhancement in nodule activity and pigment content. Polyamines (Putresciene, Spermidine, Spermine), acid and alkaline phosphates increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride and application of by AMF showed further increase in the above phytoconstituents, proving the protective role of these phytoconstituents against salt stress. Salinity stress is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, which lead to the membrane damage through lipid peroxidation in the present study. Maximum lipid peroxidation was observed at higher concentration of sodium chloride and AMF treatment minimized the effect of salinity on lipid peroxidation. To combat with the reactive oxygen species, plants upregulate the enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. As the concentration of sodium chloride increases the enzyme activity also increases and further increase was observed with supplementation of AMF to salt treated plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calcium contents and maintain their ratio that was hampered with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the present study. In conclusion, application of AMF could alleviate the negative effect of sodium chloride and can be used as a suitable approach for the salt affected soils.

2003-2013 Download
11
SOUND FREQUENCIES INDUCE DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN RICE PLANT
MI-JEONG JEONG1,§,*, JUNG-IL CHO1,§, SUNG-HAN PARK1, KYUNG-HWAN KIM1, SEONG KON LEE1, TAEK-RYOUN KWON1, SOO-CHUL PARK1,*AND ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI 1,2,§,*

SOUND FREQUENCIES INDUCE DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN RICE PLANT
ABSTRACT:
To test the sound’s effect on plant and its contribution in drought tolerance, plants were subjected to various sound frequencies for an hour. After 24 h sound treatment, plants were exposed to drought for next five days. During the experiment it was observed that sound initiated physiological changes showing tolerance in plant. Sound frequency with ≥ 0.8 kHz enhanced relative water content, stomatal conductance and quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm ratio) in drought stress environment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in sound treated plant was declined compared to control. ThermaCAM (Infra-red camera) a software which was used to analyze the plant images temperature showed that sound treated plant and leaf had less temperature (heat) compared to control. The physiological mechanism of sound frequencies induce tolerance in rice plants are discussed.

2015-2020 Download
12
CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER GENE FROM EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES
YUANMEI LI1, LIHUA JIANG1, GUOHUA YAN1, LIJUN ZHENG1, MINGHUI FU1* AND JINGPING PENG2

CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER GENE FROM EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES
ABSTRACT:
In order to explore the molecular mechanism for Eichhornia crassipes to transport ammonium from outside, we cloned a novel ammonium transporter (EcAMT) gene from E. crassipes and identified its function by using yeast complementation experiment. The full-length cDNA of EcAMT contains a 1506 nucletide-long open reading frame which encodes a protein of 501 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that EcAMT had 8 transmembrane regions. The expressions of EcAMT gene under three different nitrogen conditions were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that the expression of EcAMT gene was up-regulated under nitrogen starvation. Our study results revealed some molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to absorb the ammonium in eutrophic water.

2021-2026 Download
13
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT OCHRADENUS ARABICUS
JAVID HUSSAIN1*, NAJEEB U REHMAN2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN2, LIAQAT ALI2, JONG-SANG KIM3, ALEXANDRA ZAKAROVA3, AHMED AL-HARRASI2, AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT OCHRADENUS ARABICUS
ABSTRACT:
Jabal Al-Akhdar (Oman) is one of diverse floral region of Arabian Peninsula. Ochradenus arabicus, is an important medicinal plant to local people of the area. However, little is known about its potential role in biological activities against various emerging ailments. The collected plant samples were extracted with methanol and fractionated into n-hexane (JOAH), ethyl acetate (JOAE), chloroform (JOAC), n-butanol (JOAB) and water (JOAAQ). Various concentrations of these fractions were tested for their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, phenolics, flavonoids, allopathic and nutrition quality properties. The results showed that fruits and leaves of O. arabicus have higher levels of carbohydrate, crude fats, fibres, proteins, moisture, ash and energy values. In phytotoxic activities, JOAAQ inhibited the lettuce seed germination and growth. The anticancer activities of fractions showed that JOAE, JOAB and JOAAQ are potent to reduce the cancer cell viability of HT29, HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 lines with a concentration of 1000 µg/ml. JOAB showed a meagre activity of 12% in α-Glucosidase inhibition assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in JOAE, which also resulted in higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other fractions and control. JOAE also exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results of current findings suggest that O. arabicus is a potential medicinal plants, which could be subjected to advance column chromatography for lead compounds using a bioassay guided approach.

2027-2034 Download
14
PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF LEAVES AND SEED STORAGE OF ABUTILON PAKISTANICUM JAFRI AND ALI AN ENDEMIC PLANT OF PAKISTAN
HUMA FATIMA1, ANJUM PERVEEN2, SYEDA QAMARUNNISA3 AND UZMA MUNIR1

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF LEAVES AND SEED STORAGE OF ABUTILON PAKISTANICUM JAFRI AND ALI AN ENDEMIC PLANT OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
There are vast varieties of medicinal plant in the world having therapeutical importance. With increasing popularity of herbal medicine as a curative measure, the need for correct identification and standardization of the plant is also increased. Present work was performed to study the pharmacognostic and phytochemical characters of leaves and exsitu seed conservation by seed storage of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri &Ali. It is an endemic plant, found in the sub tropical regions of Pakistan and is used in traditional medicine for treating rheumatism. The leaves of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri &Ali were investigated for pharmacognostic parameters. Phytochemical screening, macroscopic characters, physiochemical attributes and fluorescence analysis. The results revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, terpinoids, saponins and phenolic compounds, leaf constant values and the extractive values obtained were found close to the values reported for other Abutilon species, while high ash value indicated presence of impurities in the crude drug. The investigation provides information for correct identification and authentication of plant species for further studies and medicinal evaluation of the species.

2035-2041 Download
15
ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF SOME PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
GHULAM DASTAGIR¹*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN¹ AND INAYAT UR REHMAN²

ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF SOME PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Our objectives were to find out the chemical constituents of some selected plants of family Zygophyllaceae and Euphorbiaceae collected from Peshawar and Attock Hills during 2009, by GC/MS. The oil obtained from three analysed plants of family Zygophyllaceae showed that oxygenated monoterpenes were the highest (90.99%) in Tribulus terrestris, followed by Fagonia cretica (89.94%) and the lowest (36.01%) found in Peganum harmala. Peganum harmala had maximum esters (11.58%) followed by Tribulus terrestris (5.8%) and Fagonia cretica (5.5%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were the highest (1.22%) in Fagonia cretica followed by Peganum harmala and absent in Tribulus terrestris. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons were maximum (11.01%) in Peganum harmala and absent in Tribulus terrestris. The analysis of essential oils revealed that Fagonia cretica oils had 17 compounds that constituted 100% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (89.94%), were a major group of compounds. Peganum harmala oil had 18 compounds. There were 10 compounds in Tribulus terrestris oil that consisted 100% of the total oil composition. Eight compounds were identified in Chrozophora tinctoria oils giving complete oil composition. It had oxygenated monoterpenes (86.93%), constituting 2(4H) - Benzofuranone, 5, 6, 7, 7a tetrahydro-4, 4, 7a-trimethy (50.718%). Ricinus communis . oil had 8 compounds with 100% of the oil composition. The present study exhibited that phytochemical attributes and chemical composition of the studied plants have potential uses for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry in future. Detailed research work on the antioxidant principles and biological activities of the studied plants is further recommended.

2043-2049 Download
16
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS FROM AERIAL PARTS OF MURRAYA PANICULATA
SHAZIA SHAH3*, SUMAYYA SAIED1, AZHAR MAHMOOD2 AND ABDUL MALIK4

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS FROM AERIAL PARTS OF MURRAYA PANICULATA
ABSTRACT:
The volatile components of the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS, revealing the presence of forty eight compounds. Identifications were made by their respective characteristic mass fragmentation pattern, with the help of NIST mass spectral search program and GC-MS Library. These identities were further authenticated by comparison of their calculated Kovat’s retention indices (RI) with those cited in literature.

2051-2056 Download
17
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS MUELL. EUPHOBIACEAE
ZAMAN SHER1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2 AND LAL BADSHAH2

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS MUELL. EUPHOBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Mallotus philippinensis Muell. is a small to medium-sized monoecious tree, having widespread natural distribution, sometimes gregarious but more usually mixed with other species, both in forests and in open scrubland. It is frost-hardy and resistant to drought. The wood is often used as fuel wood. The fruits and bark have been reported to be used medicinally to treat stomach ulcers and tapeworm. A relatively reduced density of grasses and forbs is often observed below/near it. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the allelopathic potential of Mallotus philippinensis against some test species. Plant material of Mallotus philippinensis were collected from Gadoon Hills, District Swabi in 2009 and were dried at room temperature (25˚C-30˚C). Aqueous extracts obtained from various parts including leaves, fruits, bark, litter and mulches in various experiments invariably inhibited the germination, plumule, radicle growth, fresh and dry weight of Lactuca sativa, Pennisetum americanum, and Setaria italica under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts obtained after 48 h were more inhibitory than 24 h. Leaves and fruits were more toxic than bark. Litter and mulches also proved to be inhibitory. It is suggested that the various assayed parts of Mallotus philippinensis have strong allelopathic potential at least against the tested species. Further inquiry is needed to see its allelopathic performance under field condition against its associated grasses and forbs and to identify the toxic principles.

2057-2061 Download
18
PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CELTIS AUSTRALIS L. (FAMILY ULMACEAE) AGAINST FOUR CROP SPECIES
IMTIAZ AHMAD1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2,4, BARKATULLAH2 AND BASHIR AHMAD3

PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CELTIS AUSTRALIS L. (FAMILY ULMACEAE) AGAINST FOUR CROP SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential.

2063-2067 Download
19
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERSICUM) AND WILD MUSTARD (SINAPIS ARVENSIS) ON BARLEY
MOHAMMAD REZA BAZIAR, FARHAD FARAHVASH*, BAHRAM MIRSHEKARI AND VARAHRAM RASHIDI

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERSICUM) AND WILD MUSTARD (SINAPIS ARVENSIS) ON BARLEY
ABSTRACT:
Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield.

2069-2075 Download
20
REDUCED HERBICIDE DOSES IN COMBINATION WITH ALLELOPATHIC PLANT EXTRACTS SUPPRESS WEEDS IN WHEAT
RIAZ AHMAD AFRIDI AND MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN*

REDUCED HERBICIDE DOSES IN COMBINATION WITH ALLELOPATHIC PLANT EXTRACTS SUPPRESS WEEDS IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathy is gaining popularity worldwide probably for decreasing the cost of production and environment friendly weed suppressing approach. Repeated field studies conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricutural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan where allelopathic water extracts of Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phragmites australis and Datura alba along with reduced doses of phenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxinil+MCPA were tested for controlling weeds in wheat. It was observed that weed density was encouragly suppressed whereas spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1 and 1000 grain weight (g) of the wheat were improved when the allelopathic plant water extracts were used in combination with lower doses of herbicides. Thus, allelochemicals provide weed suppressing option in wheat. However, more studies are required to fully explore the possibility of weed management and isolation of the chemicals involved in weed suppression for environment friendly weed management in wheat. Such studies may decrease the cost of crop production and total use of herbicides.

2077-2082 Download
21
PRODUCTION OF A PCR-BASED MARKER FOR DETECTING PSATHYROSTACHYS HUASHANICA KENG CHROMOSOMES IN A WHEAT BACKGROUND
JUN WU, JING WANG, WANLI DU, ZHONGHUA WANG, LINGANG CHEN, CHANJUAN LIU, JIXIN ZHAO, QUNHUI YANG AND XINHONG CHEN*

PRODUCTION OF A PCR-BASED MARKER FOR DETECTING PSATHYROSTACHYS HUASHANICA KENG CHROMOSOMES IN A WHEAT BACKGROUND
ABSTRACT:
In this study, we developed a genome-specific DNA sequence for detecting the incorporation of Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng chromatin into wheat. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to identify genome-specific DNA sequences of P. huashanica, which were selected using 21 different plant species. A 716-bp diagnostic band specific to P. huashanica (pHs24) was cloned, sequenced, and converted into a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, designated as RHS107. The sequence of pHs24 had no significant homology with any sequences deposited in NCBI databases, which showed that it was a novel repetitive P. huashanica sequence. A primer pair flanking this specific sequence was designed and a genome-specific SCAR marker for P. huashanica was developed and characterized. We validated its specificity using 21 different plant species and a complete set of wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition lines (1Ns–7Ns, 2n = 44 = 22 II) that carried different P. huashanica chromosomes. Our results indicated that the SCAR marker targeted only the Ns genome of P. huashanica and it was present in all seven of the P. huashanica chromosomes. The SCAR marker developed in this study was a reliable and rapid method for large-scale screening of the introgression of P. huashanica chromosomes in wheat-P. huashanica derivatives.

2083-2088 Download
22
A COMPARISON OF SIX TOTAL RNA ISOLATION METHODS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF GYSVD-1 (GRAPEVINE YELLOW SPECKLE VIROID-1) ON VITIS VINIFERA L. LEAVES
İSMAIL CAN PAYLAN1*, AYŞE ÇANDAR1, MUSTAFA GÜMÜŞ1, SERCAN PAZARLAR1 AND SERKAN ÖNDER2

A COMPARISON OF SIX TOTAL RNA ISOLATION METHODS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF GYSVD-1 (GRAPEVINE YELLOW SPECKLE VIROID-1) ON VITIS VINIFERA L. LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Isolation of high quality RNA from plant tissues is one of the most critical steps for the successful application of diagnostic tests such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), northern blotting, microarray hybridization. The presence of inhibitors such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds and RNAses can cause inaccurate and undesirable results. Grapevine is rich in a wide range of metabolites which interfere with RNA isolation. From this point of view, we researched six different total RNA extraction methods on leaves of Vitisvinifera L. to find the best one that contribute the purity and high quality. The methods tested are silica-capture, modified silica-capture, commercial kit, the new combined, lithium chloride and citric buffer. RNA quality was analyzedspectrophotometrically by nanodrop, agarose gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR. As a result of all, it is clear that the most suitable TNA isolation protocol is the new combined method which experienced and named firstly by us, in terms of RNA purity, concentration, less time consuming of isolation step and achievement on detection of GYSVd-1.

2089-2093 Download
23
GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENT PAKISTANI DATE PALM VARIETIES
WASIM AKHTAR1, AWAIS RASHEED1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, SYED MUHAMMAD SAQLAN NAQVI3, AND TARIQ MAHMOOD1*

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENT PAKISTANI DATE PALM VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the oldest cultivated fruit tree and it has a great socioeconomic and nutritional value. Breeding programs and conservation rely on genetic characterization and diversity in gene pool. Its genetic diversity has not been focused more in Pakistan yet, therefore the present study aimed at the evaluation of genetic relationship based on chloroplast ribosomal protein gene (rps14). Rps14 gene was amplified and sequenced from selected varieties. Phylogram illustrated over all genetic distance of 0.001 representing close genetic relationship of selected P. dactylifera varieties. Pairwise distance was calculated for rps14 gene and very low genetic diversity values were observed ranging 0.003-0.017. Estimates of average evolutionary divergence of overall sequence pairs and nucleotide diversity were again found very low with 0.008 and 0.007 respectively. Sequences were analyzed by MEGA6, which revealed Pathri, Dhaddy, Makhi and Khudrawi as recent varieties. On the basis of rps14 genetic makeup, it can be suggested that Pakistani date palm varieties show very high degree of similarity.

2095-2100 Download
24
MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF WILD AND COMMERCIAL CHILIES FROM TAMAULIPAS AND TABASCO, MEXICO
GUILLERMO CASTAÑÓN-NÁJERA1*, MOISÉS RAMÍREZ-MERAZ2, NETZAHUALCÓYOTL MAYEK-PÉREZ3, ARACELI C. GARCIA4 AND RÉGULO RUÍZ-SALAZAR5

MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF WILD AND COMMERCIAL CHILIES FROM TAMAULIPAS AND TABASCO, MEXICO
ABSTRACT:
The genetic differences among two groups of varieties of chili (Capsicum spp.) from different geographical origins (one each from the states of Tabasco and Tamaulipas in the Mexican republic) were studied using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. Four Tabasco chili varieties were studied; two cultivars (Jalapeño, Habanero) that belong to Caspicum annuum L. and Capsicum chinense Jacq., respectively and two wild varieties (Amashito, Ojo de cangrejo), that belong to Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum. Five Tamaulipas chili varieties were studied: the Mirador, Piquín huasteco and Ozulamero varieties, which belong to Capsicum annuum L, and the Pico paloma and Chilpaya tabasco varieties, which belong to Capsicum frutescens. For the analysis of genetic differentiation, four AFLP molecular markers were used, which amplified 150 to 209 bands in the two variety groups. The AMOVA (Analysis of molecular variance) results indicated that the maximum variation was found between the regions (37.0%) and within the populations of each region (37.0%). The estimated variety differentiation was high, FST=0.373, which indicates that 62.70% from the variation is found within the varieties, and the high values of FIS=0.409 and FIT= 0.629 lead to the assumption that the varieties possess a large number of homozygotes and a substantial loss of heterozygotes. The cluster analysis separated the evaluated varieties by geographical region and by kind; for Tabasco, the wild Amashito and the Ojo de cangrejo were grouped, and the cultivated varieties formed their own group. In the Tamaulipas varieties, this grouping tendency was not observed.

2101-2106 Download
25
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SOMACLONAL POPULATION OF SUGARCANE
NIGHAT SEEMA, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, SABOOHI RAZA, SHAFQUAT YASMEEN, SAJIDA BIBI AND GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SOMACLONAL POPULATION OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study plant tissue culture technique was used to create the genetic variability in three sugarcane clones NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026. Callus induced in these clones in media containing MS + 2, 4 D (2mg 1it-1) and Dicamba (1mg1it-1). The embryogenic calli then regenerated in media containing MS basal media + Kinetin (2mg1it-1) + IBA (2mg1it-1) + IAA (2mglit-1). After shooting and rooting, plants were exposed to green house and acclimatization of the somaclones in the field condition. RAPD markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation at DNA level between parents and somaclones of NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026 developed through callus culture. Fourteen RAPD primer chosen randomly were used to amplify DNA from plant material to assess the genetic variation between parents and regenerated somaclones. The highest similarity was obtained between BL4 parent and BL4 somaclone (96%). While minimum similarity found between NIA-98 parent and AEC82-1026 somaclone (69%). In this study, we used RAPD to investigate the somaclonal variation in sugarcane clones derived from callus cultures.

2107-2111 Download
26
SSR MARKERS LINKED TO SEED SIZE AND SEED WEIGHT IN LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GERMPLASM REPORTED FROM PAKISTAN
ZAKIA AHMAD1, MOHAMMAD NISAR1*, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ2, ABDUL GHAFOOR3 AND SHAHID ALI4

SSR MARKERS LINKED TO SEED SIZE AND SEED WEIGHT IN LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GERMPLASM REPORTED FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In advance research studies the PCR based molecular markers have a great contribution in genome analysis and marker-assisted selection. In the present study, we have utilized RAPD and SSR markers for linkage analysis with chickpea yield contributing traits. For that purpose, we were obtained 70 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) accessions from Plant Genetic Resource Program (PGRP), National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. It was found that 100 seed weight was highly significantly correlated with seed size quantitatively. For linkage analysis, 20 RAPD and 30 SSR makers were utilized. In the makers, 5 RAPD and 15 SSR were polymorphic and showed significant levels of coefficient of variation. None of the RAPD primer was linked to seed size and seed weight while, SSR markers TA72 and TA130 showed linkage and sorted chickpea accession on the basis of seed weight and seed size. The majority of accessions of USA origin was observed with maximum100 seed weight (30-57gm) and medium to large (7.2-9.9mm) size seeds including one of the accession 2562 of Pakistani origin also with large size seeds. Hence, the linkage of these makers and the use of large and medium size seeds may enhance the yield of chickpea plant in Pakistan.

2113-2120 Download
27
GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE DESERT SHRUB SPECIES LYCIUM RUTHENICUM INFERRED FROM CHLOROPLAST DNA
HAIKUI CHEN12$, LIYAN ZENG3$, TAKAHIRO YONEZAWA2, XIAN REN1* AND YANG ZHONG2,4*

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE DESERT SHRUB SPECIES LYCIUM RUTHENICUM INFERRED FROM CHLOROPLAST DNA
ABSTRACT:
Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae), a spiny shrub mostly distributed in the desert regions of north and northwest China, has been shown to exhibit high tolerance to the extreme environment. In this study, the phylogeography and evolutionary history of L. ruthenicum were examined, on the basis of 80 individuals from eight populations. Using the sequence variations of two spacer regions of chloroplast DNA (trnH-psbA and rps16-trnK) , the absence of a geographic component in the chloroplast DNA genetic structure was identified (GST = 0.351, NST = 0.304, NST

2121-2130 Download
28
RESPONSE OF VITIS VINIFERA L. SEEDS TO 22(S), 23(S)-HOMOBRASSINOLIDE
ZELIHA GOKBAYRAK1,*, ATILLA ÇAKIR2 ANDOMER ŞIRIN1

RESPONSE OF VITIS VINIFERA L. SEEDS TO 22(S), 23(S)-HOMOBRASSINOLIDE
ABSTRACT:
In order to determine effects of brassinosteroid on germination, seeds of var. Karasakız (Vitis vinifera L.) were soaked in different concentrations of 22(S), 23(S)- homobrassinolide solutions (0.025, 0.010, and 0.005 mgL-1) followed by stratification for 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at 4°C in perlite. In comparison, seeds were also treated with gibberellic acid concentrations (0, 500, 1000, and 1500 mgL-1). Seeds were sown in plastic cell containers containing perlite: peat moss: cocopeat (1:1:1 v/v) and the containers were placed under glasshouse conditions. Germination was not influenced by the brassinosteroid application. As the stratification time prolonged the germination increased. Effect of brassinosteroid on germination was not statistically important. However, it seemed that treatment with low concentration of the brassinosteroid resulted in similar germination percentage with the seeds stratified at least for 60 days.

2131-2133 Download
29
COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ADNAN NASIM1*, FARHATULLAH1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, M. AFZAL1, SYED MUHAMMAD AZAM2, ZEESHAN NASIM3 AND NOOR UL AMIN1

COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability was studied for yield and yield contributing traits in 5 × 5 diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, pod length, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 were significantly different. Heritability and genetic advance estimates were moderate for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 100 seed weight whereas were high for seed yield plant-1. Parental line G-909 for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1 and seed yield plant-1, genotype G-902 for pod length and genotype G-403 for 100-seed weight were the best general combiners. Based on combing ability and heterosis, the F1 hybrids G-909 × G-265 (for primary branches plant-1), G-265 × G- 403, G-1500 × G-909 (for pods main raceme-1), G-403 × G-909 (for pod length), G-265 × G-1500 (for 100-seed weight) and G-1500 × G-902, G-909 × G-902 (for seed yield plant-1) can be utilized in future breeding endeavors. Non-additive genetic control, as predominant mechanism, for all the traits necessitates the use of schemes like bi-parental mating design, diallel selective mating followed by recurrent or reciprocal recurrent selection.

2135-2142 Download
30
INTEGRATION OF PHYSIO-BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AT DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS
NAMRA JAVED1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3*, FAHAD-AL-QURAINY3 AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM4

INTEGRATION OF PHYSIO-BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AT DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to assess the influence of heat stress imposed at different growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Four wheat cultivars namely S-24, Saher-2006, Lasani and AARI-10 were subjected to high temperature (HT) stress at tillering and booting phenological phases. Under stress conditions, root and shoot fresh weights, membrane thermostability (MTS) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were significantly perturbed in all four wheat cultivars at both developmental stages. However, HT stress did not influence all the other attributes significantly including shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll a and b pigments, photosynthetic rate (A), leaf water (Ψw), internal CO2 (Ci), osmotic (Ψs) and turgor (Ψp) potentials, transpiration rate (E), water-use-efficiency (A/E), stomatal conductance (gs) as well as Fv/Fm ratio. Among all wheat cultivars, cv. Lasani performed better in shoot and root fresh weight, and chlorophyll a contents at the tillering stage, while in MTS at the booting phase, cv. S-24 in shoot fresh weight, E, and gs at the boot stage and highest MTS and WUE at the tillering stage. However, cv. AARI-10 performed well in root fresh weight, Ψw, Ψs, Ψp,,WUE and NPQ when stress was applied at the boot stage, while E and Fv/Fm in this cultivar on exposure to stress at the tillering stage. Cultivar Saher-2006 performed better in gs, leaf Ψs and Ψp at the tillering stage, while Fv/Fm was recorded better at the boot stage and A in the same cultivar at all growth stages. Overall, HT stress applied at different growth stages was only effective in altering root fresh weight, MTS and NPQ in all four wheat cultivars. Of all wheat cultivars, cv. AARI-10 performed better in growth and physiological attributes examined in the present study under HT stress applied at different phenological stages.

2143-2150 Download
31
ENDOGENOUS ANTIOXIDANTS AND PHYTOHORMONAL REGULATION INDUCED BY SPERMIDINE IMPROVE CUCUMBER PLANT GROWTH
RAMALINGAM RADHAKRISHNAN AND IN- JUNG LEE*

ENDOGENOUS ANTIOXIDANTS AND PHYTOHORMONAL REGULATION INDUCED BY SPERMIDINE IMPROVE CUCUMBER PLANT GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
Involvement of exogenously applied low dose of spermidine (Spd) on the regulation of endogenous chlorophylls, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, gibberellins (GAs), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was investigated in cucumber plants. The plants were exposed to low concentrations of 0.06 and 0.3 μM Spd. The length of shoots, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of leaves was greater in Spd treatments than their controls. A remarkable increase of chlorophyll and protein content was noticed in plants treated with 0.3 μM Spd. However, superoxide content and lipid peroxidation were moderately declined and the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and acid phosphatase were elevated in plants treated with 0.3 μM Spd. The plants treated with 0.06 μM Spd also showed the greater level of antioxidants over the untreated controls. A higher accumulation of non-13-hydroxylated and 13-hydroxylated GAs such as GA24, GA9, GA4, GA20, GA8 and GA7 was observed in Spd treated plants than their controls. Consequently, the concentration of JA and SA declined significantly in 0.3 μM Spd treated plants. These results suggest that exogenous application of 0.3 μM Spd increases plant growth through the enhancement of photosynthetic pigments, protein, enzyme activities and GAs, and reduction of ROS, JA and SA content and it could be useful to enhancement of crop plants cultivation.

2151-2156 Download
32
IMPACT OF SOLE CROPPING AND MULTIPLE CROPPING ON SOIL HUMIFIED CARBON FRACTIONS
IRFAN AZIZ1, TARIQ MAHMOOD2* AND KHANDAKAR RAFIQ ISLAM3

IMPACT OF SOLE CROPPING AND MULTIPLE CROPPING ON SOIL HUMIFIED CARBON FRACTIONS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was planned to improve our understanding how crop rotation can enhance humified C fractions. A long term experiment was conducted on Vanmeter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA from 2002 to 2007. Crop rotation treatments included were continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn–soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) rotations. Randomized complete block design with 6 replications was used under natural field conditions. The findings of this long-term study revealed that multiple cropping had significantly improved humified carbon fractions compared to mono-cropping system. Although total humified carbon (THOC), sugar free humified carbon (HOC) concentration were non-significant however, humin (NH) contents, humic (HA), fulvic acids (FA), humic and fulvic acid associated glucose (HA-NH and FA-NH) were significantly affected by various crop rotations within five years. The soil under CC had 22-52% significantly greater NH concentration than CSW and CS rotations respectively. Similarly all crop rotations had shown 5–16 increase in HA and 5-17% decreased in FA over time. Likewise soil under CC had 16 and 54% greater HA-NH concentration as compared to CSW and CS rotations. The FA-NH concentration increased significantly by 27– 51% in soil under all treatments over time. The soil under CSW had greater HA/FA (1.6) fallowed by CC (1.4) and CS (1.1). Soils under CSW had significantly greater HA/HOC (12–18%) as compare to CC and CS respectively. Conversely, the value of FA/HOC decreased (1–23%) in soil under all crop rotation treatments within five years. Degree of humification (DH) had shown a significant increase (7–12%) in soil under all treatments as compared to 2002. Irrespective of crop rotation THOC, HOC, NH, humin, HA, HR and FA/HOC concentration decreased significantly with increase in soil depth. While fulvic acid concentration HA/HOC in all crop rotation increased with increase in soil depth. The effect of crop rotation on humified C fractions could be because of variations in type, amount and quality of C returned by different plants into the soil. So replacing mono-cropping with multiple cropping can enhance humified C fractions and can improve soil functional properties.

2157-2162 Download
33
ASSESSMENT OF SILVER NITRATE ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM MILL.)
SABIR HUSSAIN SHAH1, SHAUKAT ALI1, 2*, SOHAIL AHMAD JAN1, JALAL-UD–DIN3 AND GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI1, 2

ASSESSMENT OF SILVER NITRATE ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
In vitro morphogenesis is greatly influenced by a gaseous plant growth regulator (ethylene). The effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and different plant growth regulators were assessed on callus induction, In vitro shoot regeneration and multiple primordial shoots per explant in tomato. The maximum callus induction frequency was recorded culturing hypocotyls, while In vitro shoot regeneration frequency and the number of primordial shoots per explant were significantly higher when leaf discs were used as explants. The callus induction frequency was improved by the supplementation of 10-15 mg/l AgNO3 in MS basal media along with 2.0 mg/l IAA, 2.5 mg/l BAP and yielded the highest callus induction frequency (91.33%) in cv. Rio Grande, followed by Roma (88.33%) and Moneymaker (82.66%). Similarly, the highest In vitro shoot regeneration frequency (96.66, 92.66 and 90%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker on MS media fortified with 0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP along with 8-10 mg/l AgNO3. AgNO3 also had promotive effect on induction of multiple shoots per explant. These findings indicate that ethylene is linked with the suppression of In vitro morphogenesis in tomato and AgNO3 interacts with ethylene and enhances callus induction and In vitro shoot regeneration in tomato.

2163-2172 Download
34
IN VITRO EMBRYO CULTURE OF RARELY ENDANGERED MUSELLA LASIOCARPA (MUSACEAE) WITH EMBRYO DORMANCY
TANG ANJUN

IN VITRO EMBRYO CULTURE OF RARELY ENDANGERED MUSELLA LASIOCARPA (MUSACEAE) WITH EMBRYO DORMANCY
ABSTRACT:
Musella lasiocarpa (Musaceae) is an ornamental annually producing many viable seeds, but seldom recruited by seeds in the wild. One mature Musella seed has a small mushroom-shaped embryo without discernible organ differentiation. Therefore, freshly-harvested mature seeds are dormant. When the seeds gradually finished differentiation during warm stratification at 23°C, they germinated to 82%. Besides, extracted embryos from fresh seeds did not germinate on the basal medium of Murshige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar, but they were induced to form calli and root by media. The optimum medium for inducing calli was MS + 1.0 mg/L 6-BA + 0.05 mg/L NAA + 100 mg/L Vc with the highest proliferation coefficient (7.3) in 35 days. Moreover, the embryos from the 6-month warm stratified seeds could proliferate on the suitable medium. The optimal medium for rooting was MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D + Vitamin C 100 mg/L. The results confirmed that both the embryo developmental stage and appropriate combination of chemicals significantly affected seed germination and In vitro embryo culture of this species.

2173-2177 Download
35
DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS AND LEAF-ANATOMY MODIFICATIONS IN VITRO OF NEOREGELIA CONCENTRICA (VELLOZO) L.B. SMITH (BROMELIACEAE)
JOÃO PAULO RODRIGUES MARTINS1*, EDILSON ROMAIS SCHMILDT2, RODRIGO SOBREIRA ALEXANDRE2, EVARISTO MAURO DE CASTRO1, THAÍS FURTADO NANI1, MARINÊS FERREIRA PIRES1AND MOACIR PASQUAL1

DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS AND LEAF-ANATOMY MODIFICATIONS IN VITRO OF NEOREGELIA CONCENTRICA (VELLOZO) L.B. SMITH (BROMELIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Tissue culture can contribute in the multiplication of several species with commercial interest, like the bromeliads. It was aimed to evaluate cytokinins and its concentrations in the multiplication and leaf structure of Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith. Previously In vitro-established N. concentrica plants were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or Kinetin (KIN) with concentrations 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 μM. For the anatomic analyses tree plants of each treatment were randomly sampled at 60-day growth. Significant differences were verified in the evaluated characteristics due to the treatments. The raise in cytokinin concentrations induced a higher percentage and average number of explants with shoots. BAP provided higher averages when compared to KIN. The cytokinin use modified the epidermal structure and induced a larger thickening of the water-storage and chlorophyll parenchymas. The use of 15.0 μM BAP was efficient in the In vitro multiplication and in the leaf tissue development of N. concentrica.

2179-2187 Download
36
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CHUNGAH (CARALLUMA TUBERCULATA N.E. BROWN)
RIAZ UR REHMAN1, MUHAMMAD FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY2, ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI3, IHSAN UL HAQ4 AND MUHAMMAD ZIA5*

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CHUNGAH (CARALLUMA TUBERCULATA N.E. BROWN)
ABSTRACT:
In vitro propagation of Caralluma tuberculata (Chungah) was developed from shoot tip and meristem explants. C. tuberculata is an imperative medicinal plant comprising antidiabetic and anticancer properties. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. Presence of BA or Kin alone in the MS medium did not favor regeneration of shoot from both explants. However, addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), gibberellic acid (GA3) and thidiazuron (TDZ) along with 6-benzyl amino purine (BA) or kinetin (Kin) in the medium exhibited significant percentage response, number of shoots per explant and shoot length. Maximum shooting response (53.3±5.77% from meristem and shoot tip explants each) with highest number of shoots per explant (5.33±2.08 and 5.6±2.52 from meristem and shoot tip explants, respectively) were observed at 13.32 µmol BA along with 2.26 µmol 2,4-D, 2.89 µmol GA3 and 9.08x10-3 µmol TDZ. Replacing BA with kin showed less shoot regeneration response and number of shoots per explant, however, shoots length markedly increased in the presence of Kin. The regenerated plants were successfully rooted and acclimatized in ex vitro condition. The protocol described here can be used for fast multiplication of this endangered herb and genetic transformation.

2189-2194 Download
37
DEVELOPMENT OF A VINASSE CULTURE MEDIUM FOR PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
ANDRÉ LUÍS LOPES DA SILVA1, JEFFERSON DA LUZ COSTA2, ANDRÉ LUIZ GOLLO1, JOSÉ DARCY DOS SANTOS1, HELENA ROSS FORNECK1, LUIZ ANTONIO BIASI3, VANETE THOMAZ SOCCOL1, JÚLIO CESAR DE CARVALHO1 AND CARLOS RICARDO SOCCOL1*

DEVELOPMENT OF A VINASSE CULTURE MEDIUM FOR PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product.

2195-2202 Download
38
THE EFFECT OF AUXINS ON CALLUS INDUCTION IN ACHYRANTHES ASPERA
SARWAT NAZ* AND KHALIDA KHATOON

THE EFFECT OF AUXINS ON CALLUS INDUCTION IN ACHYRANTHES ASPERA
ABSTRACT:
To induce in vitro callus induction, leaf and nodal stem explants of Achyranthes aspera were compared for their callusing response on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with NAA, IAA, IBA and 2,4-D at various concentrations. Best callus was derived from adaxial surface of leaf explants. MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D was found suitable for callus induction. After subculture the colour of callus turned brown and the quantity of callus declined. Influence of charcoal was tested to stop browning of the callus. Influence of sucrose percentage on callus fresh weight and growth regulators combined with coconut milk was also tested.

2203-2207 Download
39
EFFECT OF CUTTING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES ON ROOTING PROCESS AND ROOT PRIMORDIUM DIFFERENTIATION OF HARDWOOD CUTTINGS OF TETRAPLOID ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA CUTTING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES OF TETRAPLOID ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA
WANG XIAO LING1,2a, QUAN JIN’E1a, GAO ZHU2 AND ZHAO ZHONG1*

EFFECT OF CUTTING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES ON ROOTING PROCESS AND ROOT PRIMORDIUM DIFFERENTIATION OF HARDWOOD CUTTINGS OF TETRAPLOID ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA CUTTING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES OF TETRAPLOID ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA
ABSTRACT:
In this study, to examine the effect of heat treatment on the rooting and root development of hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia, cuttings of 1-year-old stems were taken from 3–year-old mother trees and treated with IBA solution (1000 mg/L) for 6 h, with water was as a control. Treated cuttings were rooted in heated or unheated nursery beds. Samples were collected on day ten after planting, and then for every five days. The bases of the cuttings were embedded in paraffin and sectioned before being examined under a microscope to determine whether there had been any morphological changes. We found no root primordia in the tissues of the hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia before cutting. In the heated bed, adventitious roots originated from callus tissue and the junction between the pith rays and cortical parenchyma cells, and in the unheated bed, adventitious roots originated only from callus tissue. The rooting process involved callus formation, adventitious root formation and elongation; rooting occurred 5-7 days earlier in the heated cuttings than in the unheated ones, and rooting rates were significantly higher in the former 30 days and 50 days after cutting; the minimum effective accumulated temperatures for these three stages were 109.25oC, 211.68 oC and 301.38oC, respectively. Our results revealed that heating the soil can promote adventitious root formation, speed up the rooting rate, and cut the propagation period of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia.

2209-2215 Download
40
RELATIONSHIP OF DAMAGED STARCH WITH SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT FLOUR QUALITY
RASHIDA ALI1,2,3, MUHAMMAD SHAKEEL KHAN1,3, SYED ASAD SAYEED3, RAHIL AHMED1,3, SYED MUHAMMAD GUFRAN SAEED3* AND LUBNA MOBIN3

RELATIONSHIP OF DAMAGED STARCH WITH SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT FLOUR QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
The samples of 18 different semi hard flour from four different mills were analyzed for damaged starch (DS) and for various other physicochemical properties through Kernalyzer, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile, Farinograph, Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph and Glutomatic to establish the correlations that may exist among them. It was found that water absorption and dough development time from Farinograph, beginning of gelatinization, peak, trough and final viscosities from Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph, sodium carbonate and lactic acid values from SRC tests, retained and passed gluten from Glutomatic while the protein from Kernalyzer were closely related to damaged starch as determined by enzymatic analysis using Megazyme kit. The particle size analysis showed that amount of large particle i.e. >160 micron is inversely proportional to percentage of damaged starch. Alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and sodium carbonate SRC values are directly related as the increase in damaged starch will also increase the water absorption/ holding capacity of flour. The overall exercise has revealed that lengthy enzymatic damaged starch analysis which requires skilled manpower as well, may be replaced by certain instrumental and simple SRC analysis especially for commercial purposes where rapid tests are so much desired. An interesting correlation was found between the DS and the difference in water absorption measured from Farinograph and Glutomatic. It is clearly demonstrated that starch intact to gluten proteins is invisibly damaged during milling.

2217-2225 Download
41
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIBER INITIATION AND LINT PERCENTAGE IN COTTON
GUO XIAN1†, MA JUN1†, GUO YUPING1, SUN MIZHEN1, ZHOUJIAJIA1, YUAN YANCHAO1, ZHANG TIANZHEN2, SUN XUEZHEN1* AND SONG XIANLIANG1*

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIBER INITIATION AND LINT PERCENTAGE IN COTTON
ABSTRACT:
In this study, cytological observation of cotton fiber initiation from 1 d before anthesis to 3 d post anthesis (dpa) was performed using a scanning electron microscope. Six cotton chromosome segment introgression lines and their recipient/donor parents were used as materials. Results showed that fiber cell protrusions were highly related to genotype and germplasm, but fiber cell elongations were closely related to lint percentage. Fiber cell protrusions and elongations initially formed on the funicular crest, extended to the chalaza cap and the middle part of the ovule, and finally reached the micropyle. Fiber protrusion density at 1 dpa and elongation density at 2 dpa were observed in the following parts from highest to lowest: funicular crest > chalaza cap > middle part of the ovule > micropyle. The fiber protrusion densityat 1 dpa and the fiber elongation density at 2 dpa were positively correlated with lint percentage and lint index but negatively correlated with seed index. The results of gray relational analysis were consistent with the correlation analysis results. Early fiber elongation contributed positively to protrusion density and elongation density, thereby resulting in a high lint percentage.

2227-2238 Download
42
DIFFERENCES IN STARCH COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ARE INFLUENCED BY GRANULE TYPES IN WHEAT AND ITS RELATIVES
ZHENG KE1,2+, JIANG QIAN-TAO1+, ZHANG XIAO-WEI1, LAN XIU-JIN1, DAI SHOU-FEN1, WEI YU-MING1, LAROCHE ANDRE2, LU ZHEN-XIANG2* AND ZHENG YOU-LIANG3*

DIFFERENCES IN STARCH COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ARE INFLUENCED BY GRANULE TYPES IN WHEAT AND ITS RELATIVES
ABSTRACT:
Starch morphology, composition, and physiochemical properties were characterized from wild wheat species and wheat cultivars with diploid (AA, BB, and DD genome), tetraploid wheat (AABB genome), and hexaploid (AABBDD) genomes. The A-type and B-type granules were separated and purified from each wheat genotype. Starch size, distribution, amylose content, distribution of amylopectin chain lengths, gelatinization, and retrogradation were analyzed in different wheat genotypes. Our results indicate that Aegilops speltoides (BB genome) has a significantly higher percentage of large A-type granules. The A-type granules contained significantly higher amylose content than the B-type granules in all accessions. Amylopectin exhibited more B2 and B3 chains (DP 25 and up) but less A chains (DP 6-12) in the A-type than the B-type granules. The extent of enthalpy changes during starch gelatinization was greater and retrogradation rates were higher in the A-type than the B-type granules. However, the B-type granules have broader ranges of gelatinization temperatures (Tc–To) than the A-type granules. Additionally, the B-type granules of wild diploid species (AA and BB genome) consistently exhibit lower onset (To) and higher peak (Tp) and conclusion (Tc) temperatures. Thus, starch structure is closely related to functionality, and granule size and distribution are significantly correlated to starch thermal properties.

2239-2248 Download
43
BIO-PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLIED STUDIES OF CAROTOVORICIN NA5 (CrNA5) ON BLB AFFECTED RICE PLANTS
NUSRAT JABEEN1,2, MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN4, JUNAID A. KHAN3, SEHAR AFSHAN NAZ2 SYED ABDUS SUBHAN1 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL1*

BIO-PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLIED STUDIES OF CAROTOVORICIN NA5 (CrNA5) ON BLB AFFECTED RICE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Erwinia carotovora is a common soil borne plant pathogen, which generally infects plants of family Solanacea. In the present study, bacteriocin (CrNA5), produced by an indigenously isolated E. carotovora NA5 has been characterized and its possible anti phytopathogenic potential was shown in the field studies. CrNA5 showed its antimicrobial activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including those associated with the plant diseases. The bacteriocin showed substantial stability against wide range of temperatures and pH. Additionally, it was also found resistant to the treatment of metal ions, organic solvents and non-proteolytic enzymes. Conversely, its inactivation by proteinase K and protease suggested its protein nature. Mode of action studies revealed that CrNA5 is bactericidal, particularly against Xanthomonas oryzae oryzae. The electron micrograph of CrNA5 revealed spherical particle (empty head) like structures implicating the vestigial bacteriophage based origin of carotovoricin. In silico analyses were also conducted in order to deduce the plausible ratio of the amino acids present in the protein. The In vivo experiments showed the efficacy of CrNA5 against X. oryzae oryzae (Xoo), the causative agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice, both in controlled conditions (green house) as well as in field trials. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind with the bacteriocin of Erwinia origin (tested against the BLB infected plants in the field). It is expected that the present study will help visit new insights of the bacteriocins produced by Erwinia carotovora and their potential (application) as anti phytopathogenic agent.

2249-2256 Download
44
VERTICAL ZONATION AND SEED GERMINATION INDICES OF CHROMIUM RESISTANT CELLULOLYTIC AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA FROM A CHRONICALLY METAL EXPOSED LAND AREA
SUMAIRA ASLAM1*, JAVED IQBAL QAZI2, ALI HUSSAIN3 AND SHAHID ALI4

VERTICAL ZONATION AND SEED GERMINATION INDICES OF CHROMIUM RESISTANT CELLULOLYTIC AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA FROM A CHRONICALLY METAL EXPOSED LAND AREA
ABSTRACT:
Twenty eight cellulolytic and 25 nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from 20, 40 and 60 cm depths of the chromium contaminated land area. The cellulolytic as well as nitrogen fixing microbial communities in soil profiles were dominated by genus Bacillus. More diverse nitrogen fixing bacterial isolates belonging to different genera Paenibacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas were observed as compared to cellulolytic bacterial community. Majority of the cellulolytic bacteria were found inhabitants of 20 cm soil layer while 40 cm depth was the preferred zone for the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Screening of the bacterial isolates for chromium resistance showed that isolates designated as ASK15 and ASK16 were able to resist up to 1800 mg/l of chromium while the nitrogen fixing isolates which offered a maximum resistant level up to 1650 mg/l of chromium were ASNt10 and ASNS13. Nitrogen fixing isolates enhanced seed germination by 33% and expressed efficient nitrogenase activity up to 0.80 (C2H2 nmol/ml/hr). Growth promoting assay proved ASNt10 a potential isolate which produced 90 µg/ml of indoleacetic acid (IAA). Though cellulolytic isolates did not affect seed germination, a significant influence on root length similar to that of ASNt10 and ASNS13 with nearly 5-fold increase in comparison with uninoculated control was observed. The isolates ASK15, ASK16 were identified as Bacillus cereus while ASNt10 and ASNS13 as Paenibacillus barcinonensis and Bacillus megaterium, respectively.

2257-2268 Download
45
SCREENING OF MEDICINAL NATURAL EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SALMONELLA SPECIES
AROOJ YOUSAF KHAN AND ZAKIA LATIF*

SCREENING OF MEDICINAL NATURAL EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SALMONELLA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to screen out natural crude extracts exhibiting antibacterial activity against Salmonella causing gastrointestinal problems in humans. Fifteen Salmonella species were isolated from uncooked chicken, polluted water, rotten potatoes, beef, rotten eggs etc. Aqueous plant extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella sativa (kalvanji), Azadirachta indica (neem), Ficus carica (anjeer), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (methi) were checked against Salmonella species by well plate method. In addition to plant extract, Honey was also used for antibacterial activity. Inhibition zones ranging from 2mm to 20mm were obtained with different concentration of plant extracts and honey. The antibacterial sensitivity pattern was in the order of kalvanji > garlic > honey > anjeer > methi > neem. The standard antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin were also used for comparison with natural extract for antibacterial activity. The extracts of Allium sativum, Nigella sativa and Honey were found to be more effective against Salmonella species for which even Ceftriaxone was found ineffective.

2269-2275 Download
46
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO, AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISEASE WITH BALANCED FERTILIZATION
HAFIZ FARHAD ALI1*, AYESHA BIBI1, MUSHARAF AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD JUNAID1, ASAD ALI1, SHAUKAT HUSSAIN1, SHAH ALAM2 AND SARTAJ ALAM1

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO, AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISEASE WITH BALANCED FERTILIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Based upon colony morphology, physio-biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (using species or subspecies-specific primers) studies, 20 isolates (out of a total of 42) were found to be Erwinia carotovora subspecies atroseptica (Eca), 19 were identified as Erwinia carotovora subspecies carotovora (Ecc), and 3 as Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech). Results of the subspecies-differentiating biochemical tests indicated that majority of the candidate Ecc isolates did not produce acid from α-methyle glucoside (as expected) but their reaction to the production of reducing substances from sucrose was variable. Likewise, some of our Eca and Ecc strains (unexpectedly) were sensitive to erythromycin. Also, most of our Eca strains unexpectedly grew at 36oC. Our strains slightly deviate from the standard description in some of their minor characteristics but they still remain the valid members of the Eca, Ecc or Ech group as similar variations in minor characteristics have been found by other workers. The occurrence of intermediate forms of Eca and Ecc (sharing some of the characteristics of both the groups) indicates variability happening among these strains. This variability indicates the potential ability of the pathogen to break the resistance of the host. The results of the effect of balanced nutrition in controlling blackleg and soft rot of potatoes indicated that the fertilizer combination of N3P1K3 (262/252/262 kg.ha-1) which is slightly higher than the normally practiced dose (247/247/247 kg.ha-1) was the best in bringing the disease to a minimum and subsequently increasing the yield.

2277-2284 Download
47
TEMPERATURE AND PH KINETICS FOR ENHANCED BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI) BY HIGHLY CHROMIUM RESISTANT FUNGI GLIOCLADIUM SPP.ZIC2063
ARIFA TAHIR1*, AHMED ABDEL-MEGEED2,3 AND SIDRA ZAHID1

TEMPERATURE AND PH KINETICS FOR ENHANCED BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI) BY HIGHLY CHROMIUM RESISTANT FUNGI GLIOCLADIUM SPP.ZIC2063
ABSTRACT:
This study investigates the kinetics of Cr (VI) biosorption by locally isolated high Cr tolerant fungus Gliocladium sp. ZIC2063. The effect of two most important variables pH and temperature was investigated for enhanced Cr (VI) biosorption. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the different parameters was tested. The result showed that the most suitable sorption temperature was 30ºC with maximum biosorption rate of185.69 mg/l. The data showed that the sorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature and that lower solution temperatures favors metal ion removal by the biomass. Similarly Cr (VI) uptake by Gliocladium sp. ZIC2063 was maximum at optimum pH of 3.5. The findings of this investigation suggest that pH and temperature plays a significant role in enhancing the biosorption rate. The coefficient of determination (R2) of both models were mostly greater than 0.9. This indicates that biosorption data is best fitted in both models.

2285-2292 Download
48
COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SELENIUM AND SELENIUM TOLERANT MICROBES ON BRACHIARIA REPTANS L. GROWTH
MUHAMMAD YASIN* AND MUHAMMAD FAISAL

COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SELENIUM AND SELENIUM TOLERANT MICROBES ON BRACHIARIA REPTANS L. GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
Brachiaria reptans L. is an annual grass. It is good fodder grass which is distributed in tropical Asia, Kenya, Pakistan and India and introduced throughout the tropics. In present study we determine the growth correlation among B. reptans, selenium (Se) and two Se tolerant bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis–YAP7 and Bacillus cereus-YAP6). Plants treated with Se showed a significant decrease in shoot length (33%) and fresh biomass (41%) compared to control. When plants were co-cultivated in the presence of bacteria or Se and bacteria both the shoot length increased (16-34%) significantly compared to control. B. reptans plants treated with Se have shown a significant decrease in peroxidase contents (59%) compared to control. However, bacterial inoculation of Se treated plants resulted in significant increase in peroxidase contents (113-171%). Selenium treatment caused increase in leaf soluble protein contents compared to control. In conclusion, bacteria can enhance B. reptans growth under Se stress.

2293-2296 Download
49
MORPHO-MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL ASPERGILLUS SPP. AND ITS CULTURAL OPTIMIZATION FOR LIPASES PRODUCTION
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, MUHAMMAD ZULQURNAIN HAIDER1, SIDRA1, DURR-E-NAYAB1, ROHEENA ABDULLAH2, AND MUHAMMAD ANJUM ZIA3

MORPHO-MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL ASPERGILLUS SPP. AND ITS CULTURAL OPTIMIZATION FOR LIPASES PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Different lipid rich products were used to obtain oil degrading fungal isolates. The isolates were codified for referral to our culture bank and compared for their lipolytic potential. Amongst the isolates, MBL-1412 isolated from the cooked “sliced cicer arietinum” (Channa Daal) was found to be a potent hyper-producer and was optimized for lipase production under solid state fermentation. Initial systematic treatment based upon micrometric data and consultation with the standard monographs and fungus ended up with its identification as Aspergillus sp. The identification confirmed that the fungus belongs to genus Aspergillus, by DNA barcoding marker like 18S rRNA gene sequence.Later, the sequence was registered with accession no. KM924434 in the public nucleotide library (genbank) of NCBI. Fungal culture was maintained on 2% potato dextrose agar (PDA) during the study. Diverse substrates of agricultural byproducts under varied incubation temperature, time interval, inoculum level and different pH of diluent were used as parameters of optimization for hyper-production of lipases. Different carbon and nitrogen sources as additives of culture medium were applied for enhancement of lipase production. Almond meal (10g) with inoculum level @1.5 mL after 48 h of time course at 50ºC and 6 pH were selected to be the best eco-cultural conditions for optimal lipases production by Aspergillus sp. MBL-1412. Supplementary additives of nitrogen and carbon sources to the basal substrate improved lipases production appreciably. Ammonium chloride (1%) as inorganic nitrogen source, nutrient broth (0.8%) as organic nitrogen source and starch (0.8%) as carbon source were found as best media additives for enhanced extracellular lipases yield.

2297-2304 Download
50
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
S.A. MAITLO1, R.N. SYED1, M.A. RUSTAMANI2, R.D. KHUHRO2 AND A.M. LODHI3*

COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the most serious and widespread disease of chickpea, causing a 100% loss under favorable conditions. Fourteen fungicides were evaluated against wilt pathogen In vitro with five different concentrations ranging from 1-10000 ppm. Among these only Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl was found as the most effective at all used concentrations. Other fungicides like Aliette, Nativo, Hombre-excel and Dividend star were found to be moderately effective. Whereas, remaining fungicides were ineffective against the targeted pathogen. Generally, a positive co-relation was observed between increasing concentrations of the tested fungicides and inhibition of Foc. Based on In vitro results Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Aliette, Dividend-star, Hombre-excel, Score and Nativo were selected for pot and field experiments. The higher concentrations of the few fungicides completely inhibited the pathogen as well as found to be phytotoxic and suppressed the plant growth while lower concentrations promoted the growth of chickpea plants. On over all bases, the Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl, followed by Aliette and Nativo were more effective in reducing the impact of pathogen as well as enhancing the plant growth in greenhouse experiment. Under field conditions, all fungicides except Score remarkably decreased the disease development and subsequently increased the plant growth as well as grain yield as compared to untreated plants.

2305-2312 Download
51
ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ENDOPHYTIC PENICILLIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM SALVADORA SPECIES
FARZANA KOREJO1, SYED ABID ALI2, HAFIZA ASMA SHAFIQUE1, VIQAR SULTANA3, JEHAN ARA4 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1*

ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ENDOPHYTIC PENICILLIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM SALVADORA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Salvadora persica and S. S.oleoides are facultative holophytic plants, well known as miswak, are traditionally used to ensure oral hygiene among Muslim people in Asian and African counties. Species of Salvadora have a number of proven pharmacological importance. Besides, terrestrial fungi endophytic fungi are also gaining importance for the isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study 74 samples (root, shoot and leaves) from S .persica and S. oleoides were examined for endophytic fungi, 22 samples showed presence of Penicillium spp., 48 were found positive for aspergilli, whereas 10 samples showed infection of Fusarium solani,4 were found infected with Macrophomina phaseolina and one with Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the Penicillium isolated were identified as P. restrictum, P. citrinum and P. canescens. In dual culture plate assay out of four Penicillium isolates tested, P.citrinum and one isolate of P.restrictum caused growth inhibition of all four test root rotting fungi, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. Culture filtrates of Penicillium spp., were also evaluated against four common laboratory bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and above mentioned root rotting fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic Penicillium spp., also showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Penicillium spp., offer an exciting area of research for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.

2313-2318 Download
52
BALLIELLA SHAMEELII SP. NOV. (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA
LAILA SHAHNAZ

BALLIELLA SHAMEELII SP. NOV. (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA
ABSTRACT:
The feather-like thalli of the red alga; Balliella shameelii Shahnaz sp. nov. were collected as drift material from the seashore waters at Buleji, the coastal area near Karachi (Pakistan) during February and March

2319-2324 Download
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