Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 08/06/2019 Uploaded: 22/04/2019
Uploaded: 28/03/2019

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2016 , Volume  48, Issue 4
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
AMELIORATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SULFUR AT SEEDLING STAGE
A. RIFFAT* AND M.S.A. AHMAD

AMELIORATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SULFUR AT SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Sulfur is an important plant nutrient involved in seed germination and seedling establishment. It also plays an important role in response of plants to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity. A study was conducted to assess the role of sulfur on salinity tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) at seed germination stage. Six varieties (Sadaf, MMRI, Pearl Basic, Agaitti 2003, Saiwal 2002 and Pak Afgoi 2003) and two hybrids (Yusafwala Hybrid and Hybrid 1898) of maize were used to assess the modulation of salt stress by exogenously applied sulfur. Three NaCl (25, 50 and 75 mM) and five potassium sulfate (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM) levels were applied to plants as sand amendment at sowing time along with a control. The experiment was laid down in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates. The data for various germination attributes were recorded. The results revealed that sulfur application significantly modulated all germination parameters i-e. germination percentage germination index, coefficient of velocity of emergence, mean emergence time, vigour index, germination energy, germination speed, mean daily germination and germination value and thus reduced the toxic effect of salinity. It was found that sulfur at 60 and 80 mM had more pronounced effect in enhancing seed germination. Application of sulfur at 60 to 80 mM improved all germination parameters and reduced time needed for 50 % seed to germinate. The phylogenetic tree constructed by NTSysPC clearly clustered all genotypes the two distinct clusters. The tolerant cluster mainly contained 4 varieties (Sadaf, MMRI, Pearl Basic and Agati 2003) while the sensitive cluster included two varieties (Sahiwal 2002, Pak Afgoi 2003) and two hybrids (Hybrid 1898 and Yusaf wala hybrid). Based on the distance matrixes generated by software, Agati 2003 proved to be the most tolerant genotype. In comparison, a maize variety (Pak Afgoi-2003) and a Hybrid-1898 showed the least improvement by exogenously applied sulfur. These results proved that sulfur enhanced salinity tolerance of maize by significantly improving seed germination. Additionally, a highly variable intra-specific response was observed where the salinity tolerance of maize varieties was much higher than hybrids screened in this study.

1323-1334 Download
2
COMPARISON OF SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY RESPONSES OF A SALT MARSH HALOPHYTE HALOPEPLIS PERFOLIATA TO OSMOTIC AND IONIC TREATMENTS
SARWAT GHULAM RASOOL1, ABDUL HAMEED1, M. ZAHEER AHMED1, M. AJMAL KHAN1, 2 AND BILQUEES GUL1

COMPARISON OF SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY RESPONSES OF A SALT MARSH HALOPHYTE HALOPEPLIS PERFOLIATA TO OSMOTIC AND IONIC TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte Halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (ΨS: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photoperiod and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photoperiod and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (~600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (ΨS -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest ΨS inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil.

1335-1343 Download
3
SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN EFFECTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN MAIZE UNDER SALINITY STRESS
XUWEN JIANG1,2, HEQIN LI1* AND XIYUN SONG2

SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN EFFECTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN MAIZE UNDER SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K+ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na+ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize.

1345-1352 Download
4
SALT STRESS RESPONSES OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN) ON GROWTH, YIELD AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES
TAYYAB1,2*, MUHAMMAD AZEEM1, MUHAMMAD QASIM3, NAEEM AHMED1 AND RAFIQ AHMAD1

SALT STRESS RESPONSES OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN) ON GROWTH, YIELD AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES
ABSTRACT:
Growth responses of leguminous plants to salinity vary considerably among species. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a sub-tropical crop, grown worldwide particularly in South Asia for edible and fodder purposes, while little is known about its salinity tolerance. In order to investigate the effect of salinity, plants were established at six different levels of sea salt concentrations i.e. 0.5, 1.6, 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and 4.3 (ECe dS.m-1). Plant growth was measured using vegetative [height, fresh and dry biomass, moisture, relative growth rate (RGR) and specific shoot length (SSL)], reproductive (number of flowers, pods, seeds and seed weight) and some biochemical parameters (chlorophylls, carotenoids, sugars and proteins). Pigeon pea showed a salt sensitive growth response, however, it survived up to 3.5 (ECe dS.m-1) sea salt salinity. Plant height, biomass, SSL and RGR linearly decreased under saline conditions. Leaf pigments increased (chlorophylls) or maintained (carotenoids) at 1.6 dS.m-1 and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Low moisture content and succulence along with more accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins may be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments at low salinity. Salinity adversely affect reproductive growth of C. cajan where production of flowers, pods, number of seeds and seed weight were significantly reduced. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, seed yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest C. cajan as a salt sensitive leguminous crop. However, detailed information is required to understand the eco-physiological responses of this plant under field and green house conditions.

1353-1360 Download
5
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN TWO CULTIVARS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ZEB SADDIQE*, SANA JAVERIA, HAFSA KHALID, AYESHA FAROOQ

EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN TWO CULTIVARS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The effect of various concentrations of NaCl (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mM ) was determined on the growth and biochemistry of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (Pioneer X8F932 and DK -C61-42). Seed germination under salt stress conditions was more affected in cv. Pioneer X8F932 than cv. DK-C61-42. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in root and shoot growth was observed at 100, 125 and 150 mM salt concentrations in both the cultivars. Salt stress also caused a decrease in fresh weight of seedlings in a dose dependant manner (p˃0.05). Among the two cultivars DK-C61-42 showed better tolerance towards salt stress (tolerance index = 105.4 at 75 mM) compared to Pioneer X8F932 (tolerance index = 76 at 50 mM). Total soluble protein content increased in both the cultivars under salt stress in a dose dependant manner with maximum protein content at 150 mM (6.004 mg/g tissue in DK-C61-42 and 7.375 mg/g tissue in cv. Pioneer X8F932). In DK-C61-42 highest peroxidase activity was at 125 mM (0.017 mg/g tissue) while in Pioneer X8F932 highest peroxidase activity was at 50 mM (0.006 mg/g tissue). The difference in enzyme activity between control and salt treated seedlings was significant (p<0.05). The catalase activity decreased under salt stress conditions in case of DK-C61-42 while an increase in activity of the enzyme was observed in Pioneer X8F932 at high salt concentrations. Among the two cultivars DK-C61-42 was better adapted towards salinity stress. Key words: Zea mays, Salt stress, Peroxidase, Catalase, Phytotoxicity.

1361-1370 Download
6
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF A MEDICINAL HALOPHYTE LIMONIUM BICOLOR (BAG.) KUNTZE TO SALT-STRESS
LINSHAN WANG1, 2, WEILIN LI 1, 2*, HAIYAN YANG1, WENLONG WU1, LI MA1*, TAO HUANG1 AND XIAOMIN WANG1

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF A MEDICINAL HALOPHYTE LIMONIUM BICOLOR (BAG.) KUNTZE TO SALT-STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Limonium bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze is a perennial herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family. It is a typical recretohalophyte as well as a medicinal plant, distributing at saline soil areas in coastal areas and grasslands. In this paper,physiological mechanisms of L. bicolor to defend salt stress and effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients were investigated. The effects of different NaCl concentrations on the number of salt glands, Na+ content, dry weight and water content in tissues, gas exchange parameters involving net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate, malondialdehydecontent and electrolyte leakage, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and accumulations of secondary metabolites such as total phenolic, total flavonoid, gallic acid and myricetrin of leaves were determined. The results show that 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced facilitated effects in L. bicolor reflected in the increase in dry weight, tissue water content, net CO2 assimilation rate, the number of salt glands, activity of superoxide dismutase, and content of gallic acid and myricetrin. The 300 mM NaCl treatment resulted in obviously decline in gas exchange parameters, and significant increases in Na+ levels, malondialdehyde level and electrolyte leakage. It was suggested that increased salt tolerance of L. bicolor was due to the corresponding resistancemechanisms involving an increased number of salt glands, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an accelerated accumulation of secondary metabolites. What’s more, the results on effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients in L. bicolor under different salt concentrations could provide theoretical basis for the standardization cultivation technique of L. bicolor.

1371-1377 Download
7
AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BRASSICA RAPA ECOTYPES TO SALT STRESS
SOHAIL AHMAD JAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1,2* AND MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI

AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BRASSICA RAPA ECOTYPES TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect normal morpho-physiological and biochemical processes of Brassica rapa. In present study the effect of salt stress on three important ecotypes of B. rapa (brown sarson, yellow sarson and Toria) was studied. The plants were regenerated at four NaCl levels (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol). The effect of salt stress on shoot length, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents were recorded. The high salt stress significantly decreased the shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root fresh weight and root dry weight of all three ecotypes. The genotype 25007 (brown sarson) showed better morphological performance followed by Toria as compared to other genotypes. The RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased up to several fold at high salt levels (50,100 and 150 mmol), while proline contents increased at these concentrations. Maximum RWC values and proline contents were recorded in genotype 25007 followed by Toria. The chlorophyll a, b and a+b amounts were higher in Toria followed by 25007 respectively. The brown sarson and Toria ecotypes showed better performance at high salinity levels as compared to yellow sarson. The resulted screened salt tolerant genotypes will be useful for salt affected area. Key words: Salt stress, Brassica rapa, Biochemical, Morpho-Physiological, Salt tolerance.

1379-1384 Download
8
IS DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYSL.) CULTIVARS ATTHE JUVENILE STAGE MAINTAINEDAT THE REPRODUCTIVE STAGE?
NAHIDAH BASHIR1, SEEMA MAHMOOD1, ZAFAR ULLAH ZAFAR1, SUMAIRA RASUL2, HAMID MANZOOR2 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR1

IS DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYSL.) CULTIVARS ATTHE JUVENILE STAGE MAINTAINEDAT THE REPRODUCTIVE STAGE?
ABSTRACT:
Among several abiotic stresses, drought or water scarcity is a major constraint for crop production in many parts of the world. Six maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars; DTC, EV-77, EV-78, EV-79, Faisalabad mays, and 6621 were evaluated for drought tolerance at germination and seedling stages. Distilled deionized water was used as control but uniform drought stress was induced using 3, 6 and 9% of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) which correspond to osmotic potential of -0.0466, -0.0759 and -0.0876 MPa, respectively. PEG influenced the germination and growth of the cultivars in a concentration dependent manner but the highest level of PEG induced more drastic decline for the various attributes studied. The cultivars showed significantly variable responses to different levels of PEG. The result of study clearly suggested variability of characters for drought tolerance among maize cultivars. Based on the pattern of variability for various attributes, 3 groups of cultivars can be classified. The cultivar 6621 had a consistent degree of sensitivity to drought in terms the reduction of various attributes studied. The second group includes DTC which showed a steady tolerance [(germination percentage (GP), energy of emergence (EG), germination rate (GR), root fresh and dry weight (RFW and RDW), shoot fresh and dry weight (SFW and SDW), dry biomass tolerance index (DBTI) and seedling vigor index (SVI)] thus seemed to provide some manifestation of drought tolerance. For the third group of cultivars, pattern of drought tolerance was independent for germination, growth and physiological indices as an incoherent variability of attributes was observed. A similar pattern of variability for a number of characters to simulated water stress in the cultivar DTC served as reliable determinants for drought tolerance in maize. To assess maintenance of degree of drought tolerance selected maize cultivars, a field experiment was also conducted. Kernel yield, 1000- kernel weight (g), number of kernel number/cob, kernel weight/cob (g) was maximally reduced in water stress sensitive cv. 6621 whereas it was maximal in drought tolerant cv DTC. Drought stress at the reproductive stage hindered the floral development and/or fertilization process and thus yield reduction occurs. Overall, selection procedure for selecting drought tolerant maize cultivars was efficient at the germination and seedling growth stages.

1385-1392 Download
9
SALINITY-INDUCED CALLUS BROWNING AND RE-DIFFERENTIATION, ROOT FORMATION BY PLANTLETS AND ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES OF PLANTLET LEAVES IN TWO MALUS SPECIES
WEI GOU1,2, PUFAN ZHENG1, PENG ZHENG1, KAI WANG1, LIXIN ZHANG1* AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM3

SALINITY-INDUCED CALLUS BROWNING AND RE-DIFFERENTIATION, ROOT FORMATION BY PLANTLETS AND ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES OF PLANTLET LEAVES IN TWO MALUS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Apple (Malus domestica L.) is widely grown in northern China. However, soil salinization has become one of the most severe factors limiting apple productivity in some regions including the Loess Plateau. In our study, the regeneration system of both rootstock Rehd (Malus robusta Rehd) and scion Fuji (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) was established In vitro. The two Malus species were cultured on the MS medium containing 0 or 150 mM NaCl to examine salt-induced effects on callus browning and re-differentiation, root formation of plantlets and anatomical structures of plantlet leaves at 15 days old callus and plantlet stages. Salt stress caused a marked increase in callus browning rate, while a decrease in re-differentiation rate, rooting rate, root number and length in both species. Additionally, anatomical structures of plantlet leave showed salt-induced damage such as reduced palisade tissue and intracellular chloroplast, incomplete development of xylem and severe damage of the phloem tissue. Salt stress also caused a few adaptive structural features in leaves including increased thickness of upper and lower epidermis, elevated proportion of spongy tissue and formation of lignified vessels. The responses of the two Malus species did not differ significantly at the differentiation stage. However, they were more sensitive to salinity at the callus stage than those at the plantlet stage in each species. Therefore, callus stage has been found to be more suitable for evaluating responses of the two apple species to salt stress. The Fuji and Rehd could be treated as a good scion/rootstock combination of apple to adapt to soil salinity based on their similar degree of salt stress-tolerance.

1393-1398 Download
10
ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES UNDER COPPER STRESS
SAULE ATABAYEVA1*, AKMARAL NURMAHANOVA1, AYGUL AKHMETOVA1, MEYRAMKUL NARMURATOVA1, SALTANAT ASRANDINA1, AIZHAN BEISENOVA2, RAVILYA ALYBAYEVA1 AND TAMARA LEE3

ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES UNDER COPPER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu2+ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu2+ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots.

1399-1405 Download
11
THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA (DUCHESNE EX WESTON) DUCHESNE EX ROZIER)
SHAMAILA BIBI1, SHUJAUL MULK KHAN2,*, ADIL REHMAN3, INAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, FARHANA IJAZ1, SOHAIL4, AFTAB AFZAL1 AND RAEES KHAN2

THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA (DUCHESNE EX WESTON) DUCHESNE EX ROZIER)
ABSTRACT:
Fragaria ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier (Strawberry) variety chandler of Agriculture Research Station (ARS) Baffa, Mansehra was evaluated for different growth and yield parameters under five treatments. In this experiment Potassium was used in 5 different treatments of 3 replications (T0 = Control, T1 = 200 g/6.75m², T2 = 400 g/6.75m², T3 = 600 g/6.75m², T4 = 800 g/6.75m²). The results showed maximum value under T3 (405g/6.75m²) for characteristics like survival percentage (83.54%), plant height (32.05cm), canopy size (13.62cm), crown diameter (2.73cm), number of branches (35.83), number of leaves (67.00), leaf length (5.87cm), root length (3.51cm), total number of fruits (43.93), days to 50% fruiting (233.67), fruit diameter (3.96cm), fruit weight (411.40g). Moreover, transplanting date (20th Sep, 2013) is suitable to get maximum yield of strawberry variety “Chandler”. The findings of this experiment showed that great variations in morphological, physical and agronomic traits of strawberry variety and can be utilized to develop high yield and better quality of strawberry.

1407-1413 Download
12
EFFECT OF CALCIUM SALT ON SOFT ROT, BITTER PIT AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STORED APPLES
IBADULLAH JAN1,2, ABDUR RAB1, MUHAMMAD SAJID1, AMJAD IQBAL3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4 AND MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN5

EFFECT OF CALCIUM SALT ON SOFT ROT, BITTER PIT AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STORED APPLES
ABSTRACT:
Postharvest losses are one of the main problems in leading fruit producing countries. Therefore, an attempt has been made to decrease the postharvest losses during apple storage. To achieve this objective, fruits were dipped in 0, 3, 6 and 9% CaCl2 solution for the period of 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes and were stored for 150 days at 5 ± 1°C with 60–70% relative humidity. After the storage time, fruits were analysed for percent weight loss, total sugar, bitter pit incidence, soft rot, ascorbic acid and firmness. The ascorbic acid contents and firmness of the fruits significantly increased, when the fruits were dipped in 9% CaCl2 solution as compared to control (dipped in water). Whereas, weight loss, total sugar, bitter pit and soft rot incidences were reduced with increased concentration of CaCl2. The firmness of the fruits dipped for 3 minutes in a CaCl2 solution was significantly lower in comparison to the fruits dipped for 12 minutes in a CaCl2 solution. Likewise, the weight loss, bitter pit and the soft rot incidence reduced with increase in dipping duration in CaCl2 solution from 3 minutes to 12 minutes.

1415-1420 Download
13
EVALUATION OF ADVANCED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) ACCESSIONS BASED ON DROUGHT TOLERANCE INDICES AND SSR MARKERS AGAINST DIFFERENT WATER TREATMENTS
MUHAMMAD AMIR MAQBOOL1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM1*, HINA ALI2 AND TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH2

EVALUATION OF ADVANCED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) ACCESSIONS BASED ON DROUGHT TOLERANCE INDICES AND SSR MARKERS AGAINST DIFFERENT WATER TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Chickpea is mainly grown on marginal lands and encounter the problem of erratic rainfall that causes lack of water availability especially at terminal growth stages. Forty advanced chickpea genotypes were grown under irrigated, rainfed and tunnel conditions for two years (2012-13 and 2013-14). Data were collected for seed yield and analyzed by analysis of variance. Highly significant differences among genotypes and water treatments were observed for seed yield. However, across the year differences were insignificant for seed yield of chickpea. Seed yield under rainfed was higher than under irrigated conditions. Forty genotypes were assembled in four distinct groups on the basis of PCA biplot for different drought tolerance indices. These four distinct groups were representative of genotypic performance under normal and stressed conditions. Twenty eight SSR primers were used for sortation of genotypes either as drought tolerant or susceptible and to find association with results of drought tolerance indices. Only nine SSR markers were found to be polymorphic while others were either monomorphic or not amplified. H3DO5 and TA8 with Group-I, TR19 and ICCM0035 with Group-II, ICCM0035 with Group-III and TA25 was strongly correlated with results of Group-IV. Genotypes of group-I were drought tolerant whereas, CH16/06, CH81/06 and D097-11 within this groups were more tolerant.

1421-1429 Download
14
THE EFFECTS OF A PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR, LEAF REMOVAL, BAGGING, AND HARVEST TIME ON THE LIPOXYGENASE ACTIVITY AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PINOT NOIR GRAPEVINES
YANLUN JU1, JIE ZENG1, MEIRONG ZHU1, XIAOTONG LV1, TONGMENG WANG1, ZHENWEN ZHANG1,2, HUA LI1,2 AND YULIN FANG1

THE EFFECTS OF A PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR, LEAF REMOVAL, BAGGING, AND HARVEST TIME ON THE LIPOXYGENASE ACTIVITY AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PINOT NOIR GRAPEVINES
ABSTRACT:
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important source of grape aromas, and lipoxygenase is a key enzyme involved in the formation of green leaf volatile substances. In addition, fatty acids are the main substrates that compose GLVs and are the main precursor compound utilized in the formation of grape aromas, which are an important index of grape quality. We examined the effects of a plant growth regulator, leaf removal, bagging, and harvest time on the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and the fatty acid composition of grapevines were studied. The following four experimental treatments were conducted using Pinot Noir (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines to study the following variables: treatment with a plant growth regulator, leaf removal, fruit bagging, and harvest time. We obtained the following results. (1) 16 types of fatty acids were detected in the grape skins. The unsaturated fatty acid content consisted mainly of linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid; however, no linolenic acid was detected. In addition, the saturated fatty acid content consisted primarily of palmitic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid and arachidic acid. (2) Abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), light intensity, and harvest time appeared to effect LOX activity. (3) According to a principal component analysis (PCA) of the four treatments and the fatty acid content of the skins, ABA (concentration of 1000 mg/L), MeJA (concentrations of 100 µmol/L, 400 µmol/L and 800 µmol/L) and early harvest treatment were responsible for the changes in fatty acid content. These results could be helpful in vineyard management and in improving the quality of grapes.

1431-1438 Download
15
IMPROVEMENT OF SEED GERMINATION AND IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE PLATEAU SHRUB SPECIES SOPHORA MOORCROFTIANA
YARU FU1,2,3, WEIJIE YAO1,2,3, SHAOKE LI1,2,3 AND HUIE LI1

IMPROVEMENT OF SEED GERMINATION AND IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE PLATEAU SHRUB SPECIES SOPHORA MOORCROFTIANA
ABSTRACT:
Sophora moorcroftiana (Benth.) Baker (Fabaceae) with blue flowers is a shrub species in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This species is an important ornamental, ecological and economical species mainly distributed in the wide valleys of Yarlung Tsangpo and Lhasa River. It contains strong drought, solar radiation and sand burial resistance. However, it is on the verge of extinction because of over-exploitation in recent years, seedling production is a bottleneck in this plant’s development, and information is lacking on an In vitro propagation system for S. moorcroftiana. Therefore, an effective propagation technique is urgently needed. In the present study, S. moorcroftiana seed germinations both In vitro and on an open moistened filter paper were significantly improved. The best germination percentage (88.67±0.67) and percentage of cotyledons presented (69.67±0.33) were obtained when the seeds were placed in moistened filter paper for 30 d after treatment with 98% concentration sulphuric acid for 70 min, and then treated with either Gibberellic acid (GA3) 100 mg L-1 or 500 mg L-1. Besides, an In vitro propagation system was developed for this species, the impacts of various media combined with different plant growth regulators (PGR) on multiple shoots proliferation were evaluated. The result showed Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 N6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 0.2 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was found to be optimum for production of multiple shoots (89.33% shoot regeneration frequency and 18.67 shoots per explant) using cotyledonary node. The best rooted medium for regenerated shoots (89.72%, 4.68 roots per shoot) was half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.02 mg L−1 NAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimated, and survival of plantlets was 75% after transfer to soil. These results could be applied to rapid generation and conservation of this species in the future.

1439-1445 Download
16
A POSSIBILITY OF USING WATERLILY (NYMPHAEA ALBA L.) FOR REDUCING THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM (Cr) IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
AISHA SALEEM KHAN*1, MIAN WAJAHAT HUSSAIN2 AND KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK3

A POSSIBILITY OF USING WATERLILY (NYMPHAEA ALBA L.) FOR REDUCING THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM (Cr) IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
ABSTRACT:
This research work reports the potential of waterlily (Nymphaea alba L.) a hydrophyte, to accumulate heavy metals like Cr (III) in its roots, shoot and leaves without showing prominent visible symptoms of metal toxicity. Effluent was collected from Ravi which is one of the highly polluted river as compared to other rivers in Pakistan. One of the major reason is industrial wastewater, which is disposed untreated in the Ravi which is a major threat for aquatic life and toxic for human health. It further reports that the water of Ravi river is contaminated with heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Zn because their uptake by waterlily plants is an indication that these metals are responsible for polluting Ravi water and this issue need to be resolved on priority basis. In order to estimate the amount of heavy metals in waterlily, different tissues were processed for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) which revealed that Cd and Cr (later being in high concentration) were significantly accumulated by waterlily roots, stem and leaves, however, roots were more responsive as compared with aerial parts. Other metals were accumulated in negligible amount in roots, and almost no uptake was reported by stems and leaves. Various anatomical features were used as a tool to support the hypothesis of using waterlily as a hyperaccumulator of Cr in phytoremediation. Reduction fresh and dry weight of root and stem, decrease in chlorophyll content of leaves, inhibition in the cortical and vascular region of stem, and an increase in astrosclereids (supporting parenchyma) formation indicated that Cr was translocated to aerial parts. Increase in astrosclereids might be attributed a mechanism of defense or sensitivity of waterlily plants under Cr stress.

1447-1452 Download
17
IMPROVEMENT IN CONTINUOUS CROPPING OF CUT CHRYSANTHEMUM BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM
LEI LIU, YU QIN, PING LI, YI LI, YING WANG, GANG WANG AND HAILEI WANG*

IMPROVEMENT IN CONTINUOUS CROPPING OF CUT CHRYSANTHEMUM BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM
ABSTRACT:
Cut chrysanthemum is one of the most popular cut flowers in the world. However, its production tends to fall dramatically because of continuous cropping. This reduced production may be due to the accumulation of phenolic acids secreted by the plant root and deposited in the soil. In this study, the chlamydospore of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to test the degradation ability of four phenolic acids after being inoculated into C. morifolium rhizosphere that has been monocultured for 5 years. The degradation rate of ferulic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased to 94.0%, 78.8%, 84.2%, and 81.4%, respectively, in comparison with CK. At the same time, urease content in the soil was augmented, which could effectively help in stimulating the nitrogen cycle. The fungi amount in the treatment group decreased in comparison with CK, whereas the bacteria content in the treatment group increased evidently by 3.00 and 1.76 times the control group content. The physiological status of plants improved after 120 days of cultivation, thereby illustrating that P. chrysosporium exerts a positive effect on addressing the issue of continuous cropping soil.

1453-1457 Download
18
PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF PEANUT-MILLET INTERCROPPING JIAMING ZHENG1, NING YANG1, WEI BAI1, CHEN FENG1, ZHE ZHANG1, QIAN CAI 1 AND DONGSHENG ZHANG3
LIANGSHAN FENG1, ZHANXIANG SUN1*, MUZI ZHENG2, MWANGI MUCHOKI2,

PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF PEANUT-MILLET INTERCROPPING JIAMING ZHENG1, NING YANG1, WEI BAI1, CHEN FENG1, ZHE ZHANG1, QIAN CAI 1 AND DONGSHENG ZHANG3
ABSTRACT:
Peanut-millet intercropping is a new planting pattern in northeastern China to deal with scarce oil-bearing crops’ products and severe wind erosion in peanut fields. Land productivity and water use efficiency are the important factors that affect the application of this planting pattern. In this research, two peanut-millet intercropping patterns were studied in comparison with sole planting pattern of peanut or foxtail millet to reduce water consumption and improve water use efficiency. One intercropping system was 2P2M (2-row peanut with 2-row millet), and the other was 4P2M (4-row peanut with 2-row millet). Some indices were calculated to characterize the intercropping efficiency of land and water use as compared to those of sole crops of peanut and foxtail millet. The results showed that land equivalent ratio (LER) of two peanut-millet intercropping patterns ranged from 1.15 to 1.19, while water equivalent ratio (WER) ranged from 1.17 to 1.22, and △WU, the relative departure of actual water use in intercropping from expected use, was close to zero, indicated that peanut-millet intercropping increased the productivity but didn’t increase the water consumption. The foxtail millet in the intercropping population gained more water compared with peanut; the soil water of foxtail millet strips in the 2P2M and 4P2M increased 69% and 45%, respectively, as compared with that of peanut strips after a 58.8mm rainfall during the mid-term of crops growth. These findings suggest that the rainfall’s distribution in the soil of different crops was optimized in the peanut-millet intercropping system. Key words:Intercropping; Crop productivity; Land equivalent ratio (LER); Water equivalent ratio (WER); Water use efficiency (WUE).

1459-1466 Download
19
AUTOTOXINS SCREENING FROM AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SALVIA MILTIORRHIZA BGE. BASED ON SPECTRUM-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HPLC FINGERPRINTS AND AUTOTOXICITY
LIU HONG-YAN1, WAN PENG1, NIU MIN2, LIU QIAN2, ZHANG YONG-QING2* AND ZHANG ZHONG-YI3

AUTOTOXINS SCREENING FROM AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SALVIA MILTIORRHIZA BGE. BASED ON SPECTRUM-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HPLC FINGERPRINTS AND AUTOTOXICITY
ABSTRACT:
The spectrum-effect relationships between chromatography fingerprints and efficacy were regarded as a useful key for bioactive compounds screening from complex mixtures. In this study, a new mode for autotoxins exploring based on spectrum-effect relationship between HPLC fingerprints and autotoxicity was established. HPLC method was used to establish five batches fingerprints of Danshen aqueous extracts and eighteen common peaks were picked out by using the similarity evaluation system. Seed germination and seedling growth tests of Danshen were carried out and those observable indicators were comprehensively quantified by principal components analysis to evaluate autotoxicity. Ultimately, grey relational analysis was applied to evaluate the correlation degree of chemical components characterized by common peaks and autotoxicity. According to the magnitude of the correlation degree, ten peaks of the HPLC fingerprints indicating the main active autotoxins chemicals were obtained.This study provides a general model for active components exploring by the combination of chromatography and efficacy.

1467-1471 Download
20
THE TRANSPIRATION AND MOISTURE ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OFFICUSMICROCARPA (L.) AERIAL ROOTS IN THE SOUTH OF CHINA
LIYING LIU1,3*, XIANGZHAO FU2 AND XI CHEN3

THE TRANSPIRATION AND MOISTURE ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OFFICUSMICROCARPA (L.) AERIAL ROOTS IN THE SOUTH OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Ficus microcarpa (L.) has many aerial roots, which grow from the stem and live in the air causing them to absorb moisture from the air. A lot of literature has reported that aerial roots have the function of moisture absorption, and also can prevent water loss. But very little is known about the characteristic of H2O exchange between aerial roots and the surrounding air. This papermainlyaims to explore the transpiration or moisture absorption of Ficus microcarpa (L.) aerial roots. Two experiments were designed and carried out in China viz., H2O exchange characteristic and vapor absorption experiments. Aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa (L.) was used as experimental material. Results showed that the young aerial roots had the function of transpiration when air relative humidity was less than 90%. The rate of transpiration had a negative relationship with the air relative humidity. The aerial roots expressed the function of moisture absorption when air relative humidity reached 100%. The aged aerial roots had weak and transient moisture absorption and transpiration because of the suberification of root epidermal. The research verified that the aerial roots Ficus microcarpa (L.) function of moisture absorption or transpiration, but the moisture absorption or transpiration mechanism may need further research. Key words: H2O exchange; Transpiration; Moisture absorption; Water potential.

1473-1479 Download
21
GROWTH, FLOWERING AND DRY MATTER PARTITIONING RESPONSE OF MID-FLOWERING SNAPDRAGON CULTIVAR LIBERTY WHITE GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT GRADIENTS
MOHAMMED REFDAN ALHAJHOJ1* AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR2

GROWTH, FLOWERING AND DRY MATTER PARTITIONING RESPONSE OF MID-FLOWERING SNAPDRAGON CULTIVAR LIBERTY WHITE GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT GRADIENTS
ABSTRACT:
The rationale of the present study was to quantify the effects of different shade levels (30%, 40%, 50% and 60%) and a control (no shade) on growth, flowering and dry matter partitioning traits of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty Wight. A linear relationship was observed between different shade levels and flowering time, rate of progress to flowering, leaf numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant spread, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight and lead dry weight. These growth and development traits increased linearly from 30% to 60% shade levels, however, the rate of progress to flowering was inverse to flowering time when plants were kept under shades. A polynomial hyperbolic relationship was observed in specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. It is concluded that different shade levels significantly (P≤0.05) prolonged various growth and development phases of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty White. These finding can be applied to enhance crop quality and to delay growth and flowering time for steadily supply of plants to the market.

1481-1487 Download
22
INFLUENCE OF SOIL BASED GROWING MEDIA ON VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF SELECTED CULTIVARS OF OLEA EUROPAEA L.
MUHAMMAD IBRAR AHMED1, MUHAMMAD IRFAN ASHRAF1*, SABEEQA USMAN MALIK1 AND QAISER HUSSAIN2,

INFLUENCE OF SOIL BASED GROWING MEDIA ON VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF SELECTED CULTIVARS OF OLEA EUROPAEA L.
ABSTRACT:
Pothwar region of Pakistan is a natural habitat of Olea spp. There is a high demand of certified olive plants to establish olive orchids in the region, because native wild species are non-fruit bearing. Plants of certified fruit bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars are rarely available. Vegetative propagation of olive is highly responsive to texture of soil based growing media. This study examined the effect of growing media composition (soil texture and nutrients) on vegetative propagation of five cultivars of olive. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors factorial having 25 repeats of each four treatments. Plant growth and survival data were collected and analyzed for the influence of soil attributes. In sandy loam soil, cv. Bari-1 had 82% plant survival, highest number of roots per plant (3.5), and longest root length (13.01 cm). Highest number of shoots per plant (4.25) and maximum shoot length (15.64 cm) were also recorded for Bari-1 with sandy loam growing media. Silt loam soil is least suitable growing media for vegetative propagation of olive. In the silt loam soil, plants survival rate was 59% for cv. Gemlik, number of roots per plant was 1.5 for cv. Ottobrattica, minimum root length 5.65 cm, minimum number of shoots per plant one, and minimum shoot length 7.42 cm were recorded for cv. Pendolino with silt loam soil. Results suggested that sandy loam growing media is better than the others for vegetative propagation of olive. Cultivar Bari-1 performed better than the others examined in this study by indicating highest (1) survival percentage, (2) root and shoot length, and (3) number of roots and shoots produced within a specific period of time.

1489-1493 Download
23
THE ROLE OF ONTOGENETIC HERBARIUM IN STUDYING INTRAPOPULATION BIODIVERSITY
GJULNARA ORUDZHEVNA OSMANOVA1,*, SVETLANA VADIMOVNA KOZYREVA1, OLGA PAVLOVNA VEDERNIKOVA1, LJUDMILA ALEKSEEVNA ZHUKOVA1, ELENA STANISLAVOVNA ZAKAMSKAYA1 AND ELENA ANATOLIEVNA SKOCHILOVA

THE ROLE OF ONTOGENETIC HERBARIUM IN STUDYING INTRAPOPULATION BIODIVERSITY
ABSTRACT:
Studying biodiversity of plants on the population level is impossible without describing ontogenesis of species. Creatinga unique Ontogenesis herbarium at Mari State University and official registration of its collections in the International catalogue «World Herbaria» are to solve this problem. Ontogenesis herbarium is a herbarium of plants at different levels of individual development. Ontogenetic states are distinguished by using the concept of ontogenesis discrete description with regard to morphological features-markers. Plants are referred to this or that ontogenetic state on the basis of the complex of qualitative features. The most significant of them are the following: relationship with the seed, presence of embryonic, juvenile or adult structures and seed or vegetative reproduction capability of individuals, correlation of the processes of new growth and die off, individual formation degree of the life form main features. Complete ontogenesis of perennial plants includes 12 ontogenetic states: seed, plantules, juvenile, immature, virginile (young vegetative), cryptogenerative, young (early generative), middle age (mature generative), old (later generative), subsenile, senile, dying plant. The collection of the Ontogenesis herbarium is a part of the Population-ontogenetic museum which is a scientific and educational establishment, it is presented in the form of museum exhibitions and consists of six departments: General, Theme-based, Ontogenesis first stages, Collection of fruits and seeds, Izoteka (Picture collection), Phototeka (Photo collection) and Library.

1495-1500 Download
24
COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SIX ENDEMIC TANACETUM (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY
MEHMET TEKİN1* AND ÇİLER KARTAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SIX ENDEMIC TANACETUM (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa.

1501-1515 Download
25
POLLINATION BIOLOGY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL STRUCTURING OF SOME MAJOR ACACIA SPECIES (LEGUMINOSAE) OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA
NURU ADGABA*, AHMED AL-GHAMDI, YILMA TADESSE, AWRARIS GETACHEW AND MOHAMMED J. ANSARI

POLLINATION BIOLOGY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL STRUCTURING OF SOME MAJOR ACACIA SPECIES (LEGUMINOSAE) OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA
ABSTRACT:
Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24±1.72 -10.02±4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acacia species could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer.

1517-1526 Download
26
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF MYOSOTON AQUATICUM AND STELLARIA MEDIA AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE
ZUREN LI1,2, HAIMIN LIAO3, LIANYANG BAI1,2*, XIAOMAO ZHOU1,2 AND LAMEI WU1,2

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF MYOSOTON AQUATICUM AND STELLARIA MEDIA AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
To provide evidence insight into the phylogenetic position of the Myosoton Monch., the anatomy of Myosoton aquaticum and Stellaria media were comparatively observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anatomy of M. aquaticum and St. media is that (1) Root is composed of uniseriate epidermis, parenchyma cortex, endodermis, pericycle and central cylinder, and primary xylem of root is tetrarch. (2) Stem epidermis is arranged in closeness and parallel, and has distinct shuttle-shape tuber. (3) Leaf is dorsiventral mesophyll with palisade layer and spongy parenchyma. (4) Anomocytic type of stomatas are found in the epidermis of the leaf, stem and sepal. (5) Pollen is single and spheroidal. A number of germ pores are completely sunken, papillate and polypantoporate. (6) Crassuliod type of seeds have simple papillae and no strophiole is observed. Seed coat is rounded shape minute secondary sculpturing with an outer surface formed by foveolate epidermal walls. (7) From the globular floral primordium develop to complete bisexual flower, the process of floral initiation is nearly the same. The result supports that: the higher similarity in organ anatomy and floral ontogeny of M. aquaticum and St. media, justifies it is appropriate that Myosoton aquaticum belongs to Stellaria. Key words: Myosoton aquaticum; Stellaria media; Anatomy; Floral ontogeny; systematic.

1527-1535 Download
27
MEDICINAL PLANTS DENSITY ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN AND AROUND AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK
AKASH TARIQ1, MUHAMMAD ADNAN1* AND SHAHEEN BEGUM2

MEDICINAL PLANTS DENSITY ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN AND AROUND AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants are an essential source of livelihood for many rural populations and are currently facing several threats of extinction in temperate Himalaya, such as excessive grazing and collection along altitudinal gradients. The present study was designed to investigate the species density of medicinal plants at different mid-altitude levels (2200, 2300, 2400, and 2500 m above the sea level (a.s.l.) between two forest-use types and to examine the possible association between medicinal plant densities and forest-stand structural variables along the altitudinal gradient. Factorial design analysis of variance showed that the densities of all medicinal plants differed significantly between the forest-use types (p<0.00) and elevation (p<0.00). Moreover, a significant interaction (p<0.04) was also observed between the forest-use types and elevation. In the old-growth forest, density of medicinal plants was 290/40 m2 at the higher altitude (2500 m a.s.l.), approximately 1.5-fold less than the 475/40 m2 density observed at lower altitude (2200 m a.s.l.). However, in derived woodland, density of medicinal plants at higher altitude was approximately 4-fold less than that at the lower altitude. At these altitudinal levels, medicinal plants densities, such as Valeriana jatamansi, were significantly higher under old-growth forest compared to derived woodland, where they were almost nonexistent. A rapid vulnerability assessment has also shown that Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were highly vulnerable species. Litter cover was the influential variable that was most likely related to medicinal plant density. In conclusion, abundance of medicinal plants decreased along mid-altitude levels in both of the forest-use types. However, this decrease was extremely marked in the derived woodland, and this decline may be due to human activity. Hence, these factors must be considered in future studies to suggest protective measures that can be applied along altitudinal gradients in disturbed landscapes.

1537-1546 Download
28
FLORISTIC INVENTORY, ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF PLANTS OF PARACHINAR, KURRAM AGENCY, PAKISTAN
LAL BADSHAH*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN AND ZAMAN SHER

FLORISTIC INVENTORY, ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF PLANTS OF PARACHINAR, KURRAM AGENCY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present work was carried out to evaluate the floristic checklist and environmental distinctiveness of Plants of Parachinar, Kurram Agency across the year during 2014- 2015. A total of 283 species of 222 genera among 85 families were recorded. Asteraceae with (29 Sp.) was the most dominant followed by, Poaceae with (20 Sp.), Papilionaceae, Lamiaceae each with (19 Sp.), Brassicaceae (16 Sp.), Solanaceae (13 Sp.), Rosaceae (9 Sp.) and Polygonaceae (7 Sp.). While Euphorbiaceae, Caryophylaceae and Pinaceaeeach with (6 Sp.) were the co-dominant taxa. Rest of the families possessed either 5 or fewer species. Based on the habitat 252 (89.04%) species were grew in dry places as wild mesophytes and xerophytes. Seventeen species (6.00%) were cultivated while 11 species (3.88%) were aquatic. There were 18 spiny species (6.36%). Among the perennial, majority were evergreen. Three species (1.06%) namely Cuscutareflexa, Periplocaaphylla and P. calophyllawere leafless. The leaf lamina was simple in 230 species (81.27%) and 50 species (17.66%) contained composite foliage. Therophytes107 (37.80%) and nanophanerophyte 47 species (16.66%) respectively were dominant life form groups. Leaf spectra revealed that nanophylls with 121 species (42.75%) and leptophylls with 89 (31.44%) were dominant leaf size classes. The vegetation was also characterized by microphylls and mesophylls but of least concern. Key word: Ecological characteristics, Kurram agency, Floristic composition, Biological spectrum, Pakistan.

1547-1558 Download
29
INVENTORY OF THE ALPINE FLORA OF HARAMOSH AND BAGROTE VALLEYS (KARAKORAM RANGE) DISTRICT GILGIT, GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
SHER WALI KHAN1*, SURAYYA KHATOON2, QAMMAR ABBAS1, GHULAM RAZA3 AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

INVENTORY OF THE ALPINE FLORA OF HARAMOSH AND BAGROTE VALLEYS (KARAKORAM RANGE) DISTRICT GILGIT, GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Inventorying of plant biodiversity of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys (District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan) was done for fourteen years from 2001- 2014. The fourteen years inventorying revealed a rich plant biodiversity consisting of 232 species belonging to 106 genera and 34 families of flowering plants. The Alpine zone had 18 genera with 4 or more species; Pedicularis with 10 species was the largest genus of this zone, followed by Potentilla and Carex (each with 9 species) and Draba (8 species). Genera containing 9 or 10 species occurred only in Alpine zone. In the Alpine zone, 15 of the larger families were represented by 189 species, forming 81.46% of the Alpine flora. Although the highest number of species belonging to these larger families was present in the subalpine zone, but in terms of percentage their contribution was the highest in the Alpine flora. Percentage-wise the contribution of these families gradually increased from Desert zone to Alpine zone, because of their particular distribution patterns. Although the total number of species was the highest in the Subalpine zone, but in the species specific to any one zone, the Alpine zone had the highest number, that is, 96 of the total 232 species of Alpine zone were exclusively found in this zone only. Out of these 96 species specific to the Alpine zone, 53 belonged to such 22 genera that were exclusively found in the Alpine zone only. The Alpine zone was characterized by herbs and low shrubs, with Potentilla species as the dominants. A clear trend of migration of certain species both from lower to higher latitudes and altitudes was observed. The species richness index of Alpine zone however showed increasing trend probably due to species migrations towards the alpine zone. The major threats to the plant biodiversity were recognized as the deforestation and habitat loss due to over-exploitation of species, over-grazing by livestock, and climate changes due to global warming, which were manifested as less and erratic precipitation and steadily rising temperatures over the past fourteen years.

1559-1572 Download
30
GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION STUDIES AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS IN GLADIOLUS ALATUS CULTIVARS
AASIA RAMZAN1*, NAUSHERWAN NOBEL NAWAB1, ABDUL AHAD2, ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ2, MUHAMMAD SUDHEER TARIQ1 AND SAMIA IKRAM

GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION STUDIES AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS IN GLADIOLUS ALATUS CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A study was undertaken to find out the estimates of genetic variability, genetic parameters and character association among different flower traits between three gladiolus cultivars viz: Sancerre, Fado and Advanced Red. The experiment was repeated three times by using RCBD (Randomized complete block design) at Department of Horticulture, PMAS-UAAR, Rawalpindi. The highest genotypic coefficient variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient variation (PCV) magnitude was observed for spike length (16.00) and number of florets per spike (14.84) followed by number of leaves (10.00). Among the traits studied the highest heritability estimates was recorded in spike length (99.5%) followed by number of florets/spike (99.6%) and lowest in plant height (98.2%). The genetic advance as percent of mean was ranged from 2.8% to 24.75%. Genetic advance was highest for floret breadth (24.75%) and lowest for plant height (2.8%). High heritability combined with high genetic advance was noticed for number of florets per spike, spike length and floret breadth indicating additive gene action which suggested that improvement of these traits would be effective for further selection of superior genotypes. Plant height and number of florets per spike showed highly positive and significant association with spike length, number of leaves, leaf area, floret length and floret breadth while, spike length registered positive and significant correlation with number of leaves and floret breadth. The path coefficient analysis based on spike length, as responsible variable exposed that all of the traits exerted direct positive effect except leaf area and floret length. Spike length imparted maximum positive direct effect on the number of florets per spike. Hence, spike length and number of florets per spike may be considered for further improvement. However, Floret length and floret breadth may also be considered as a criterion for selection.

1573-1578 Download
31
LINKAGE MAP CONSTRUCTION AND QTL ANALYSIS OF FRUIT TRAITS IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) BASED ON CAPS MARKERS
ABDUL MAJEED BALOCH1, ABDUL WAHID BALOCH2, SHI LIU1, PENG GAO1, M. JURIAL BALOCH2, XUEZHNG WANG1, ANGELA R. DAVIS3, M. ALI4 AND FEISHI LUAN1

LINKAGE MAP CONSTRUCTION AND QTL ANALYSIS OF FRUIT TRAITS IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) BASED ON CAPS MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F2 populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F2 population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits.

1579-1584 Download
32
GROWTH AND DNA METHYLATION LEVEL OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM SEEDLINGS TREATED WITH 5-AZACYTIDINE
HONG YINGDUAN, WEN XIAO LIU, JING YUN LI, WEI KAI DING, YANQIU ZHU, HUINA WANG, LI NA JIANG AND YAN QING ZHOU

GROWTH AND DNA METHYLATION LEVEL OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM SEEDLINGS TREATED WITH 5-AZACYTIDINE
ABSTRACT:
In this study, two wheat varieties were used to study effects of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine on wheat seedling growth, and found that the high concentration of 5-azacytidine (over 100 μm) significantly affected growth of wheat seedling root, especially for wheat AK58. When the concentration of 5-azacytidine was between 50 to 250 μm, plant height of wheat AK58 significantly reduced, and the minimum dwarf phenotype was obtained when treated by 250 μm 5-azacytidine. Different with wheat AK58, plant height of wheat XM13 increased after being treated by 5-azacytidine. In addition, leaf area and chlorophyll content of two wheat varieties both increased under low concentration of 5-azacytidine (10-50 μm), and the increase magnitude of wheat AK58 was far more compared with wheat XM13, indicating that moderate methylation could promote development of wheat leaf and photosynthesis, and photosynthesis of wheat AK58 might be closely related with methylation status of genomic DNA. This study also found that proline content of wheat AK58 and soluble sugar content of two wheat varieties increased after being treated by 5-azacytidine, and showed a concentration-dependent increase, further more, soluble sugar content of wheat AK58 was far higher than that of wheat XM13 under normal conditions, thus 5-azacytidine might be conducive to accumulation of soluble sugar in wheat and could obviously influence osmotic adjustment ability of wheat AK58. Further analysis showed that DNA methylation level of wheat AK58 was higher compared with wheat XM13, and was both lower in leaf genomic DNA of two wheat varieties than that in root genomic DNA. Although 5-azacytidine significantly reduced DNA methylation level of leaf and root genome, the decrease amplitude of leaf was more obvious. Collectively, these results suggest that there are some differences in seedling growth, physiological characteristics and DNA methylation level of two wheat varieties, furthermore, DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine could influence growth of wheat seedling, especially for wheat AK58.

1585-1591 Download
33
GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF TAGETES SPECIES USING PCR BASED MOLECULAR MARKERS
IRUM SHAHZADI, RAZA AHMAD, UMMARA WAHEED AND MOHAMMAD MAROOF SHAH

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF TAGETES SPECIES USING PCR BASED MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Tagetes is a genus of medicinally important wild and cultivated plants containing several chemical compounds. Lack of information on variation at molecular level present in Tagetes species is paramount to understand the genetic basis of medicinally important compounds. Current study aims at finding genetic variability in Tagetes species using random and specific molecular markers. Two primer systems including 25 RAPD and 3 STS (limonene gene) were used to ascertain genetic diversity of 15 Tagetes genotypes belonging to different species. We found that 20 of the 25 tested RAPD primers generated stable band patterns with 167 loci of amplification products. The proportion of polymorphic bands was 95.21% for RAPD primers. Three STS primers generated a total of 29 amplification products, of which 96.55% were polymorphic. Homology of genotypes was 53.18% and 51.11% with RAPD and STS primers respectively. The dendrogram obtained revealed that the range of overall genetic distances estimated was 22% to 100% through RAPD and 9% to 100% through STS markers. The findings help to establish that PCR-based assay such as RAPD and STS could be used successfully for estimation of genetic diversity of different genotypes of Tagetes that can be used for selection of parents for improvement of the species.

1593-1599 Download
34
GENETIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND GENOTYPE X YEAR INTERACTION FOR MORPHO-YIELD TRAITS IN SOYBEAN
MUHAMMAD IRSHAD1, FARHATULLAH1*, NADIA KHAN1 AND SANIA BEGUM

GENETIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND GENOTYPE X YEAR INTERACTION FOR MORPHO-YIELD TRAITS IN SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
This research was conducted at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during soybean cropping seasons, 2011 and 2012. The plant material comprised of parental lines of US germplasm (US), landraces from Kurram Agency (KA) and lines collected from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PG) NARC Islamabad soybean genotypes. These lines were studied for genetic variability, heritability and genotype x year interaction (GEI), using RCB design with two replications. Data was recorded on leaf area, days to flowering, and maturity, plant height, 100 seed weight and seed yield plant-1. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for 100 seed weight, DPI, days to flowering, plant height, maturity, seed yield plant-1, and leaf area. GEI was significant only for plant height, seed yield plant-1 and leaf area. Based on mean performance, local genotype KA1-2 initiated flowers early (62 days) and whereas parental lines of US08 produced pods early (87days) in first growing season 2011. Local genotype KA1-2 matured early (200 days) in 1st growing year 2011. Local genotype KA8-3 during 2nd growing season, 2012 was taller one (353 cm). Genotype PG003765 produced the highest seed yield plant-1 (92.7 g) during first growing year. Maximum seed weight of 35.71 g was recorded for exotic genotype US08 in 1st growing year. High broad sense heritability estimation was in the range of 73.3 to 97.2 for days to maturity and 100 seed weight respectively. Genotypes with maximum seed weight, and seed yield plant-1 were US08 (exotic), and PG 003765, respectively. These genotypes could be used in the future breeding programs to develop soybean genotypes having high yield and improved oil content.

1601-1607 Download
35
FORMULATING PHENOLOGICAL EQUATIONS FOR RAINFED UPLAND RICE IN BASTAR PLATEAU AND ASSESSMENT OF GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
PRAFULL KUMAR1*, ABHINAV SAO1, J.L. SALAM1, RAJA RAM KANWAR1, POONAM KUMARI2, A.K. GUPTA1, R.S. NETAM1, M. KUMAR1, A.K. THAKUR1, S.C. MUKHERJEE1, SONALI KAR2 AND D.P. SINGH1

FORMULATING PHENOLOGICAL EQUATIONS FOR RAINFED UPLAND RICE IN BASTAR PLATEAU AND ASSESSMENT OF GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
ABSTRACT:
Upland rice encompasses 12 percent of global rice production area in the lowest yielding ecosystem, produced by poorest farmers with 0.5 ha average operational holdings. Due to subtle selection over long period of time, upland rice has become drought tolerant potential crop and harbors great genetic potential for future water limited rice. It has also precious traits like high pestilent insect resistant possibility and short growing season. In present investigation, 18 new genotypes were tested for upland ecology during Kharif 2013 and 2014, to identify promising genotypes and formulate phenological relationships at phenotypic and genotypic levels and estimate G x E interactions with uncertain weather parameters. The test populations exhibited enough variation to carry on crop breeding research however, genotypes responded differentially to water stress and late season drought with respect to morphological and yield traits. Considering secondary productivity factors (SPF), days to flowering, plant height, panicles per unit area, spikelet fertility and harvest index was observed to be major contributors for water scarce survivals. Biased selection for earliness cause reduction in grain yield due to shortened vegetative phase hence, research is to be focused to minimize the yield penalty associated with earliness. Among the genotypes evaluated, IR-83381-B-B-137-3 and IR-86857-46-1-1-2 was found to be promising for rainfed breeding programme as parent material. Based on results of farmer’s field and station trials, existing upland rice variety CR 40 is concluded as promising for upland ecology and will be crucial to uplift the economy of poor and marginal farmers of Chhattisgarh.

1609-1618 Download
36
INTERGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS BULBOPHYLLUM FROM PENINSULAR MALAYSIA BASED ON COMBINED MORPHOLOGICAL AND RBCL SEQUENCE DATA
Bulbophyllum Thou. is largest genus in Orchidaceae family and a well-known plant of tropical area. The present study provides a comparative morphological study of 38 Bulbophyllum spp. as well as molecular sequence analysis of large subunit of rubisco (rbc

INTERGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS BULBOPHYLLUM FROM PENINSULAR MALAYSIA BASED ON COMBINED MORPHOLOGICAL AND RBCL SEQUENCE DATA
ABSTRACT:
Key words: Bulbophyllum, Orchidaceae, Peninsular Malaysia, rbcL

1619-1627 Download
37
GENETIC SEGREGATION ANALYSIS OF A RAPESEED DWARF MUTANT
YANG XIANG1†, CHAOBO TONG2†, SHIZHOU YU1, TAO ZHANG1, JIXIAN ZHAO1, SHAOLIN LEI1, CAIFU DU1* AND SHENGYI LIU2

GENETIC SEGREGATION ANALYSIS OF A RAPESEED DWARF MUTANT
ABSTRACT:
Dwarf resources in Brassica napus are very important for developing high-yield cultivars through dwarf-type and lodging-resistant breeding. However, few dwarf varieties have been available for this species. Here, we reported a new rapeseed dwarf mutant GRC1157, which exhibits obvious phenotypic variations on dwarf. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1, and B2) were produced from a cross between dwarf mutant GRC1157 and an elite tall-type line XR16 to analyze genetic inheritances of plant height (PH), numbers of the 1st valid branch (VBN), main inflorescence length (MIL), pod numbers per main inflorescence (MPN), pod length (PL) and seed numbers per pod (PSN) using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The genetic analysis shows different traits were controlled by different inheritance models: PH and PL by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes, MPN and PSN by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes, MIL by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and VBN by one-pair additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes. Furthermore, positive correlations between PH and some other traits were observed, suggesting that some traits may be co-regulated by several linkage or same loci/genes. In addition, high heritability (40.35–93.7%) were found for five traits (except VBN) in different segregating generations, indicating these traits were mainly affected by hereditary factors and suitable for early artificial selection. In sum, the dwarf mutant GRC1157 can serve as a valuable resource for rapeseed dwarf breeding and the genetic analysis in this study provided a foundation for further mapping and cloning dwarf genes in mutant GRC1157.

1629-1635 Download
38
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FOXTAIL MILLET (SETARIA ITALICA L.) FROM MAIN ASIAN HABITATS BASED ON THE NRDNA ITS REGION
YAN-LIN SUN1*, SHI-LIN ZHENG1, JU-KYONG LEE2 AND SOON-KWAN HONG3, 4

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FOXTAIL MILLET (SETARIA ITALICA L.) FROM MAIN ASIAN HABITATS BASED ON THE NRDNA ITS REGION
ABSTRACT:
Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] is a crop of historical importance in some Asian and European countries. In this study, we selected the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) as the DNA marker to analyze genetic diversity and relationships of 20 foxtail millet strains collected from three representative Asian countries, including China, Korea, and Pakistan. Due to the length limitation of the nrDNA ITS region, 17 typical variable nucleotide sites were only found, of which 4 sites belonged to insertion, 3 sites deletion, and 10 sites substitution. According to the result of sequence alignment, strains were grouped clearly with the relevant of collected geographical region. Based on the sequence similarity and nucleotide variation, one Main China Group (MCG) and one Main Korea Group (MKG) occurred, and the strains from Pakistan were found to be close to MKG, considered to be originally transmitted from Korea and spread to Pakistan. Certain genetic diversity between strains from Pakistan and Korea were recognized as long-time environment evolution and adaptation. Among strains from Korea, K2, K3, K4, and K5 showed nearer phylogenetic relationship to MCG, considered as Chinese populations. All strains from China showed relatively near phylogenetic relationship with each other, supporting the statement that China is one of origin areas. The result also suggested that there was no introduced strain found in the Chinese strains investigated in this study. This work would provide more sequence sources and help clearer strain distinguishing, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of foxtail millet.

1637-1643 Download
39
DIEBACK DISEASE PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY PROPAGATED DALBERGIA SISSOO (SHISHAM)
IRFAN AHMAD1, M. ATIQ2, SADAF GUL3*, ABDUL HANNAN4, M.T. SIDDIQUI1, M. FARRAKH NAWAZ1, M. ASIF1 AND SALMAN AHMED

DIEBACK DISEASE PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY PROPAGATED DALBERGIA SISSOO (SHISHAM)
ABSTRACT:
Dieback disease is a potential threat to Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) which is a multipurpose tree of the Indian subcontinent. Different factors have been found associated with inciting shisham dieback. Fungal pathogens have been recognized as the major causal organism but changing climate is a main threat to forest dieback. Sexually (seedlings) and asexually (cuttings) propagated shisham were inoculated with the different fungi (Fusarium solani, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata and Ganoderma lucidum). As environmental factors play critical role in the development of the disease, so the present study was designed to observe the impact of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity on the disease and for the management of disease predictive model was developed. A significant negative correlation was observed between disease and relative humidity both for seedlings (r = - 0.97) and cuttings (r = -0.487), respectively while maximum temperature expressed significant positive correlation with seedlings and cuttings with coefficient of correlation r = 0.734 and r = 0.629, respectively. Path analysis expressed that with one unit increase in rainfall the disease would rise by 7.58 and 15.04 and for maximum temperature it was 2.47 and 5.27 units in seedlings and cuttings, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that coefficient of determination (R2) value was 0.62 and 0.48 for cuttings and seedlings, respectively. Normed fit index (NFI) and comparative fit index (CFI) values indicate that model is quite a good fit. Similarly comparison of observed and predicted data also validated the model for forecasting the disease.

1645-1650 Download
40
ROLE OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. AS HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE HYPERGLYCEMIA IN VITRO ON INDUCED DIABETIC MODEL ANIMALS WAHEEDA MUSHTAQ1*, M TARIQ2, M. ISHTIAQ1*, R. ASGHAR2, TANVEER HUSSAIN1 AND TANVEER BASHIR
The present study was aimed to explore antidiabetic potential of wild fruit of Momordica charantia L. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) from local germplasm of District Bhimber Communities, Azad Kashmir. The purpose was to evaluate the herbal recipe of food folklor

ROLE OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. AS HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE HYPERGLYCEMIA IN VITRO ON INDUCED DIABETIC MODEL ANIMALS WAHEEDA MUSHTAQ1*, M TARIQ2, M. ISHTIAQ1*, R. ASGHAR2, TANVEER HUSSAIN1 AND TANVEER BASHIR
ABSTRACT:
Key words: Ethnomedicine; Diabetes mellitus; Momordica charantia; Ethanolic extract; Serum insulin; Bhimber; Azad Kashmir; Hyperglycemia

1651-1656 Download
41
SEASONAL AND DIURNAL VARIATION OF ATMOSPHERIC FUNGAL SPORE CONCENTRATIONS IN HYDERABAD; TANDOJAM-SINDH AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
MUNEEBA KHAN, ANJUM PERVEEN* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

SEASONAL AND DIURNAL VARIATION OF ATMOSPHERIC FUNGAL SPORE CONCENTRATIONS IN HYDERABAD; TANDOJAM-SINDH AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Airborne biological particles are present in every type of environment. Different types of geographical localities have different type of airspora, which affect human health. The current study is conducted for the first time to identify the airborne fungal spores from Hyderabad: Tando-Jam, Sindh. For this purpose, Burkard’s 7-Days recording volumetric spore trap was used for a period of one year. A total of 68,183 spores/m3 were recorded throughout the study period, belonging to 41 fungal spores types. The presented data revealed that Deuteromycetes spore type was predominant. Cladosporium sp. spores were detected in the highest concentration i.e., 50.83%, which was followed by Aspergillus sp. (18.63%) and Alternaria sp. (11.04%). The highest spore count was captured in the month of September-2008 (17,294 spores/m3), while lowest spore count was found in the month of June-2009. Diurnal patterns of individual fungal spore types was observed to be mid-day to evening maxima for various species. Spearman rank correlation coefficient “r” was determined for correlation of fungal spore counts with climatic factors by using IBM software SPSS ver. 20. Results of the current study revealed that fungal spore concentration was increased in high humid weather while low count was found in hot and windy climate that was also confirmed by statistical analysis. The presented work demonstrated that various types of allergenic and phytopathogenic fungal spores were present in the atmosphere of Hyderabad: Tando-Jam. It was also observed that meteorological conditions had a significant impact on dispersal and concentration of fungal spores.

1657-1663 Download
42
IS REDUCTION IN YIELD POTENTIAL OF SOME BRASSICACEOUS SPECIES DUE TO APHID INFESTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHANGES IN STOMATAL FACTORS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
MUHAMMAD RAZAQ1*, MUZAMMIL FAROOQ1, GUL ABBASS1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM2, MUHAMMAD AFZAL3 HAFIZ MAHMOOD UR REHMAN4, MUHAMMAD IQBAL5 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR

IS REDUCTION IN YIELD POTENTIAL OF SOME BRASSICACEOUS SPECIES DUE TO APHID INFESTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHANGES IN STOMATAL FACTORS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
ABSTRACT:
Aphids cause heavy yield losses to Brassicaceous species by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. In the present study, seasonal activity of aphid population and its impact on some brassicaceous species was assessed. Three brassicaceous species (Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Eruca sativa) were grown in field following standard agricultural practices. Plants of control plots retained aphid free by insecticide spray, whereas treatment plots were freely allowed for aphid infestation. There was also intermediate treatment of partial aphid infestation where insecticidal spray was applied two times. Peak populations of both aphid species were observed in the 2nd week of March during which plant photosynthetic attributes were recorded. At the time of maturity, yield attributes were also recorded. From the results, it is obvious that application of insecticide significantly reduced the aphid populations on the three brassicaceous species and enhanced the crop yield. Yield losses due to aphid infestation were maximal in Brassica campestris followed by B. carinata whereas it was minimal in Eruca sativa. Yield losses in Brassica campestris and B. carinata were due to reduction in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and size of seeds, whereas yield losses due to aphid infestation in Eruca sativa was mainly attributed to reduction in number of pods per plant. Although insecticidal spray reduced the aphid population and increased growth and productivity of all brassicaceous species, it did not change photosynthetic capacity of all plants except in Eruca sativa. Moreover, growth and yield reduction was not associated with stomatal factors of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll contents measured as SPAD values were reduced due to aphid infestation which is positively associated with yield reduction. Insecticidal spray increased chlorophyll contents in these three brassicaceous species by reducing aphid population. Application of insecticidal spray two times caused lower aphid infestation in brassicaceous species but it could not recover total yield losses. From these results, it is suggested that aphid infestation induced growth and yield reduction in the three brassicaceous species was due to some non-stomatal factors or due to alteration in metabolism of chloroplast. To affirm this, further research is needed.

1665-1671 Download
43
COMPARATIVE METHODS OF APPLICATION OF WILD PLANT PARTS ON GROWTH AND IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF LEGUMINOUS CROPS
NAHEED IKRAM AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

COMPARATIVE METHODS OF APPLICATION OF WILD PLANT PARTS ON GROWTH AND IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF LEGUMINOUS CROPS
ABSTRACT:
Present research work was carried out for the management of root rot fungi with wild plant part capsules and pellets formulation in soil. When application of pellets and capsules was carried out with Prosopis juliflora stem, leaves and flowers showed significant reduction in disease incidence and enhancement in growth and physiological parameters. Colonization of Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani was completely suppressed when P. juliflora leaves pellets incorporated in soil. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll a and b and protein were significantly increased when leaves pellets incorporated in soil @ 1% w/w so P. juliflora leaves pellets were most effective in the control of root rot fungi and enhanced the growth of crop plants.

1673-1680 Download
44
INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN COTTON BY THE NEEM CAKE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA UNDER SALINITY STRESS AND MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA INFECTION
AFSHAN RAHMAN1, VIQAR SULTANA2, JEHAN ARA3 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN COTTON BY THE NEEM CAKE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA UNDER SALINITY STRESS AND MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA INFECTION
ABSTRACT:
Induction of systemic resistance by neem cake (Azadirachta indica) and endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting bacterium, was evaluated in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under salinity stress and fungal infection. The combination of biocontrol agent and organic matter induced tolerance against fungal infection (Macrophomina phaseolina) and salinity stress (EC= 17.3 dS, m-1) by producing salicylic acid 6.9–8.6 mg/ mL as compared to 2.8–4.6 mg/mL in control plants in field experiment, while polyphenols was found 3.1–3.7 mg/mL in neem cake + bacteria treated plants as compared 2.7–2.9 mg/mL in control plants. Cotton plants inoculated with M. phaseolina showed maximum infection in control plants (75%), while 37.5% plants were found infected in neem cake + P.aeruginosa treatment in field experiments. A significant (p<0.05) increase in shoot length was observed in combined treatment of neem cake + P.aeruginosa (30.5–31.7 cm) compared to control plants (25.7–26.7 cm) kept under biotic or salinity stresses. Similarly, free radical scavenging activity was found highest in plants received P.aeruginosa in neem cake amended soil in both DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2 –azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) methods. Similar results were also observed in screen house experiment. Application of endophytic P.aeruginosa in neem cake amended soil hold promise for the induction of systemic resistance in cotton.

1681-1689 Download
45
COLONIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) ON TWO DIFFERENT ROOT SYSTEMS
MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN CHAUDHRY1, ASAD ULLAH NAZ1, AHMED NAWAZ2, ALI NAWAZ2, HAMID MUKHTAR2* AND MUHAMMAD IRFAN-UL-HAQ

COLONIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) ON TWO DIFFERENT ROOT SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Phytohormones producing bacteria enhance the plants growth by positively affecting growth of the root. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) must colonize the plant roots to contribute to the plant’s endogenous pool of phytohormones. Colonization of these plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosplane and soil of different crops was evaluated on different root types to establish if the mechanism of host specificity exist. The bacteria were isolated from maize, wheat, rice, canola and cotton and phytohormone production was detected and quantified by HPLC. Bacteria were inoculated on surface sterilized seeds of different crops and seeds were germinated. After 7 days the bacteria were re-isolated from the roots and the effect of these bacteria was observed by measuring increase in root length. Bacteria isolated from one plant family (monocots) having fibrous root performed well on similar root system and failed to give significant results on other roots (tap root) of dicots. Some aggressive strains were able to colonize both root systems. The plant growth promoting activities of the bacteria were optimum on the same plant from whom roots they were isolated. The results suggest that bacteria adapt to the root they naturally inhabit and colonize the same plant root systems preferably. Although the observe trend indicate host specificity but some bacteria were aggressive colonizers which grew on all the plants used in experiment.

1691-1696 Download
46
CHARACTERIZATION OF EFFECTIVE RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM VELVET BEAN (MUCUNA PRURIENS) TO ENHANCE PLANT GROWTH
AANSA RUKYA SALEEM1*, TARIQ MAHMOOD2, NAZNEEN BANGASH3, ANIQA BATOOL2, WAQAR-UN-NISA4, AZEEM KHALID2 AND MAURO CENTRITTO

CHARACTERIZATION OF EFFECTIVE RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM VELVET BEAN (MUCUNA PRURIENS) TO ENHANCE PLANT GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
Rhizobacteria with plant growth promoting ability exist in association with plant roots and ameliorate over all plant development and yield. Numerous species of rhizobacteria have been identified with plant growth promoting ability, which can be attributed to multiple microbial characteristics. In the current study rhizobacterial isolates with best plant growth promotion traits were subjected to screening for plant growth promotion under axenic condition. The results of lab assays revealed that out of five rhizobacterial isolates three of bacterial isolate were Gram -ve and two of them were Gram +ve bacterial group. All isolates found positive for the auxin production and ACC-demainase activity. The isolate HS9 showed highest ACC activity (331 α-ketobutyrate nmol mg-1 biomass hr-1) and auxin production (3.85 without L-TRP). PGPR increase plant growth by reducing the ethylene release and its inhibitory effects, the role of isolates to decrease ethylene effects was affirmed via classical triple response assay on velvet bean. Furthermore, isolate were assessed for resistance test, three efficient strains (G9, HS9 and H38) exhibited antibiotic resistance for streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin at100 mg L-1in TSB medium. For the purpose of co-inoculation, all three isolates showed positive relation to grow together. The results concluded that rhizobacteria selected from rain fed areas were found effective to improve plant growth with their multiple growth enhancing traits. Therefore, PGPR with various characteristics could be a better option for inoculation and co-inoculation to improve plant growth in well watered and water stressed environment. Key words: PGPR, ACC-deaminase, Ethylene, Antibiotic, Auxin.

1697-1702 Download
47
MICROBIAL FLORA ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
ANEELA SHAHEEN1*, HINA SAEED BAIG1 AND SHAHANA UROOJ KAZMI

MICROBIAL FLORA ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Marine pollution has now become worldwide environmental concern. Continuous discharge of untreated industrial effluent, municipal and power plant’s contaminated wastewater has been a serious threat to marine habitat, aesthetic values and interest of visitors to coastal areas. Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan and industrial hub of the Arabian Sea. In this investigation, samples of sediment, water, flora and fauna were taken from nine selected stations on Karachi coast included three stations represented major creeks i.e. Korangi, Gizri and Chinna Creek. These samples were taken during north-east and south-west monsoonal period in 2014. Bacterial flora isolated and identified from samples collected from these sites by conventional method. Among isolated and identified bacteria e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli and Streptococuss anginosus were the most dominant species contributing 21.43, 19.64 and 15.18 percent of total assemblage respectively. Among selected sample stations, Korangi creek station was found to be most polluted with coliform and other pathogenic bacteria. These results clearly indicate that threats from these pathogens are not only to marine life but also to the large number of visitors coming to beaches and residents of surrounding area. Moreover; immediate action should be taken to restrict the growth of these pathogens by taking measures to treat the municipal and industrial effluent to avoid outbreak of any disease in future.

1703-1708 Download
48
BIOABSORPTION ABILITIES OF ALGAE INHABITING THE COAST OF KARACHI
ISHRAT RANI1*, ALIYA REHMAN1, ALIA B. MUNSHI2, FAROOQ AHMED KHAN2 AND SALEEM SHAHZAD3

BIOABSORPTION ABILITIES OF ALGAE INHABITING THE COAST OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Due to expansion of human population and intensification of the industrialization, heavy metal pollution has become a life threatening problems. Of the various remediation technologies, bioabsorption of heavy metals by microorganisms is one of the most successful and alternative methods. During the present studies, a great variation in bioabsorption abilities of Padina tetrastromatica, Cystoseira indica, Ulva fasciata, and Codium iyengarii inhabiting the coast of Karachi was observed. C. iyengarii was most efficient for Nickel and chromium removal, whereas C. indica and U. fasciata were efficient for the removal of cobalt and copper, respectively.

1709-1713 Download
49
SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF SIX DOMINANT FILAMENTOUS CYANOBACTERIAL SPECIES IN MICROBIAL MATS FROM MANGROVE BACKWATERS IN SANDSPIT PAKISTAN
YASMEEN ZAMIR AHMED, SEEMA SHAFIQUE*, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUE

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF SIX DOMINANT FILAMENTOUS CYANOBACTERIAL SPECIES IN MICROBIAL MATS FROM MANGROVE BACKWATERS IN SANDSPIT PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Microbial mats in the mangrove forests of Sandspit coast area, south of Karachi, Pakistan were studied between Jan 2012-Jan 2014. Six major filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to three genera Oscillatoria (3), Spirulina (2) and Phormidium (1) were identified in the backwaters mat samples. One of the cyanobacterium species Spirulina labyrinthiformis is reported from this site for the first time in Pakistan. The most dominant species was Oscillatoria brevis (22% abundance), closely followed by Phormidium tenue (21%). These filamentous forms were present in all seasons and tolerated varying physico-chemical ranges such as temperature (15-28ºC), pH (6.8-7.5), salinity (36-42‰) and dissolved oxygen (0.201-0.543ppm). Chlorophyll a levels in mat area sediments were ranged between 0.039 up to 5.050 mg/g. The minimum and maximum biovolume was 0.174 and 1.649mm3/l respectively. We observed a strong positive correlation (p<0.05) between observed filamentous form of cyanobacteria and field parameters such as water-soil-air temperatures, pH and dissolved oxygen. The outcome suggests a potential for detailed molecular microbial mat study. Further studies are required to understand the interactions of microbial mat with soil and water components. Key words: Mangrove, Cyanobacteria, Microbial mat, Taxonomic assessment.

1715-1722 Download
50
EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EPIPHYTIC DIATOMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS WITH THE CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS (CCA)
ARZU MORKOYUNLU YÜCE1* AND ARİF GÖNÜLOL

EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EPIPHYTIC DIATOMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS WITH THE CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS (CCA)
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to determine the relationship between environmental parameters and epiphytic diatoms. Four sampling sites were selected in the littoral region of Lake Egirdir. Macrophytes were taken seasonally from July 2012 to April 2013. Submerged samples (Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L., Ceratophylum sp. and Valisneria sp.) were collected for the analysis of epiphytic algae. Twenty-four diatom species were identified in this study. Cocconeis pediculus Ehrenberg was identified as the most abundant epiphytic diatom on the Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L., Ceratophylum sp. and Valisneria sp. Besides, physical and chemical parameters of lake water were determined. Water temperature, pH and conductivity varied from 6.9 - 26.3oC, 8.9-9.1, 276.1 – 388.1 µS/cm, dissolved oxygen values as 11.8 – 9.7 mg l−1, respectively. Concentration of calcium, magnesium, silicon, nitrate and phosphate ranged 41.3-32.1, 36.5- 41.3, 5.7 -6.1, 1.1- 3.4 and 0.02- 0.43 mg l−1, respectively. It was concluded that wave motions in aquatic environments and water quality parameters are primarily effective in the distribution of epiphytic diatoms, seasons are important in the development of some species, and macrophytes provide support for the species to attach to the surfaces according to their morphological differences, despite not being very determinative.

1723-1730 Download
51
PLANT-MEDIATED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
SUMAIRA ANJUM, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI* AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI

PLANT-MEDIATED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
ABSTRACT:
Metallic nanoparticles are an emerging class of functional materials, revolutionizing all domains of human life making nanotechnology, a promising arena for biomedical applications. Among the metallic nanoparticles, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent one of the most comprehensively studied nanomaterials. The current development and execution of new technologies have led to new era, the nano-revolution which discloses the role of plants in green synthesis of nanoparticles and have drawn fairly an undeniable attention with a vision of synthesizing stable and eco-friendly nanoparticles. Employing plant extracts toward synthesis of AgNPs are emerging as advantageous over other conventional methods due to low-cost, energy-efficient, non-hazardous, and environmentally tolerable along with the manifestation of broad variability of biomolecules in plants, which can act as reducing and capping agents. Biologically synthesized AgNPs have upsurge applications in various sectors such as electronics, clothing, food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics, biosensing, medicines, drug delivery and medical devices. Broad-spectrum bioactivities of AgNPs indicate their potential to solve many microbial resistance problems. The antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of AgNPs have recently engrossed the attention of scientists. The aim of the present review is to discuss the plant mediated green synthesis of AgNPs and mechanistic aspects involved in reduction and stabilization of AgNPs. Methods of AgNPs characterization are reviewed and broad-spectrum multifunctional activities of AgNPs and their potential biomedical applications are discussed. This review also focuses on the assessment of impending human and ecosystem deathtraps associated with increased utilization of AgNPs and the safety issues concerning their biomedical applications.

1731-1760 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1460490, Today's: 12, Yesterday's: 1136, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");