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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 1
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
THE INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND DROUGHT STRESS ON SODIUM,POTASSIUM AND PROLINE CONTENT OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. cv. RIO GRANDE
SYED GHIAS ALI1* AND ABDUR RAB2

THE INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND DROUGHT STRESS ON SODIUM,POTASSIUM AND PROLINE CONTENT OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. cv. RIO GRANDE
ABSTRACT:
The influence of salinity and drought stress on sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and proline content of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) cv. Rio Grande was investigated by exposing the plants to five salinity levels i.e., 0 (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl and four drought regimes i.e. 0 (Control), 2, 4 and 6 days, applied from seedling (4-5 true leaves) to the harvesting stage. The means across salinity levels showed an increase in proline content and Na+ concentration but a reduced K+ concentrations, resulting in high Na+/K+ ratios in shoot and root tissue. In contrast, drought stress decreased the Na+ and K+ content, Na+/K+ ratio but increased the proline content in both the root and shoot tissue. The interaction of salinity and drought significantly affected the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) contents, Na+/K+ and proline content of the shoot but K+ content and proline accumulation were not significant. The root and shoot tissue of control plants (0 mMNaCl + 0 Days drought stress) had the minimum Na+ content (2316 and 3490 µM/g D.wt.), Na+/ K+ ratio (0.399 and 0.364) and proline content (0.72 and 1.91 µM/g F.wt.) but the highest K+ content (6399 and 9603 µM/g D.wt.). Whereas, the Na+ content increased with salinity, the K+ content declined. It resulted in the maximum Na+/K+ ratio of the root (1.26) and shoot (0.76) with 200 mMNaCl + 0 Days drought stress. The drought stress also increased the Na+/K+ ratio. Thus, the highest Na+/K+ ratio of root (0.78) and shoot (0.77) was recorded in plants grown under 200 mMNaCl+ 6 Days drought stress. The proline content of the root and shoot were 0.462 and 1.904 µM/g F.wt. respectively in control plants which increased with increasing salinity and drought stress duration. Thus, the maximum proline content of root (10.61 µM/g F.wt.) and shoot (28.05 µM/g F.wt.) was recorded in plants exposed to 200 mMNaCl + 6 days drought stress combination.

1-9 Download
2
MODULATION IN WATER RELATIONS, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS ACTIVITY OF MAIZE BY FOLIAR PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ZAHOOR AHMAD*1, EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH1, RASHID AHMAD1 AND MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ2

MODULATION IN WATER RELATIONS, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS ACTIVITY OF MAIZE BY FOLIAR PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the foliar applied phosphorous on physiological and biochemical processes of maize under optimum moisture and drought conditions. The experiment was conducted in wire house Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Four maize hybrids viz., 6525, 32B33, 31P41 and Hycorn were used as to evaluate foliar effect of P @ 8 kg ha-1 at 8th leaf stage under normal and drought condition. The foliar applied P performed better than control treatments under normal and stress conditions. The foliar application of phosphorous @ 8 kg ha-1 at 8th leaf stage of maize increased the water relation, chlorophyll contents and antioxidant under well watered and stress conditions. The water stress decreased the physiological parameters such as water potential (24%), osmotic potential (65%) turgor potential (5.4%), total chlorophyll contents (36%) and total carotenoids (34.7%) as compared to non-stress. The biochemical parameters such as catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activity were increased by 68%, 79.7% and 57.3% respectively under water stress condition as compared to non-stress condition. The both drought tolerant hybrids of maize (6525 and 32B33) performed better than Hycorn and 31P41 under normal and water stress conditions. The study provides insight into that P regulate physiological and biochemical mechanisms responsible for improved drought tolerance in maize.

11-19 Download
3
RESPONSE OF RICE POLYPHENOL OXIDASE PROMOTER TO DROUGHT AND SALT STRESS
WASIM AKHTAR1, AND TARIQ MAHMOO2

RESPONSE OF RICE POLYPHENOL OXIDASE PROMOTER TO DROUGHT AND SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) widely exist in plants that catalyze oxygen dependent oxidation of phenols to quinines and assumed to be involved in plant defense against environmental stresses. In this study transgenic T1 seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana containing Oryza sativa Polyphenol oxidase (OsPPO) gene promoter fused with GUS (β-glucuronidase) were analyzed for drought and salt stress. These seeds were already available in our research group. Seeds were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) mediato get T2 plants which were screened in drought stress (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% PEG-6000) and salt concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM, 250 mM and 300 mM). Experimental data showed that relative GUS expression of OsPPO gene promoter increased with the increase of drought stress. In case of salt stress, OsPPO induction showed similar trend GUS expression was increased. The response of OsPPO to drought and salt stress suggest the possible participation of PPO in plants defense against drought as well as salt stress.

21-23 Download
4
COMPARISON OF DYNAMIC CHANGES IN ENDOGENOUS HORMONE LEVEL, WATER CONTENT AND WATER-SOLUBLE SUGARS IN CAMELLIA OLEIFERA OF DIFFERENT AGES
JUANJUAN HU1 , FAHEEM AFZAL SHAH1, WEI WU2, ZHIHUA CAO3, QINGLONG SHU1* AND SONGLING FU1

COMPARISON OF DYNAMIC CHANGES IN ENDOGENOUS HORMONE LEVEL, WATER CONTENT AND WATER-SOLUBLE SUGARS IN CAMELLIA OLEIFERA OF DIFFERENT AGES
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study is to investigate and understand the dynamic changes and the possible functions of hormones, water and sugar content during the development of C. oleifera. We analyzed and compared WWC, WSS and five endogenous hormones (DHZR, ZR, GA, IAA and ABA) contents between May and August in C. oleifera plants at different ages from the same orchard. The results showed that WWC, WSS, DHZR, ZR, GA, IAA and ABA contents varied from 61.64%-74.15%, 21.24mg/g-62.44mg/g, 6.237ng/g-38.342ng/g, 6.215ng/g-16.721ng/g, 5.668ng/g-18.024ng/g, 24.753ng/g-147.507ng/g and 66.541ng/g-156.212ng/g, respectively. WWC showed a decrease-increase-decrease variation pattern, while the WSS contents demonstrated a generally increasing trend with increasing tree age. The levels of ABA in leaves sampled in August was higher than that in May, but the opposite was found for the GA and IAA levels. Tree ages were negatively correlated with ZR and GA concentration at the 1% or 5% significance level. The results of this study broaden our understanding of the interrelationships between phytohormones, WWC, and WSS content in the growth and development of C. oleifera.

25-32 Download
5
EFFECTS OF WATER PROPERTIES AND SOIL TEXTURE ON THE GROWTH OF A MANGROVE PALM; NYPA FRUTICANS ON CAREY ISLAND, MALAYSIA
ROZAINAH MOHAMAD ZAKARIA1,2*, NASRIN ASLEZAEIM1 AND AHMAD BAKRIN SOFAWI

EFFECTS OF WATER PROPERTIES AND SOIL TEXTURE ON THE GROWTH OF A MANGROVE PALM; NYPA FRUTICANS ON CAREY ISLAND, MALAYSIA
ABSTRACT:
Nypa fructicans is a major species of mangrove palm on Carey Island, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of water properties on the growth of Nypa fruticans. Plant growth measurements and water analyses were carried out in six plots for 16 months. The life stages of Nypa fruticans were divided into seedlings, juveniles, adults and matures, based on the number of leaves. Leaf production of juvenile and mature trees showed negative correlation with salinity. Leaf production of seedlings was affected negatively only by heavy metal of Arsenic (As). Calcium (Ca) in the water had a strong positive effect on the new leaf production of juveniles and on the spear elongation of matures, and Iron (Fe) had a negative effect on the leaf elongation of adults. Similarly, spear elongation of juvenile trees was positively correlated to nitrate (NO3-). Silty clay texture provides the best condition for the growth of Nypa fruticans. The growth of Nypa fruticans was most significantly affected by water parameters in the early life stages.

33-39 Download
6
EFFECT OF LIGHT, TEMPERATURE AND DIFFERENT PRETREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION OF GENTIANA BOISSIERI SCHOTT ET KOTSCHY EX BOISS. (GENTIANACEAE) AND ENDEMIC TO TURKEY
SERDAR ERKEN1* AND M. ERCAN ÖZZAMBAK2

EFFECT OF LIGHT, TEMPERATURE AND DIFFERENT PRETREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION OF GENTIANA BOISSIERI SCHOTT ET KOTSCHY EX BOISS. (GENTIANACEAE) AND ENDEMIC TO TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the germination characteristics of Gentiana boissieri (Gentianaceae), an endemic species. The effects of light, temperature and different pretreatments on the germination of seeds collected from nature were investigated. Two different experiments were run to determine germination characteristics of seeds and the final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI). The first experiment involved twenty different treatments including soaking in water, soaking in gibberellic acid (GA3), dry stratification, moist cold stratification, moist warm stratification + moist cold stratification, moist cold stratification + soaking in GA3 and control. The germination test was carried out at +20°C in dark. The highest final germination percentages were obtained from the treatments of soaking in 500, 750, 1000 ppm GA3, soaking in 250, 500 ppm GA3 + 4 weeks of moist cold stratification (89.00; 95.00; 93.50; 91.33; 94.00%, respectively). In the control group with no pretreatment, the final germination percentage of seeds was found to be 13.50%. In the second experiment, seeds treated with 750 ppm GA3 pretreatment, providing highest germination rate in the first experiment, were germinated under dark and light conditions (12/12 h; dark/light) at 15, 20, 25 and 10/20°C. At the end of 28 days under four different temperatures, it was found that light significantly increased the final germination percentage and the highest final germination percentages were found at 15 and 20°C (87.00; 89.50%, respectively).

41-46 Download
7
EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND ANTIOXIDANT METABOLITES IN LEAVES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) PLANTS
I. A. HASSAN1,3*, N.S. HAIBA2, R. H. BADR3, J.M. BASAHI1, T. ALMEELBI1, I. M. ISMAIL1 AND W.K.TAIA3

EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND ANTIOXIDANT METABOLITES IN LEAVES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The differential response of two pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel and Victory) to ambient O3 grown under open top chambers (OTCs) was analyzed and compared. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate/glutathione as well as a series of enzymes for scavenging ROS were analyzed, all aiming to reveal the differential behavior of two closely related plants when exposed to ambient O3.Antioxidant levels and activities of related enzymes in response to ambient were noticeably different among Little Marvel and Victory plants. However, the response was cultivar-specific. There was higher accumulation of ROS and relatively lower induction of antioxidants and more inhibition in photosynthetic rates in Victory than Little Marvel. There was a good correlation between tolerance to O3 and high endogenous levels of antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate (As), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in pea plants. These portrays a higher sensitivity of Victory to ambient O3.To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the very few studies attempted to describe the changes in contents of antioxidants and activities of related enzymes in leaves of two closely related cultivars to further ourunderstanding on the defense mechanism and strategies under ambient O3. The results highlighted the possible roles of antioxidants in O3 detoxification through activation an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

47-55 Download
8
EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ATP SYNTHASE Β SUBUNIT OF TOMATO UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE / POOR LIGHT
LIRONG CUIa, KAI CAOa AND ZHIRONG ZOU*

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ATP SYNTHASE Β SUBUNIT OF TOMATO UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE / POOR LIGHT
ABSTRACT:
We monitored the effects of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the photosynthesis and ATP synthase β subunit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Seedlings of ‘Zhongza9’ and ‘Zhongshu4’ cultivars were pre-treated with foliar sprays of 0.1 μM or 0.0 μM (control) EBR and then grown in an environmental chamber simulating conditions of low temperature (12°C/6°C, day/night) and poor light (80 μmol·m-2·s-1). Stressed seedlings that had received EBR showed increases in stomatal conductance and rates of photosynthesis and transpiration over the untreated (0 EBR) control, but had reduced concentration of intercellular CO2. Exposure to EBR was also linked with smaller, stress-related declines in the maximum photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II, the actual photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II, the photochemical quenching coefficient, and the efficiency of light energy capture by open PSII reaction centers under our combined stresses. We also found that EBR improved plant stress tolerance, and the mechanism was that ATP synthase β subunit was synthesized in a large amount.

57-62 Download
9
RESPONSES OF SRI LANKAN TRADITIONAL RICE TO PHOTOPERIOD AT EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE
UDARI UVINDHYA RATHNATHUNGA E.1 AND SUDARSHANEE GEEKIYANAGE2*

RESPONSES OF SRI LANKAN TRADITIONAL RICE TO PHOTOPERIOD AT EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Rice is a photoperiod sensitive plant for flowering initiation. Effect of photoperiod can be important in vegetative growth and yield determination in rice. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of photoperiod on the vegetative responses of Sri Lankan traditional rice germplasm (SLTRG). Forty five traditional rice accessions (TRA), 5 improved rice varieties (IR), Sri Lankan wild rice (Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogan) and Oryza japonica accessions 6782 and 6752 were grown in short day (SD), day neutral (DN) and long day (LD) conditions. Days to reach the fifth leaf stage (DFL), plant height (PH) and tiller number (TN) at the fifth leaf stage were recorded. Twenty three genotypes including 21 TRA, Oryza japonica 6752 and Oryza nivara did not respond to photoperiod having non-significant values for DFL, PH and TN among photoperiods. The DFL was affected in 25 genotypes; among them both DFL and PH were affected in 7 genotypes. DFL was significantly increased during LD in 4 TRA while DFL was significantly reduced in all 5 IR and 5 TRA. DFL was significantly increased in Oryza japonica 6782 and 5 TRA under SD. In 4 TRA, DFL was reduced under SD. The TN was affected in Oryza japonica 6782 only under SD with increased DFL. The DFL was significantly increased under DN in Oryza rufipogan, 5 TRA and 2 IR. Both SD and LD photoperiods differently affected the interaction between DFL and PH in TRA while only LD affected that of IR. DN had an effect on the interaction between DFL and PH only in wild rice Oryza rufipogon. Variation of vegetative growth response to photoperiod may depict the wide genetic basis of SLTRG.

63-66 Download
10
PHYSIOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND DEFENSE SYSTEM RESPONSES OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS TO VEHICULAR EXHAUST POLLUTION
NOREEN KHALID1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MANSOOR HAMEED1 AND RASHID AHMAD2

PHYSIOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND DEFENSE SYSTEM RESPONSES OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS TO VEHICULAR EXHAUST POLLUTION
ABSTRACT:
Pollution caused by vehicular exhaust emissions detrimentally affect plants and other living beings. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of vehicular exhaust pollutants on Parthenium hysterophorus at various sites along two major roads [Pindi Bhattian to Lillah (M-2) and Faisalabad to Sargodha (FSR)]in the Punjab, Pakistan. Control samples of P. hysterophorus were also collected from 100m away from the roads. Chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, total free amino acids and total antioxidant activity of P. hysterophorus were measured. The results depicted significant reductions in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of P. hysterophorus. Likewise, reduction in stomatal conductance was also recorded which resulted in lowered photosynthetic and transpiration rates. The overall reduction in photosynthetic rate of P. hysterophorus was 30.92% and 35.38% along M-2 and FSR roads, respectively. The limited photosynthesis resulted in increased levels of sub stomatal CO2 concentration and water use efficiency. The elevated levels of free amino acids and total antioxidant activity were noted and could be attributed to activation of plant’s defense system to cope with the deleterious effects of vehicular air pollutants. The significant correlations between various attributes of P. hysterophorus with traffic density signifies the stress caused by vehicular emissions.

67-75 Download
11
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND FATE OF NITROGEN IN GREENHOUSE TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.)
XIUKANG WANG* AND YINGYING XING

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND FATE OF NITROGEN IN GREENHOUSE TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. ‘Jinpeng 10’) was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of nitrogen using different methods of irrigation and fertilization. Three treatments were designed with two irrigation methods (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and two fertilizer application methods (fertigation and conventional fertilization). Tomato fruit yield and biomass in the fertigation treatment were significantly higher than those in the conventional fertilization treatment. The highest total uptake of nitrogen by tomato was obtained with drip fertigation and increased significantly in the conventional fertilization and CK treatments. With an increase in nitrate uptake by the fruit, the uptake of the leaf nitrogen also increased in both years of the study. The distribution of the soil nitrate-N concentration tended to be symmetrical along the center of the emitter for drip irrigation and the furrows. The nitrate-N concentration in the CK treatment was 2.85-fold higher than that in the drip fertigation treatment. The proportion of nitrogen uptake of the total nitrogen input varied from 25.38% and 53.73% in two consecutive years, and the residual nitrogen in the fertigation treatment was 48.20% and 44.64% lower than that in the CK treatment in the same two respective years.

77-83 Download
12
IMPROVEMENT IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L) GROWTH AND QUALITY THROUGH INTEGRATED USE OF BIOCHAR
KAWSAR ALI1, MUHAMMAD ARIF2, FAROOQ SHAH1, AAMIR SHEHZAD1, FAZAL MUNSIF2, ISHAQ AHMAD MIAN3 AND AFAQ AHMAD MIAN4

IMPROVEMENT IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L) GROWTH AND QUALITY THROUGH INTEGRATED USE OF BIOCHAR
ABSTRACT:
To evaluate the potential use of biochar in crop production, two years experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014. The experiment consisted of three factors namely: (1) Biochar (0, 25 and 50 ton ha-1), (2) FYM (5 and 10 ton ha-1) and (3) nitrogen (75 and 150 kg ha-1). A control treatment (no application of either treatment) was included in the experiment for comparison. All the treatments were replicated three time in RCB design at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Experimental evidence indicated that BC, FYM and N significantly delayed all growth stages of maize such as days to taseling, silking and maturity. Biochar application significantly improved maize oil content by 12 and 29% over no BC plots (plots receiving other treatments) and control plots respectively. An increase of 27% and decrease of 11% was observed in maize protein and starch content in BC treated plots over control. FYM application of 10 ton ha-1 improved maize protein content by 12% but reduced oil content by 15% over 5 ton FYM ha-1. Likewise, N application resulted in higher protein content and starch content but reduced oil content significantly. Overall, application of BC showed convincing results as sole application of N and FYM, however, problems associated with BC production in Pakistan are needed to be addressed in future research.

85-94 Download
13
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT POULTRY MANURES ON LENTIL LENS CULINARIS
ZIA-UD-DIN1 AND MUHAMMAD NAUMAN AFTAB1

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT POULTRY MANURES ON LENTIL LENS CULINARIS
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three different poultry manures on lentil growth, yield and prevalence of pathogens in manure and soil. For this purpose, a lentil (Lens culinaris) trait Punjab Masoor-2009 was cultivated in four different plots in triplicates namely negative control (NC); Control (C), plots treated with manure of the birds that used feed with no supplements, antibiotic (A), plots treated with manure of the birds that used neomycin as feed supplements; probiotic (P), plots treated with manure of the birds fed with feed supplemented with probiotic Bacillus licheniformis (Accession No. KT443923). The studied parameters were plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000-seeds weight (g), crop yield (kg) and prevalence of pathogens (E. coli, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp) in soil and poultry litter. Maximum crop yield and growth were observed in the crop plots treated with manure obtained from probiotic supplemented birds. Maximum plant height (49.93±2.78 cm), number of branches per plant (16.68±1.85), number of pods per plant (61.46±2.73), number of seeds per pod (2.42±0.59), 1000-seed weight (19.45±0.83 g), crop yield (1243±8.91 kg) was observed in plants from (P) group. Prevalence of E. coli was observed in poultry litter obtained from all groups of birds. Similarly E. coli was observed in soil samples from all groups of plots. However, prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter was detected in all plots except (P) group.

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14
NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF BANANA FRUIT AS AFFECTED BY FARM MANURE, COMPOSTED PRESSMUD AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
AMBRIN RAJPUT1, MEHRUNISA MEMON1*, KAZI SULEMAN MEMON1, SHAMSUDDIN TUNIO2, TANVEER ALI SIAL3 AND MUHAMMAD ATHAR KHAN4

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF BANANA FRUIT AS AFFECTED BY FARM MANURE, COMPOSTED PRESSMUD AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
ABSTRACT:
Major area under banana cultivation in Pakistan consists of a single cultivar "Dwarf Cavendish" called "Basrai". Quality of banana relies on the available nutrients in soil. Under poor fertility and organic matter scenario coupled with high requirement of banana, this study evaluated the combined effect of organic (farm manure and composted pressmud) and inorganic (NPK) sources of nutrients on nutrient composition of locally grown banana. Application of full NPK (500-250-500 kg ha-1) increased the fruit P (0.08-0.12%), K (0.77-1.50%) and Zn (1.74-2.17 mg kg-1) over full N and the respective values further increased to 0.14 and 0.22%, 2.28 and 1.79% and 2.42 and 2.21% with farm manure and composted pressmud additions. Moreover, there was a non-significant increase in N and significant one in Cu and Fe. There was no additional benefit of 1.25 NP. In fact, the higher rates i.e. full NPK and 1.25 NP reduced the micronutrient contents of fruit due to dilution effect. However, the P requirement was same even with application of organic sources. The regression analysis of the yield data with fruit nutrients (N, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) showed a highly significant relationship with respective “r” values of 0.65, 0.66, 0.75, 0.48, 0.65, 0.71 and 0.73. The integrated use of mineral fertilizers and organic amendments resulted in enhanced banana fruit nutrients and highlights the advantage of conjunctive use over their separate applications.

101-108 Download
15
ENHANCEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL, SAINFOIN AND SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER BY MIXED CROPPING WITH PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
VILIANA VASILEVA1, TOTKA MITOVA2 AND MOHAMMAD ATHAR3

ENHANCEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL, SAINFOIN AND SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER BY MIXED CROPPING WITH PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
ABSTRACT:
The productivity of three leguminous crops birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) was evaluated in green house grown alone or mixed with Lolium perenne L. perennial ryegrass in 2013 and repeated in 2014. Each leguminous crops were grown alone (100%) or mixed with ryegrass at (50:50). Birdsfoot trefoil or sainfoin was also grown with subterranean clover along with perennial ryegrass grass (33:33:33). Higher productivity was found with the treatments of mixtures, i.e., for dry aboveground biomass, by 20.4%, and for dry root biomass, by 25.4%, respectively. More stable productivity of plant biomass was obtained in mixtures.

109-114 Download
16
ENHANCEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL, SAINFOIN AND SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER BY MIXED CROPPING WITH PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
VILIANA VASILEVA1, TOTKA MITOVA2 AND MOHAMMAD ATHAR3

ENHANCEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL, SAINFOIN AND SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER BY MIXED CROPPING WITH PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
ABSTRACT:
The productivity of three leguminous crops birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) was evaluated in green house grown alone or mixed with Lolium perenne L. perennial ryegrass in 2013 and repeated in 2014. Each leguminous crops were grown alone (100%) or mixed with ryegrass at (50:50). Birdsfoot trefoil or sainfoin was also grown with subterranean clover along with perennial ryegrass grass (33:33:33). Higher productivity was found with the treatments of mixtures, i.e., for dry aboveground biomass, by 20.4%, and for dry root biomass, by 25.4%, respectively. More stable productivity of plant biomass was obtained in mixtures.

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17
IMPACT OF POLLINATION BY POLLEN-GRAIN-WATER SUSPENSION SPRAY ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SEGAE DATE PALM CULTIVAR (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
SOLIMAN, S.S.1 ,2*, A.I. ALEBIDI1, A.M. AL-SAIF1, R.S. AL-OBEED.1 AND A.N. AL-BAHELLY1

IMPACT OF POLLINATION BY POLLEN-GRAIN-WATER SUSPENSION SPRAY ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SEGAE DATE PALM CULTIVAR (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out for both successive seasons 2013-2014, 2014-2015 at Riyadh, Kingdome of Saudi Arabia. The impact of pollen grain-water suspension spray at different concentrations on fruit retained, bunch weight, yield and fruit quality were examined on Segae date palm cultivar. Spray pollination at 2 g pollen +3 g sugar/liter followed by spray pollination at 2 g pollen/liter gave higher physical properties and lower fruit retained. Spray pollination at 2 g pollen +3 g sugar/liter followed by traditional pollination (control) gave the highest bunch weight and yield compared to the application other treatments in both seasons. Spray pollination at 3 g pollen + 2 g sugar/liter followed by spray pollination at 2 g pollen/liter and spray pollination at 2 g pollen +3 g sugar/liter followed by spray pollination at 2 g pollen/liter treatments were significantly increase total sugar percentage compared to other treatments and control in the first and second seasons, respectively. Acidity percentages were significantly increased with spray pollination at 2 g pollen/liter followed by spray pollination at 3 g pollen/liter compared to other treatment and control in the second season. Moisture content percentages were significantly increased with traditional pollination (control) as compared to other treatments in both seasons. Spray pollination at 2 g pollen +3 g sugar/liter treatment produced highest fruit quality and could be considered as a recommended treatment in such experiment.

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18
ANALYSIS OF THE A GENOME GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG BRASSICA NAPUS, B. RAPA AND B. JUNCEA ACCESSIONS USING SPECIFIC SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS
HONGYUN TIAN1,†, JINQIANG YAN1,†, SIRAJ AHMED CHANNA1,2,†, RUIJIE ZHANG1 ,YUAN GUO1AND SHENGWU HU1★

ANALYSIS OF THE A GENOME GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG BRASSICA NAPUS, B. RAPA AND B. JUNCEA ACCESSIONS USING SPECIFIC SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
This investigation was aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of 127 accessions among Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea by using 15 pairs of the A genome specific simple sequence repeat primers. These 127 accessions could be clearly separated into three groups by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and population structure analysis separately, and the results analyzed by the three methods were very similar. Group I comprised of mainly B. napus accessions and the most of B. juncea accessions formed Group II, Group III included nearly all of the B. rapa accessions. The result showed that 36.86% of the variance was due to significant differences among populations of species, indicated that abundance genetic diversity existed among the A genome of B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea accessions. B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea have the abundant genetic diversity in the A genome, and some elite genes can be used to broaden the genetic base of them, especially for B. napus, in future rapeseed breeding program.

125-132 Download
19
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA ACCESSIONS USING A NON-CODING REGION OF THE CHLOROPLAST DNA
LAM THI VIET HA1,3,5*, DO TAN KHANG2,3, HELENA EVERAERT1,5, TRAN NHAN DUNG3, PHAM HONG DUC PHUOC4, HA THANH TOAN3, KOEN DEWETTINCK1 AND KATHY MESSENS5

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA ACCESSIONS USING A NON-CODING REGION OF THE CHLOROPLAST DNA
ABSTRACT:
Cocoa cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes, that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam, based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected from different regions in Southern Vietnam. Their phylogenetic relationships were identified using the universal primers c-B49317 and d-A49855 from the chloroplast DNA region. The sequences were situated in the trnL intron genes which are identify the closest terrestrial plant species of the chloroplast genome. DNA sequences were determined and subjected to an analysis of the phylogenetic relationship using the maximum evolution method. The genetic analysis showed clustering of 63 cocoa accessions in three groups: the domestically cultivated Trinitario group, the Indigenous cultivars, and the cultivations from Peru. The analyzed sequencing data also illustrated that the TD accessions and CT accessions were related genetically closed. Based on those results the genetic relation between PA and NA accessions was established as the hybrid origins of the TD and CT accessions. Some foreign accessions, including UIT, SCA and IMC accessions were confirmed of their genetic relationship. The present study is the first report of phylogenetic relationships of Vietnamese cocoa collections. The cocoa program in Vietnam has been in development for thirty years.

133-142 Download
20
EXPRESSION AND THE SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF ATPUB19, A U-BOX E3 LIGASE IN ARABIDOPSIS
YONG-CHANG LIU, HAO ZHANG, JIE-JIE LEI AND JIE SUN*

EXPRESSION AND THE SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF ATPUB19, A U-BOX E3 LIGASE IN ARABIDOPSIS
ABSTRACT:
Plant U-box containing proteins (PUBs) belong to a new type of E3 ligase and have diverse roles in plant development and growth. In our previous study, we found that PUB19 negatively regulated the ABA-induced stomata closure, stress-related genes expression and drought tolerance. To obtain more information on PUB19, the expression pattern and subcellular localization were analyzed. Northern blot and GUS staining were performed to detect the transcripts of PUB19 in roots, stems, leaves, siliques and flowers. Both the distribution of GFP and cell fractionation assay displayed that PUB19 is a membrane-associated protein. All results showed some good findings to study the biological function of PUB19 deeply.

143-146 Download
21
MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF ACC OXIDASE GENE FROM GUZMANIA RUIZ & PAV.
LIU JIANXIN*, DING HUAQIAO, WANG WEIYONG, LIU HUICHUN AND TIAN DANQING

MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF ACC OXIDASE GENE FROM GUZMANIA RUIZ & PAV.
ABSTRACT:
ACC oxidase is the last key enzyme of ethylene synthesis pathway, while ethylene is a key factor affecting flowering in ornamental bromeliad. To understand ACC oxidase gene’s characteristics and its effect on ornamental bromeliad flowering, we cloned 1504bp full-length cDNA sequence (GenBank: JX972145) and 2546bp corresponding genomic sequence (GenBank: JX972146)of GoACO1 (ACC oxidase gene) from Guzmania variety: Ostara. Prokaryotic expression study showed that expression of GoACO1 can produced a 41 KD protein precipitation in Escherichia coli DE3(BL-21); Real-time quantitative analysis showed that GoACO1 can express in all tested tissues including floral organ, bract, leaf and scape, and expression quantity in bract was the highest. Through constructing plant overexpression vector, transforming into Arabidopsis thaliana, and investigating blossom character of T2 generation seeds, we found that first flowering time of the goal Arabidopsis thaliana was 1.5 days earlier, and their peak flowering time(the number of flowering more than 50%) was 1.8 days earlier, compared with wild type one. Taken together, our results suggested that GoACO1can express in all kinds of tissues and seems to promote Arabidopsis thaliana flowering earlier.

147-154 Download
22
COMPOSITION AND CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SUGARS AND ORGANIC ACIDS FOR 45 GRAPE CULTIVARS FROM NORTHEAST REGION OF CHINA
GUO YINSHAN, NIU ZAOZHU, SU KAI, ZHAO JIA, REN ZHIHUA, ZHAO YUHUI*, GUO QUAN, GAO HONGYAN, AND GUO XIUWU

COMPOSITION AND CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SUGARS AND ORGANIC ACIDS FOR 45 GRAPE CULTIVARS FROM NORTHEAST REGION OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from0 mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white.

155-160 Download
23
NUTRITIONAL AND PHENOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES GROWN IN SINALOA, MÉXICO
RAMÓN IGNACIO CASTILLO-LÓPEZ1, JOSEFINA LEÓN-FÉLIX1, MIGUEL ÁNGEL ANGULO-ESCALANTE1, ROBERTO GUTIÉRREZ-DORADO2, MARÍA DOLORES MUY-RANGEL1 AND JOSÉ BASILIO HEREDIA1

NUTRITIONAL AND PHENOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES GROWN IN SINALOA, MÉXICO
ABSTRACT:
The present study shows the results of a research done on the chemical composition, minerals, fatty acid (FA) and phenolic compounds contents, and antioxidant capacity in two variants of Moringaoleifera leaves grown in Sinaloa, Mexico. The leaves of the two variants of Moringa oleifera revealed high protein content (31.69-36.83%, db). The mineral analysis of dried leaves showed the following minerals content: calcium=15.08-15.58 g•Kg-1, magnesium=3.55-3.62 g•Kg-1, sodium=1.42-1.54 g•Kg-1, potassium=2.69-3.01 g•Kg-1, iron=120.19-105.31 ppm, manganese=54.5-59.77 ppm, zinc=56.48-46.89 ppm and copper=10.92-7.96 ppm. The main fatty acids were linolenic acid (62.72-66.19%) having the highest value, followed by palmitic (17.13-17.26%), linoleic (9.65-7.64%), oleic (3.24- 2.14%), and stearic acid (2.71-2.66%). The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was found at levels of 29.16-29.11% (db). On average, the three most abundant amino acids in both variants were tyrosine, glutamate, aspartate, histidine, phenylalanineand leucine acid. The two Moringa variants showed total phenolic and flavonoids contents of 71.08-76.63 mg EAG•g-1 (db) and 55.7-60.3 mg QE•g-1 (db), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the ORAC assay was 154.71-182.31 µmol ET•g-1 (db), while the DPPH assay value was 86.82-87.92%. Finally, gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 1.238-1.193, 0.585-0.568, 0.503-0.485, 1.090-1.114 and 0.536-0.518 mg•g-1, respectively. Our results show that Moringa oleifera leaves are an important source of protein, fatty acids, minerals and phenolic compounds that could be used in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry.

161-168 Download
24
PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND STEROL CONTENTS OF OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) OILS OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES
FAHAD AL JUHAIMI1, MEHMET MUSA ÖZCAN2, KASHIF GHAFOOR1*, OLADIPUPO Q. ADIAMO1 AND ELFADIL E. BABIKER1

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND STEROL CONTENTS OF OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) OILS OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Oil obtained from 5 different olive cultivars was analyzed for phenolic and sterol composition. Total phenolic contents of oils were determined between 94.99 mg GAE/kg oil (Al-Joif) to 405.71 mg GAE/ kg oil (Sarıulak) (p

169-172 Download
25
PIGMENT CONTENT (CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOIDS) IN 37 SPECIES OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN NORTHEASTERN MEXICO DURING SUMMER SEASON
HUMBERTO GONZÁLEZ RODRÍGUEZ1*, RATIKANTA MAITI1, ELIUD AVENDAÑO1, CH. ARUNA KUMARI2 AND NARAYAN CHANDRA SARKAR3

PIGMENT CONTENT (CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOIDS) IN 37 SPECIES OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN NORTHEASTERN MEXICO DURING SUMMER SEASON
ABSTRACT:
Plant pigments play an important role in plant assimilatory systems and plant growth. A study was undertaken to determine chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids contents of thirty seven species of trees and shrubs in summer season, in Linares, northeastern Mexico. Large variations were observed in the contents of chlorophyll (a, b and total) and also carotenoids among species. Chorophyll a was minimum (around 0.6 mg) in Leucophyllum frutescens and Acacia berlandieri and maximum (1.8 mg) in Ebenopsis ebano. Chlorophyll b was minimum in Forestiera angustifolia, Acacia berlandieri, and Leucophyllum frutescens (0.1 to 0.2 mg), while Ebenopsis ebano contained maximum (0.4 mg). Carotenoids content was minimum (around 0.2 mg) in Leucophyllum frutescens, Acacia berlandieri and Parkinsonia aculeata and others but maximum value (around 0.6 mg) was observed in Berberis trifoliata. Total chlorophyll (a+b) content minimum values (around 0.6 mg) were recorded in Leucophyllum frutescens, Forestiera angustifolia, Croton suaveolens and Acacia berlandieri, while maximum value (around 2 mg) was obtained in Ebenopsis ebano. Maximum values of chlorophyll (a:b) ratio (around 7) was seen in Forestiera angustifolia, Salix lasiolepis followed by Diospyros texana (around 6). The ratio of total chlorophyll/carotenoids was maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (nearing 8), while minimum value was obtained in Berberis trifoliata (around 2).

173-179 Download
26
MODIFICATION OF PHOTO-THERMAL MODEL BY ACCOMMODATING LIGHT INTEGRALS USING ANTIRRHINUM FLOWERING AND LEAF NUMBER DATA FROM RESTRICTED RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD MUNIR1,3*, PAUL HADLEY1, JAMES CAREW1, STEVEN ADAMS2 AND SIMON PEARSON1

MODIFICATION OF PHOTO-THERMAL MODEL BY ACCOMMODATING LIGHT INTEGRALS USING ANTIRRHINUM FLOWERING AND LEAF NUMBER DATA FROM RESTRICTED RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of study was to quantify the flowering and leaf number response of Antirrhinum majus L. cv. Chimes White to different photoperiods, night temperatures and light integrals using photo-thermal model. Two experiments were conducted i.e. first one in February (under low ambient light integrals) and the second one in June (under high ambient light integrals). In each experiment plants of an early flowering cv. Chimes White were transferred (after 80% germination) to two night temperature suits (set-point temperatures 10 and 20°C), each having four photoperiod chambers (8, 11, 14 and 17 h.d-1). Results revealed that plants flowered earlier at long photoperiod (17 h.d-1), higher mean diurnal temperature (19.2°C in February and 23.4°C in June) and high ambient light integrals (8.26 MJ.m-2.d-1) and vice versa. These findings were successfully incorporated in to photo-thermal model, which was not reported before in Antirrhinum. The simple linear model hence updated, which would be helpful for growers to predict and quantify flowering time and leaf number (plant quality) of Antirrhinum well before their plantation to maintain its continual supply to the market.

181-186 Download
27
DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARENCHYMA AND FIBER CELLS AND THEIR SECONDARY WALL DEPOSITION IN FARGESIA YUNNANENSIS
SHU-GUANG WANG1, CHENG-BIN WAN2Ɵ, HUI ZHAN1Ɵ, SHU-YAN LIN3Ɵ AND YU-LONG DING3

DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARENCHYMA AND FIBER CELLS AND THEIR SECONDARY WALL DEPOSITION IN FARGESIA YUNNANENSIS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the morphological characteristics of nuclei and the secondary wall deposition in parenchyma and fiber cells during the whole bamboo growth cycle from shoots to old culms, with a further purpose to assess the developmental differences between fibers and parenchyma cells and analyze the secondary wall deposition mechanism. Initially the fiber wall thickness was less than the parenchyma cell thickness in young shoots, but increased significantly after 1 year. Fibers elongated earlier than both their nuclei and parenchyma cells. Fiber nuclei also elongated and presented the spindle shape in longitudinal section. The formation and elongation of long cells were involved in the fast elongation of internodes. In mature culms, the ways of secondary wall deposition for fibers depended on their diameter and positions. Large diameter fibers usually had more cell wall layers than narrow fibers.

187-200 Download
28
IMPACT OF ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ON GENETIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL VARIATION INJUNIPERUS EXCELSA FROM HIGH ELEVATION ZONES OF QUETTA VALLEY, PAKISTAN
SHAZIA SAEED1, MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI1*, ALIA AHMED1, RASOOL BAKSH TAREEN1, SANIA BEGUM2AND GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI2

IMPACT OF ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ON GENETIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL VARIATION INJUNIPERUS EXCELSA FROM HIGH ELEVATION ZONES OF QUETTA VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56±9.15 and 150±27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used as base line study for implementation of conservation strategies.

201-206 Download
29
DIFFERENTIATION OF EPIPACTIS PALUSTRIS (L.) CRANTZ (ORCHIDACEAE) IN HABITATS ALTERED BY MAN BASED ON SPECIES POPULATIONS WITHIN POZNAŃ CITY (POLAND)
MAGDALENA KLUZA-WIELOCH1*, MAŁGORZATA WYRZYKIEWICZ-RASZEWSKA1, MARIA DRAPIKOWSKA2, ZBIGNIEW CELKA3 AND IRMINA MACIEJEWSKA-RUTKOWSKA4

DIFFERENTIATION OF EPIPACTIS PALUSTRIS (L.) CRANTZ (ORCHIDACEAE) IN HABITATS ALTERED BY MAN BASED ON SPECIES POPULATIONS WITHIN POZNAŃ CITY (POLAND)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the study was to compare two populations of Epipactis palustris (Orchidaceae) growing in the valley of Junikowski Stream, in the south-western part of the Poznań city (square of ATPOL BD08) and to compare current results to data on the species described in the literature. Group characteristics of both populations, such as population size, average density and congestion factor, as well as the average coefficient of dispersion, were defined. Specimen variability was determined by measuring 250 generative ramets in each population. The following plant traits were included: stem length, inflorescence length, number of flowers per inflorescence, number of leaves per stem and length and width of the largest leaf. Obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated (arithmetic average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum). The variation coefficient (V) was established to determine the variation degree of each trait. In order to determine statistical significance of average values of traits of the samples in question, the factor variance ANOVA F-statistics was used. The significance degree was examined with Scheffe's test. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled the examination of mutual relations between the samples in the system of two first principal components. This work confirmed previous information about low variability of marsh helleborine. Individual traits in both populations were very similar. The differences concerned the group characteristics. The plants were in good condition irrespective of occupied habitat.

207-214 Download
30
COMPLEX PHYLOGENETIC PLACEMENT OF ILEX SPECIES (AQUIFOLIACEAE): A CASE STUDY OF MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY
FAN YI1,2, LE SUN1,2, DA-CHENG HAO3, YONG PENG1,2,* FENG-MING HAN4,* AND PEI-GEN XIAO1,2

COMPLEX PHYLOGENETIC PLACEMENT OF ILEX SPECIES (AQUIFOLIACEAE): A CASE STUDY OF MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY
ABSTRACT:
To investigate the phylogenetic relationships among Ilex species distributed in China, we analyzed two alignments including 4,698 characters corresponding to six plastid sequences (matK, rbcL, atpB-rbcL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH, and rpl32-trnL) and 1,748 characters corresponding to two nuclear sequences (ITS and nepGS). Using different partitioning strategies and approaches (i.e., Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony) for phylogeny reconstruction, different topologies and clade supports were determined. A total of 18 Ilex species was divided into two major groups (group I and II) in both plastid and nuclear phylogenies with some incongruences. Potential hybridization events may account, in part, for those phylogenetic uncertainties. The analyses, together with previously identified sequences, indicated that all 18 species were recovered within Eurasia or Asia/North America groups based on plastid data. Meanwhile, the species in group II in the nuclear phylogeny were placed in the Aquifolium clade, as inferred from traditional classification, whereas the species in group I belonged to several other clades. The divergence time of most of the 18 Ilex species was estimated to be not more than 10 million years ago. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that paleogeographical events and past climate changes during the same period might have played important roles in these diversifications.

215-225 Download
31
COMPARATIVE REGENERATION STATUS OF PINUS GERARDIANA IN TWO FOREST-USE TYPES OF SULAIMAN MOUNTAIN RANGE NEAR PAK-AFGHAN BORDER REGION: HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
MUHAMMAD ABDUL AZIZ1, MUHAMMAD ADNAN1*, SYED KAMRAN HUSSAIN2, ABEER HASHEM3, ABDULAZIZ A. ALQARAWI4 AND ELSAYED FATHI ABD_ALLAH*4

COMPARATIVE REGENERATION STATUS OF PINUS GERARDIANA IN TWO FOREST-USE TYPES OF SULAIMAN MOUNTAIN RANGE NEAR PAK-AFGHAN BORDER REGION: HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
ABSTRACT:
Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D.Don is valuable commercial species with sparse distribution all around the world. In the Sulaiman mountain range of Pakistan, P. gerardiana faces many threats affecting its regeneration status and sustainable conservation. The aim of study was to evaluate the competing regeneration and expansion pattern of P. gerardiana in two different forest-use types (based on anthropogenic pressure) in Sulaiman mountain range. Seventy plots were randomly selected in each forest. Average regeneration density was significantly greater in the (low anthropogenic area) (85.76 ± 6.67 no ha-1) than the (high anthropogenic area) (4.30 ± 0.98 no ha-1). Determining the basal area (m2 ha-1), significantly higher value was recorded in low anthropogenic area (2.69 ± 0.14, p

227-236 Download
32
VARIABILITY IN THE GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATION AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION OF KASHMIR-PAKISTAN
NASIR RAHIM1, M. KALEEM ABBASI1*, AND SOHAIL HAMEED

VARIABILITY IN THE GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATION AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION OF KASHMIR-PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to examine the variability of soybean nodulation and growth in relation to elevation and soil properties across the slopping uplands of the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan in order to find efficient native N2 fixing bacteria adapted to local soil and climatic characteristics. Soils from twenty two different sites with variable altitude were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics including the quantitative estimation of rhizobium population through most probable number (MPN) technique. Soybean cultivar William-82 was grown in these soils under greenhouse condition for determining the nodulation potential (number and mass) and plant growth characteristics. Morphology of the nodules were observed through optical and transmission electron microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Biplot graph were used to jointly interpret the relationship between variables and soils (treatments). Soil altitude ranged from 855 m to 3000 m while organic matter content varied between 0.8% to 3.5% and pH from 6.0 to 8.1. The indigenous rhizobia population varied between 5.0 x104 to 8.0 x106 CFU g-1 showing the existence of a substantial rhizobial population in these soils. The number of nodules per plant varied from 7 to 40 (CV 38%) suggesting site/location as an important factor contributing towards rhizobia population and impacting root nodulation. The electron microscopy of green plant nodules showed densely populated bacteria in these cells and nodule tissue cells were completely infected with bacteria. The growth characteristics of soybean i.e. shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight varied among the sites but in general a vigorous and healthy plant growth was observed reflecting N assimilation from native soils. Results showed a substantial variability between sites and this is likely to be due to inter/intra species diversity, as well as changes in microbial community composition/structure. The study suggests that soybean could be planted in this region without prior inoculation, and that native N2-fixing bacteria might be isolated from these soils and used as biofertilizers (or inoculants).

237-247 Download
33
BASELINE DATA ON WILD FLORA OF CROP FIELD BOUNDARIES IN THE AGRO-ECOSYSTEM OF POTHWAR PLATEAU, PAKISTAN
MISBAH SARWAR*1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN1, NASRA ASHRAF2, MAQSOOD ANWAR1 AND SARWAT NAZ MIRZA3

BASELINE DATA ON WILD FLORA OF CROP FIELD BOUNDARIES IN THE AGRO-ECOSYSTEM OF POTHWAR PLATEAU, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice.

249-258 Download
34
INTRODUCING SOME OF THREATENED THYMUS SPECIES TO IN VITRO TISSUE CULTURING AS AN APPROACH FOR THEIR CONSERVATION
RAED ALKOWNI1*, ESRA SOLYMAN1 AND HASSAN ABU QAUOD2

INTRODUCING SOME OF THREATENED THYMUS SPECIES TO IN VITRO TISSUE CULTURING AS AN APPROACH FOR THEIR CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Thymes are considered the most popular herbs in Palestine due to their considerable medicinal and nutritional values. However, at the same time they are also threatened or endangered due to intensive harvesting. Five of the most important thyme species grown naturally in Palestine (wild-types) were collected and their responses to artificial media supplemented with various plant growth regulators had been tested. The results revealed the effectiveness in using the artificial media (MS) with hormonal combinations to regenerate thymes from all five species. The study revealed that callus was induced better with MS media maintained 2mg/L 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/L for all thymes species. Meanwhile media with 1mg/L kinetin and 0.3 mg/L Gibberellic acid were found optimum for shoot proliferation. The best shoot proliferation was recorded for Thymus incanus (96%). Developed shoots were easily rooted on media contained 0.01mg/L 2,4 D. Moreover, Organogenesis of thyme plant derived from callus was successfully generated on MS media contained 2mg/L of each NAA and kinetin hormones (1:1 ratio), suggesting additional possibilities of ex-situ conservation of these wild herbs. This study was the first to establish a rapid and reliable protocol for micropropagation of wild Palestinian thymes; proposing as well the potential of using this biotechnology in rescuing wild Thymus species.

259-264 Download
35
INVESTIGATION OF SPORE MORPHOLOGY OF SOME POTTIACEAE (SCHIMP.) TAXA (BRYOPHYTA) IN TURKEY
ISMUHAN POTOGLU ERKARA1, FILIZ SAVAROGLU1 ⃰, RAMAZAN TAN2 AND SEVIL PEHLIVAN3

INVESTIGATION OF SPORE MORPHOLOGY OF SOME POTTIACEAE (SCHIMP.) TAXA (BRYOPHYTA) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Turkey is one of the centres of diversity for bryophytes. Since spore morphology is beneficial in taxonomy, this study consists of the spore morphology of nine Pottiaceae taxa. The purpose of the study is to provide the detailed taxonomical, morphological and ecological characterization of the Pottiaceae family in Turkey. The spores of the Syntrichia calcicola J.J. Amann, S. montana Nees, Tortula canescens Mont., T. inermis (Brid.) Mont., T. lanceola R. H. Zander, T. modica R. H. Zander, T. muralis Hedw., T. subulata Hedw., and T. truncata (Hedw.) Mitt. types have been studied under light and through scanning electron microscopes. The aperture region of all the spores is composed of a leptoma. The spore morphology of the examined taxa of the family are of six types depending on the sclerine ornamentation – granulate, granulate-pliate, verrucate, baculate-verrucate, rugulate, and rugulate-verrucate. The shape of the spore is prolate-spheroidal. The spore dimensions of the studied taxa of the Pottiaceae family vary from 5 to 42 µm. The examined species belong to the saxicolous and terrestrial habitat. The taxonomic and ecological content of the Pottiaceae family has been discussed on the basis of spore morphology.

265-272 Download
36
THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON MICRO-ENVIRONMENT AND SPECIFIC LEAF AREA WITHIN THE GAP, SUBTROPICAL FOREST, CHINA
SUPAPORN BUAJAN1, LIU JINFU1*, HE ZHONGSHENG1 , FENG XUEPING1 AND ABRAR MUHAMMAD2

THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON MICRO-ENVIRONMENT AND SPECIFIC LEAF AREA WITHIN THE GAP, SUBTROPICAL FOREST, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Each gap has its own environment, which effect on species growth. Light is the most changes when gap creates. Hence, this study explored whether light has effect on micro-environment and determined the effect of light on specific leaf area (SLA) of species regeneration layer within nine sampling gaps and non-gap. In growing season, environment factors such as light intensity (LI), air temperature (AT), air relative humidity (RH), soil temperature (ST), and soil water content (SWC) were collected. Leaf samples were collected to measure the SLA, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) content. We found that LI had a positive significant correlation with the ST and AT but negative significant correlation with the RH, which these correlation were inversed in non-gap area. The significant different of LI between gap size were found, which the highest average LI occurred in the large gap size meanwhile, the lowest average LI occurred in the small gap size. The spatial heterogeneity of LI differ among the gap depends on the topography, slope direction, and location of trees at each direction. In medium and large gap size, LI had a negative significant correlation with the SLA (r = - 0.248, p = 0.04 and r = - 0.264, p = 0.008). At all directions, the SLA increases with a decreasing LI. Our results concluded that LI had effect on micro-environment in different gap size and SLA in each direction within the gap when compared with non-gap. In addition, SLA had a positive significance with N and P content.

273-282 Download
37
MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON PETALS OF SPIRAEA L. SPECIES (ROSACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
SYEDA ASMA OMER1 , MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT2 AND SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR3

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON PETALS OF SPIRAEA L. SPECIES (ROSACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Epidermal micromorphology of petals of 10 species of Spiraea L. of the family Rosaceae from Pakistan has been examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Micromorphological attributes observed in petals and their reliability as a taxonomic marker is discussed. The epidermal cells exhibit definite geometrical patterns, where cell wall boundaries are more or less elevated and cell surface generally marked with striae. Stomata are completely absent.

283-287 Download
38
RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES AFFECT ORCHID DIVERSITY OF ALBANIAN GRAVEYARDS
ATTILA MOLNÁR V, ATTILA TAKÁCS, EDVÁRD MIZSEI, VIKTOR LÖKI,ZOLTÁN BARINA, GÁBOR SRAMKÓ AND JÁCINT TÖKÖLYI

RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES AFFECT ORCHID DIVERSITY OF ALBANIAN GRAVEYARDS
ABSTRACT:
Graveyards are unique habitats and well-known as refugia for many organisms, as traditional habitat management of graveyards lends them serious conservational value. However, the impact of religious affiliation to the natural values of graveyards has not been evaluated yet, although religion can have an impact on them through different habits and management. To test this hypothesis, we collected comprehensive field data of orchids and environmental variables in 166 Albanian graveyards. We found that Muslim graveyards were significantly larger and contained a smaller proportion of area covered by graves than Christian ones. Altogether 29 orchid taxa were found in 88 graveyards with different religious affiliation (Muslim, Christian or mixed). Muslim graveyards contained more orchid taxa compared to Christian ones. Orchid abundance was also significantly positively related to elevation. Based on this study, Albanian graveyards can be considered as significant refugia for orchids in the Mediterranean, and the long-term graveyard management influenced by the religious affiliation may have a significant impact on the natural values of these graveyards.

289-303 Download
39
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE TAXONOMY OF THE SOME TAXA OF HELICHRYSUM GAERTNER (ASTERACEAE) IN TURKEY
OMER ELKIRAN1*, EYÜP BAGCI2 AND A. HARUN EVREN2

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE TAXONOMY OF THE SOME TAXA OF HELICHRYSUM GAERTNER (ASTERACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns.

305-310 Download
40
INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS IN PROTECTED AREAS WITHIN CITY BORDERS, ŁÓDŹ, (POLAND)
BOMANOWSKA ANNA, REWICZ AGNIESZKA*, WOLSKI GRZEGORZ J. AND KATARZYNA KRASOŃ

INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS IN PROTECTED AREAS WITHIN CITY BORDERS, ŁÓDŹ, (POLAND)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the study was to present the occurrence of invasive alien plant species in two forest reserves: “Las Łagiewnicki” and “Polesie Konstantynowskie”, located within the city of Łódź (Central Poland). Currently, five vascular plants (Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) and one moss (Orthodontium lineare) considered as invasive were found in the studied reserves. Invasive plant species accounted for a small percentage of the flora in the studied reserves, and their sites were mainly concentrated in areas transformed by human activity. The most common species wereImpatiens parviflora and Padus serotina. Due to the location of the reserves within city borders and the proven negative effect of the found species on ecological systems, their sites should be monitored.

311-316 Download
41
IMPACT OF TUBER LOCATION ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CYCLAMEN
PEMBE CURUK

IMPACT OF TUBER LOCATION ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CYCLAMEN
ABSTRACT:
In Cyclamen genus, there are differences at some degree of morphological characters among closely related wild species with disjunct distributions. Two hundred and fiveTurkish landraces of cyclamen coming from different areas containing different temperature, altitudes, soil and vegetation, relative humidity and light intensity were evaluated for 12 quantitative morphological traits of flowers and leaves such as petal length, petal width, flower number/plant, pedicel length, basal corolla ring diameter, pistil length, stamen length, leaf number/plant, petiole length, lamina length, lamina width, plant growth habit, in Cyclamen mirabile, Cyclamen alpinum and Cyclamen hederifolium. According to the location of species, all three species showed morphological differentiation in two traits (pedicel length and petiole length). C. mirabile showed high levels of morphological differentiation from other species (in eight traits out of 12, as 66,7%), followed by C. hederifolium (in six traits out of 12, as 50%) and C. alpinum (in four traits out of 12, as 33,3%).

317-324 Download
42
INTRAFLORAL DIFFERENTIATION OF STAMEN MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L.
YANG MEILIN1.2, YIN LINKE1*, YAN CHENG1 AND CAO QIUMEI3

INTRAFLORAL DIFFERENTIATION OF STAMEN MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L.
ABSTRACT:
In Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae), a woody perennial with both male and perfect flowers on the same plant, each flower has both short and long stamens. Flowers of C. spinosa were examined for 2 years at the Turpan Eremophytes Botanical Garden in Xinjiang, China. Stamen morphological characteristics, pollen vigor, quantity of pollen, and insect visitation were compared for flowers with short and long stamens to ascertain the function of the two types of stamens. Both types of flowers, male and perfect flowers, had both long and short stamens in the same flower. The number of stamens and pollen grains as well as the color of filaments in a single flower were significantly different between long and short stamens. The number of pollen grains produced by long stamens in a flower was greater than those of shorter stamen in the same flower, although pollen vigor did not differ between pollen from long and short stamens. Insect visitation frequency was higher for long stamens than for short stamens. The pollen of long and short stamens was used for hand-pollination. The rates of fruit and seed set from the pollen of long stamens were higher than those from the pollen of short stamens. While the main function of long stamenswas to provide pollen for visiting insects, short stamens might improve male resources in three ways: by providing a guaranteeof pollen availability in adverse weather conditions, increasingthe space available for pollen capture and increasing the visitation timeofindividual insects.

325-330 Download
43
ANTHER DEVELOPMENT AND MICROSPOROGENESIS IN DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
ESMAEIL JAZINIZADEH1,2*, AHMAD MAJD1 AND ZAHRA POURPAK2

ANTHER DEVELOPMENT AND MICROSPOROGENESIS IN DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Microsporogenesis and pollen morphology of Phoenix dactylifera L. was studied in this study. Anther, in different developmental stages, was removed, fixed in Formalin-glacial acetic acid-alcohol (FAA), stored in 70% ethanol, embedded in paraffin and then sliced at 8-10μm by rotary microtome. Staining was carried out with Hematoxylin-Eozin. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the mature pollen grains. The pollen protein extracts of date palm were obtained from pollen by phosphate buffer saline (PBS). They were separated by 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The anther wall is constituted of five cellular strata: epidermis, monostratified endothecium, middle layer formed by two cellular strata and the secretory tapetum. The microspore mother cells begin meiosis and form tetrads of tetragonal microspores. The mature anther wall consists of an epidermis and an endothecium. Mature pollen grains are two-celled and monosulcate, semitectate -reticulate. SDS- PAGE analysis of mature pollen grains showed protein bands of 10–110 kDa regions.

331-335 Download
44
COCCULUS LAURIFOLIUS: A RICH ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHTYOCHEMICAL SOURCE
MUHAMMAD AJAIB1*, ZUBARIA ASHRAF2 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3

COCCULUS LAURIFOLIUS: A RICH ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHTYOCHEMICAL SOURCE
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant potential and the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the bark and leaf of Cocculus laurifolius DC. by using polar and non-polar solvents, i.e. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and distilled water. Chloroform bark extracts showed maximum % yield. Antimicrobial activity was determined by using 4 bacterial strains (2 gram-negative and 2 gram- positive) and 2 fungal strains. Leaf and bark extracts of C. laurifolius showed significant to average results against bacterial and fungal strain. Bark extracts of chloroform and methanol revealed a maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus in agar-well diffusion method with values of 37±3.1mm and 37±2.2mm respectively and bark extract of methanol exhibited MIC value with 0.06±0.01 (at 0.9 mg/L) against E. coli. In antifungal activity, all extracts showed average results against fungal strains. Maximum result exhibited by bark extract of methanol with values 29±1.4 and 0.70±0.01 (at 1 mg/L) against F. solani in zone of inhibition and MIC analysis. Significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity of chloroform extracts of bark i.e. 92.45±0.1 while extract of chloroform bark display IC50: 28.27±1.03 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of plant further confirmed by conducting three more activities i.e. Total phenolic contents (TPC), Metal chelating (MC) and Total antioxidant activity (TAA). Chloroform extracts of bark showed a maximum value of TPC, i.e. 293±1.3 GAE mg/mL while bark extract of methanol exhibited maximum MC value, i.e. 262±0.01mg/mL and leaf extracts of methanol showed highest TAA value, i.e. leaf 1.1753± 0.3. Cocculus laurifolius contain many phytochemical constituents, i.e. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds Bark contain high amount of alkaloids and flavonoids, i.e., 17.13±0.78 and 16.73±0.56 respectively as compared to leaf but phenolic contents and saponins were present in leaf in significant amount.

337-344 Download
45
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NON-TRANSGENIC AND SALT TOLERANT TRANSGENIC EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS FOR DIVERSITY AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
SYED ABDULLAH GILANI1,2, AKIRA KIKUCHI2, XIANG YU2, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMAD3, MAMI SUGANO4, YOSHIHARU FUJII4, KAZUO N. WATANABE2*

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NON-TRANSGENIC AND SALT TOLERANT TRANSGENIC EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS FOR DIVERSITY AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
ABSTRACT:
Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of the most widely planted eucalypts in the world that has importance in agricultural, ecological, cultural and recreational areas. Allelopathic effects of essential oils extracted from non-transgenic and transgenic (salt tolerant conferring full mangrin gene and core mangrin gene) E. camaldulensis lines were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination and early (72 h) growth of root and hypocotyl. Seed germination was significantly higher in most of the transgenic lines than non-transgenic lines. Low (1–3 µl) oil concentration stimulated root growth but was inhibitory for the hypocotyl. Higher concentrations (>20 µl) of these oils arrested growth of both the roots and hypocotyls of lettuce seeds completely. In general, all the results showed no significant inhibitory effects of transgenic and non-transgenic lines on lettuce seeds. GCMS analysis showed 18 chemical compounds with 1,8-cineole and α-pinene, as a major oil constituents of E. camaldulensis with no variation between transgenic and non-transgenic lines. However, the average quantity of α-pinene in non-transgenic lines was higher than the transgenic lines but in case of 1,8-cineole no difference was observed between transgenic and non-transgenic genotypes.

345-351 Download
46
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. FROM SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, MUHAMMAD SHEERAZ AHMED2 AND MASROOR IKRAM3

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. FROM SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a miraculous plant that endowed with variety of medicinal properties and traditionally used as herbal drug as well as nutraceutical agent. There is sporadic information on phytochemical and antifungal activity of various solvents based leaves extracts. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore In vitro antifungal activity of M. oleifera leaves against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida albicans at four different concentrations (50-300 mg/ml) by ager well diffusion method. Leaves of this plant were collected from the Thal Desert, Pakistan, dried under shade, powdered and kept in air tight sterilized bottles. Polarity based solvent extraction of powdered samples were carried out with different solvents. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts were found the most effective against all selected fungal strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in the case of methanolic leaves extract (16 mm) against A. niger at a concentration of 300 mg/ml, which was at par to the standard antibiotic. Methanolic extract showed the highest MIC value (70 mg/ml) against A. niger. There was very strong activity in terms of IC50 against MCF-7, INS-1, RG2 and HeLa (

353-359 Download
47
CONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF DISEASE IN SOME PLANTS USING ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE BIOCIDES
I. M. HELAL

CONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF DISEASE IN SOME PLANTS USING ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE BIOCIDES
ABSTRACT:
Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani are causal agents of damping-off disease. Biocides formulations were prepared from the essential oils of fennel, peppermint, oregano and ginger. The potential of these formulations were tested to inhibit the In vitro growth of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. The most effective formulations obtained were used against the In vivo growth of the studied fungi (pot experiment) on gamma-irradiated seeds of squash and tomato, respectively. The In vitro studies showed that the formulated peppermint oil led to complete growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and the oregano oil formulation resulted in complete growth inhibition of Fusarium solani. The other formulations showed a variably less effect against the investigated fungi. The results of the In vivo experiment revealed that the formulated peppermint and oregano oils significantly minimized the pathological symptoms of the inoculated fungi on the studied plants compared to the control. Gamma radiation showed an insignificant result in enhancing the curative effect of the biocides. Chemical fungicide demonstrated fewer effects than the formulated biocides. Physiologically, the formulated biocides add protection to the plant against fungal infection by increasing the levels of the enzymes; Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Peroxidase (POD) and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL).The obtained results reveal the potential antifungal effects of biocides against the damping-off disease in squash and tomato and recommend their use as an alternative tool rather than chemical fungicides.

361-370 Download
48
BIOCONTROL OF CERTAIN SOILBORNE DISEASES AND PROMOTION OF GROWTH OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM USING BIOFUNGICIDES
ADEL KAMEL MADBOULY1 * AND ASHRAF M.M. ABDELBACKI2

BIOCONTROL OF CERTAIN SOILBORNE DISEASES AND PROMOTION OF GROWTH OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM USING BIOFUNGICIDES
ABSTRACT:
Colored pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has great economic importance as a food vegetable crop in Egypt and all over the world. This crop is prone to infection with soilborne fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These mycopathogens were isolated from diseased pepper seedlings, identified; their virulence was confirmed in the greenhouse. Eight bacterial isolates mainly; (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), and many fungal isolates mainly, (Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride), were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pepper. They caused appreciable In vitro inhibition of the radial growth of the 3 pathogens in dual culture technique, in percentages ranging from (71-79%) and (80-87%), respectively. On infestation of pepper soil with these bioagents and the 3 pathogens separately in the greenhouse, they caused In vivo reduction of disease symptoms of pepper compared with the pathogens infested and non-infested control soils. In addition, they caused significant improvement of pepper growth compared with the control soil, however, promotion exerted by B. subtilis and T. harzianum was more than that of P. fluorescens and T. viride. These promoting activities could be attributed to the production of metabolites such as growth hormones; solubilization of phosphates and improvement of nutrient uptake. This is the first record of promoting the growth of pepper in greenhouse by B. subtilis and T. harzianum in Egypt. Thus these bioagents could be formulated then applied in the future in pepper fields of this country as safe, effective, ecofriendly biofungicides to control soilborne pathogens and also could be used as biofertilizers to promote the growth and productivity of this crop.

371-378 Download
49
PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN A MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM AT SANDSPIT, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
MAHWISH SHOAIB, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN*, SEEMA SHAFIQUE, HINA JABEEN AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUE

PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN A MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM AT SANDSPIT, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The phytoplankton occurring in the mangrove habitat of Sandspit, Karachi was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively during a period from June 2013 to May 2014. Species of diatoms appeared to be more diverse and dominant forms. In contrast dinoflagellates exhibited very low species diversity and were observed in samples collected from June, August and September. Phytoplankton cell density varied seasonally and their abundance ranged from 0.25 x106-7.044x106 and 0.042x106-5.172x106 cells L‾1 during high and low tide, respectively. Pennate diatoms were highly diversified when compare to centric diatoms (3 centric and 23 pennate). Centric diatoms were dominated by Cyclotella cf. meneghiniana, whereas Cyilndrotheca closterium was the most abundant species in the pennate group followed, by Navicula sp., Nitzschia sp., Pleurosigma sp. and Gyrosigma sp. respectively. The dinoflagellates were represented by very few species such as Alexandrium sp., Prorocentrum micans and Gyrodinium spirale. Seasonal variations in hydrographical parameters were also recorded and the data ranges for salinity (33-42 PSU), temperature (16-32˚C), pH (7.0-7.7), dissolved oxygen (0.08-6.18mg/L), total suspended solids (0.97-13.8 mg/L) and chlorophyll a (0.0006-0.431 µg/L). During the period of this investigation Sandspit backwaters received a load of pollution from the Layari River and therefore the resistant diatom species dominated and dinoflagellates occurred in very low abundance and diversity. Implication of pollution and changing hydrographical parameters in the coastal waters of Karachi with phytoplankton structure need regular monitoring and research.

379-387 Download