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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 3
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1
PHYSIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA (L.) JEFFREY TO NACL TREATMENTS
Saman Ehsen, Rabab Fatima Rizvi, Zainul Abideen, Irfan Aziz, Salman Gulzar, Bilquees Gul, M. Ajmal Khan and Raziuddin Ansari

PHYSIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA (L.) JEFFREY TO NACL TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:

Zaleya pentandra is a moderately salt resistant xero-halophyte, used locally as cattle fodder and as a source of medicine for various ailments. The present study deals with the effect of salinity on growth, leaf water relations, photosynthesis and anti-nutritive chemicals of this plant. Plants were grown in plastic pots containing sandy loam soil irrigated with Hoagland’s nutrient solution under various salt (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) treatments in an open netted green house. Shoot and root length and biomass, number of leaves and nodes, remained unchanged at 75 mM NaCl treatment compared to non-saline controls. Shoot dry weight decreased by about 70% at 150 mM NaCl treatment, while root dry weight remained unaffected by salinity. Leaf osmotic potential also was unaffected at 75 Mm NaCl but decreased at 150 mM NaCl. Leaf water potential decreased progressively with increasing salinity treatments. Calculated turgor pressure decreased with increase in salinity. Rate of photosynthesis was unaffected under 75 mM NaCl treatment but decreased by about 50% at high NaCl treatment (i.e. 150 mM NaCl). Similar trends were observed for stomatal conductance and rate of transpiration with concomitant increase in water use efficiency (WUE) at 150 mM NaCl. There was no change in the intrinsic photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) (no photo-inhibition) under saline conditions. However, the effective photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv’/Fm’) was generally low particularly at 150 mM NaCl. Among anti-nutrient chemicals, saponin and nitrate decreased significantly under saline conditions, tannins increased whereas, oxalates, phenols and flavonoids were unaffected. However, all these chemicals were within acceptable limits for cattle feed except for oxalates, which were marginally higher

801-808 Download
2
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO SALINITY IN SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. VARIETIES
Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Juan José Reyes-Pérez, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel, Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, Barbara De Lucia, Felix Alfredo Beltrán-Morales and Francisco Higinio Ruiz-Espinoza

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO SALINITY IN SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:

Worldwide over 30% of irrigated and 7% of rainfed agriculture has been limited by salinity stress. Tolerance of crops to salinity varies and negatively affects agricultural productivity. Despite the plethora of information on NaCl tolerance mechanisms, it is still not completely elucidated. The purpose of this research was to determine NaCl tolerance of eight tomato varieties (Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Rio Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita and Floradade) by evaluating their physiological traits. These varieties were exposed to salinity stress by the addition of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). The physiological variables measured were stomatal conductance, water potential, chlorophyll a, b, total, indirect chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, transpiration and relative water content. The results showed differences in tolerance between varieties in terms of NaCl concentrations and there was interaction between varieties × NaCl in the majority of physiological variables. Symptoms of NaCl stress in the tomato plants were leaf wilting, desiccation, necrosis, and death. All measured variables decreased as salinity increased, except for relative water content and leaf temperature, values of both these variables increased with higher concentrations of NaCl. Physiological traits may be used as an effective means for screening for salinity tolerance in tomato varieties. Amongst the tomato varieties evaluated were Missouri the most tolerant, and Rio Grande the least tolerant. The results indicate that the varieties best tolerant to NaCl conditions from most to least tolerant in successive orderare: Missouri, followed by Ace, Yaqui, Tropic, Floradade, Feroz, Vita and Rio Grande.

809-818 Download
3
EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS ON PLANT GROWTH AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF GRAFTED AND UNGRAFTED GALIA C8 MELON CULTIVAR
Garip Yarsi, Ozlem Altuntas, Aysel Sivaci and H. Yildiz Dasgan

EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS ON PLANT GROWTH AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF GRAFTED AND UNGRAFTED GALIA C8 MELON CULTIVAR
ABSTRACT:

In this study, the growth performance and mineral composition of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. In this study, the plant biomass such as total fresh and dry weight, roots and shoots length; and Ca2+, K+, Na+ and Cl- content in leaves, shoots and roots were investigated. Salt stress resulted in the decrease of total fresh and dry weight by 41.75% and 53.62% for ungrafted but this ratio was 17.17% and 19.25% for Maximus F1/Galia, respectively. The amounts of Na+ and Cl- in leaves of ungrafted plants were very high levels than grafted plants. The effect of salinity was less pronounced in grafted melon plants compared with ungrafted melon plants.

819-822 Download
4
SILICON IMPROVED GROWTH RATE BY ALTERING BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS OF WHEAT UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
Tahir Javaid, Javaid Akhtar, Muhammad Anwar-Ul-Haq and Rashid Ahmad

SILICON IMPROVED GROWTH RATE BY ALTERING BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS OF WHEAT UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

Silicon (Si) is a constructive element for plant growth. Its application plays a multiple role to increase plant growth through influencing physiological and metabolic processes in higher plants under both biotic and abiotic stresses. A hydroponic study was conducted to investigate the interactive effect of salinity and silicon (Si) on plant biochemical attributes at two different growth stages by growing two wheat varieties (Faisalabad-2008 as salt tolerant & Millat-2011 as salt sensitive). The two salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl) and two silicon (1 mM and 2 mM H2SiO3) levels were applied using ½ strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution in a wire house for 30 days. It was found that Si significantly increased the salt tolerance of both wheat varieties by improving the plant biochemical traits. Faisalabad-2008 performed better than Millat-2011at different growth stages, i.e., (tillering and stem elongation).

823-835 Download
5
USE OF PHYSIO-BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS TO EVALUATE THE SALT TOLERANCE OF FIVE OPUNTIA SPECIES IN THE ALGERIAN STEPPES
Bahia Lallouche, Ammar Boutekrabt, Boubakr Hadjkouider, Leila Riahi, Salim Lamine and Néjia Zoghlami

USE OF PHYSIO-BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS TO EVALUATE THE SALT TOLERANCE OF FIVE OPUNTIA SPECIES IN THE ALGERIAN STEPPES
ABSTRACT:

In this study, twelve physio-biochemical parameters were estimated to assess the behavior of five Opuntia species in the Algerian steppes (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis, O. amyclea, O. streptacantha, O. robusta and O. engelmanii).Herein, the salt stress was induced using three levels of NaCl (200 mM, 400 mM and 600 mM). Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the chlorophyll level for both young cladode and aged cladode was found to be the most discriminant parameter under salt stress concentrations 200 and 400 mM. The species were clustered in three groups with O. ficus indica f. inermis and O. amyclea being the most tolerant to salinity. For a salt concentration of 600 mM, the ANOVA showed that the chlorophyll content in aged cladode was the most discriminant parameter. The Biplot-based species analysis revealed that O. engelmanii was the most salt tolerant species. However, O. amyclea and O. robusta were found to be the most sensitive. In conclusion, total chlorophyll contents for young cladode and aged cladode, chlorophyll a of aged cladode, and root total soluble sugars can be used as key parameters to identify the salt tolerance for Opuntia species.

837-845 Download
6
PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSE IN BUTTONWOOD (CONOCARPUS ERECTUS L.) TO SALT STRESS
Mehwish Naseer, Mansoor Hameed, Aneela Zahoor, Farooq Ahmad, Sana Fatima and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad and Mishal Iftikhar

PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSE IN BUTTONWOOD (CONOCARPUS ERECTUS L.) TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:

Structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis in Conocarpus erectus L., a species native to salt marshes of North America and now cultivated throughout the world for its tolerance against a variety of environmental stresses were investigated under high salinity. This species showed better growth at salt level up to 300 mM, whereas extreme salt stress (400 mM NaCl) resulted in a decrease in growth and other physio-anatomical parameters relating photosynthetic activity. Anatomical characters such as leaf and epidermal thickness, proportion of mesophyll tissue, large cortical cells, efficient conducting tissue (phloem and metaxylem area) and stomatal size as well as density contributed towards salinity tolerance and normal photosynthetic activity in C. erectus.

847-856 Download
7
CHANGE IN LEAF ANATOMICAL PARAMETERS OF SEEDLINGS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT SPECIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF DROUGHT AND SALT STRESS
Nina Terletskaya and Meruert Kurmanbayeva

CHANGE IN LEAF ANATOMICAL PARAMETERS OF SEEDLINGS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT SPECIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF DROUGHT AND SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:

There were studied the anatomic parameters of leaves of 10-day-old seedlings of 7 different species of wheat after 72 hours of drought or salt stress and identified key areas of adaptation juvenile leaf tissue to adverse environmental factors. To detect differences between species and between groups of species differing in ploidy level there were identified anatomical features of the structure of each of the leaves of the studied species, grown under normal conditions and under the action of osmotic and salt stress. There were studied anatomical parameters of inner and external surface of the leaf. It was revealed that osmotic stress has an impact on the studied parameters of leaves of all the studied species. Analyzing the data, we can speak of a high adaptive capacity of tetraploid wheat species T. dicoccum Shuebl., T. polonicum L. and T. aethiopicum Jakubz. virtually all considered the anatomical parameters of the leaves. The results of this study show that indicators such as the increase in stress dimensions of protective and mechanical tissue and the mesophyll appear to be good criteria for selection of stress resistant forms of wheat.

857-865 Download
8
SALINITY-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLANT GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA) CULTIVARS
Muhammad Hussein, Alachew Embiale, Azamal Husen, Ibrahim M. Aref and Muhammad Iqbal

SALINITY-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLANT GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress.

867-877 Download
9
THE INFLUENCE OF AL-MADINAH AL-MUNAWWARA TREATED AND UNTREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THREE TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) GENOTYPES
Abdellah Akhkha, Tahar Boutraa and Abdul Khaliq Al-Shoaibi

THE INFLUENCE OF AL-MADINAH AL-MUNAWWARA TREATED AND UNTREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THREE TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:

The impact of irrigation with Al-Madinah Al-Munawwara domestic wastewater on three tomato genotypes (AL, P and VF) was investigated. Five treatments including Tap water, untreated (TN), primary (T1), secondary (T2) and tertiary (T3) treated wastewaters were used for irrigation. The physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater were determined. Leaves were analysed for N, P, K and heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Nickel). The growth parameters assessed were % germination, plant height, shoot and root dry weights, and total leaf dry weight. Some physiological parameters such as photosynthetic light response curve, maximum gross photosynthesis (Amax), dark respiration (DR), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm and Fv / Fm), chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were detected. % germination was decreased in both A1 and P genotype, with no effect on VF genotype. Most growth parameters were increased in genotype A1, followed by VF then P genotype which had a sensitive leaf dry weight to T2 and T3. Photosynthesis was mainly increased in A1 genotype with a decrease in VF genotype. DR was negatively affected in VF genotype with no response of A1 genotype. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed an increase in Fo in VF genotype but a decrease in Fv / Fm in both A1 and VF genotypes. Chlorophyll content index was decreased but only in A1 and VF genotypes under TN. Treatment with TN and / or T1 decreased stomatal conductance in all genotypes. The levels of heavy metals in wastewaters used were lower than the standard limits; however, plant chemical analysis showed that the leaves of the three tomato genotypes accumulated heavy metals but differently with higher levels at TN and lower levels at T3. 

879-890 Download
10
FLOWER ONTOGENY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF SALVÄ°A VÄ°RÄ°DÄ°S L.
Aslihan Çetinbaş Genç and Meral Ünal

FLOWER ONTOGENY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF SALVÄ°A VÄ°RÄ°DÄ°S L.
ABSTRACT:

The flower ontogeny and the developmental features of male and female gametophyte were investigated in Salvia viridis L. It has purple and hermaphrodite flowers. The stamen primordia differantiate shortly before the initiation of carpel primordia from floral meristem. The anther is bisporangiate. Although the anter wall consists of an epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and secretory tapetum in young stage, only epidermal and endothecial cells preserve their vitality until the period of anther dehisce. The microspore tetrad is tetrahedral and the mature pollen grains are pericolpate and tectatae. The pistil has a superior ovary with four loculi and a thick, closed style with forked, unpapillate stigma. The anatropous, tenuinucellate ovule differentiates by axilar placentation. The development of the monosporic embryo sac follows by the Polygonum type

891-896 Download
11
IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS BETWEEN LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) AND BENGAL LOQUAT (E. BENGALENSIS HOOK.)
Yongqing Wang, Kui Du, Qunxian Deng, Jianguo Zeng, Wei Kang, Yuanjun Xu and Jiazhi Zhang

IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS BETWEEN LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) AND BENGAL LOQUAT (E. BENGALENSIS HOOK.)
ABSTRACT:

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical fruit; however, loquat fruitlets are vulnerable to cold injury in winter, which significantly decreases loquat yield in most production regions. In the present study, two loquat cultivars (‘Dawuxing’ and ‘4-1-5’) and one wild loquat (E. bengalensis Hook., Bengal loquat), were used for interspecific hybridization to produce hybrids with characteristics of spring blooming to avoid cold injury of fruitlets. Hybrid seedlings were derived from direct cross (loquat as female parent and Bengal loquat as male parent) and reciprocal cross. The authenticity of 47 hybrid seedlings was confirmed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers; and leaf morphological characteristics of the hybrid offspring and parents were preliminarily studied and compared. The results suggested that 23 true direct cross hybrids and 12 true reciprocal cross hybrids were obtained, with hybrid authenticity rates of 100 and 50.0%, respectively. Thus, a novel method of distant hybridization for loquat breeding was developed, and with their various genetic and morphological characteristics these hybrids could be valuable germplasms for horticultural use. 

897-902 Download
12
CONTRASTING TOLERANCE AMONG SOYBEAN GENOTYPES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CADMIUM STRESS
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam and Parvaiz Ahmad

CONTRASTING TOLERANCE AMONG SOYBEAN GENOTYPES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CADMIUM STRESS
ABSTRACT:

The present study investigated the effects of cadmium stress on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and enzyme activity of five soybean genotypes. Cadmium stress significantly reduced growth attributes, such as the length of plant shoots and roots and the fresh and dry weight of plant shoots, but enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and electrolyte leakage, especially in the PK-416 and Pusa-24 genotypes. Cadmium stress also enhanced leaf proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, especially in the Pusa-37 and Pusa-16 genotypes. Efficient antioxidant systems determine the stress tolerance potential of specific genotypes. Cadmium accumulated to higher levels in roots than in shoots, which indicated that cadmium was selectively absorbed to upper sensitive plant parts. The present study may provide a sustainable approach for identifying soybean genotypes that can be cultivated at heavy metal-polluted sites.

903-911 Download
13
BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION FOR WEAK-LIGHT TOLERANCE OF VARIOUS TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) CULTIVARS IN CHINA
Xincheng Xu, Weiyi Song, Ding Jinping, Zulfiqar Ali, Rabia Faridi and Hongbo Shao

BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION FOR WEAK-LIGHT TOLERANCE OF VARIOUS TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) CULTIVARS IN CHINA
ABSTRACT:

Enhancement in vegetable cultivation technologies remarkably popularized the construction and use of energy-saving sunlight greenhouses.  Ten tomato cultivars in Central Plain of China were used as experimental materials. The effects of weak light stress (50% of normal light density) on the activities of SOD, POD and CAT were determined. Its effect on chlorophyll contents, soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline, and MDA were detected. Dry matter accumulation, fruit setting rate, average fruit weight/fruit and average yield per plant were also measured to observe their changes due to weak light stress. Correlation analysis and main factor analysis were conducted on the coefficients for weak light tolerance of all individual indices using DPS software. The D value of weak light tolerance of cultivar “Xinfen No. 8” (cultivar 5) was maximum, and that of “Jinguan No. 5” (cultivar 7) was minimum. Tomato cultivar “Xinfen No. 8” exhibited the strongest weak-light tolerance, whereas cultivar “Jinguan No. 5” (cultivar 7) showed the weakest weak-light tolerance. This research provides necessary reference for tomato breeding under weak light conditions. 

913-919 Download
14
LEAF GAS EXCHANGE, Fv/Fm RATIO, ION CONTENT AND GROWTH CONDITIONS OF THE TWO MORINGA SPECIES UNDER MAGNETIC WATER TREATMENT
Md. Mahadi Hasan, Hesham F. Alharby, Abdulrahaman S. Hajar and Khalid Rehman Hakeem

LEAF GAS EXCHANGE, Fv/Fm RATIO, ION CONTENT AND GROWTH CONDITIONS OF THE TWO MORINGA SPECIES UNDER MAGNETIC WATER TREATMENT
ABSTRACT:

The current greenhouse experiment investigates the role of magnetic water on the two Moringa species (Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina). Both species were exposed to the magnetic field (30 mT). The magnetic water increased the plant height, leaf number, leaflet number, and internode distances in both the species, respectively. Relative water content (RWC) and leaf area in both the species showed changes under magnetic water treatment. The results showed in magnetic water treatment, the leaf gas exchange parameters such as assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were increased. Similarly, Photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b), Carotenoids), photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) were also increased significantly. Magnetized water had also significant effects on the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm). Our study suggested that magnetic water treatment could be used as an environment-friendly technology for improving the growth and physiology of Moringa species. In addition, this technology could be further incorporated into the traditional methods of agriculture for the improvement of crop plants, particularly in the arid and sub-arid areas of the world. 

921-928 Download
15
LOW SENSITIVITY TO PHOTOPERIOD MAY INCREASE POTATO YIELD IN SHORT DAY THROUGH THE MAINTENANCE OF SINK AND SOURCE BALANCE
Reyhaneh Setayesh, Mohammad Kafi and Mohammad Zare Mehrjerdi

LOW SENSITIVITY TO PHOTOPERIOD MAY INCREASE POTATO YIELD IN SHORT DAY THROUGH THE MAINTENANCE OF SINK AND SOURCE BALANCE
ABSTRACT:

Photoperiod is one of the environmental factors which affect the tuberization of potatoes.  In order to determine the effects of photoperiod on tuberization of two potato cultivars, the effects of long (14 hours) and short (8 hours) days on the growth and production of mini-tubers in two potato cultivars (Agria and Savalan) were evaluated under controlled conditions. The results showed that plants grown under short-day conditions produced more mini-tubers, and these tubers were superior in terms of diameter compared to tubers grown in long days. Agria allocated more assimilates to shoots but lower assimilates to underground in long days which is economically more important. Savalan produced more tubers than Agria in short photoperiods, while, long photoperiod led to increase in shoot and decrease in root weight in this cultivar, still it was significantly higher than Agria. Chlorophyll content of both cultivars decreased under short photoperiod conditions. Irrespective to the cultivar, the number and length of stolon decreased under short photoperiod conditions, but the number of tubers per plant increased under such conditions. Savalan showed lower sensitivity to photoperiod than Agria. Therefore, in the photoperiod sensitive potato cultivars, production of mini-tubers in short days may be recommended, but in the long term, introduction of potato cultivars with lower sensitivity to photoperiod through plant breeding may increase potato yield in short days by maintaining sink and source balance

929-933 Download
16
EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF COTTON FIBER QUALITY
Bolang Chen, Zhongping Chai, Jiandong Sheng, Wentai Zhang and Pingan Jiang

EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF COTTON FIBER QUALITY
ABSTRACT:

Endogenous hormones are a key factor in cotton fiber quality. Studying the relationship among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality can provide a theoretical basis for exploring physiological measurements to improve fiber quality. The relationships among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality for different boll positions and potassium (K) conditions were investigated for the main cultivar ‘Xinluzao 24.’ We used eight application rates of K fertilizer (K2O 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150, 37.5 and sprayed 1% K2SO4, 75 and sprayed 1% K2SO4, and 150 and sprayed 1% K2SO4 kg ha-1 under field conditions). We then measured the contents of indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), zeatin (Z), and abscisic acid (ABA) in relation to changes in fiber quality indices. Results showed that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the contents of IAA, GA3, and Z in the upper and middle boll, and decreased the contents of ABA in the upper, middle, and the lower boll. Compared with the control, applying K fertilizer between 37.5 kg K2O ha–1 and 112.5 kg K2O ha–1 can significantly increase the length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, and maturity of fiber in three parts of the plant. However, excessive application of K fertilizer can reduce fiber uniformity, strength, and micronaire in these locations. Through comprehensive comparison, we determined that the optimal application of K fertilizer for regulating endogenous hormones and improving fiber quality was a basal application of 75 kg K2O ha–1 and a spray application of 1% K2SO4. The endogenous hormones IAA, GA3, and Z can improve cotton fiber quality, but ABA can inhibit cotton fiber quality. Results indicate that reasonable applications of potassium fertilizer could regulate endogenous hormones and improve fiber quality.

935-943 Download
17
PHOTOPERIOD DRIVEN DAYS TO FLOWERING VARIATION AFFECT VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD IN SRI LANKAN TRADITIONAL RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L) MA WEE
W.H.D.U. Pushpakumari, Gamini Senanayake and Sudarshanee Geekiyanage

PHOTOPERIOD DRIVEN DAYS TO FLOWERING VARIATION AFFECT VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD IN SRI LANKAN TRADITIONAL RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L) MA WEE
ABSTRACT:

Variation in days to flowering (DF) is evident in Sri Lankan traditional rice (SLTR) with short aged and long aged varieties while short day sensitive extremes do not flower during non inductive season. Ma wee varieties of SLTR are known for photoperiod sensitivity while being candidates for adaptability to adverse environments. Effect of two photoperiod regimes during Maha growing season {late Maha (LM) of more long days in 2013/2014 and early Maha (EM) of more short days in 2014/2015} on vegetative growth parameters, DF and yield components were determined in 43 Ma wee accessions (close to the number of total collection at gene bank) under Sri Lankan field condition. Only 9 accessions flowered out of 43 accessions during experimental period of ten months in LM. DF was variable within season among above accessions as 71 ± 5.3 to 164 ± 2.1 in LM and 51 ± 0.4 to 166 ± 6 in EM. Except for accession 3598  DF of above accessions were lower in EM in contrast to that in LM. Plant height (PH), DF and grains per panicle (GPP) were significantly affected by season, accession and interaction of accession and season. Total tiller number (TTN) was mainly affected by accession and interaction of accession and season. Yield components of total panicle weight (TPW), grains per panicle (GPP) and first panicle weight (FPW) were increased by increasing DF in EM as TPW= 117.5 +3.465 DF -0.01398 DF2, GPP = 78.36 + 1.478 DF, and FPW = 1.364 +0.03031DF while, hundred grain weight (HGW) was decreased as HGW = 3.724 - 0.01160 DF. Our results on relationships between DF and yield and, DF and vegetative growth in Ma wee at 2 photoperiodic seasons as the first report for Ma wee according to the best of our knowledge would be useful in manipulating DF for better yields in breeding programmes.

945-954 Download
18
INDUCED MUTATIONS AND SOMACLONAL VARIATIONS IN THREE SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) VARIETIES
Shafquat Yasmeen, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan and Syeda Saleha Hasseny

INDUCED MUTATIONS AND SOMACLONAL VARIATIONS IN THREE SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:

Sugarcane is an important field crop of tropics and sub-tropics. Three sugarcane varieties viz. NIA-0819, NIA-98 and BL4 were subjected to induced mutations by using four different doses of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30 and 40Gy).Data on various parameters were collected including auricle, legule, stalk colour, bud shape, number of tillers plant-1, number of internodes, stool weight, cane yield, brix %, purity %, commercial cane sugar (CCS %), sucrose %, and sugar yield. Significant differences were observed for most of the traits in the study. The maximum tillers plant-1 was recorded in NIA-98 at 20Gy and the lowest number of tillers plant-1 was seen in BL4 at 30Gy. Best stool girth was observed at 20Gy in NIA-98. However, longer length leaf was obtained in NIA-0819 at 20Gy, while the short leaf length was recorded in BL4at 40Gy. The maximum brix % was observed in BL4 at 30 and 40Gy. Commercial cane sugar percentage was highest at 10Gy in NIA98. The maximum sugar yields were obtained at 10Gy in NIA-98 whereas; the minimum sugar yield was recorded at 40Gy in BL4. Highest cane yield was achieved at 10Gy in NIA-0819, followed by 20Gy in NIA-98. The gamma radiation doses of 30 and 40Gy showed negative effect on the cane yield in all varieties. Thus, somaclones of NIA-0819at 20Gy and NIA-98 at 10Gy showed the best performance in respect of cane yield, sugar yield and juice quality. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into four major groups. The cluster I was distinguished by its highest sucrose%, sugar yield, and leaf width values. Whereas, cluster II was observed to be unique in terms of its highest plant height, internodes length, leaf length, CCS% and purity %. Moreover, cluster III represented the group of genotypes having maximum quantitative traits (plant height, number of tiller/plant, stool weight, girth, number of internodes, internodes length and cane yield) coupled with low qualitative observations. Furthermore, cluster IV encompassing five genotypes, showed excellent qualitative characteristics along with low quantitative traits. Hybridizing the genotypes from different clusters of the analysis can be of promising outcomes in terms of getting the genetic diversity among progeny plants for further evaluation in cane breeding programs

955-964 Download
19
THE OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE FOR THE GROWTH OF BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.)
Yunpu Zheng, Renqiang Li, Yaoqing Sun, Ming Xu, Hao Zhang, Lei Huang, Yu Zhu, Hexin Wang, Genzhu Li, Liang Liu, Fei Li, Lili Guo and Xixi Zhang

THE OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE FOR THE GROWTH OF BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.)
ABSTRACT:

Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a perennial evergreen or deciduous shrub, has recently been introduced into Southern China, where the subtropical climate is hot and humid in summer. Identifying the optimal growth temperatures and understanding the mechanisms of thermal stress on blueberry are not only critical to determining suitably growing areas in Southern China, but also significantly important for selecting and breeding new heat tolerance blueberry cultivars for adapting to subtropical climates. In this study, we examined the optimal temperature for the growth of six blueberry cultivars (‘Bluecrop’, ‘Duke’, ‘Brigitta’, ‘Gulfcoast’, ‘O’Neal’, and ‘Blue Ridge’) with four growth chambers where the temperatures were controlled at 25, 30, 35, and 40℃, respectively. We found that initial increase in temperature dramatically enhanced the growth of four cultivars (‘Bluecrop’, ‘Duke’, ‘Brigitta’, and ‘Blue ridge’) through the warming effect, whereas this warming effect was substantially compromised with further increase in growth temperature, demonstrating an optimal temperature of 32.6, 30.4, 31.8, and 29.0℃ for the four cultivars respectively. By contrast, the aboveground, belowground, and total biomass of ‘Gulfcoast’ and ‘O’Neal’ were linearly declined with growth temperatures, indicating that elevating temperature above 25℃ had negative effects on blueberry growth. Meanwhile, we also found that the leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration of the six blueberry cultivars shared similar trends as plant growth in response to temperatures, suggested that leaf biochemical and photochemical processes affecting the optimal growth temperature of blueberry plants. Moreover, the temperature effects on blueberry growth was also attributed to the changes in the leaf number, leaf length and width, leaf biomass, as well as the leaf stomatal traits including density, openness, and spatial distribution pattern of stomata. In addition, high temperatures exceeding the optima also affected chloroplast structures through damaging grana lamella and stromal lamella as well as breaking chloroplast envelope. Our results suggested that the optimal growth temperature of blueberry was highly dependent on cultivars. Therefore, the optimal temperature found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new blueberry strains in adapting to high temperatures in subtropical China where the market demands for blueberry products have been skyrocketing

965-979 Download
20
EFFECTS OF SIMULATED GRAZING (CLIPPING) ON PLANT POPULATION RESPONSES AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION PATTERNS IN A SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
Said Damhoureyeh

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED GRAZING (CLIPPING) ON PLANT POPULATION RESPONSES AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION PATTERNS IN A SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:

Surra rangeland reserve is a Steppe rangeland, located in the northwest part of Jordan. The vegetation composition of Surra semi-arid rangeland slopes (North and South facing slopes) were studied. In addition, the study focuses some population aspects of Salsola vermiculata at the reserve under natural conditions. Moreover, the effect of clipping (simulation of grazing) on the regrowth of S. vermiculata plants were studied in order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of this important forage plant.  Randomly transects on each site to sample vegetation at 10 m intervals along each transect were delineated. For each sampling point, quadrates of 1 m2 were placed and coverage, species composition, plant density and life form were assessed.  The vegetation inside each quadrat was clipped and separated into forage and non-forage components.  Fresh and dry weights for each component and relative density and dry biomass for S.  vermiculata were determined. The overall shrub species recorded at the site showed a higher species richness at the south facing slopes of 15 shrub species. Density of shrubs (plant/ quadrates) were almost similar except for S. vermiculata where it was more frequent at the north facing slopes (7.5 P/Q ) with high relative density (1.2 P/ Q).  Moreover, a detailed vegetation analysis (herbs and shrubs) for north facing and south facing slopes showed higher values of plant densities at the south facing slopes and mostly attributed to herbaceous vegetation. Shrubs were more abundant at the north facing slopes. In general, forage plants constituted more than 90% of the vegetation present in the reserve.  Plant cover and vegetation dry biomass was higher at the south facing slopes and mostly was forage vegetation. Herbaceous forage (grass and non-grass) vegetation had the highest densities in the north facing slopes, while only forage grass had the maximum density overall in the south facing slopes. The average S. vermiculata plant size was 0.026 m3 with average biomass of 34 gm. Relative growth rate (RGR) were positive for the unclipped and 30% clipped plants and showed no difference indicating that 30 % clipping could be tolerated by these plants and could be classified as moderate grazing. However, the 60% treatment showed a negative RGR indicating a severe grazing effect of this clipping treatment, emphasizing that native shrubs constituted important forage for the livestock since they tolerate moderate grazing, in addition to soil conservation and reduction of non-forage plant species.

981-986 Download
21
AGRO-BOTANICAL RESPONSE OF FORAGE SORGHUM-SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS UNDER ATYPICAL SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERN
Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Brandon J. Bethune, Asif Iqbal, Rana Nadeem Abbas, Zubair Aslam, Haroon Zaman Khan and Bilal Ahmad

AGRO-BOTANICAL RESPONSE OF FORAGE SORGHUM-SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS UNDER ATYPICAL SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERN
ABSTRACT:

Forage sorghum is a climate smart crop having drought, heat and salinity tolerance but its forage yield is not sufficient to meet forage requirement during summer months. Sorghum-soybean intercropping is a way to increase productivity but reduction in the yield of component crops owing to severe competition continues to remains a biggest challenge. A multi-year field trial was executed to assess the productivity of sorghum-soybean intercropping systems sown at varied times (sorghum and soybean sown simultaneously, sorghum sown 18 days prior to soybean and vice versa) and spatial arrangements (sorghum-soybean sown in 4:1, 4:4, 2:1 and 2:2 row proportions). Factorial arrangement of randomized complete block design was used to conduct the field trials with four replicates. Agronomic variables of forage sorghum (plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, plant leaf area, fresh and dry weights per plant) were positively affected when it was sown 18 days earlier to soybean in 2:1 row proportion. The same intercropping system gave significantly (p<0.01) higher green forage yield, dry biomass of sorghum along with mixed (sorghum+ soybean) green forage yield and dry biomass yield. However, soybean green and dry biomass yields remained unmatched when it was sown 18 days earlier to sorghum in 2:1 row proportion. Thus, delayed sowing of one of the intercrops for 18 days has the potential to yield higher forage of component crops and this type of intercropping might be suggested depending upon the availability of irrigation water and its fitness into the prevailing cropping system.  

987-994 Download
22
CONSTRUCTION OF AN EFFICIENT TISSUE CULTURE SYSTEM FOR SORGHUM USING MATURE EMBRYOS
Gao Li, Lihua Wang, Yanlong Liu, Yanyang Li, Xiaocui Yang, Qiuwen Zhan, Jiachen Zheng and Jieqin Li

CONSTRUCTION OF AN EFFICIENT TISSUE CULTURE SYSTEM FOR SORGHUM USING MATURE EMBRYOS
ABSTRACT:

Mature embryos as explants are more convenient to operate and not subjected to time constraints in tissue culture systems. In this research, 120 sorghum varieties were screened to select an appropriate material for establishing a high efficient tissue culture system using mature embryos as explants. Loose, soft, and yellowish primary calluses were induced from the mature embryos of only one variety (No. 32) out of the 120. Therefore, No. 32 was selected to establish a culture system. The highest callus induction frequency was 58.58% when mature embryos werecultured on induction medium supplemented with 2.375 mg/L CuSO4·5H2O and 5 mg/L 2,4-D. Higher frequency of embryogenic calluses induction was achieved on subculture medium with 2 mg/L 2,4-D. The best combination of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in regeneration medium was 1 mg/L of each. The results showed that the optimal subculture time for callus regeneration was no more than one week. Our research provides a solid basis for genetic transformation of sorghum using mature embryos as explants.

995-1000 Download
23
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECO-ADAPTABILITY OF CALLIGONUM L. IN TARIM BASIN
Na Liu, Kai Yun Guan, Wen Jun Li and Ying Feng

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECO-ADAPTABILITY OF CALLIGONUM L. IN TARIM BASIN
ABSTRACT:

Global climate fluctuations have profoundly affected the current distribution patterns and created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Studies on geographical distribution and eco-adaptability are necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we focus on five species of Calligonum in Tarim Basin, i.e. Calligonum roborovskii, C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense to confirm the distribution range by carrying out field population survey, along with the studies of herbarium specimen and relevant literature and also to find out the associations between the five species, distribution correlated with climate and soil characteristics through the mean variance analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study were as follows: (1) C. roborovskii was widely distributed in Tarim Basin, but C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense have narrow distribution. The distribution areas of four latter species were overlapping with that of C. roborovskii showing sympatric distribution. (2) All the five species belonged to the warm and arid zone. The adaptability of C. roborovskii to moisture was higher, that of C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense which grew in  more arid areas than that of C. kurlaense and C. yengisaricum, had stronger drought tolerance. The soil type of the five species main was brown desert soil with high salinity, alkaline, and low content of organic matter in the top soil. (3) Low temperature, moisture factor, salinity and alkalinity were the main reasons leading to the different distribution of the four narrow distributed species. (4) The main factors limiting the distribution range of the five species were high temperature and moisture factor, followed by soil properties. For C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense, moisture factor was much stronger than temperature. The results of the research will provide basis for the protection, revegetation and reasonable utilization of Calligonum

1001-1007 Download
24
SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA (POLYGALACEAE)
M.A.P. Tiawoun, M.P. Tshisikhawe and M.H. Ligavha-Mbelengwa

SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA (POLYGALACEAE)
ABSTRACT:

Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. (Polygalaceae) is a multipurpose tree valued for its medicinal uses in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Hence, it is threatened due to human pressure which affects its regeneration potential since it is uncultivated. This poses a challenge in efforts aimed at its conservation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the germination potential of Securidaca longepedunculata seeds which have a very low and erratic germination under natural conditions. Seeds were collected in Nylsvley Nature Reserve and a number of pre-treatments, namely seed coat removal, sulfuric acid, gibberellic acid, boiled water, cold water and control were tested for their efficiency to improve germination under field, laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results showed that some of pre-treatments have a stimulating effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Removal of the seed coat resulted in the highest germination percentage. This pre-treatment gave 90% seed germination under greenhouse conditions, while it was 63.3% for those grown in the laboratory, whereas untreated seeds under field conditions showed 0% germination. Boiled and cold water pre-treatments did not improve seed germination. The average heights of seedlings from different pre-treatments ranged from 4.5 cm to 22 cm with the highest seedling (22 cm) obtained in seed pre-treated with 400mg/l of gibberellic acid. It is concluded that removal of the seed coat is the most effective pre-treatment

1009-1016 Download
25
THE DYNAMICS OF A DRY MATTER ACCUMULATION IN THE INITIAL PERIOD OF GROWTH OF FOUR VARIETIES OF THE “STAY-GREEN” TYPE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
Piotr Szulc, Jan Bocianowski, Kamila Nowosad, Magdalena Rybus-Zając, Hubert Waligóra and Tadeusz Michalski

THE DYNAMICS OF A DRY MATTER ACCUMULATION IN THE INITIAL PERIOD OF GROWTH OF FOUR VARIETIES OF THE “STAY-GREEN” TYPE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:

The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of „stay-green”. Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of „stay-green” in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including „stay-green”) are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

1017-1022 Download
26
SEASONAL VARIATION IN SPECIFIC LEAF AREA, EPICUTICULAR WAX AND PIGMENTS IN 15 WOODY SPECIES FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO DURING SUMMER AND WINTER
Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez, Ratikanta Maiti and Aruna Kumari

SEASONAL VARIATION IN SPECIFIC LEAF AREA, EPICUTICULAR WAX AND PIGMENTS IN 15 WOODY SPECIES FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO DURING SUMMER AND WINTER
ABSTRACT:

The present study has been undertaken on the variability in specific leaf area, epicuticular wax and pigment content of 15 native woody species in northeastern Mexico. The species showed considerable variability in responses of these leaf traits. Majority of the species showed a decline in specific leaf area and epicuticular wax content. With respect to pigments, only few species showed a decrease, but some species showed an increase in pigments (chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll (a+b)) showing mechanism of adaptation to winter season.However, in few species there was a decline in pigment contents showing susceptibility to winter.

1023-1031 Download
27
VARIATION IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN A NEW BUD MUTANT OF POPULUS
Junqiang. Li, Lihua. Lin, Fan. Zhang, Xueqin Wan, Jinglong Zhao, Jifei Dong, Lingxia Sun and Qibing Chen

VARIATION IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN A NEW BUD MUTANT OF POPULUS
ABSTRACT:

Variations in leaf pigment contents, gas-exchange characteristics, and other important leaf traits were investigated in the mutant ‘Quanhong poplar’ (QHP) and the wild type Populus Linn 2025 (L 2025) poplar. The significant differences were observed in photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency between the mutant type and the wild type. The mean chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (Car) and anthocyanin (Ant) contents in the leaves of QHP were higher than that of L2025. Remarkable differences were observed in the rate of photosynthesis (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (R), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). The mean PN, R, gs and Ci in QHP were significantly lower than that in L2025. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that the reduced photosynthetic rate was probably due to the inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport rather than the changes of photosynthetic pigment contents, because the plant photosynthetic capacity is closely associated with both the photosynthetic pigment content, especially Chl and photosynthetic electron transport rate.

1033-1038 Download
28
ALTITUDINAL PATTERNS OF PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS IN THE HONGHE REGION OF CHINA
Xiang Xu, Huayong Zhang, Dongjie Zhang, Wang Tian, Hai Huang and Athen Ma

ALTITUDINAL PATTERNS OF PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS IN THE HONGHE REGION OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:

Understanding the key mechanisms shaping the altitudinal patterns of biodiversity is critically important in ecology and biogeography. In this study, we examined the patterns of species richness of different plant groups characterized by different life forms and range sizes along the altitudinal gradient in the Honghe region of China, one of the global hotspots of biodiversity. The relative contributions of area, the mid-domain effect (MDE) and temperature in shaping these patterns were evaluated. Our results revealed that the altitudinal patterns of species richness of seed plants, trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, narrow-range plants (range ≤ 600 m) and broad-range plants (range > 600 m) all exhibited bell-shaped distributions. The analyses showed that area accounted for the largest percentage of the variation in species richness for all plant groups, followed by mean annual temperature, which served as the measure of available ambient energy in our analyses. Although MDE determined the smallest percentage of the variation, it still explained ≥ 67.3% of the species richness for all plant groups except fornarrow-range plant species. The results of the variation partitioning analyses suggested that the majority of the variance in species richness was explained by the collinearity amongarea, MDE, and temperature. Moreover, different plant groups demonstrated different relationship sensitivities with the explanatory variables, which reflected the different physiological requirements of woody and herbaceous plants, and greater influence of geometric constraint on the placement of larger range sizes

1039-1048 Download
29
AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS FOR YIELD STABILITY OF PROMISING BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN BANGLADESH
Md. Ashraful Alam, Md. Farhad, Md. Abdul Hakim, Naresh Chandra Deb Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker, Md. Mostofa Ali Reza, Md. Amir Hossain and Mingju Li

AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS FOR YIELD STABILITY OF PROMISING BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN BANGLADESH
ABSTRACT:

Identification of stable and high yielding varieties under different environmental conditions prior to release as a variety is the major steps for plant breeding. Eight promising wheat genotypes were evaluated against two standard checks across five locations under terminal heat stress condition. The experimental design was an RCBD with three replications in over one year. AMMI analyses exhibited significant (p<0.01) variation in genotype, location and genotype by location interaction with respect to grain yield. The ASV value revealed that GEN4, GEN9, and GEN8 were stable, while GEN5, GEN1, and GEN6 were the most sensitive genotypes. The GGE results also confirmed GEN3, GEN7, GEN8, GEN9 and GEN4 were the most stable cultivars. Five distant mega-environments were identified including Dinajpur and Jamalpur with GEN3, GEN7 and GEN8 as the most favorable, Joydebpur, Rajshahi and Jessore with GEN4 and GEN9 as the most favorable. Genotype GEN7 and GEN8 showed highly resistant to BpLB, GEN3 and GEN4 showed moderately resistance to BpLB, and GEN9 showed moderate susceptible to BpLB. On the other hand, these five genotypes performed resistance to leaf rust. The genotype GEN7 (BAW 1202) was released as BARI Gom 32. Considering all analysis, GEN3 (BAW 1194), GEN7 (BAW 1202) and GEN8 (BAW 1203) demonstrated more stable genotypes with high mean yield, resistant to BpLB and leaf rust. Thus it is indicated that these genotypes can be used as suitable plant material for future breeding programs

1049-1056 Download
30
A STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL-CENOTIC CONFINEDNESS OF ATRAGENE SPECIOSA WEINM. (RANUNCULACEAE) IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA
An Nekratova

A STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL-CENOTIC CONFINEDNESS OF ATRAGENE SPECIOSA WEINM. (RANUNCULACEAE) IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA
ABSTRACT:

Atragene speciosa Weinm.of the family Ranunculaceae is an adventitious species. It has reserves of raw materials of the third category, i.e., it is a rare and non-exploited plant in KuznetskyAlatau and in Tomsk Region, Russia. In those areas of Western Siberia in plant communities with Atragene speciose Weinm. there are 124 species, of which 82 species grow in KuznetskyAlatau, 75 species in Tomsk Region, and 29 species grow together with Atragene speciosa Weinm. In KuznetskyAlatau and Tomsk egion at the same time

1057-1061 Download
31
ECTOPIC EXPRESSION OF SOYBEAN GmSBH1 CONFERS ABA SENSITIVITY DURING SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT IN TRANSGENIC ARABIDOPSIS
Yingjie Shu, Yuan Tao, Yuli Zhou,Ming Chen,Liyan Huang, Shoucheng Huang and Hao Ma

ECTOPIC EXPRESSION OF SOYBEAN GmSBH1 CONFERS ABA SENSITIVITY DURING SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT IN TRANSGENIC ARABIDOPSIS
ABSTRACT:

The class I KNOX homeobox transcription factors are known to play an important role in maintenance of plant phenotype, especially leaves and flowers. In this study, a soybean KNOX I homeobox transcription factor, GmSBH1, was analyzed and confirmed to play important roles in the process of seed germination and developing. Real time quantitative PCR assay showed that the transcript level of GmSBH1 in soybean seedlings was modulated by plant hormones, such as IAA, GA, MeJA and ABA.Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that GmSBH1 could bind to the ABRE cis-element. Overexpression of GmSBH1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the abnormal phenotype of flowers and siliques. In GmSBH1 transgenic lines, both seed germination and seedlings growth showed hypersensitive to ABA. Moreover, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI3 and ABI5, were increased in the transgenic line seedlings. Taken together, ectopic expression of GmSBH1 could alter the morphology and confer ABA sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth in transgenic Arabidopsis

1063-1071 Download
32
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PLECTRANTHUS L. (LAMIACEAE) IN SAUDI ARABIA BASED ON RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS
Kadry Abdel Khalik and Gamal Osman

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PLECTRANTHUS L. (LAMIACEAE) IN SAUDI ARABIA BASED ON RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:

The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of seven species of the genus Plectranthus (Lamiaceae) from Saudi Arabia were carried out by using the Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and combined ISSR and RAPD markers. Ten RAPD primers and five ISSR primers generated 137 polymorphic amplified fragments, which pointed a relatively high level of genetic variation in Plectranthus. RAPD markers revealed a higher level of polymorphism (105 bands) than ISSR (32 bands). The clustering of genotypes within groups showed difference upon comparison of RAPD and ISSR derived dendrograms. We could identify four clades within Plectranthus, which are largely in support, with a bit contradiction, of traditional groupings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications are discussed in comparison with the available gross morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical data. The results of this study present useful data for assessing the taxonomy of Plectranthus both at subgeneric and sectional levels. Moreover, our results indicate some level of resemblance among the species of subgenus Germanea and support the monophyly of this subgenus. The most interesting outcome of this analysis was identifying P. arabicus with distinguishing characters and suggesting that it should be treated as a distinct subgenus. In the same vein, distinguishing differences between the closely related endemic species P. asirensis and P. hijazensis were also noted suggesting that they should be placed in different subgenus. Similarly, P. asirensis and P. cylindraceus should be placed under a monophyletic group and this shows some closeness with  P. tenuiflorus

1073-1084 Download
33
CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF D-HORDEIN HYBRID PROMOTER ISOLATED FROM BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
Ammara Masood, Nadia Iqbal, Hira Mubeen, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Asia Khatoon and Aftab Bashir

CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF D-HORDEIN HYBRID PROMOTER ISOLATED FROM BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
ABSTRACT:

Two variants of D-hordein promoter from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were selected to generate hybrid promoter by using bioinformatics tools. Sequence analysis of both D-hordein promoter variants revealed several crucial cis regulatory elements and transcription factors binding sites within the promoter region. Various regulatory motifs related to endosperm specific expression were located in D-hordein promoter fragments. Both variants were separately cloned in TA vector (pTZ57R/T) and then joined to get the complete hybrid promoter (D horH).  Hybrid D-hordein promoter was further cloned in expression vector pGR1through adaptor ligation. Transient GUS assay revealed that hybrid promoter exhibited endosperm specific expression in wheat. From the study it is demonstrated that hybrid promoter (D horH) may be used to derive endosperm specific expression in monocots. The present work provides an important insight in the designing of hybrid monocot promoters to improve multiple traits in crops without facing IPR issues.

1085-1095 Download
34
MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A PHYTOPLASMA FROM XIANLAJIAO CHILI PEPPER IN SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA
Chang-Mei Guo, Ming-Hui Lu, Zun-Lian Zhao, Jian-Chao Hu, Wei-Yan Nie, Lian-Lian Shi and Jian-Wei Guo

MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A PHYTOPLASMA FROM XIANLAJIAO CHILI PEPPER IN SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA
ABSTRACT:

Surveys were performed in the main Xianlajiao chili pepper-producing areas of Shaanxi Province to determine whether a phytoplasma was associated with the incidence of Arbuscular Lobular Disease (ALD). During July 2012 and 2013, 92 and 86 chili pepper plants, respectively, showing ALD-like symptoms were collected from 12 counties and the cities of Baoji, Weinan, Xianyang, and Xian. Samples from paulownia trees and plantain with symptoms of paulownia witches’ broom and little leaf, respectively, located in pepper fields in Baoji city, Fengxiang county were also collected. Universal DNA primers for amplification of the phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene were used for nested PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Phytoplasma DNA was amplified from two chili pepper plants, the paulownia trees, and the plantain collected from Baoji city. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of the phytoplasmas detected in the chili pepper confirmed that these phytoplasmas are members of the 16SrI group “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris”. The results of virtual RFLP analysis and sequence homology comparison showed that the two Xianlajiao phytoplasmas have high homology with phytoplasmas 16SrI-B and 16SrI-M. Transmission electron microscopy assays revealed the presence of typical phytoplasma pleomorphic bodies in the phloem of phytoplasma-infected Xianlajiao chili pepper plants. Although our results did not establish a strong association between the presence of the phytoplasma and ALD, the simultaneous detection of a 16SrI phytoplasma in two symptomatic Xianlajiao chili peppers, the paulownia trees, and the plantain suggests a complex epidemiology related to the 16SrI phytoplasma pathogen in these new plant hosts.

1097-1104 Download
35
IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF A CONSTITUTIVE SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE GENE PROMOTER FROM TOMATO
Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Hira Mubeen, Ammara Masood, Asia Khatoon and Aftab Bashir

IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF A CONSTITUTIVE SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE GENE PROMOTER FROM TOMATO
ABSTRACT:

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is one of the abundantly expressed genes in plants. The promoters of SPS gene was identified, analyzed and retrieved from high throughput genomic sequence (HTGS) database. The cis-acting regulatory elements and transcription start sites of promoter were identified through different bioinformatics tools. The SPS promoter was isolated from Solanum lycopersicum and was initially cloned in TA vector (pTZ57R/T). Later on this promoter was transferred to a plant expression binary vector, pGR1 (pGRSPS) that was used for the transient GUS expression studies in various tissues of Nicotiana tabacum. SPS promoter was also cloned in plant stable expression vector pGA482 (pGASPS) and was transformed in Nicotiana tabacum through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The histochemical GUS expression analysis of both transient and stable transgenic plants for this promoter indicated its functional importance in regulating gene expression in a constitutive manner. It was concluded that SPS promoter is constitutively expressed with a strength equivalent to CaMV 2X35S promoter. The promoter isolated through these studies may be effectively substituted in plant genetic engineering with other constitutive promoter for transgene expression in economically important agricultural crops.

1105-1112 Download
36
GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEINS (SBP) TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FAMILY IN GOSSYPIUM RAIMONDII AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
Muhammad Amjad Ali, Khush Bakhat Alia, Rana Muhammad Atif, Ijaz Rasul, Habib Ullah Nadeem, Ammara Shahid and Farrukh Azeem

GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEINS (SBP) TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FAMILY IN GOSSYPIUM RAIMONDII AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:

SQUAMOSA-Promoter Binding Proteins (SBP) are class of transcription factors that play vital role in regulation of plant tissue growth and development. The genes encoding these proteins have not yet been identified in diploid cotton. Thus here, a comprehensive genome wide analysis of SBP genes/proteins was carried out to identify the genes encoding SBP proteins in Gossypium raimondii and Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified 17 SBP genes from Arabidopsis thaliana genome and 30 SBP genes from Gossypium raimondii. Chromosome localization studies revealed the uneven distribution of SBP encoding genes both in the genomes of A. thaliana and G. raimondii. In cotton, five SBP genes were located on chromosome no. 2, while no gene was found on chromosome 9. In A. thaliana, maximum seven SBP genes were identified on chromosome 9, while chromosome 4 did not have any SBP gene. Thus, the SBP gene family might have expanded as a result of segmental as well as tandem duplications in these species. The comparative phylogenetic analysis of Arabidopsis and cotton SBPs revealed the presence of eight groups. The gene structure analysis of SBP encoding genes revealed the presence of one to eleven inrons in both Arabidopsis and G. raimondii. The proteins sharing the same phyletic group mostly demonstrated the similar intron-exon occurrence pattern; and share the common conserved domains. The SBP DNA-binding domain shared 24 absolutely conserved residues in Arabidopsis. The present study can serve as a base for the functional characterization of SBP gene family in Gossypium raimondii.

1113-1126 Download
37
MITIGATION OF WATERLOGGING-INDUCED DAMAGES TO PEPPER BY EXOGENOUS MeJA
Ou Li-Jun, Zou Chao-Hui, Liu Zhou-Bin, Wei Ge, Yang Bo-Zhi and Zou Xue-Xiao

MITIGATION OF WATERLOGGING-INDUCED DAMAGES TO PEPPER BY EXOGENOUS MeJA
ABSTRACT:

In this study, we studied the mitigation effects of exogenous Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on waterlogging-induced damages to Xinyou No.5 wrinkled skin pepper cultivar by spraying MeJA on leave’s surface at different waterlogging periods and investigated its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that administration of MeJA increased antioxidant enzymes’ activities, proline and soluble sugar contents and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, reduced relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyl free radical (·OH) accumulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid and acetaldehyde accumulation, and maintained high root malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and certain aerobic respiratory metabolism. The study also found that there were significant differences among exogenous MeJA treatments at different waterlogging periods. Peppers treated with exogenous MeJA 1 day and 2 days prior to waterlogging had optimal agronomic traits, higher chlorophyll content, enzymatic activities and osmolytic substances, as well as lower relative conductivity, MDA and ·OH accumulation. Overall, the results suggest that MeJA mitigates waterlogging-induced damages to pepper by adjusting osmolytic substances contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and root respiration and metabolism and achieves better alleviation effects by spraying prior to waterlogging

1127-1135 Download
38
EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDATION OF POLYSACCHARIDE FROM PORPHYRA HAITANENSIS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
Chuner Cai, Yayun Yang, Minglin Zhao, Rui Jia, Binghua Jiao and Peimin He

EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDATION OF POLYSACCHARIDE FROM PORPHYRA HAITANENSIS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
ABSTRACT:

This paper deals with the preparation and antioxidation of polysaccharide from Porphyra haitanensis. The ratio of water to raw material, extraction temperature and extraction time were taken in sequence as independent variables in single factor test, and polysaccharide yield as response value. Using Box-Benhnken central combination experimental design principles and response surface methodology, interactions of variables and their influence on polysaccharide yield of P. haitanensis were studied and the prediction model of quadratic polynomial regression equation was inferred by simulation, in which the optimum parameters for preparing polysaccharide from P. haitanensis were 88.4°C of extraction temperature, 1.97 h of extraction time and 40:1 (ml/g) of ratio of water to raw material, and polysaccharide of 15.19 % in yield from P. haitanensis was verified after two parallel test. Furthermore, the polysaccharide of P. haitanensis showed good antioxidant capacity which could be used as potential natural antioxidant products in food additives industries

1137-1141 Download
39
MOLECULAR CLONING AND TRANSCRIPT PROFILING OF ASCORBATE OXIDASE GENE AT DIFFERENT GROWTH DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES FROM THERAPEUTICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT SEABUCKTHORN HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L.
Shazia Arif, Muhammad Ramzan Khan, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi, Muhammad Fareed Khan, Abdul Hamid, Asad Hussain Shah and Ghulam Muhammad Ali

MOLECULAR CLONING AND TRANSCRIPT PROFILING OF ASCORBATE OXIDASE GENE AT DIFFERENT GROWTH DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES FROM THERAPEUTICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT SEABUCKTHORN HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L.
ABSTRACT:

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a well-known molecule for its nutritional importance.  However, the major aspects of its metabolic processes as well as a few of its functions in plants are poorly understood. A candidate gene AO (Ascorbate oxidase) known to be involved in ascorbate biosynthesis and metabolism was therefore chosen in seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). In this study, full length cDNA sequence of Hr-AO was amplified and cloned through RT-PCR. The amino acid residues encoded by Hr-AO (2160 bp) were 719aa.  There was a difference in length of newly isolated cDNA sequence as compared to tomato cDNA with 87% gene homology. Gateway cloning technique was also used to transfer Hr-AO gene to expression vector for functional study. Expression analysis of this gene sequence from six different tissues including vegetative bud, seed, shoot apex, green leaves, green fruit and mature (orange red) fruits showed maximum transcript accumulation in green leaf and young green fruit tissues. This is the first report on description of relationship between expression of Hr-AO and fruit development in such type of bush plant. This new gene isolated from seabuckthorn will help to understand the regulatory role of this enzyme in ascorbic acid metabolism. The investigation suggested that this gene could merely contribute toward ascorbic acid function or may be specific for further genetic engineering of crops

1143-1154 Download
40
HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN FREQUENTLY CONSUMABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KHYBER PAKTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
Hussa Ara Begum, Muhammad Hamayun, Khair Zaman, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Anwar Hussain

HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN FREQUENTLY CONSUMABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KHYBER PAKTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Plants are extensively consumed for their medicinal and aromatic properties either in fresh or dry form. Their medicinal properties are hidden in the active ingredients of the plant parts. These active ingredients sometime linked in their structure to some non-essential elements or heavy metals. Excess of non-essential elements and/or presence of heavy metals are toxic to human health in long run. The present study was carried out to evaluate the selected medicinal plants for their endogenous lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and zinc contents. We observed higher Pb contents in Cucumis sativus (0.229 µg/g), followed by Malus baccata (0.191 µg/g) and Geranium wallichianum (0.038 µg/g). Arsenic contents were higher in Portulaca oleraca and Geranium wallichianum (0.542 µg/g), while 0.308 µg/g arsenic was recorded in Monotheca buxifolia. Lower arsenic contents were found in Malus baccata (0.139 µg/g) and Saxifraga flagellaris (0.33 µg/g). The Cadmium contents were 0.036 µg/g in Cucumis sativus and Monotheca buxifolia, while 0.03 µg/g in Malus baccata. Mercury contents were 0.0436 µg/g in Portulaca oleracea, 0.041µg/g in Cucumis sativus and 0.038µg/g in Saxifraga flagellaris. Highest Zn contents were recorded for Geranium wallichianum 0.209 µg/g, followed by Cucumis sativus (0.187 µg/g), Purtulaca oleracea (0.149 µg/g), Malus baccata (0.135 µg/g) and Saxifraga flagellaris (0.118 µg/g). Our current findings suggest that the medicinal plants contains permissible quantity of heavy metals and their use is thus beneficial for curing diseases and coping with micronutrient deficiency.

1155-1160 Download
41
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TRIGONELLA INCISA AND NONEA EDGEWORTHII
Salim Ur Rehman, Rizwan Faisal, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Nisar Ahmad and Ijaz Ahmad

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TRIGONELLA INCISA AND NONEA EDGEWORTHII
ABSTRACT:

The extracts and its derived fractions from two important medicinal plants species Trigonella incisa and Nonea edgeworthii were tested for biochemical potential. The aim of our research was to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extract and fractions from Trigonella incisa plant were found to be most potent against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa as compared to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The Chloroform fraction showed outstanding inhibition 11 mm against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa followed by crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions each giving 9 mm inhibition. The n-butanol fraction of Trigonella incisa revealed 8 mm inhibition against Escherichia coli second by aqueous fraction with 7 mm inhibition. Moderate inhibition (8 mm) was showed by crude extract and chloroform fraction against Salmonella typhi. In case of Nonea edgeworthii plant aqueous and ethyl acetate fraction were found to be most active against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa and Escherichia coli giving inhibition of 14 mm each which is found to be best inhibition even more than the inhibition showed by antibiotic used. Crude extract and chloroform fraction of the plant showed 12 mm and 10 mm inhibition against Salmonella typhi. Both the selected plants were found equally potential against the tested fungi. n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Trigonella incisa give 10 mm inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata respectively while crude extract from Nonea edgeworthii give 11 mm inhibition against Alternaria alternata. Over all poor scavenging activity was showed by selected plants. Ethyl acetate fraction of both plants was found to be reasonably good when compared with standard. The low antioxidant profile of the plants may be due to the absence of flavonoids in plants .In preliminary phytochemical screening alkaloid, phenol and saponins were reported in both plants.

1161-1165 Download
42
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE VEGETABLE AND SOIL SAMPLES–A CASE STUDY FROM DISTRICT CHARSADDA AND DISTRICT MARDAN
Muhammad Idrees, Zia Ur Rehman, Saiqa Bibi, Farooq Shah, Hussain Gulab, Liaqat Ali and Fazal Mabood

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE VEGETABLE AND SOIL SAMPLES–A CASE STUDY FROM DISTRICT CHARSADDA AND DISTRICT MARDAN
ABSTRACT:

Multivariate statistical methods like cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and regression analysis were applied on the metals concentration of both the vegetables and soil samples collected from the districts Charsada and Mardan to classify them in different groups. The concentrations of seven heavy metals including Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Ag, Pb, Sb were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in the leaves, fruits, extracts, and soil samples of potato, colocasia, turnip, radish, cabbage, angular loofah, cucumber, bitter gourd, round melon, and pumpkin. The concentration of copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead and antimony were found in the range of 6.133-72.933, 32.233-92.5, 2.25-8.083, 0.366-143.53, 0.4-4.467, 11.916-157.96, 28.75-165.367 mgKg-1 respectively

1167-1171 Download
43
COUMARINS FROM HALDINA CORDIFOLIA LEAD TO PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN GIANT MIMOSA: POTENTIAL BIO-HERBICIDES
Rungcharn Suksungworn, Nattawut Srisombat, Sorawit Bapia, Melisa Soun-Udom, Nuttha Sanevas, Narong Wongkantrakorn, Prasart Kermanee, Srunya Vajrodaya and Sutsawat Duangsrisai

COUMARINS FROM HALDINA CORDIFOLIA LEAD TO PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN GIANT MIMOSA: POTENTIAL BIO-HERBICIDES
ABSTRACT:

Phytotoxicity of isoscopoletin and umbelliferone, isolated from bark and wood of Haldina cordifolia, on the germination and growth of Mimosa pigrawas investigated. When compared to the control treatment, 100µ Misoscopoletin delayed germination for 3 days, whereas 100 µM umbelliferone, which proved to be more effective, delayed germination for 4 days. Both coumarins caused stunted root growth, but only umbelliferone caused swollen roots. In contrast to roots treated with umbelliferone, cross-sections of roots treated with isoscopoletin showed smaller root diameter and fewer cortical cells. Moreover, the vascular bundles of roots treated with umbelliferone were more developed than those treated with isoscopoletin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cells of the root tip and maturation zone exposed to either coumarin showed thickened cell walls; disruption of cell membranes; increased number of disorganized mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum; as well as increased number of plastids and plastoglobules. However, vacuolization and autophagosomes were found in the root maturation zone of roots treated with umbelliferonein a greater extent than those treated with isoscopoletin. These results suggest that isoscopoletin and umbelliferone might be involved in accelerating senescence or programmed cell death in giant Mimosa, resulting in reduced growth. Therefore, they could be considered potential for a development of bio-herbicides for giant mimosa control.

1173-1183 Download
44
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANT URINARY TRACT PATHOGENS
Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Adnan, Hazir Rahman, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Abeer Hashem and Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANT URINARY TRACT PATHOGENS
ABSTRACT:

Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens have become a serious global health concern. Main etiological agents for UTI are Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, medicinal plants have found great popularity in medical treatment for different kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. The study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and crude extracts of medicinal plants i.e. Syzygium aromaticum, Glycerrhiza glabra,Laurus nobilis and Brassica rapa against MDR urinary tract pathogens through agar well diffusion method. To investigate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs), dilution method was used. Quantitative evaluations of phytochemicals indicated the presence of alkaloids in higher concentrations. Results obtained for the antibacterial activities, the crude extracts of the four plants showed significantly higher inhibition zones as compared to other phytochemicals. The MIC values obtained for different extracts varying  from 7.5-15 mg/ml. Comparig the activities of the extracts of the the four medicinal plants it was found that Syzygium aromaticum was the most potent plant against the tested bacterial pathogens indicating its strong candidateship for the drug development.

 

1185-1192 Download
45
EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY AND MODE OF ACTION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL FOR SUPPRESSION OF GANODERMA BONINENSE IN OIL PALM
Arnnyitte Alexander, Syahriel Abdullah, Stephen Rossall and Khim Phin Chong

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY AND MODE OF ACTION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL FOR SUPPRESSION OF GANODERMA BONINENSE IN OIL PALM
ABSTRACT:

The ability of potential antagonists, a commercial product containing combinations of microorganisms (TR1) to control Ganoderma boninense growth was investigated in this research. TR1 contained multiple strains of Bacillus spp. and Trichoderma spp. The results from field experiments showed that TR1 was all able to reduce the colonization of G. boninense, based on re-isolation of the pathogen onto a selective medium and the reduction of ergosterol content compared to untreated controls. Effectiveness of TR1 was therefore further investigated for mode of action studies. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations of Ganoderma mycelium, recovered from bioassay plates on which TR1 had inhibited fungal growth, showed that the mycelium was highly disrupted and lysed after exposure to the treatment. The production of potentially antifungal components produced by TR1 microbes in broth cultures was further investigated using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS). Several antimicrobial compounds, which could inhibit G. boninense were detected, including pyrene-1,6-dione, 12-deoxyaklanonic acid, N-methyl-a-aminoisobutyric acid, 4-O-8’,5”-5’-dehydrotriferulic acid, halstoctacosanolide A, N-acetyl-leu-leu-tyr-amide, 12-oxo-10Z-dodecenoic acid, Gly-Met-OH and lovastatin. These metabolites probably contribute to the antagonistic effect against G. boninense. The use of TR1 could offer an alternative to the use of fungicides and is worthy of further investigation for the control of Ganoderma infection of oil palm

1193-1199 Download
46
MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF CROP PLANTS BY MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.
Ambreen Ejaz, Asma Hanif and Shahnaz Dawar

MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF CROP PLANTS BY MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.
ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Lam. plant parts (leaves, stem, fruit and seed) against root infecting fungi as well as improving the growth of cow pea and mash bean plants. In vitro, leaves extract used @ 75, 50 and 25% v/v concentrations showed significant inhibition in the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) and Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) in comparison with other parts extracts by using agar well and paper disc diffusion methods. Leaves extract and powder used as seed treatment, soil drenching and soil amendment with different concentrations showed a profound effect in controlling the colonization of root infecting fungi, and enhanced the weight and height of leguminous plants, whereas stem extract and powder improved plant growth and showed maximum inhibition of root rot fungi on tested crops under greenhouse condition. 

1201-1209 Download
47
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME SEAWEEDS AGAINST COMMON SOIL-BORNE PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
Shaheena Arshad Khan, Muhammad Abid and Faisal Hussain

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME SEAWEEDS AGAINST COMMON SOIL-BORNE PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
ABSTRACT:

Total 32 species of different seaweeds belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan to investigate their antifungal activity. Most of the seaweeds inhibited growth of Fusarium oxypsorum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The highest antifungal activities were observed in Sargasssum tenerrimum in both aqueous and methanolic extracts as compared to other seaweeds. 

1211-1216 Download
48
MICRO-FIELD RAIN-HARVESTING FARMING SYSTEM IN SEMIARID PAKISTAN: A CRITICAL TOPIC TO ADDRESS
Wen-Xuan Si, Pu-Fang Li, Muhammad Ashraf, Fei Mo, Xiao-Jie Hui, Asfa Batool, Javaid Mansoor, Muhammad Afzal, Jian Zhang and Feng-Min Li

MICRO-FIELD RAIN-HARVESTING FARMING SYSTEM IN SEMIARID PAKISTAN: A CRITICAL TOPIC TO ADDRESS
ABSTRACT:

Arid and semiarid areas account for more than 90% of national land area in Pakistan, and over 50% of these lands are suitable for developing rainfed agriculture. Improving the efficiencies of on-field rainwater collection and utilization is a critical approach to enhance crop productivity and water use efficiency (WUE) in semiarid Pakistan. In recent decades, an innovative micro-field rain-harvesting farming technology, ridge and furrow mulching (RFM) with plastic film, has been developed in the Loess Plateau of northwest China, leading to massive increases in grain yield and WUE in dryland crops. This farming technology has been widely adopted and extended in rainfed agricultural areas where small household farmers account for the majority of population. Semiarid Pakistan has similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions with Chinese Loess Plateau, displaying a great potential to extend such a low-cost but high-efficiency farming technology. In this review paper, we present the background and advantages of this rainfed farming system and its applicable potential in Pakistan. The opportunities and challenges during the extension of this farming strategy are also discussed. In view of our previous studies and local natural & socioeconomic data, we believe that the introduction of this farming technology into Pakistan may lead to an expected increase in food and forage production and ecosystem sustainability. This may provide promising strategies to cope with climate change for regional ranifed agricultural system.

1217-1221 Download