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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2020 , Volume  52, Issue 4
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1

LncRNAs participate in salt tolerance related pathways by regulating target genes in wheat


Yan Yan, Xin Lin, Fan Wu, Shaoshuai Song, Yumei Zhang and Ping Mu

LncRNAs participate in salt tolerance related pathways by regulating target genes in wheat


ABSTRACT:

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulatory elements that play important roles in plant development as well as stress responses in plants. A genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in salt tolerant (Xiaoyan60) and salt sensitive (Lumai21) wheat cultivars under salt stress conditions was performed. We identified a total of 746 differentially expressed lncRNAs under salt stress that 675 were expressed in Xiaoyan60 and 592 in Lumai21. Gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were enriched in biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed that the distinct lncRNAs were involved in salt tolerance-related pathways, including plant hormone signal transduction and 27 other pathways. We identified lncRNAs that were significantly upregulated (i.e., lnc_521, lnc_593 and lnc_743) in Xiaoyan60 when compared with Lumai21 after salt stress. These results indicated that lncRNAs were involved in salt tolerance, and our findings provided an important insight regarding wheat adaptation to salt stress.

1121-1129 Download
2

Morpho-biochemical response of Vigna radiata to salinity generated hydrogen peroxide stress


Jabeen Farheen and Simeen Mansoor

Morpho-biochemical response of Vigna radiata to salinity generated hydrogen peroxide stress


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress is the most obvious limiting threat to the production of Vigna radiata due to the shortage of irrigated lands throughout the world. Thus, current investigation was conducted to appraise the growth performance and seedling survival of 96 hours old NM-92, NM-98, NM-51, NM13-1 and NM19-19 seedlings against salt stress. The whole study was planned in complete randomized design (CRD) in Petri dishes (n=4). Imbibed seeds (24 h) from all genotypes have received 72 hours of 0, 50, 150, 250 and 350 mM NaCl stress. All the five levels of salt gradually enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased seedlings length (SL), fresh biomass (BIO), and relative water content (RWC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), and catalase (CAT). Among genotypes, the maximum increase in growth and antioxidant enzymes were found in NM-92 seedlings at each concentration of NaCl. Additionally, NM-92 showed lowest H2O2 (10.1 μM gˉ1 FW), and MDA (11.2 μM gˉ1 FW) accumulation in its seedling tissues under 350 mM NaCl level. Compared with NM19-19 was shown least improvement in SL, BIO, RWC, SOD, POX, CAT, and greatest in H2O2, and MDA at five stress levels of NaCl. Hence, NM-92 could be designated as the salt tolerant genotype of Vigna radiata, and expected to give optimum yield over saline irrigated lands. 

1131-1135 Download
3

Effects of drought stress on growth, photosynthesis and alkaloid accumulation of Lycoris aurea


Juan Liang, Miaohua Quan, Chaowen She, Anna He, Xiaoliang Xiang and Feng Cao

Effects of drought stress on growth, photosynthesis and alkaloid accumulation of Lycoris aurea


ABSTRACT:

The effects of drought stress on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics, as well as alkaloid contents were analyzed using potted soil water stress test, aiming to provide a scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea). We found that with the increase of drought stress, the plant growth was restrained and that the increase in fresh weight of the bulb, chlorophyll content and maximum net photosynthetic rate of leaves were decreased. However, the contents of two alkaloids, galanthamine and lycorine in the bulb were increased due to drought stress. Mild water stress caused a maximum increase in contents of both galanthamine and lycorine. These results suggest that for artificial cultivation of L. aurea, plants should be irrigated with adequate water during their vegetative growth period to promote their vegetative growth while at the later growth stages plants should be irrigated with mild water deficit to increase their alkaloid contents.

1137-1142 Download
4

Performance of mango scion cultivars under various levels of artificially induced salinity stress


Niaz Ahmed, Sara Khalid, Abdul Ghaffar Grewal, Muhammad Arif Ali, Muhammad Akbar Anjum, Ashfaq Ahmad Rahi and Subhan Danish

Performance of mango scion cultivars under various levels of artificially induced salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Continuous use of poor quality of irrigation has played an imperative role in the development of soil salinization in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Besides the application of various physical, chemical and biological amendments, identification and cultivation of salts tolerant species is a promising solution to ensure crops cultivation under adverse saline condition. A lot of work has been documented so far, on reduction in growth and yield of different crops under salinity stress. However, identification and cultivation of salinity tolerant mango cultivars (cv’s.) have not received appreciable attention. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate salinity tolerance among various mango cv’s. Eighteen months old seedlings of 8 mango cultivars (Langra, Anwar Retaul No. 12, Sufaid Chaunsa, Anwar Retaul, Aman Dusehri, Fajri, Samar Bahisht Chaunsa and Sindhri) grafted on desi (sucking type) mango irrigated with irrigation water under different levels of salinity (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90mM NaCl). Tap water (TW) was used as control. Results confirmed that scion height, rootstock height, number of leaves, scion dry weight, rootstock fresh and dry weighs were significantly greater in cv. Langra as compared to Sindhri at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mM NaCl. A significant improvement of 0.78, 1.12, 1.17, 1.62, 2.20, 2.14 and 2.40-fold in chlorophyll content validated the salinity tolerant competency of Langra comparative to Sindhri at TW, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mM NaCl respectively. Less electrolyte leakage while significant improvement in relative water content, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate confirmed that cv. Langra has more tolerant, while Sindhri is sensitive towards salinity stress.

1143-1158 Download
5

Amelioration potential of biochar for chromium stress in wheat


Roomina Mazhar, Noshin Ilyas, Muhammad Arshad and Azeem Khalid

Amelioration potential of biochar for chromium stress in wheat


ABSTRACT:

Chromium is one of the hazardous heavy metals used in tanning industries. Wheat is highly vulnerable to chromium stress. In present study 5ppm-500ppm concentrations of chromium were applied in solution form to elucidate chromium toxicity on wheat seed germination. Two wheat varities (NARC 2009 and NARC 2011) and 1% biochar was used during the experiment. Wheat seeeds continued to germinate till 200 ppm and complete inhibition was observed at 500 ppm. However, the application of biochar improved the germination and growth attributes of wheat seedlings in presence of chromium. Biochar significantly improved the germination percentage upto 100 ppm by 16.8%. In the similar way, seedling root and shoot length was improved significantly by 10%-30% in the presence of 1% biochar. Furthermore, biochar amendment improved the chlorophyll and proline contents upto (9.5%-10%). The superoxide dismutase activity effected greatly the chromium stress and after, application of biochar, resulted in a considerable increase of (13%) at 100ppm as compared to control. The total chromium contents in dry biomass of wheat seedlings was 0.06 ± 0.1 and in presence of 1% biochar the total chromium contents was reduced upto 0.29 ± 1.01. Hence, biochar proved to be an effective amendment for amelioration of chromium effect and improvement of wheat attributes such as germination, physiological and growth condition.

1159-1168 Download
6

The physiological responses of Nouelia insignis towards drought and low temperature


Zhining Xia and Yanling Zheng

The physiological responses of Nouelia insignis towards drought and low temperature


ABSTRACT:

Climate change was increased the frequency and magnitude of drought events in southwest China, particularly in winter and spring. However, the effects of drought and low temperature on physiological characteristics of the endangered Nouelia insignis whose natural regeneration is poor are not clear. Seedlings subjected to each drought treatment (achievement by withholding irrigation for 0, 5 and 9 d, respectively) were randomly divided into three groups and treated at 25, 5 and -5 °C for 1.5 h, respectively. Leaf relative water content, effective quantum yield of PSII-Y(II), photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) and electron transport rate (ETR) decreased significantly and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with the duration of withholding water. Pigment content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD) activity and proline content increased significantly and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly for seedlings subjected to severe drought. Y(II), qP and ETR decreased with the duration of withholding water for seedlings treated at 5 and -5°C. Fv/Fm, Y(II), qp and ETR decreased significantly, by 26.02%, 35.90%, 27.37% and 37.33%, respectively and MDA content increased significantly by 26.19% for seedlings subjected to -5°C. Fv/Fm of drought-stressed seedlings recovered to the original level after 2 d of recovery but that of freezing-treated seedlings did not recover which decreased with the duration of withholding water. In conclusion, photosynthetic activities and membrane of N. insignis were negatively affected by both severe drought and freezing temperature and the seedlings were more tolerant to drought than freezing temperature which might be due to the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of some osmolytes. Additionally, tolerance of N. insignis to low temperature was not enhanced by pretreatment of seedlings with drought and even diminished after being subjected to severe drought. Therefore, extreme drought and low temperature, particularly their combination, might be the important factors which limited natural regeneration of N. insignis.

1169-1179 Download
7

Florescence assessment of sunflower genotypes against drought stress environment


Muhammad Umar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Florescence assessment of sunflower genotypes against drought stress environment


ABSTRACT:

Florescence assessments of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes in field under drought stress environment were studied. Climate change and low precipitation represents the main constraints in sunflower production in Pakistan. In present investigation two sunflower genotypes, viz S.28111 and SF0049 were selected to study their photosynthetic performance through non-destructive technique in field. Three treatments were applied to impose drought in plants i.e. irrigation after 6 days (D1), irrigation after 8 days (D2) and irrigation after 16 days (D3) with control irrigation after 4 days. Results revealed that drought stresses altered the electron transport rate through PSII (Fm/Fo), photochemical quenching (qP), efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII), linear electron transport rate (rETR), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), size and number of active reaction centre of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo), driving forces (DFABS and DFCS) and performance indexes (PIABS and PICS) parameters that depends on the efficiency and yield of energy transfer and primary photochemistry. However, S.28111 maintained substantial quantum yield and enhanced photosynthetic performance under drought stress environment compared to SF0049. It is suggested that the assessment of photochemistry of PSII offers a practical and sensitive field screening regarding test for drought stress tolerance in sunflower. Results are discussed in relation to photosynthetic performance and florescence responses of sunflower genotypes in the drought stress environment

1181-1188 Download
8

Phenology, growth and yield are strongly influenced by heat stress in late sown mustard (Brassica spp.) varieties


Md. Mahfuz Bazzaz, Akbar Hossain, Muhammad Farooq, Hesham Alharby, Atif Bamagoos, Md. Nuruzzaman, Mahbuba Khanum, Md. Monwar Hossain, Ferhat Kizilgeci, Ferhat Öztürk, Fatih Çiğ and Ayman El Sabagh

Phenology, growth and yield are strongly influenced by heat stress in late sown mustard (Brassica spp.) varieties


ABSTRACT:

In rice-based cropping system of northern Bangladesh, mustard planting is delayed due to late harvest of monsoon rice (Transplanted Aman rice; T. Aman rice). The late sown mustard is often exposed to high-temperature stress during the reproductive stage, which causes a significant decrease in seed yield. Most of the farmers plant a low yielding local mustard variety ‘Tori-7’, which is sensitive to high-temperature stress. The Oil Seeds Research Centre of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute has recently released short duration and high-yielding mustard varieties for the rice-based cropping system of northern Bangladesh to tackle this issue. However, the performance of these varieties in the target cropping system under late sown conditions (together with exposure to heat stress) has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this two-year field experiment was conducted to assess the performance of newly released mustard varieties ‘BARI Sarisha-14’ and ‘BARI Sarisha-15’ in comparison with the local check variety ‘Tori-7’ sown at five planting dates (viz. October 21, November 1, November 10, November 20, and November 30). The delay in sowing shortened time (days) to flowering and maturity, regardless of the variety. Similarly, plant height, branches/plant and total dry matter accumulation of the tested varieties were also reduced upon delay in planting. The greatest seed yield was observed in varieties ‘BARI Sarisha-15’ and ‘BARI Sarisha-14’ when sown on October 21. These two varieties produced fair seed yield when sown at November 20. However, the local variety ‘Tori7’ yielded the least across all the planting dates. Therefore, the varieties ‘BARI Sarisha-14’ and ‘BARI Sarisha-15’ may be planted in the rice-based cropping system of northern Bangladesh after harvest of T. Aman rice to get maximum seed yield

1189-1195 Download
9

The effect of low temperature on growth and development of Phalaenopsis


Yingjie Zhang, Jixia Sun, Xiangjun Pan, Wenjiao Guo, Jingwei Zhang, Nina Sun, Pengsong Ding, Cuiling Liu, Shuhe Liu, Xueqing Liu and Yingmin Lyu

The effect of low temperature on growth and development of Phalaenopsis


ABSTRACT:

Trials were set to assess low temperature effects on growth and development of Phalaenopsis. Different temperature treatment groups were set to maintain an average day/night temperature of 29/21, 26/20, 26/18(℃). Phalaenopsis Red Swan, Big Chili and Fuller's Sunset were all coordinated by the cold-induced release of reproductive bud dormancy. The morphological development of flower bud differentiation was similar in Phalaenopsis Big Chili and Sogo Yukidian: flower organ differentiation began with the formation of the outer tepal primordia, followed by the inner tetal primordia and finally, by the lip and column (stamen and carpel) primordia. The earlier the flower bud started differentiation, the earlier the flower bloomed. The inflorescence primordium differentiation started under 26/18 and 26/20 and no flower stalks emerged under 29/21 within 50 d. Different temperature treatments did not affect significantly the length of flower stalk. But temperature played a possible important role in leaf growth. High temperature (29/21) favored vegetative growth than 26/20 and 26/18. It was found ABA and GA3 levels in apical meristems of stalk increased before flower bud differentiation. High level of IAA decreased when the stalk began rapid elongation (longer than 5cm), and ZR levels at apical meristems were higher than at leaves.

1197-1203 Download
10

Effects of environmental factors on species diversity among the plant communities in the Mount Lao nature reserve, Shandong province of China


Wei Li, Jinming Yang, Haifang Li and Cuiping Zhang

Effects of environmental factors on species diversity among the plant communities in the Mount Lao nature reserve, Shandong province of China


ABSTRACT:

As species diversity plays a key role in ecosystem stability and vegetation restoration, this study investigated the relationship between soil properties and species diversity in the Lao Nature Reserve, Shandong Province of China, which has remained poorly understood to date. Forty vegetation sites (30 m × 30 m) were examined in the Lao Nature Reserve. Soil moisture, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, soil available potassium, soil available phosphorus, pH, and plant communities were accessed for each site. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to depict the relationship among the plant communities and soil properties. Species accumulation curves indicated that samples from these 40 permanent sites were statistically sufficient for analyzing the species composition. TWINSPAN analysis showed that the forest communities could be classified into nine types. A negative relationship was detected between the plant diversity, the soil water content, and pH. The species diversity index for these communities were differentially affected by soil factors. CCA results indicated the influences of site factors on the distribution and composition of plant communities. Our study provides the theoretical basis for the management and protection of the Nature Reserve in the future.

1205-1213 Download
11

Exogenously foliage applied micronutrients efficacious impact on achene yield of sunflower under temperate conditions


Muhammad Faisal, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Serap Kizil Aydemir, Abdul Hamid, Nasir Rahim, Ayman El Sabagh, Abdul Khaliq and Muzammil H. Siddiqui

Exogenously foliage applied micronutrients efficacious impact on achene yield of sunflower under temperate conditions


ABSTRACT:

Climate change, rapidly increasing population and decreasing fertile lands demand boosting the productivity of oil seed crops. In hilly areas, micronutrients losses are high owing to leaching and runoff which negatively effects crops yield. A field trial was executed to evaluate the impact of foliage applied micronutrients (zinc 0.5%, boron 0.7% and manganese 0.7%) solely and in co-application, on agro-morphological traits and achene yield of sunflower. The relationship among yield attributes and achene yield of sunflower was also determined through correlation analysis. Solo applied boron (0.7%) remained unmatched by recording the maximum yield attributes such as plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, head diameter and weight, number of achene per head and 100-achene weight which led to the highest achene yield (0.96 t ha-1). The co-application of zinc and boron followed solely applied boron, while manganese applied solely or in conjunction with zinc and boron remained inferior to rest of the micronutrients. The correlation analysis revealed direct interrelationships among yield attributes (plant height, stem girth, head diameter and weight) and achene yield of sunflower and thus indicating the need to exogenously supply micronutrients especially boron for improving the agro-botanical traits and economic yield of sunflower under temperate conditions of rainfed regions. However, there is a dire need to conduct further studies to comparatively evaluate and optimize the doses of micronutrients including silicon and copper which may impart drought tolerance to rainfed sunflower under varying pedo-climatic conditions.

1215-1221 Download
12

Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, hormone levels and growth traits of rose induced by three native strains of Trichoderma harzianum


Abdul Majeed Baloch, Rui Miao, Dan Sui, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Yuan Chang, Junjie Deng, Xueyue Hou, Muharam Ali and Rongshu Zhang

Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, hormone levels and growth traits of rose induced by three native strains of Trichoderma harzianum


ABSTRACT:

Roses (Rosa spp.) are considered as poplar ornamental plants for urban landscape with their pretty petals and used for beautification in public gardens and improving the environment. Trichoderma harzianum was applied to various plants as a potential bio-control agent helping plants to resist pathogens. In our study, three native strains of T. harzianum were inoculated together on the soil in the pots of planting R. chinensis ‘Shi-Jie-Mei’ (the Ten-sisters Roses) and compared with that of no-inoculated to find their changes in growth traits. Analysis results showed that many traits, including the number of branches, the height of stems, fresh weight, dry weight, the water content in leaves and stems, were significantly increased. It was found that antioxidant enzyme activities-catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in leaves were also significantly increased compared to the CK. In addition, hormone levels, such as salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellins, jasmonic acid, zeatin, and abscisic acid in leaves were enhanced significantly induced by T. harzianum. Our results indicated that T. harzianum could improve the growth traits of the rose by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and phytohormones level.

1223-1228 Download
13

The reflection of the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles on photosynthetic activity of spinacia oleracea plants


Rafia Azmat, Iqbal Altaf and Sumeira Moin

The reflection of the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles on photosynthetic activity of spinacia oleracea plants


ABSTRACT:

The current era is the era of Nanotechnology which offers the potential advantages in almost all fields of Science, Engineering and Medicinal fields coupled with its potential damages including, economic interference leading to possible threats to the environment. In the present investigation, photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 Nano-Particles (NPs) on photosynthetic activity of the Spinacia oleracea evaluated in a greenhouse experiment in triplicate. This article reveals the interaction of TiO2 NPs which results in several physicochemical alterations in Spinacia oleracea plants.  It was observed that the application of TiO2 NPs has shown optimistic impacts on plant root and shoot length, fresh and dry biomass and moisture contents in comparison with control plants. The progressive influence of TiO2 NPs on processes of photosynthetic activity of the plants linked with improved absorption and transfer of solar energy by active electrons of pigments. It established that it was the consequences of the photocatalytic properties of titanium NPs followed by an increase in starch contents. The lower contents of reducing sugars indicate the active transfer of these molecules into starch contents in comparison of control plants.  The identical concentration of pigments like Carotenoid (mg/g) and Xanthophyll (mg/g) in control and TiO2 NP plants showed inhibition of oxidative stress; confirmed through benzoic acid test.  The starch iodometry test proves the activated metabolic pathway of plants in the presence of TiO2.

1229-1234 Download
14

Endogenous gibberellin and abscisic acid influence alternate bearing in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)


Nesibe Ebru Kafkas, Muhammet Ali Gundesli, Murat Guney and Salih Kafkas

Endogenous gibberellin and abscisic acid influence alternate bearing in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)


ABSTRACT:

Plant growth regulators hold a strong influence on the alternate bearing, despite the occurrence of many other factors. In the present research, alterations in endogenous GAs (gibberellins) and Abscisic acid-metabolites (ABA) were analyzed in different physiological periods and organs along with the role of flower bud abscission (Alternate bearing) in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The results showed significant differences in the content of ABA and GAs between ‘On’ and ‘Off’ years in various tissues of pistachio cultivar. Nine GAs and seven ABA were identified in pistachio, namely, GA3, GA4, GA7, GA8, GA19, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA53; ABA, DPA, ABAGE, PA, 7'OH-ABA, neo-PA, t-ABA, respectively. Especially, DPA and GA19 were the dominant ABA and GAs analyzed in this work, respectively. The different GA and ABA-metabolites were found more in flower buds than in other organs. The maximum ABA and GAs peaks were obtained after 35 days of full blooming during May. Almost all ABA metabolites, as well as GA19 and GA44, increased during fruit kernel development at 55 days after flowering. The data of present research support that endogenous GAs and ABA produced in different organs influence pistachio flower bud abscission and, therefore, are closely related to alternate bearing.

1235-1241 Download
15

Comparison among different auxins and cytokinins to induce date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) somatic embryogenesis from floral buds


Najamuddin Solangi, Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad, Ghulam Sarwar Markhand, Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi, Tahira Jatt and Abdul Aziz Mirani

Comparison among different auxins and cytokinins to induce date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) somatic embryogenesis from floral buds


ABSTRACT:

The influence of different auxins and cytokinins combinations in inducing callus and somatic embryogenesis (SE) in two top commercial date palm cultivars of Pakistan Aseel and Dhakki were studied. In addition, the role of different concentrations of NaOCl (10%, 20%, 40% and 50%) in successful surface sterilization and as well as the influence of the spathes’ dimension (17, 28 and 32 cm in length) to induce callus were also investigated. The findings obtained showed varietal variation to induce somatic embryogenesis. The results obtained showed using 50% NaOCl solution produced significantly the lowest mortality and contamination percentages. The spikes’ explant obtained from immature inflorescence of 17 cm long and 6.2 cm in width gave significantly the highest callus formation in both cultivars. The MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg L-1 2iP formed white compact callus in the 87.3% of cv. Aseel and 84.3% of cv. Dhakki explants. On the other hand, the initiation medium provided with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA and 0.5 mg L-1 2iP significantly induced callus in cvs. Aseel (90.3%) and Dhakki (78%). Differentiation of the embryogenic callus occurred using 0.05 mg L-1 2,4-D and 2.0 mg L-1 2iP and the highest induction of non-repeated embryos (NRE) were achieved in most of cultures in cvs. Aseel (88.3%) and Dhakki (86%). But the direct shifting of embryogenic callus on PGRs free MS medium under full darkness after 9 months of initiation produced repeated embryos. These findings will expectedly help to define the appropriate size of spathe and plant growth regulators formula for somatic embryogenesis for commercial production of date palm.

1243-1249 Download
16

Management of soil physical health and carbon dynamics in maize cultivated field through organic amendments


Haroon Shahzad, Muhammad Iqbal, Safdar Bashir and Muhammad Farooq

Management of soil physical health and carbon dynamics in maize cultivated field through organic amendments


ABSTRACT:

Pakistan is situated in the most intensively colonized zone of the world. With the passage of time, farmer land holdings are decreasing due to the increasing population. To feed this increasing population the available lands had been cultivated intensively even using brackish water. The use of brackish water for this intensified cultivation is the chief cause of soil particle disintegration resulting in a poor structure. To address this problem a series of experiments were conducted using organic amendments [Farm Manure (FM), Poultry Manure (PM) and Molasses (MO)] maintaining soil water level at 75% of available water contents (AWC). The recommended dosage of mineral fertilizers was applied and maize hybrid Shahanshah was used as a test crop. Addition of farm manure as treatment resulted in better water-stable aggregation (40.68 and 39.91%), soil total organic carbon (12.64 and 12.09 g kg-1), saturated field hydraulic conductivity (27.85 and 27.04 mm h-1), infiltration rate (26.07 and 25.38 mm h-1), total porosity (0.49 and 0.48 m3 m-3). Similarly, plant agronomic parameters i.e. grain yield (9.47 and 9.21 Mg ha-1) and water use efficiency (11.13 and 10.83 kg mm-1 yr-1) were calculated highest in farm manure treatment plots that were significantly greater than control but were found statistically at par with other treatments. It was concluded that organic matter addition yields better soil structure that results in proper aeration, water retention, root penetration ultimately achieving yield goals along with saving up to 25% irrigation water as indicated from the correlation analysis.

1251-1265 Download
17

Seed size, cotyledonal compensation, and response to defoliation and seeding depth in herbaceous dicotyledonous species


Wei Zheng, Zhihui Luan, Hongxiang Zhang, Yingxin Huang and Daowei Zhou

Seed size, cotyledonal compensation, and response to defoliation and seeding depth in herbaceous dicotyledonous species


ABSTRACT:

Zheng, W., Z. Luan, H. Zhang, Y. Huang and D. Zhou. 2020. Seed size, cotyledonal compensation, and response to defoliation and seeding depth in herbaceous dicotyledonous species. Pak. J. Bot., 52(4): DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2020-4(12)

1267-1275 Download
18

Differential oxidative and biochemical responses of tomato and maize leaves to Spodoptera exigua herbivory


Manal El-Zohri, Sameera O. Bafeel and Wafaa Al-Zahrani

Differential oxidative and biochemical responses of tomato and maize leaves to Spodoptera exigua herbivory


ABSTRACT:

Plants have been interacting with insects leading to complex defense approaches. Plant redox status could be regarded as an indicator for its resistance, which is accomplished by the elimination of generated ROS. In his study, we investigated the relationship between oxidative responses in tomato and maize after Spodoptera exigua attack and the plant tolerance. As an indication for plant resistance, fresh and dry biomass of tomato and maize shoot was determined. To investigate the oxidative responses, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), phenols and ascorbic acid (ASA) in addition to the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assayed. All data were collected after 2 hours, 2 days and 1 week following infestation. The results indicated that, shoot fresh and dry weight of tomato significantly decreased lower than uninfected controls after 2 d and 1 week of infestation. However, maize shoot fresh and dry biomass decreased than the control only after 1 week of infestation. The infestation increases H2O2 and ASA concentration in maize leaves at 2 hours and 2 days after infestation while no change recorded in tomato leaves compared to their corresponding controls.  Free phenols content increased in infested tomato leaves more than control. The infestation enhances SOD, CAT and APX activities in tomato and maize leaves. H2O2 content in the leaves of studied plants correlated with their differential tolerance responses. Therefore, it could be used as a diffusible signal to activate defensive genes in maize leaves, as recorded by increasing CAT and APX activities

1277-1287 Download
19

Animal manures and some chemicals as soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato


Serhat Usanmaz and Mawupe Komlavi Atti

Animal manures and some chemicals as soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato


ABSTRACT:

The aim of current research was to determine the effects of two different animal manures (poultry and sheep manures) as base fertilizer and four different chemical supplements (foliar application of seaweed liquid fertilizer, humic acid, photosynthetic bacteria and plant growth regulator) on plant growth and yield of tomato. Tomato is among the most important crops worldwide and its yield is highly dependent on the soil fertility. Experimental studies were conducted in a modern polyethylene greenhouse, located in Yedidalga village in Northern Cyprus. The ‘Halay’ tomato variety was used in the current studies and the experiments were designed as a factorial combination of three manure applications (including “no manure application” as control) and five chemical foliar supplements (including “no foliar application” as control). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design and each unique treatment in plots was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replicates per treatment and each replication consist of five plants. The planting density was 2,800 plants da-1 with 25 cm distance between plants and 120 cm distance between rows. Results showed that both animal manure and chemical supplement applications, alone or in combination, have significant influence on the number of fruits plant-1 and total yield (gr plant-1) of the tomato plants, however no significant effect on the plant height, plant stem diameter and fruit firmness. Results suggested that the best combinations for the higher total yield are the HA/PM (humic acid/poultry manure) and HA/SM (humic acid/sheep manure) applications with 3,547.7 gr plant-1, 3,496.7 gr plant-1, respectively

1289-1298 Download
20

Performance and quality attributes of tomato cultivars under agro climate of Bagrote valley, Gilgit-Baltistan


Maqsood Hussain, Sartaj Ali, Sher Wali, Azhar Hussain, Furukh Faiz and Sayedd Hussain

Performance and quality attributes of tomato cultivars under agro climate of Bagrote valley, Gilgit-Baltistan


ABSTRACT:

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate growth, yield and quality parameters of four tomato cultivars (Roma, Riogrand, Fmx and Savera) in Bagrote valley Gilgit-Baltistan. The results obtained showed significantly difference (p<0.05) between the cultivar as maximum plant height (73.0cm), maximum number of branches (6.46), longest leaf length (10.26cm) and maximum number of days for flowering was observed in cultivar Roma. While lowest plant height (48.66cm), shortest leaf length (7.47cm) and minimum number of days (64.33) for fruit set was observed in cultivar Riogrand. However cultivar Savera showed intermediate behavior for different growth characteristics among the other cultivars. Roma showed maximum yield (29.4t ha-1) followed by Fmx and Savera (25.8 t ha-1 and 24.21 t ha-1), whereas the minimum yield (22.5 t ha-1) was found in Riogrand. Quality parameters i.e. pH, acidity, TSS and ascorbic acid were also found significantly different at p<0.05 among all four cultivars. Roma showed highest value of Ascorbic acid (21.36mg), Fmx showed lowest pH value (4.13), while highest TSS value (5.5⁰B) was observed in Savera. It was concluded from the study that among the four tested cultivars, Roma performed better in terms of growth yield and quality parameters, hence, it is suggested that Roma is most promising cultivar for the climatic conditions of the valley. The study further reiterates that proper selection of higher yielding varieties of crop and vegetables is imperative for farming communities to enhance productivity and increase house hold income for food security of the mountainous region

1299-1303 Download
21

Differential expression of indole alkaloid pathway genes across Catharanthus roseus plant organs


Ahmed M. Ramadan, Muna A. Abdulgader, Thana Khan, Nour O. Gadalla and Ahmed Bahieldin

Differential expression of indole alkaloid pathway genes across Catharanthus roseus plant organs


ABSTRACT:

Vinblastine and vincristine are two indole alkaloids of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, widely used in cancer chemotherapy such as leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and solid tumors. Transcriptomic data of C. roseus across different organs (stem, hairy root, flower, immature and mature leaves) was collected and de novo assembled then differential expression analysis was achieved. The target of this study was the detection of components of terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway based on gene expression analysis. The in-silico analysis was focused on six genes (SLS, sgd, STR1, OMT, DAT and G8H) of the TIA pathway that were expressed in different plant organs. The results indicated posability of formed enzyme in organ and transfer to other organs to work and restore the TIA pathway. The highest expressions level of most TIA key genes   took places in root, flowers and mature leaves. 

1305-1313 Download
22

Genetic variation and population structure of Rosa roxburghii by EST-based and genomic SSR markers


Min Lu, Huaishan Zhang, Huaming An and Wen Zhou

Genetic variation and population structure of Rosa roxburghii by EST-based and genomic SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

Rosa roxburghii Tratt. is a well-known commercial horticultural plant in China with medicinal and nutritional values. The wild germplasm of this rose species is distributed mainly in southwest China, but the population is decreasing due to continuous exploitation, habitat destruction, and fragmentation. Therefore, assessing its genetic variation and population structure is important for effective conservation. In this study, 494 individuals from 29 natural populations from southwest China were analyzed using 10 EST-SSRs and 10 genomic-SSRs primer pairs. One hundred and fourteen different alleles were detected, with an average of 4.1 (for EST-SSR) and 7.3 (for Genomic-SSR) alleles per locus. The overall expected and observed heterozygosity values were 0.728 and 0.852, respectively, and the Shannon’s information index for each of the loci was 1.532. Our results revealed that genomic SSR markers were more polymorphic than EST-SSR markers. A moderately high level of genetic variation was maintained in the R. roxburghii population in Southwest China. AMOVA analyses showed that 93.10% of the genetic variation occurred within populations. Among the populations, the gene flow estimate of 3.373 had a high value. These R. roxburghii accessions were classified into two clusters, which did not follow the geographical distribution. Population ZJ, which showed the highest level of genetic variation and displayed a highly mixed genetic structure, was the most suitable for protection by an in situ conservation strategy

1315-1322 Download
23

Genetic characterization of species in genus Populus based on trnK gene


Du Shuhui, Hu Xiaoyan, Yu Wendong and Qiu Qiandong

Genetic characterization of species in genus Populus based on trnK gene


ABSTRACT:

Many species in the genus Populus are ecologically and economically important forest tree species. In the present study, genetic characterization of selected species from all the six sections of Populus was evaluated using chloroplast trnK gene. Two nucleotide diversity parameters, π and θW reached 0.00341 and 0.00603 respectively, which meant relatively low level of nucleotide diversity of these species in trnK gene. Results of neutral tests showed no significance, indicating the neutral evolution of trnK gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed monophyly of this genus. All the species of genus Populus were separated into two clades in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic pattern of some species was discussed in detail, such as P. mexicana and P. tremuloides. The present investigation illustrates the presence of genetic variability among species of Populus and signifies trnK gene as a potential marker in phylogenetic analysis.

1323-1326 Download
24

Saline soils and crop production in coastal zones of Vietnam: features, strategies for amelioration and management


Ho Lam Nguyen and Dang Hoa Tran

Saline soils and crop production in coastal zones of Vietnam: features, strategies for amelioration and management


ABSTRACT:

Vietnam is a humid tropical country in Southeast Asia with total land of 331,000 km2 and a long sea line of more than 3260 km. In recent decades, due to rapid population growth, demand for food and food security has increased. Today, Vietnam is one of the five countries most affected by climate change. Therefore, reclamation of coastal, saline soil has been receiving increasing attention to explore its economic potentials for agriculture. There are three main types of saline soil (i) Mangrove Saline Soil – Gleyicsalisols or Glayi Salic Fluvisols (FLsg), (ii) Strong saline soil – Hapli Salic Fluvisols (FLsh) and (iii) Medium and weak saline soil – Molli Salic Fluvisols (FLsm). The formation of saline soil in coastal Vietnam is mainly due to tidal inundation and salt-effected ground water. There are many production models such as rice cultivation, rice-fish, saline-emerged forest, aquaculture, etc in coastal zones. Rice cultivation is the most popular model. Twice-cropping rice is cultivated in the central and northern coastal area, while triple-cropping rice is just cultivated in the south and south-east region. There are large differences in climate regime, topography, soil conditions, cultivation customs, society and economic conditions between different regions in the long coastline of Vietnam. Hence, management of saline soils should be based on individual characteristics of each region.  

1327-1333 Download
25

Species diversity and distribution pattern of old trees in Wuzhong district, Suzhou city


Chunping Xie, Wuchuang Dong and Dawei Liu

Species diversity and distribution pattern of old trees in Wuzhong district, Suzhou city


ABSTRACT:

Old trees are a natural and cultural heritage resource, and they often provide a wide variety of tangible and intangible benefits to people. At the same time, old trees are living fossils that can disclose information on vegetation succession, climate change, origin of species, regional environmental change, social development, and other factors. Therefore, old trees play a significant role in many research fields. Based on a field investigation and the literature, the species diversity, distribution pattern, and growth status of old trees in Wuzhong District were analysed. The results indicated that 339 old trees belonged to 41 species, 34 genera and 26 families. Ginkgo biloba was overwhelmingly dominant, followed by Cinnamomum camphora, Zelkova serrata and Juniperus chinensis. The spatial distribution patterns implied that there were more old trees in rural towns than in urban areas, and temples were the main places that accommodated old trees. In terms of the DBH (diameter at breast height), the old tree structures were similar to the spindle shape; however, the third-grade (100-299 years) old trees were more abundant than the other grades (300-499 years and over 500 years). There were four grades of old tree growth status, including vigorous, normal, weak and dying, which accounted for 41.3%, 49.3%, 7.4% and 2.1% of total tree count, respectively. The height and crown attributes were also discussed in this paper. Based on our investigation and analysis, the conservation issues related to old trees were analysed and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

1335-1343 Download
26

Phylogeny of Rheum (Polygonaceae) based on cpDNA trnS-G sequences


Weiwei Li and Ailan Wang

Phylogeny of Rheum (Polygonaceae) based on cpDNA trnS-G sequences


ABSTRACT:

Rheum L. is a perennial herb of Polygonaceae, with about 60 species, most of which are distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Due to the unique habitats of the QTP, Rheum L. was one of the typical representatives for studying the species diversity of this region. To investigate the monophyletic origin of this genus and evaluate its infrageneric relationships, a total of 27 individuals distributed in seven of eight sections of Rheum (only excluding Sect. Orbicularia) were collected in the QTP and adjacent areas. Molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed based on cpDNA trnS-G sequences. The results showed that the monophyletic origin of Sect. Palmata was supported, while another six sections (Sect. Rheum, Sect. Acuminata, Sect. Deserticola, Sect. Spiciformia, Sect. Globulosa and Sect. Nobilia) were found to be paraphyletic origin. Rh. kialense of Sect. Acuminata clustered as a subclade with Rh. Likiangense 3 of Sect. Rheum, Rh. pumilum and Rh. sublanceolatum of Sect. Deserticola. Rh. alexandrae and Rh.nobile, the only two species in Sect. Nobilia, also scattered in different groups. The monophyletic origin of the monotypic Sect. (Globulosum) was also unsupported, and it was found to be clustered together with Rh. nanum of Sect. Deserticola in the ML tree. In conclusion, the phylogeny of Rheum based on cpDNA trnS-G sequences may serve as a reference for exploring specific patterns of rapid speciation in QTP and similar geographical environment.

1343-1351 Download
27

Population dynamics of the endangered plant Paeonia qiui (Paeoniaceae)


Qingyu Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Zhen-Xu Liang, Amjad Farooq, Jianrang Luo, Lixin Niu and Yanlong Zhang

Population dynamics of the endangered plant Paeonia qiui (Paeoniaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Paeonia qiui belonging to the family Paeoniaceae, is a perennial deciduous shrub, having ornamental and medicinal value. Recently the distribution of wild P. qiui has gradually reduced in China due to anthropogenic activites and the influence of various natural factors making its protection a great concern. A population of Paeonia qiui in the eastern Qinling Mountains was surveyed and created a static life table, survival curve, fecundity schedule and Leslie matrix model for analysis of numeric population dynamics. The P. qiui population experienced environmental screening and competitive self-thinning at ages ≤ 6 years and ages 9 to 15 years, respectively. The age of ‘11 years’ is the physiological lifespan of P. qiui and the age of ~27 years is the lifespan limit. The survival curve was classified as a Deevey-I type, with a low net population growth rate of R0 = 0.8005, an intrinsic rate of increase of r= −0.0205, and a finite rate of increase of λ = 0.9797, indicating a declining population. Leslie matrix model simulation results indicated that the P. qiui population will decrease by about 78.8% within the next 30 years and that the current population mainly relied on asexual shoot regeneration for maintenance. The possible causes of endangerment of the P. qiui population are biological characteristics, population size, habitat conditions, and human disturbance. We recommend the establishment of protected areas in the original habitat of P. qiui to gradually restore population size, and individual plants valuable for research or other uses can be saved off-site

1353-1359 Download
28

Selection of robust parental genotypes through heterotic studies in Brassica juncea


Obaid Ullah Sayal and Shah Jehan Khan

Selection of robust parental genotypes through heterotic studies in Brassica juncea


ABSTRACT:

Present investigations were made with the aim to identify the robust parental genotype through heterosis in Brassica juncea L. For this purpose, the present research was conducted during the two consecutive years 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Seven cultivars of Brassica juncea including four exotic (Oriental Mustard, Mustard Florida, Dacca Raya, Elight) and three local  genotypes (S-9, Bard-I and BR) were crossed in a diallel fashion during 2013-14. The seeds of parental genotypes and F1 crosses were grown during 2014-15 in a randomized complete block design for further comparison. Data were recorded for plant height, pods per the main inflorescence, and main inflorescence length, and pod length, seeds per pod, thousand grain weight and yield per plant. Amongst seven cultivars, Dacca Raya showed heterosis for plant height, pod length and pods per main inflorescence when treated as female parent. Whereas for seeds per pod and thousand grains weight, Mustard Florida exhibited heterosis when treated as male parent. However, F1 hybrids of these cultivars revealed significant heterosis for yield trait. Amongst other exotic cultivars, Elight and Oriental Mustard showed heterosis for traits like main inflorescence length and thousand grains weight. In case of better parent heterosis, Mustard Florida was found as the best genotype for seeds per pod, thousand grains weight and seed yield. Hence, it is suggested that exotic cultivars Dacca Raya and Mustard Florida could be included in future breeding program for improvement in seed yield and its attributes.

1361-1368 Download
29

Grafting in Conifers: A review


Alberto Perez-Luna, Christian Wehenkel, Jose Ángel Prieto-Ruiz, Javier Lopez-Upton, Santiago Solis –Gonzalez, Jorge Armando Chavez-Simental and Jose Ciro Hernandez-Diaz

Grafting in Conifers: A review


ABSTRACT:

Grafting is one of the vegetative propagation methods most commonly used worldwide to preserve genotypes and increase germplasm production. The method involves the insertion of a scion from one individual plant into a rootstock from another individual to form a single plant. It has been widely used in fruit trees and hardwoods, but much less so in conifers. Grafted trees are used to establish asexual seed orchards for producing forest germplasm and thus yield genetically improved seed on a large scale. Sprouting processes (callus formation) in the grafted plant are affected by several factors, the most important of which are the technique used, grafting season, phenological and physiological state of the scion and the rootstock, taxonomic affinity between the organs, age of buds and rootstocks, microclimatic conditions of the site where the grafts are maintained, and genetic, anatomical and histological differences between the grafted organs. On the other hand, graft incompatibility can be caused by extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Grafting is also used to rejuvenate mature trees (upper buds), and it is possible to shorten the process by applying growth promoting hormones. Good results have been achieved with conifers in grafting tests conducted in the United States and some parts of Europe and Asia; however, successful grafting and survival of conifer grafted rootstocks have not yet been achieved in Latin American countries.

1369-1378 Download
30

Micromorphological and genetic molecular variations in some taxa of Asteraceae and its importance as grazing plants


Amal Mohamed Eliwa Abdel-Hamid

Micromorphological and genetic molecular variations in some taxa of Asteraceae and its importance as grazing plants


ABSTRACT:

The present study used Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for achene surface to characterize and detect morphological and genetical molecular markers in 15 taxa of family Asteraceae collected from Al-Jouf and Al-Ula regions in the northern of Saudi Arabia and give attention to the importance of this family as grazing plants. The results of achene surface showed great differences between studied taxa and gave important criteria to characterize them. RAPD analysis scored molecular genetic markers that helped to characterize and detect variation between studied taxa. Primers produced a total of 105 bands of which 59 were species specific markers. The dendrogram generated by combination between RAPD polymorphism and achene scanning electron microscope features produced a clear view about the genetic relationship between studied taxa of Asteraceae

1379-1388 Download
31

Comparative analysis of sugarcane genotypes for post-harvest deterioration under natural conditions


Muhammad Tahir Khan, Shafquat Yasmeen and Imtiaz Ahmed Khan

Comparative analysis of sugarcane genotypes for post-harvest deterioration under natural conditions


ABSTRACT:

Post-harvest sugarcane deterioration is a vexing and worrisome problem of the sugar industry as such losses diminish the economic returns of the farmers as well as the mills. This study was initiated to investigate the post-harvest differences among three sugarcane genotypes (1026-P7, NIA-S3, and 1254) and one check variety (Thatta-10) subjected to staling for a period of seven days. Post-harvest changes were determined for cane weight, sucrose, brix, dextran, bacterial density, and juice yields. All of the genotypes evaluated in this study showed decline in cane weight on staling. NIA-S3 exhibited minimum rate of decline, whereas highest rate of cane weight reduction was observed in Thatta-10. Final cane weight losses of 1.85%, 2.05%, 2.054% and 2.16% on day 7 were recorded for NIA-S3, 1026-P7, 1254, and Thatta-10, respectively. A gradual drop in sucrose percentage was seen. 1254 showed lowest rate of decline for sucrose, whereas highest rate of sucrose losses was observed in 1026-P7 which was recorded 8.81% sucrose on day 7 against 14.46% on day 1. Contrarily, brix percentage of the clones was seen to increase over time. Thatta-10 showed minimal brix% values and the lowest rate of rise in this parameter. On the other hand, highest values were recorded for 1254 as its brix% was increased from 19.66 to 25.13%. Furthermore, manifold increase in dextran was observed in all the genotypes. 1026-P7 showed maximum progression in dextran levels ultimately showing dextran contents of 1316 ppm on day 7. The least rate of dextran formation was noticed for Thatta-10. Bacterial density was also estimated to rise in cane juice for initial days of staling, while pH of the cane juice lessened continuously over time. The juice yields per unit weight were observed to reduce at highest rate for 1026-P7 as its juice quantity was decreased by 51.29% during the study period. In this study, NIA-S3 showed minimum cane weight losses. Moreover, 1254 and NIA-S3 relatively maintained their sugar contents over time. These clones can be optimal candidates for cultivation in areas distant from the vicinity of sugar mills. Growing such post-harvest losses resistant genotypes would be extremely important to farmers as well as the sugar industry to minimize their economic damages from cut-to-crush delays.

1389-1395 Download
32

Risk assessment of heavy metal and microbial contamination in commercially available salad vegetables of Faisalabad, Pakistan


Farah Ejaz, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz, Zulfiqar Ahmad Dasti, Sadaf Gul, Umer Islam and Muhammad Waqar

Risk assessment of heavy metal and microbial contamination in commercially available salad vegetables of Faisalabad, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Vegetables are vital for an efficient functioning of human’s body as they build a major constituent of human diet in each family. Irrigation with polluted waters and poor post harvesting management in olericulture are described as the major sources of heavy metal contamination and bacterial infection in vegetables. Intensive use of pesticides may result in enhancing or reducing the above mentioned hazards. It is very important to regularly assess the market vegetables to determine if they are safe for consumption in raw or cooked form. The major focus of current study was to analyze the quality of four highly consumed salad vegetables carrot (Daucus carota) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), green chilli (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus), for their safe utilization as food. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of the most reported heavy metals (cadmium, lead and chromium) and microbial contamination like Escherichia coli in above mentioned vegetables. Samples were collected from three types of commercial vegetable markets in Faisalabad: local vegetable markets (wholesale market), supermarkets and street venders. It was observed that the range of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in vegetables were 1.23-7.23, 1.11-5.33 and 1.22-7.11 µg g-1, respectively. However, the detected mean values of all heavy metals were less than that of acceptable limits by the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, E. coli contamination was observed in all the samples of vegetables from roadside retailers but in only few samples from supermarket, however, all the levels were under permissible limits. So, our results showed that these vegetables were safe for human consumption.

1397-1403 Download
33

Effects of ‘Laoyaban’ flavonoids on freshness of ‘Hongyan’ strawberry


Sun Yujun, Li Yu, Wang Daobing, Huang Ping, Song Qingkun, Sheng Ren and Gao Qinghai

Effects of ‘Laoyaban’ flavonoids on freshness of ‘Hongyan’ strawberry


ABSTRACT:

Flavonoids were prepared from the leaves of ‘LAOYABAN’. The ability of ‘Hongyan’ strawberry soaked with different flavonoids concentrations of ‘LAOYABAN’ at 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL for 5 min to affect freshness was determined. Simultaneously, the antimicrobial activity was tested to explore its ability to maintain freshness. The results showed that the flavonoids of ‘LAOYABAN’ reduced the weight loss rate and decay rate of ‘Hongyan’ strawberries after harvesting. There was also a reduction in the loss of soluble sugar and vitamin C (Vc) content. In addition, the flavonoids maintained the activity of SOD, reduced the formation of MDA substance, and had a certain antiseptic and fresh maintenance effect on ‘Hongyan’ strawberry following harvest. When the concentration of flavonoids was 100 mg/mL, the diameter of the inhibitory zone for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis and strawberry mixed bacteria (isolated from rotten ‘Hongyan’ strawberries) was 12.4 mm, 11.2 mm, 10.8 mm and 8.3 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of flavonoids from ‘LAOYABAN’ against each of these four bacteria was 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the fresh-keeping effect of ‘LAOYABAN’ flavonoids on ‘Hongyan’ strawberry is achieved through their bacteriostatic activity and anti-oxidant activity.

1405-1410 Download
34

Productive role of agroforestry system in context of ecosystem services in district Dir lower, Pakistan


Muhammad Hayat, Tianshan Zha, Syed Moazzam Nizami, Saeed Gulzar, Alamgir Khan, Sundas Iqbal and Muhammad Sadiq Khan

Productive role of agroforestry system in context of ecosystem services in district Dir lower, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Agroforestry is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the overall production through a combination of trees and crops. This study attempts to find out the multifunctional role of agroforestry, such as productive role, services role and farmer’s attitude towards agroforestry in District Dir Lower, Pakistan. For data collection, comprehensive questionnaire was used and 200 respondents were interviewed from 40 villages through random sampling. Results showed that people highly preferred productive value and moderately preferred services value of agroforestry. According to the respondents feedback 83.5% were owner of the land and cultivated the land themselves. The common irrigation system was rain fed (54.5%) and 50.5% of respondents were followed Agrosilvo system in the study area. The fast growing timber tree species (N=20-120) were Ailanthus altissima, Morus alba, and Populous nigra on their farmlands generating 20,000-40,000 PKR. (Pakistani rupees) income annually. From the fruit trees such as Juglans regia, Citrus species, and Prunus domestica income was 10,000-15,000 PKR annually. The majority 36.5% of respondents depended for fuel wood having PKR 5000-35,000. Different types of agricultural crops i.e. wheat, rice, maize, brassica and fodder crops along with farm trees were cultivated. Ecosystem services were reported by 89.6% respondents with positive affect. It was concluded that agroforestry found best than traditional agriculture system in income generation. The percentages of land use classes were correlated with satellite classified data and found significant correlation with agroforestry services. This study will help in future in implementing agroforestry system in uplifting the socio economic condition of the community in study area.

1411-1419 Download
35

Ecological and biochemical studies on Artemisia absinthium in Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia


Amal A. M. Al-Ghamdi

Ecological and biochemical studies on Artemisia absinthium in Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Artemisia absinthium is a known economic plant due to its high essential oil content. Besides playing a vital role in protecting plants, essential oils have several important uses in medicine, chemical and food-processing industries, and cosmetics. This study investigates the biochemical characteristics of A. absinthium and the soil where it thrived well. Soil and plant samples were collected from different sites at Al-Baha City, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to identify the most abundant secondary metabolites in the water extract of the A. absinthium shoot. Then the extract was tested for its bioactivity on seed germination and seedling growth of Cucumis sativus. The results showed that the pH of soils where A. absinthium thrived was 7.88 (moderate alkalinity). Additionally, the soils had high organic matter content (approximately 48%). The soil consisted mainly of nitrogen (45.7% of the total soil minerals); potassium and calcium levels were recorded at around 190 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg of soil, respectively. Approximately 6.9% of the total soil minerals recorded consisted of magnesium. The phosphorus level was the lowest (11.04 mg/kg of soil). GC-MS analysis of A. absinthium water extract revealed a total of 23 components, with the main ones including davanone (58.5%) and (-)-camphor (16.0%). Although A. absinthium is rich in secondary compounds, its water extracts did not significantly influence the germination or growth of C. sativus seedlings.

1421-1425 Download
36

Indigenous knowledge based herbal medicine for Corona (COVID-19)  treatment


Zabta K. Shinwari, Muhammad Qaiser, Muhammad Qasim Nasar and Amjad Ali

Indigenous knowledge based herbal medicine for Corona (COVID-19)  treatment


ABSTRACT:

Current Corona virus Covid-19 crisis has infected more than 1.8 million humans in last three months and it is increasing exponentially every day. Some of the allopathic medicines (Cholroquine, Lopinover, Oseltamivir and Retenover etc.) used for other purposes like Malaria have shown good results in Corona. Plants species were reported to be effective in coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which causes a serious type of pneumonia. In similar way, Plant materials are a good source of bioactive compounds/phytochemicals that can be utilized not only for strengthening our immune system but also killing the pathogens. Due to chemical diversity and natural affability of natural products, either in the form of standardized extract or as a pure compound based on ethnopharmacological properties plays a s significant role in new drug development. Though, we have summarized medicinal plants that have a role in anti-viral activities, but there is an immediate need to find out more and more medicinal plants for anti-viral activities

1427-1434 Download
37

Effect of physical and chemical pretreatment methods on sawdust for improved saccharification


Ikram Ul Haq, Zannara Mustafa, Ali Nawaz Asad-Ur-Rehman and Hamid Mukhtar

Effect of physical and chemical pretreatment methods on sawdust for improved saccharification


ABSTRACT:

Sawdust from sawmills being invaluable substrate possess high potential for the production of bioethanol due to many deep rooted benefits. Production of bioethanol by enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass imply many steps including pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation but pretreatment is the most crucial step as structural hindrances are to be removed first for cellulases to act on lignocellulosic substrates. In the present study different pretreating agents i.e. Autohydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide, microwaves and urea: thiourea are assessed for lignin removal from saw dust. Among these, maximum delignification of 32.96% was observed using urea: thiourea in a proportion of 1:4. Furthermore, best pretreated samples of each strategy were further analyzed for saccharification using hyperthermophilic cellulases under similar conditions. Among all, urea:thiourea pretreated sample of sawdust showed maximum saccharification i.e. 37.38% as compared to control sample for which 14.56% saccharification was recorded. This pretreatment resulted in 2.56 fold increase in the saccharification of saw dust. 

1435-1440 Download
38

Evaluating efficacy of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and potassium fertilizer on spinach growth under salt stress


Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Fiza Mahmood, Subhan Danish, Shahid Hussain, Mehreen Gul, Rizwan Yaseen and Muhammad Shaaban

Evaluating efficacy of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and potassium fertilizer on spinach growth under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Soil salinity is a major constraint for crop production as it negatively impacts the supply of nutrients and produces ethylene that hampers crops productivity. Several studies have been conducted so far to devise robust strategies for alleviation of soil salinity stress on crops. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) is one of the potential strategy to decrease salinity stress on the plants. The PGPR can produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase which decreases stress of ethylene generated by salinity. On the other hand, improving potassium (K) uptake is also an effective strategy to minimize the negative effects of salt stress on crops. Therefore, a pot study was conducted with co-application of two pre-isolated ACC deaminase producing PGPR (i.e. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Alcaligenes faecalis) with half (HRK) and full recommended dose of K (RK) fertilizer in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) under salt stress (control = 3.0 and 5.0 dS m–1). Co-application of B. amyloliquefaciens + RK significantly enhanced leaf and root fresh and dry weights of spinach. Maximum significant improvement in chlorophyll a (93%), chlorophyll b (50%), total chlorophyll (76%), K concentrations in leaf (70%) and root (60%), and reduction (26%) in leaf electrolyte leakage validated the effectiveness of B. amyloliquefaciens and A. faecalis with RK to mitigate salt stress. It is concluded that both B. amyloliquefaciens and A. faecalis with RK can alleviate salt stress in spinach.

1441-1447 Download
39

Effect of cutting management, seeding rates and sowing method on seed yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


Jamshaid Ahmad, Asif Iqbal, Athar Mahmood, Muhmmad Aamir Iqbal, Haroon Zaman Khan, Rana Nadeem Abbas, Nadeem Akbar and Muhammad Maqsood

Effect of cutting management, seeding rates and sowing method on seed yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


ABSTRACT:

A Two years field study conducted at the Agronomic Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) to explore the impact of cutting management, seed rates and sowing technique on seed yield of  alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The treatments comprised of three last cutting dates were 19 February 5 March and 19 March, three seeding rates were 10, 15 and 20  kg ha-1 and four sowing method i.e. line sowing in 30 , 45, 60 cm apart rows and broadcast, respectively. Earliest Last cutting (19 February) exhibited significantly higher number of raceme plant-1, 1000 seed weight, number of pods raceme-1 and final seed yield. Seed rate of 10 kg ha-1 had a significant impact on numbers of raceme m-2, pods raceme-1, seeds pod-1 and final seed yield for both years. Sowing method of using 60 cm had significant effects on raceme m-2, pods raceme-1, seeds pod-1, 1000 seed wt. and final seed yield in both years. It can be concluded that alfalfa forage crop left on 19 February with 10 kg ha-1 and 60 cm produced clearly higher seed yield

1449-1454 Download
40

Mycoflora associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds and its impact on seed germination in Azad Jammu & Kashmir


Shoukat Hussain, Muhammad Ajaib, Rehana Asghar, Imran Ali and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

Mycoflora associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds and its impact on seed germination in Azad Jammu & Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

Seed of Phaseolus vulgaris L. collected from various localities of Azad Jammu and Kashmir were evaluated for seed associated Mycoflora by Standard blotter paper method and Agar plate method. The seed samples were observed contaminated with fungi corresponding to eight genera including Alternaria Nees, Aspergillus Micheli, Curvularia Boedijn, Drechslera S. Ito, Fusarium Link, Mucor Fresen, Penicillium Link and Rhizopus Ehrenb. The highest infection percentage was recorded from Trarkhal, Bagh and Chikar samples, i.e. 24.75A, 18.25B and 13.25C respectively. Least infection percentage was observed on Lawaat 3.00H and Kail 11.8E samples. Impact of fungal presence on seed germination was elucidated by Standard rolled paper towel method. Lawaat and Kail samples showed lesser impact and better germination 93.66% and 92.33% respectively. Incidence of fungi was recorded high and low germination in Trarkhal and Palangi samples 43.33% and 22% respectively. Three treatments namely, heat, Allium sativum extract and Benomyl (fungicide) were used for Mycoflora management. These treatments were assessed through Standard rolled paper towel method. Use of different antifungal treatments found effective in increasing mean germination percentage 6-8% and health of seedlings. Efficacy of management was evaluated by using CRD2 Factorial test. The interaction between treatments and localities was significantly different at the level of 0.05. Benomyl was more effective in increasing seed germination with 76.00A mean. Locality of Lawaat showed the highest germination percentage with different treatments having 96.00A mean value. Best interaction was observed between treatment 3 and locality 2, i.e. 97.33 while least interaction was calculated between treatment 2 and locality 6 i.e., 22.33. All seed samples of P. vulgaris collected from different sites were found contaminated with seed associated Mycoflora. These fungi reduced the germination percentage and use of different antifungal treatments efficiently increased the germination percentage and reduced the fungal growth. Benomyl was found more effective seed treatment before sowing.

1455-1463 Download
41

Co-inoculation of biogas slurry and Bacillus strain CIK-515 in improving nutrient concentration and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum)


Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Ali Zakir, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Abdul Khaliq, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Aslam Farooqi and Niaz Ahmed

Co-inoculation of biogas slurry and Bacillus strain CIK-515 in improving nutrient concentration and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum)


ABSTRACT:

Manipulations of organic and inorganic fertilizers are known to enhance plant growth regulating factors in the soil that ultimately increase crop growth and yield. However, less has been investigated on the efficiency of both fertilizers by co-inoculating plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). This study was designed to investigate the improvement in potato tuber yield and nutrient contents (N, P) through the integrated application of biogas slurry (BGS) and PGPR, Bacillus strain CIK-515, with or without the recommended dose of NPK (RNPK). The results showed a significant effect of BGS and PGPR on tuber yield (p<0.05) and that it was independent of the addition of RNPK. The application of BGS and CIK-515 showed a significant improvement in plant height (22-42%), total dry biomass (24-43%), tuber yield (19-51%), N and P (25-45%, 5-31% in plant biomass) in potato plant compared to RNPK, with or without. However, the combination of BGS and RNPK led to a significant increase in agronomic indices of N and P use efficiency. A better correlation had existed between tuber yield and NUE (R2 = 0.73) compared to tuber yield and PUE (R2 = 0.66). It could be concluded that co-inoculation of BGS and Bacillus strain CIK-515 could be a useful soil amendment that has the ability to improve N and P contents and tuber yield when utilized with mineral fertilizers.

1465-1472 Download
42

Nanoparticles and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) modulate the physiology of onion plant under salt stress


Sadia Jahangir, Khadija Javed and Asghari Bano

Nanoparticles and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) modulate the physiology of onion plant under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

The effects of rhizobacteria and Ag-nanoparticles were studied on the growth of onion seedlings under induced salt stress. The onion seedlings were treated with 50mM NaCl for 7days. The PGPR strains Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas moraviensis were used to inoculate one month old onion seedlings by adding broth culture in rhizosphere soil. One month after transplantation. Ag-nanoparticles (5ppm) were applied to rhizosphere soil for 5days. Number and weight of leaves, length of shoots, weight of roots, leaves and bulb were measured. 38 days are growth period after transplantation, the treated plants were analyzed for chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar, protein, proline, flavonoids and phenolics content of onion leaves and bulb. Bacillus pumilus in association with Ag-nanoparticle performed better for growth stimulation of the onion plants. The soil moisture was higher in salt stressed plants but the PGPR inoculated plants and silver nanoparticles alone and also in combinations with PGPR exhibited decrease in the salt induced retention in soil moisture. Silver-nanoparticle combination with PGPR and alone increased the total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents under salt stress. Both Ag-nanoparticle and PGPR exhibited maximum increase in protein content of bulb, decreased the leaf flavonoids but had significant increase in the bulb flavonoid contents. The PGPR being more effective. The Ag-nanoparticle significantly increased the sugar and proline contents. Bacillus pumilus proved to be more effective under unstressed conditions to all growth parameters but Pseudomonas moraviensis effectively coped under salinated conditions. PGPR strains overcame the salt induced inhibition in growth parameters of plans. New proteins appear to be synthesized both by PGPR as well as Ag-nanoparticles to combat adverse effects of salt on plant growth.

1473-1480 Download
43

Screening of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of two marine cyanobacteria collected from mangrove backwater at Sandspit, Pakistan


Yasmeen Zamir Ahmed, Seema Shafique, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan and Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddique

Screening of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of two marine cyanobacteria collected from mangrove backwater at Sandspit, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Two strains of cyanobacteria form backwaters mangrove forest were isolated and examined for potential antagonist activity against clinical and environmental strains of bacteria and yeast. The cyanobacterial fractions (from sea and distilled water, ethanol, sodium hydroxide) exhibited variable activity. Results from agar spot assay revealed that the ethanolic fraction of Phormidium breve and seawater extract of Aphanocapsa litoralis, exhibited positive antagonistic activity against Candida albicans. Most of bacterial strains were resistant to test extracts. The cytotoxicity test was employed using Artemia salina. The probit analysis (95% confidence interval) revealed that the bioassay was highly sensitive against Phormidium breve ethanolic extract and moderately sensitive against Aphanocapsa litoralis sea water fraction. The undiluted crude fractions of ethanolic and seawater were found to be lethal and effective. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Phormidium breve ethanolic extract was 0.02 mg/ml (20 ppm) and Aphanocapsa litoralis sea water fraction was found to be 6.2 mg/ml (6200 ppm) after 24-hours respectively. These findings indicate the fractions were biologically active and provide a baseline for further antifungal protein research of mangrove associated cyanobacterial strains.

1481-1490 Download
44

Algae, soil fertility and physicochemical properties in agricultural fields of Balochistan, Pakistan


Qasima Agha, Mudassir Asrar, Saadullah Khan Leghari and Mohammad Abass Somalani

Algae, soil fertility and physicochemical properties in agricultural fields of Balochistan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of algal growth on soil physicochemical properties in the fruit farms of Balochistan, Pakistan. The diversity of algal flora and its relation to physicochemical characteristics of soil from 10 different fruit crop fields of Balochistan, Pakistan were analyzed. The physicochemical properties of soil such as sand, clay, silt, organic matter, electrical conductivity, and hydrogen ion concentration, and total nitrogen, available phosphorous and available potassium were evaluated. The soils analysis was performed through standard methods and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. In this study 109 species of algae belonging to 54 genera were isolated and identified. Maximum number of species belonged to blue green, followed by diatoms and minimum number of green algae were recorded. The largest numbers of algal species were recorded from apple, grape and plum farms of Khanozai, Ziarat and Akhtarabad. The soils examined in the present study had high organic matter. The pH at all sites ranged from 5.87–8.60. Maximum pH was recorded from Panjpai (8.60), followed by Khanozai and more algal growth was recorded from these sites. Maximum Nitrogen (0.87%), Posphorus (260 ppm), Potassium (260 ppm) and organic matter (2%) was recorded from the soil of Khanozai with maximum number of (74) algal species. Organic matter was found to be positively correlated with Nitrogen. High Phosphorus and Potassium concentration in soils of all locations were found. All the soil characteristics were significantly correlated with the algal flora. Available potassium plays significant role in the overall production of algae and higher plants. The soils at all sites were loamy except from Sibi and Noshki where it was sandy loam. The loamy soils proved to be the best for algal growth as it retains organic matter, moisture, nutrients and promote microorganism’s growth. This study proved that good soil algal growth was found to be useful as it improves soil fertility by improving its texture, water holding capacity, organic matter and provides minerals after decay.

1491-1495 Download
45

Remote sensing (RS) monitoring of mangroves plantation against the Guinness world record (GWR) of maximum plantation in Indus delta


Gohar Ali Mahar, Basharat Hussain, Riaz Ahmed Wagan, Agha Tahir Hussain and Shaukat Hayat Khan

Remote sensing (RS) monitoring of mangroves plantation against the Guinness world record (GWR) of maximum plantation in Indus delta


ABSTRACT:

The present study was designed to monitor the growth pattern of mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata) planted by SFD in June 2013 at Kharochan island near Keti bunder and created world record for planting maximum number of plants in one day. Since, this activity was accepted by Guinness Book of World Record (GWR) that is known as GWR-II. A study was required to evaluate the impact of this task of GWR.  This study was conducted using Remote Sensing Data, GIS as well as field survey of the plantation site. After about two and half years of plantation during the field survey on 24 November, 2016, it was observed that the Rhizophora mucronata, the planted species was growing well. The plants were very healthy and attained average height of 32.8 inches with several branches. Moreover, the analysis of the data collected during the field survey showed survival rate of 77.7%. Analysis of remote sensing data for the years 2013, 2015 and 2017 revealed increase in mangroves cover of 9 and 103 hectares during the 2013 to 2015 and 2015 to 2017, respectively. The increase in mangroves has also been calculated using GIS techniques and maps for different years have been prepared. It has been noticed that during field survey, Avicennia marina which is most abundant specie of Indus Delta has also grown on the plantation site with one and half year age groups of plants.  Findings of the Remote sensing data as well as the field survey show that mangroves forest area has been increased.

1497-1503 Download
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