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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Elucidating some physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings induced by seed priming with plant growth regulators


Sadegh Shahrasbı, Hadı Pırasteh-Anosheh, Yahya Emam, Munır Ozturk and Volkan Altay

Elucidating some physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings induced by seed priming with plant growth regulators


ABSTRACT:

Present study was undertaken to elucidate some physiological mechanisms of induced salt tolerance by different plant growth regulators (PGRs) in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Three salt stress levels were given; tapwater (0.7 dS m-1), 6 dS m-1 and 12 dS m-1, which made by NaCl and CaCl2 as 2:1 molar ratio. The eight seed priming agents were included: dry seeds (no-priming), hydropriming and six PGRs primings. The used PGRs were; abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (AUX), salicylic acid (SA), chlorocholine chloride (CCC), ascorbic acid (AS) and brassinosteroid (Brs). The results revealed that salinity, depending on level, reduced seedling emergence, shoot and root growth, potassium (K+) concentration and enhanced sodium (Na+) concentration and antioxidant enzymes. These reductions could be attributed to oxidative stress and/or ion balance disturbance due to salinity stress. It is documented by reduced K+ and increased Na+ in both root and shoot as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and H2O2 in salt stressed rapeseed seedlings. Higher storage factor (SF) refers to a higher ions content kept in roots rather than transporting these to the shoot as salinity level increased. PGRs priming modulates some negative effects of salt stress on emergence, growth and physiological functions of plants. In triggering the ameliorating role of PGRs, it appeared that the ratio of Na+ to K+ is more important than their individual concentrations. Moreover, H2O2 concentration was found to be a better key for estimation of the oxidative damage rather than antioxidative enzymes. Among the PGRs, SA and Brs showed better performance, and it seems that the main mechanism of action for SA was creating ion balance and changing ion partitioning in favor of roots. For Brs it appeared to be reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging by inducing higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, particularly catalase.

367-377 Download
2

Assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for high temperature stress tolerance using physico-chemical analysis


Khalil Ahmed Laghari, Abdul Jabbar Pirzada, Mahboob Ali Sial Muhammad Athar Khan and Jamal Uddin Mangi

Assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for high temperature stress tolerance using physico-chemical analysis


ABSTRACT:

High temperature stress would be one of the major threats to wheat productivity due to changing climate scenario.  A field study was carried out at Experimental Farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam during 2014-15 by using 20 wheat genotypes (mutants and advance lines) along with four check varieties Sarsabz, TJ-83, TD-1 and Kiran-95. The breeding material was subjected to two different sowing dates viz. sowing date-1 (November 15 as normal sowing) and sowing date-2 (December 25 as late sowing to induce high temperature stress at grain filling). Along with agronomic, breeding data, physiological parameters i.e., SPAD chlorophyll content, proline, osmotic potential and leaf area were assessed in both normal sown and late sown crop to see the affect of high temperature stress at different traits including physico chemical parameters. Results revealed that  seven genotypes NIA-8/7, NIA-AMBER, BWS-78, NIA-10/8, NIA-28/4, DH-12/1 and check  KIRAN-95 were found tolerant to heat stress and produced higher grain yields ( >4000 kg ha-1) under heat stress conditions. While out of seven genotypes, five genotypes DH-12/1, BWS-78, NIA-10/8, NIA-28/4, and Kiran-95 possess one or the other efficient physiological mechanism to cope with heat stress. Whereas NIA-8/7 and NIA-Amber were found having superiority in agro-morphological traits under stress conditions. Most of the physiological traits SPAD chlorophyll and leaf area, proline and osmotic potential had no any significant correlation with grain yield in normal sown crop and highly significant correlation of these traits were calculated under heat stress conditions

379-385 Download
3

Mitigation effect of biochar on sorghum seedling growth under salinity stress


Muhi Eldeen Hussien Ibrahim, Adam Yousif Adam Ali, Aboagla Mohammed Ibrahim Elsiddig, Guisheng Zhou, Nimir Eltyb Ahmed Nimir, Gamareldawla H.D. Agbna and Guanglong Zhu

Mitigation effect of biochar on sorghum seedling growth under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Salinity stress one of the primary abiotic stress affected growth and establishment of crops. The study was conducted to examine if biochar can mitigate the negative effects of salinity on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) seedlings. The test was a completely randomized design with three replications arranged as a factorial design. The soil was treated with sodium chloride at levels of 0.8, 4.1, and 7.7 dS m−1. The saline soil was treated with four biochar rates of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). Seedling emergence percentage, root length (RL), shoot length (ShL), root fresh weight (RFwt), shoot fresh weight (SFwt), root dry weight (RDwt), shoot dry weight (SDwt), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly affected by salinity stress, biochar and by the interaction between salinity and biochar. However, biochar soil amendment proved to be more useful to alleviate the effect of salinity on seedling growth parameters. Moreover, among all biochar levels applied in this investigation. 5% biochar level has a high impact on mitigating salt stress. These findings evidenced that using biochar in suitable amount could mitigate the impacts of salt stress. However, biochar application at a high level may have negative influences.

387-392 Download
4

Screening of rice germplasm for drought stress tolerance using multivariate analysis


Mst Tanjina Shahanaj Turin, Md. Arifuzzaman and Mohammad Abul Kalam Azad

Screening of rice germplasm for drought stress tolerance using multivariate analysis


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress reduces rice yields around the globe. For this, an investigation was carried out with rice landraces and cultivars to identify drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress conditions using multivariate statistical analysis. The experiment was conducted with 24 genotypes composed of 20 land races and four cultivars during October – March of 2016-17 season using strip-plot design with three replications under control and rainfed drought blocks. The results of the analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes, treatments and genotype × treatment interactions for most of the characters studied. Comparing the mean values, control blocks produced superior performances than drought blocks for most of the traits except proline content. Based on the genetic distance, all the 24 genotypes were grouped into three different clusters. In both control and drought conditions, the cluster II contained some common genotypes viz. Kalamanik and Burikatari with the highest number of relative means for number of tillers per hill, chlorophyll content, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and yield per plant. Principal component analysis revealed maximum variation by first three components. The biplot analysis indicated the maximum proximity of genotypes BRRI Dhan56, BRRI Dhan66 and BRRI Dhan71 with root traits and yield per plant. Drought susceptibility indices (DSI) indicated the superiority in the BRRI dhan66. Considering overall superior performances, the genotypes BRRI dhan71, BRRI dhan57, BRRI dhan56, Kalamanik, Burikatari, Noyantara and Honumanjata might be useful for novel sources of drought tolerant genes and genotypes in future drought tolerance breeding.

393-400 Download
5

Ameliorative effects of exogenous ascorbic acid and potassium nitrate on antioxidant defence system and mineral nutrient uptake in tomatoes under salt stress


Mahmut Yildiztekin

Ameliorative effects of exogenous ascorbic acid and potassium nitrate on antioxidant defence system and mineral nutrient uptake in tomatoes under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the salt-based oxidative stress in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. leaves. The obtained results showed that the saline stress had negative effect on plant vegetative growth and other biochemical parameters. The KNO3 (10 and 20 mM) and AsA (1 and 2 mM) treatments increased the relative water content (RWC) in fresh leaves and dry matter (DM) under salinity (125 mM). The addition of AsA and KNO3 significantly increased both antioxidative enzyme activities (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) and the photosynthetic pigments contents of the plant leaves, while the Lipid peroxidation and proline levels decreased. It was considerable that the negative effects of salt-stress were reduced for vegetative growth and other biochemical parameters of tomato plants. The results of this study showed that the usage of AsA and KNO3 could increase salt stress tolerance and ensure protection for tomato plants against oxidative stress.

401-407 Download
6

Plant hydraulic conductivity determines photosynthesis in rice under PEG-induced drought stress


Guanglong Zhu, Lifeng Gu, Yu Shi, Huize Chen, Yuqian Liu, Faguang Lu, Zhen Ren, Yue Wang, Haitong Lu, Adnan Tabassum and Guisheng Zhou

Plant hydraulic conductivity determines photosynthesis in rice under PEG-induced drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Photosynthesis (A) plays a key role in maintaining plant carbon balance, but it is sensitive to drought. Both A and plant hydraulic conductivity (Kplant) decrease under water deficit. It is not clearly whether the declined Kplant is more related to root or leaf, whether the decreased A is related to Kplant and/or leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf) and diffusive alone or both diffusive and metabolic impairments decreased A. Two drought-tolerant (DW) contrasting rice genotypes were used to explore the relationship of A, Kplant and Kleaf under PEG induced drought stress (PEG-DS). The results showed that photosynthesis related parameters of A, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), carboxylation efficiency (CE), Kleaf, Kplant and xylem sap flow rate (XSFR) were all decreased significantly under PEG-DS. These decreases were more severe in DW-sensitive genotype IR64 than DW-tolerant genotype Hanyou-3. However, both intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and CO2 concentration inside chloroplasts (Cc) were prominently increased in IR64 rather than in Hanyou-3 under PEG-DS. In addition, both gs and gm (mesophyll conductance to CO2) were strongly positively correlated with A (R2=0.98 & 0.71). Photosynthesis of both genotypes were increased with increasing Ci under each treatment. Furthermore, A and gs were significantly correlated with Kplant (R2=0.94 & 0.96) but not with Kleaf, and Kplant was not related to Kleaf. Kplant rather than Kleaf determines photosynthesis in rice under drought conditions, which was mainly attributed to Kplant decreases the stomatal conductance and ultimately lead to decrease in photosynthesis

409-417 Download
7

Response of Amorpha fruticosa seedlings to drought and rewatering in arid and semi-arid environment


Shulin Feng, Ashim Sikdar, Jinxin Wang, Mehrunisa Memon, Boyuan Li, Huifang Ma and Guoli Lv

Response of Amorpha fruticosa seedlings to drought and rewatering in arid and semi-arid environment


ABSTRACT:

Amorpha fruticosa is widely planted in arid and semi-arid areas of northern China as the pioneer species for vegetation restoration. To determine the response of A. fruticosa to drought and rewatering, a greenhouse experiment was conducted maintaining desired soil water content following weighing method. Results showed that compensation effects occurred at different growth stages of A. fruticosa after rewatering, when the soil relative water content was ≥70%. Post-drought rewatering significantly triggered the compensatory improvement in plant height (19.49% and 7.23%), basal diameter (49.81% and 9.09%), leaf area (7.82% and 8.16%), root length (1.67% and 0.94%), root volume (10.86% and 11.67%) and dry matter content (26.32% and 12.29%) over control at initial and fast growth stages, respectively,under soil relative water content  of 87.84%. Whereas, post-drought rewatering did not significantly affect the recovery of A. fruticosa at late growth stage, but 70% was the ideal soil relative water content for dry matter accumulation as compared to control. Thirty (30) days of drought at initial growth stage and 15 days of drought at fast and late growth stages were relatively ideal for biomass yield. The responses of seedlings to drought stress and rewatering suggest that it could significantly contribute to effective irrigation management of A. fruticosa in arid and semi-arid environment.

419-424 Download
8

Distribution of soil seed reserve and its association with aboveground vegetation in salinized soils of arid regions in northwest China


Li Li Nan and Quan En Guo

Distribution of soil seed reserve and its association with aboveground vegetation in salinized soils of arid regions in northwest China


ABSTRACT:

The seed bank of salinized soil is a valuable germplasm resource for plant salt tolerance research. The study collected 468 soil samples from plant communities of 5 subtypes and 13 soil genera in saline-sodic badland of northwest China in spring, summer, and autumn, 2015, respectively. The seed from the soil samples was germinated in lab and species were identified. There were 34 species from 14 families and 31 genera that mainly belong to Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae, and Compositae. However, identification of the aboveground vegetations found that there were 21 species from 9 families and 19 genera that mainly belong to Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae. The difference in species between the aboveground vegetation and the soil seed bank was mainly in herbaceous plants, which had strong adaptability to salinity and alkalinity. The soil seed reserves were small and simple in species composition, with most species being indicator halophytes of desert. In spring, summer, and autumn, soil seed densities in the 5 subtypes of saline soil decreased in the order of meadow solonchaks > orthic solonchaks > dry solonchaks > bog solonchaks > alkalized solonchak. However, there was no significant difference in soil seed density between spring, summer and autumn. Soil seed bank showed a significant vertical hierarchy. The correlation between soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation is small in salinized and arid regions

425-435 Download
9

Effect of ZnO, SiO2 and composite nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana and involvement of ethylene and cytokinin signaling pathways


Beenish J. Azhar, Asma Noor, Alveena Zulfiqar, Asyia Zeenat, Shakeel Ahmad, Iqbal Chishti, Zehra Abbas and Samina N. Shakeel

Effect of ZnO, SiO2 and composite nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana and involvement of ethylene and cytokinin signaling pathways


ABSTRACT:

This study encompasses the synthesis and characterization of ZnO, SiO2 and ZnO/SiO2 composite NPs by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by analyzing the effects of these NPs on growth of Arabidopsis thaliana at physiological and molecular levels by transcript analysis of selected genes of ethylene / cytokinin pathways. Our data showed toxic effects of ZnO at all concentrations except 10mg/L, while SiO2 promoted the seedlings growth at almost every concentration. The transcript analysis of ethylene and cytokinin regulated genes provided evidences that ZnO was toxic at all levels except 10mg/L as it induced the expression of ethylene response genes; ethylene being a stress hormone and reduced the expression of cytokinin response genes, cytokinin being positive regulator of growth through involvement in chlorophyll synthesis. SiO2 application was nontoxic at all concentrations, determined through less expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes and higher expression of cytokinin genes that showed more than two-fold induction in SiO2 NP treated seedlings. The chlorophyll contents were decreased to almost 50 percent in response to different concentrations of ZnO while remained unaffected or increased by applying SiO2 NPs. Combined effect of ZnO and SiO2 i.e. Composite NPs reduced the toxicity caused by ZnO alone which was responsible in reducing the chlorophyll content, overall growth of plant and ethylene production determined through the expression of ethylene regulated genes

437-446 Download
10

Expression of antioxidant genes can increase cold resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


Javaria Chand, Rafiq Ahmad, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Sohail Khan, Noorullah Khan, Abid Ali Khan and Sabaz Ali Khan

Expression of antioxidant genes can increase cold resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the important vegetable crops worldwide. It is consumed in fresh as well as in processed form and is a rich source of antioxidants. There are many limiting factors to its production including biotic and abiotic stresses, among which, cold stress is the most important one. For example, tomato from tropical region has virtually no capacity to survive even the slightest freeze. This study focuses on the expression of two genes i.e., Glutaredoxin S17 (LOC101268063) and LEA 25 protein (NM_001309385.1). The objective of this research was to study the expression of two genes in two commercially grown tomato varieties i.e., Roma and Rio Grande and to check which variety performs well under cold stress. The current research was conducted on seedlings of two tomato varieties i.e., Roma and Rio Grande. Three different cold stress treatments i.e., 4, 10, and 16°C were applied for 10 hours. Treatment 4°C was applied by placing tomato seedlings in fridge while treatment 10 and 16°C were provided in incubators by adjusting the temperature. Gene expression was studied using RT PCR. Results of RT PCR showed that both genes were expressed in cold stress, but differential expression of Glutaredoxin S17 gene was more pronounced at 4°C whereas expression of LEA 25 protein gene was very low in all the samples of different treatments. Furthermore, Glutaredoxin S17 gene expression was more pronounced in Roma variety than Rio Grande. Our findings suggest that tomato plants expressing Glutaredoxin S17 gene could enhance cold stress tolerance. In future, by insertion or overexpression of Glutaredoxin S17 gene, cold stress tolerance could be improved in tomato crop

447-453 Download
11

Differences in the nitrogen assimilation among genotypes of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirtion


Aysegul Akpinar, Erdem Gulumser, Mehmet Can, Ilknur Ayan and Zeki Acar

Differences in the nitrogen assimilation among genotypes of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirtion


ABSTRACT:

Bituminaria bituminosa is an herbaceous, perennial legume that use as feed crop and have ability to remain green in dry summer. This research was conducted to determine the differences in nitrogen assimilation ability among genotypes of B. bituminosa. The nitrate assimilation capacity in different plant parts (roots and leaves) of selected genotypes has been determined with Nitrate Reductase (NR) activity (µmol NO2- gDW-1h-1). Also, N contents (%) of root and leaves together with changes (%) in the soil N contents and dry plant yield (g/plant) were detected. Among the investigated genotypes there were the changes in nitrate assimilation capacity. The highest NR activity was determined in the leaves of B. bituminosa, especially in genotype numbered by A1 being from Spain and in genotypes numbered by 2 and 11 belong to Turkey. These results reveal about the nitrogen assimilation ability of genotypes of B. bituminosa, which is separated with its many characteristics from other forage crops

455-459 Download
12

Cloning, sequencing and transcriptional analysis of ubiquitin gene from Alexandrium catenella under different nutrient conditions


Zeeshan Niaz, Zhenghong Sui, Sadaf Riaz, Sohrab Khan, Qingwei Du, Wei Zhou and Jinguo Wang

Cloning, sequencing and transcriptional analysis of ubiquitin gene from Alexandrium catenella under different nutrient conditions


ABSTRACT:

Ubiquitin is a small conserved protein ubiquitous in all eukaryotic organisms. It plays a critical role in intracellular protein turnover, being the “tag” that marks proteins for proteolysis. Beside proteolysis, it plays vital role in many cellular processes where protein actively needs to be modified or relocated. Sequence of ubiquitin selected from the differentially expressed gene library of NGS data of Alexandrium catenella was compared with the NCBI database for homologous sequences by blast. Primers were designed for amplification of partial fragment and gene expression analysis using real-time PCR in cells cultured at different nutritional conditions. Dino SL primer reported in the preceding studies was utilized to obtain a complete 5’ end. A full-length cDNA of ubiquitin gene was obtained upon the assembly of the amplified products. Conserved domains of ubiquitin including the hydrophobic surface conserved amino acid regions and Ulp1-Smt3 interaction sites were observed in the cloned sequence. Phylogenetic tree constructed from the deduced amino acid sequence revealed two distinct clades representing ubiquitin sequences from dinoflagellates. The amino acid sequence of A. catenella has shown to possess 100% identity at conserved regions with another dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida. The result of qRT-PCR indicated that the gene was significantly upregulated under all tested conditions. We speculate that under high nitrogen (HN) and high nitrogen phosphorous condition (HNP), the up-regulation of genes is due to rapid growth of the algae where proteins are also produced in excess amount. On the other hand, at low nitrogen and phosphorous conditions (LNP), the algae were under the effects of reactive oxygen species and as a result, the activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system is triggered that results in upregulation of ubiquitin family proteins to clear off the damaged proteins. The phenomenon is well supported by previous reports in other organisms. This study provides an important first look into the relationship between nutrient supply and expression analysis of ubiquitin in dinoflagellates

461-471 Download
13

Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in response to white light signal in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cells.


Hua Zhao, Rongjun Fang, Shoucheng Huang, Zhongling Wen, Minkai Yang, Hu Zhao, Bao Liu, Tongming Yin, Guihua Lu, Jinliang Qi and Yonghua Yang

Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in response to white light signal in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cells.


ABSTRACT:

Light signal plays a key negative regulatory role in the biosynthesis of shikonin and its derivatives which are important pharmaceutical secondary metabolites in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) could regulate multiple biological and metabolic processes, the miRNAs involved in the light-regulated shikonin formation still remain unclear. In the present study, we constructed two small RNA libraries of L. erythrorhizon callus cells cultured under different light conditions (Dark, White light) and carried out high-throughput sequencing using Miseq platform. From a total of 11,909,475 raw reads, we acquired a global miRNA profiling of L. erythrorhizon in response to different light conditions. A total of 32 annotated miRNA families and 50 putative miRNA-targeted transcripts were identified. A total of 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the Dark vs White light small RNA libraries, and their putative target genes were involved in FERONIA signaling, phytohormone signaling, etc. The expression levels of some important miRNAs under different light conditions and the target TCP transcription factor of miR319 were validated by Q-PCR and RLM-RACE, respectively. We further proposed a possible regulatory pathways of light-responsive miRNA implicated in shikonin biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of shikonin biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon

473-482 Download
14

Identification, characterization and interaction studies of Di19-2 gene from Gossypium arboreum


Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Tayyaba Shaheen, Parwsha Zaib, Muhammad Fazal Abbas, Mehboob-Ur-Rahman and Anjuman Arif

Identification, characterization and interaction studies of Di19-2 gene from Gossypium arboreum


ABSTRACT:

Cotton is the most vital source of fiber and food industry. Limited availability of water results in the limited growth of plants. Drought responsive genes have been explored in several plants to be utilized for overcoming the dilemma of limited availability of water. Over expression of drought responsive genes to develop drought resistant cultivars is a promising strategy to combat drought stress. On exposure to drought, several genes linked to drought are activated and many of them are regulated by transcription factors. Recent developments in bioinformatics have made identification and In silico characterization of the genes possible. Di19 is the drought responsive transcription factor, which is involved in the drought tolerance pathways. This gene has been observed to interact with several other genes in the drought tolerance pathway in the plants. In the present study, this gene was amplified in Gossypium arboreum cultivar FDH-786 using primers based on GhDi19 gene sequence, further sequenced and named as GaDi19 (Accession No. KP297805). Sequence of GaDi19 showed highest similarity with GhDi19 (97%). Protein 3D model for GaDi19 was determined and Ramanchandran plot indicated that 98% residues were in favored region. Further modelling and interaction study revealed that GaDi19 interact with pathogen related PR1, PR2 and PR5. Interaction of GaDi19 with protein encoded by other genes i.e Di19 from other plant species and EREB1 and EREB2 was also determined. Further interaction studies of PR1, PR2 and PR5 revealed activation of AP2/EREBP, DREB1a, DREB1b and WRKY3 to develop the drought tolerance in plants, which is a novel finding and has not been reported earlier. This study will lay a foundation for researchers to get insight into genes responsible for drought and their involvement in the pathways of drought tolerance.

483-492 Download
15

Impact of aerobic rice cultivation on growth and productivity of Indica and Japonica cultivars


Liaquat Ali Bhutto, Tadashi Takita, Toshio Fujii, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Yasunori Yamashita, Mitate Yamada, Yasushi Abe and Sachio Maruyama

Impact of aerobic rice cultivation on growth and productivity of Indica and Japonica cultivars


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was carried-out to examine the effects of aerobic rice cultivation on different growth, yield and its related characteristics. The study was laid out at the experimental field RE-5, Tsukuba International Center, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan. The main objectives of the experiment were to save the irrigation water and acquire optimum/higher yields under aerobic cultivation as compared to traditional lowland cultivation. To achieve these objectives, two Indica and one Japonica cultivars were selected to examine under both the conditions on two-factor split plot design with three replications. Under aerobic conditions, ~59% of the total irrigation water was saved and ~72% water was saved at freshwater level except rainfall as compared to lowland conditions. The Indica cultivar IR-50 showed higher grain yields (6.3ton/ha) under aerobic conditionsas compared to lowland (5.2ton/ha) and also retained higher panicle and spikelets number under aerobic conditions. On the other hand, the Japonica cultivar Fukuhibiki retained higher yields (5.2ton/ha) under lowland compared to aerobic conditions (4.9ton/ha). Whilst, an upland cultivar NERICA-10 retained higher grain yields (4.6ton/ha) under aerobic cultivations as compared to lowland (3.7ton/ha). Interactions were significant among all the cultivars underaerobic and lowland conditions, whereas IR-50 had higher nitrogen absorption under aerobic conditions than rest of the cultivars. Hence, nitrogen absorption positively sustains the grain yields and total dry mass accumulations. It is, therefore, concluded that lowland and upland cultivars are not only adaptive to aerobic conditions but also a great amount of irrigation water may be saved

493-503 Download
16

Improvement of growth and some metabolic components of Zea mays and Helinthus annuus by pre-sowing seed treatments


Shaimaa Abd El-Hameed Abo-Hamad

Improvement of growth and some metabolic components of Zea mays and Helinthus annuus by pre-sowing seed treatments


ABSTRACT:

Zea mays and Helianthus annuus are considered most important oil crops in the world due to the favorable fatty acid composition of the oil for human consumption, so efforts must be done to increase the yield and the desirable constituents in the two plants. In the present study the seeds of the plants were primed by soaking in two different concentrations of ascorbic acid solution or yeast extract (1% and 2%) for 12 hour. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with tap water. It was found that, all these treatments significantly increased germination percentage, shoot growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins and phytohormones in both Zea mays and Helianthus annus. It was observed that, 1% yeast extract was the most promotive treatment for Zea while for Helianthus annus it was 2% ascorbic acid. The protein profile showed the induction of several new protein bands with all treatments. These new bands revealed a changed pattern of gene expression after yeast and ascorbic acid treatments. Finally, the applied treatments decreased the percentage of saturated fatty acids and increased the unsaturated fatty acids in both the tested plants

505-510 Download
17

Heavy metal contents in plants of phytocenoses of the point of Besqaynar, Kyzylkairat and Taukaraturyk


Zarina Inelova, Asil Nurzhanova, Gulzhan Yerubayeva, Mengtay Aitzhan, Leyla Djansugurova and Bakhytzhan Bekmanov

Heavy metal contents in plants of phytocenoses of the point of Besqaynar, Kyzylkairat and Taukaraturyk


ABSTRACT:

This article presents data on the determination of heavy metals (Pb+2, Zn+2, Cu+2, Fe+2, Ni+2, Co+3, Mn+2, Cr+2, Cd+2) in plant samples collected from Almaty Region, Talgar District of Kazakhstan. For a number of reasons, plants cannot absorb most of the heavy metals and, unlike animals, are able to accumulate them in large quantities. The following points were selected for sampling: Control point – Taukarutuk, 2 point – Besqaynar and 3 point – Kyzylkairat. Rumex confertus, Artemisia annua, and Trifolium pratence were identified as the most highly accumulating species of heavy metals in all three monitoring groups. It was investigated that, in the studied points, Besqaynar and Kyzylkairat, all presented plant samples have a large adsorption capacity for such elements as Cd+2 and Zn+2.

 

511-516 Download
18

Ecophysiological responses of the genus Sarcocornia A. J. Scott growing at the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt


Mohamed M. Abd El-Maboud and Eman R. Elsharkawy

Ecophysiological responses of the genus Sarcocornia A. J. Scott growing at the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt


ABSTRACT:

Two Sarcocornia species, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Sarcocornia perennis growing at the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt were collected from two salt marshes locations; Port Said and Borg Elarab to study the effect of seasonal variations on secondary metabolites. Total phenols, total flavonoids, organic compounds, fatty acids and antioxidant activity were determined during dry (July, 2017) and wet (March, 2018) seasons. The results revealed that total phenols, total flavonoids, organic compounds and antioxidant activity were increased while fatty acids were decreased in dry season in the two species. S. fruticosa was higher in total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity than S. perennis specially those growing at Port Said.

517-523 Download
19

A study on the structure of Rhus typhina secondary phloem and resin canals


Meng Zhao, Lulu Zhao, Yunxia Wang and Shupeng Wu

A study on the structure of Rhus typhina secondary phloem and resin canals


ABSTRACT:

Rhus typhina is a kind of indigenous species to North America, it has been accommodated in many mountain areas in north China because of this species can display luxuriant growth in different habitat even in unfertile soils. In this study, we observed the morphology and ultra structure of secondary phloem and resin canal. We focus on the detailed observation of the microstructure and ultrastructure of the secondary phloem and resin canal, and to figure out the characteristics on the structure and the secretory process of epithelial cells. Our results showed that the structure of the secondary phloem exhibits the characteristics of typical temperate trees. And the mature resin canal of Rhus typhina comprised epithelial cells delimiting a long, round lumen, where secretions accumulate in the lumen. In the active epithelial cell, Golgi apparatus shaped secretory granules with monofilm, then move to attach on the plasma membrane and fused with the internal flocculent material of secretory granule was then released to the lumen side of periplasmic space, and finally, the excretion spread to the lumen and formed the secretions. This study shows the details of information on the structure of the Rhus typhina secondary phloem and epithelial cells, and the secretion process

525-530 Download
20

De building of tissue culture system and post-transplant quality comparison of ‘Baihuayushizi’ pomegranates (Punica granatum L.)


Jingjing Qian, Weiqiang Ge, Ningning Wang and Youjun Hu

De building of tissue culture system and post-transplant quality comparison of ‘Baihuayushizi’ pomegranates (Punica granatum L.)


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to assess different clonal propagation methods, culture conditions and different exercising and transplanting conditions for tissue culture seedlings. Specific data, including the survival rates, growth indices, root scanning and physiological and biochemical indices of 1-year transplanted tissue culture seedlings and 1-year cutting seedlings of‘Baihuayushizi’pomegranates, were collected for analysis. The present study aimed to provide theoretical and experimental bases for the production pattern and industrialized reproduction of high-quality seedlings of ‘Baihuayushizi’pomegranates, so as to contribute in promoting the propagation paths of high-quality seedlings, increase the planting percentage of high-quality pomegranate varieties from Huaiyuan and improve the production efficiency of fruit farmers. The experimental results were as follows: (1) When stem tips were used as explants to build the tissue culture system, the optimal sterilization time period was 10min and required processing with 0.1% HgCl2.The optimal inducing medium for proliferation of adventitious shoots was WPM+NAA 0.75 mg/l+6-BA 0.5 mg/l and the optimal inducing medium for rooting was WPM+IBA 0.8 mg/l. (2) The initial studies examining the transplanting conditions for seedling exercising demonstrated that the survival rate from seedling exercising was increased following the increase in the illumination intensity and humidity within certain limits. The survival rate was decreased when it reached the threshold, suggesting that the optimal illumination intensity for seedling exercising of ‘Baihuayushizi’pomegranates was 1,000 LX and the optimal relative humidity for the transplant was 70%. The survival rate of the transplanted tissue culture seedlings may be significantly increased up to 85.39% if appropriate fungicides and matrix formulas are used during seedling exercising. (3) The results of the comparison of the growth, root length and physiological and biochemical indices between survived transplanted tissue culture seedlings of ‘Baihuayushizi’pomegranates and cutting pomegranate seedlings in the same period indicated that tissue culture seedlings exhibited optimal root activity, growth and development activity compared with those of the cutting seedlings.In summary, the tissue culture of pomegranate seedlings can be used as a method for large-scale production and propagation of seedlings and is widely accepted by a broad scientific audience.

 
531-540 Download
21

Evaluation of the bioactive role of indegenous Viola odorata Leaf Extracts


Tahreem Sikander, Aqsa Anum Bhatti, Zahid Mushtaq, Muhammad Shahid, Farzana Nighat and Sidra Anwar

Evaluation of the bioactive role of indegenous Viola odorata Leaf Extracts


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants are rich source of bioactive compounds and other secondary metabolites and are used to prepare drugs for preventing infectious diseases because natural sources like plants have least or no side effects and less expensive as compared to other synthetic drugs. In this research bioactive extracts were prepared and fractionated from Viola odorata leaves using organic solvents (in increasing polarity order) like methanol (CME) for first crude extract and fractionated it further in n-hexane (n-HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water. The residue left from CME was solubilized in methanol (MSF) and water (WSF). Total phenolic (TPC) and Total flavonoid compounds (TFC) were also estimated. The bioactive potential of extracts/fractions was checked by using different assays for evaluating antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, α-amylase inhibition & lipase inhibition potential. The maximum antibacterial (ZOI =14 mm) and antifungal activity (30.33 mm) was shown by MSF (methanol soluble fraction) against E. coli and n-HF against Fusarium solani respectively. Maximum TPC was shown by MSF 3.4 mg/g and maximum TFC was shown in n-HF 0.21 mg/g. MSF also exhibited maximum α-amylase inhibition % age 42.163±2.74 and CME exhibited maximum lipase inhibition (95±0.89). EAF showed maximum antioxidant activity that is 62.13±4.26 by using DPPH assay. CF showed maximum cytotoxicity (76.31±0.252). Maximum clot lysis was shown by MSF 26.44±0.485. Moreover HPLC results showed high amount of phenolics in CME and n-HF that could be related to their bioactivities. Hence V. odorata proved an excellent source of bioactive compounds that can be analyzed individually in future.

541-549 Download
22

Variation of endogenous phytohormone in functional male and bisexual flowers of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) during development


Yujie Zhao, Cuiyu Liu, Ming Yan, Xueqing Zhao, Abdul Majeed Baloch, Abdul Wahid Baloch and Zhaohe Yuan

Variation of endogenous phytohormone in functional male and bisexual flowers of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) during development


ABSTRACT:

Pomegranate have two types of flowers: bisexual flower and functional male flower. Flower development is a complex process which is regulated by an intricate transcriptional regulatory network. To understand the molecular mechanisms of regulating flower development and female sterility in pomegranate, we performed a comprehensive analysis of endogenous phytohormone changes during flower differentiation. Plant hormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin riboside (ZR), gibberellin (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA) contents in the pomegranate flowers were measured to expound the relationship between floral differentiation and endogenous hormones by ELISA. The results showed that the high accumulations of ABA, GA, and high ratio of ABA/ZR in bisexual flower primordium might stimulate the sterility of ovary and promote the development of stamen organ, which led to functional male flower. Moreover, low levels of IAA in functional male flower from S6 to S8 might accelerate the development of stamen and the abortion of pistil, and low levels of the ABA/GA ratio at S3 and S6 might also promote the development of the male organ. Also, ZR and JA had a similar accumulation tendency, low levels of ZR and JA might contribute to the male organ development in the late period of bud development. ZR had significant positive correlation with JA (p<0.05) in both bisexual and functional male flowers. With the above conclusions, ABA, GA and the ratio of ABA/ZR played determinant roles in the abortion of pistils of pomegranate. Under the premise of the bisexual stages which are identical in functional male flower and bisexual flower, specific hormones conditions are the key to the pomegranate flower sex determination

551-558 Download
23

Performance evaluation of gladiolus cultivars under arid climate of Bhawalpur, Pakistan


Muhammad Nafees, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Maryam, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Irfan Ashraf, Ambreen Maqsood, Muhammad Naveed Aslam and Noor-Un-Nisa Memon

Performance evaluation of gladiolus cultivars under arid climate of Bhawalpur, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Corm and cormles production has major role in gladiolus industry of the world as well as in Pakistan. However, its commercial production is limited in cold to moderate climatic regions and there is inadequate research from arid regions like Bahawalpur. Keeping this into consideration, six gladiolus cultivars viz. red, pink, white (white Prosperity), orange, dark pink and yellow (Jester) with three corm sizes (i.e. small: dia. 0.5-1.5 cm, medium: 1.5 cm and large: 2 cm) were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to evaluate their performance in aridlands of Bahawalpur. Statistically, there was significant variation recorded among gladiolus cultivars for number of leaves and leaf area, spike length and number of florets (9.766, 90.137, 37.77 and 13.97 cm2, respectively) in white color glades, whereas, the highest floret diameter (113.66 mm2) was recorded in orange color glades at p≤0.05. There was significant effect of large size corms on number of leaves and floret diameter (9.4 and 98.18mm2, respectively). Moreover, large and medium sized corms were at par for spike length and number of florets. The highest production of large and small size corms (227) was record in red glades, while the least corms produced in orange colored glades. Moreover, the highest corm weight (93.5 g) was recorded in white colored glades with the highest corm diameter (2.1 cm2) in red glades. The elemental analysis in produced corms indicated that N, P and K contents were the highest (4.35, 0.44 and 1.019%) in white, orange and pink colored glades, respectively. However, Mn contents (239ppm) were highest in red corms. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the selected glades cultivars performed well in arid climate and can be used for commercial production of gladiolus flowers and daughter corms by following standard cultural practices

559-566 Download
24

Enhancement of fruit quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Perlette” by postharvest treatment of various GRAS chemicals


Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi, Muhammad Khashi U Rahman and Irfan Ali

Enhancement of fruit quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Perlette” by postharvest treatment of various GRAS chemicals


ABSTRACT:

Being a non-climacteric fruit, table grape face huge postharvest losses. Some adverse effects of chemicals used for maintaining postharvest quality of table grapes necessitated the find for some safe and natural chemical to replace those uncertain ones like sulfur dioxide. Present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various GRAS (Generally Recognize as Safe) chemicals on postharvest quality of table grapes cv. “Perlette” during 28 days of storage at 1 ± 1 oC and 90-95 RH. Different concentrations of GRAS chemicals were applied i.e. ethanol (30%, 40%, 50%), potassium metabisulfite (50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm), egg yolk oil (2%, 3%, 4%) and hot water dip at 55 oC (3 min, 5 min, 8 min). After every week, three replicates of each treatment were evaluated for weight loss, disease incidence, fruit shatter, color, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid and total soluble solid contents. Sensory analysis was done at the end of cold storage to check the organoleptic acceptability of the fruit for appearance, sweetness, taste, crispiness, aroma and flavor. Findings showed that all treatments significantly (p<0.05) reduced postharvest weight loss, fruit color, disease incidence, fruit drop and maintained titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and total soluble solid content throughout the storage as compared to control except egg yolk oil treatments. GRAS chemicals did not have any significant effect on fruit juice, sugar contents and pH value

567-577 Download
25

Determination of quality attributes of European plums (Prunus domestica L,) cultivars under different drying conditions


Hakan Polatci

Determination of quality attributes of European plums (Prunus domestica L,) cultivars under different drying conditions


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out with Stanley's and Sugar's pulm fruit in two separate convective and microwave dryers such as cabin-type and precision. It determined the drying performance and final quality attributes of Stanley' and 'Sugar' plum fruit. The study also measured the quality characteristics such as color, acidity (pH), soluble solids content (SSC) (Brix), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics (TP), and total antioxidants (according to TEAC and FRAP tests). Fresh samples of the fruits were dried in cabin-type dryers and at a drying air temperature of 60, 65 and 70°C; and in the microwave dryer, dried for 30-50s at 540W and 30-50s at 720W at power outputs-hold times. The products were dried to wet-based moisture levels of 10-15%. For "Stanley" plums, the closest color, pH, SSC, TA, TP, TEAC, and FRAP values to the values of the fresh fruits (in other words, the most appropriate drying conditions) were respectively achieved in cabin 60°C, cabin 60°C, precision 65°C, microwave 540 W-50 s, cabin 60°C, cabin 60°C and cabin 60-65°C – precision 70°C treatments. For "Sugar" plums, the closest values to fresh fruit were respectively obtained from precision 70°C, cabin 60°C, precision 70°C, microwave 540 W-50 s, cabin 60°C, cabin 60-65°C, and precision 65°C treatments.

579-584 Download
26

Improvements of crop productivity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the applications of phytohormones


Zobia Bashir, Khalid Hussain, Iqra Iqbal, Khalid Nawaz, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Mehreen Javeria, Arifa Nazeer and Syed Saqib Ali

Improvements of crop productivity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the applications of phytohormones


ABSTRACT:

Experiments were conducted at University of Gujrat, Pakistan during 2018-2019. Plant growth regulators i.e. Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) were applied on four varieties of wheat i.e. Faisalabad-2008, Aas-2011, Gandum-1 (2017) and Ujala-2016. Treatments were applied as foliar spray and seed priming. Results indicated that the foliar spray and seed priming of IAA, GA3 and IBA expressively increased the morphological parameters (shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot and root lengths, number of leaves/plant, net assimilation rate and leaf area/plant). Chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll & carotenoids, total carbohydrate and soluble protein had highly significant impact of Plant growth regulators. Variations in antioxidant activities (CAT & POD) have been also noted. Yield attributes (total yield & no. of seeds/plant) were enhanced by seed priming and foliar applications of hormones. Seed yield was increased up to 12% as linked to control. Foliar applications produced significant result as compared to seed priming especially for yield and biochemical contents. Better results were produced by IBA as compared to GA3 and IAA. It was concluded that the foliar applications of Plant growth regulators epically IBA can be employed to improve morphological, biochemical and yield parameters of wheat. Variations of various morpho-physiological and antioxidant activities can be utilize to predict the promising varieties of wheat responding to various plant growth regulators.

585-595 Download
27

Antibacterial antioxidant and phenolic fractions analysis of Caesalpinia crista seed coat extract and its different fractions


Lubna Mobin, Syed Asad Saeed, Rashida Ali, Shahina Naz and Syed Ghufran Saeed

Antibacterial antioxidant and phenolic fractions analysis of Caesalpinia crista seed coat extract and its different fractions


ABSTRACT:

Methanolic crude extract from the seed coat of Caesalpinia crista was purified into different polyphenolic fractions. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used for the purification of crude extract using C18 cartridges. Non-anthocyanin (fraction I) and anthocyanin (fraction II) are the two main fractions that were collected from crude extract and Fraction Ia (Phenolic acid), Fraction Ib (flavanols etc) and Ic (flavonols etc) are the three sub fractions collected from non-anthocyanin fractions. It was shown by the HPLC analysis of separated fractions that among the ten polyphenolic standards that were taken i.e. vanillic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, delphinidin, myricetin, epicatechin, kaempferol, pelargonidin, cyanidin and their other derivatives were not the main constituent of the C. crista seed coat. Activity against the bacteria was determined against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria by an agar well diffusion method. It was found that against a panel of bacteria the seed coat of C. crista was found active. Gram positive bacteria was more sensitive towards fraction Ic while fraction Ia was more active against gram negative bacteria. Antioxidant screening was carried out by using different methods such as reducing power, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and lipoxygenase assay. Study showed that the seed coat of C. crista has considerable antioxidant properties. Phenolic fractions’s order of antioxidant activity was in accordance to their whole flavonoid and phenolic contents (except of anthocyanin fraction) i.e. Non anthocyanin>flavonols>flavanol> phenolic acid. The significant (p<0.01) correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content. Current study suggests that along with the content of polyphenols, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities depend also on the structure of polyphenols. Moreover, the seed coat of C. Crista is a potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds.

 

597-603 Download
28

Comparative sequential solvent extraction of phytochemicals from ripe, ripening and unripe Carissa carandas fruit extracts and their antioxidant investigation


Shagufta Irshad, Asia Iqbal, Amna Zulqarnain, Sadia Nawaz and Saadat Anjum

Comparative sequential solvent extraction of phytochemicals from ripe, ripening and unripe Carissa carandas fruit extracts and their antioxidant investigation


ABSTRACT:

Present study was structured to explore the full potential of Carissa carandas fruits whose potential is unidentified in Pakistan. Comparative study of unripe white, ripening pinkish and fully ripe reddish-purple fruit was commenced with sequential solvent extraction (10g/100 mL) by following aqueous (aq.), methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n- hexane to investigate maximum phytochemicals. The results showed progressive extraction in methanol and aq. extracts as both were observed rich in phytochemicals. The high total antioxidant contents were found 65 and 105 mg/g in aq. and methanol extract of ripe fruit respectively as compared to unripe and ripening extract fractions. Percentage of radical scavenging activity (%RSA) was found maximum of 76 and 74% for 50 µL aq. fractions of ripening and unripe fruits respectively while 100 µL aq. ripe fruit extract showed maximum 44% RSA. Whereas 200 µL of ripe fruit methanol extract showed 83% high RSA while 250 µL of ripening fruit exhibited 78% RSA. The maximum 45% RSA was obtained with 250 µL of unripe fruit methanol extract. Significantly high 88% of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (%HRSA) was observed with 200 µL of ripening fruit aq. extract, 70% for ripe and 43% for unripe fruit was obtained with 50 µL extract dilutions. Highest %HRSA was calculated for 100 µL ripening fruit methanol extract although 69 and 66 % was estimated for 50 µL of ripe and un- ripe fruit extracts. Thus, ripe fruit showed best results in phytochemical analysis having good antioxidant content and highest antioxidant activity.

605-611 Download
29

Multivariate analysis of rice genotypes for seeding traits, characterization and evaluation


Mairaj Din, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Fahad, Ishfaq Ahmad, Noreen Bibi, Wajid Mahboob and Aziz Khan

Multivariate analysis of rice genotypes for seeding traits, characterization and evaluation


ABSTRACT:

Multivariate analysis has been rarely used for seedling traits characterization of Chinese basmati hybrids. Twenty-two seedling attributes of Basmati and coarse rice germplasm of China and Pakistan origin were analysed using multivariate techniques of Single linkage analysis (SLCA) and Principle component analysis (PCA) and index score method (ISM). Variation among the seedling attributes were recorded by ISM regarding number of genotypes, formation of clusters and superimposition of genotypes in every cluster. Rice genotypes were possibly grouped in six clusters identified through ISM. Highest index scores 68 and 146 were allocated to genotypes of group-I and group-II on morphological basis of seedling attributes. However, the three PCs contributed 87.1 % of the variability among the genotypes and germination rate index, germination %, mean daily germination (MDG), shoot length and root length exhibited maximum positive response in PC1, PC2 and PC3 respectively. PCA ordination on axis I and II were agreed with SLCA. Our study revealed that the agreement in the SLCA and PCA analysis effectively cluster the genotypes for twelve seedlings attribute might be used for the identification of viable genetic material to improve the rice yield potential.

613-619 Download
30

Pollen spectrum and the effects of weather variables on main pollen types in Dikili (Turkey) atmosphere


Aycan Tosunoglu

Pollen spectrum and the effects of weather variables on main pollen types in Dikili (Turkey) atmosphere


ABSTRACT:

Atmospheric pollen grains were surveyed with the gravimetric method between 2015 and 2016 in Dikili (Turkey). Annually 6986 pollen grains, belonging to 47 plant taxa were identified; pollen grains of woody taxa consisted of 80.31% of the annual pollen index, which was found concordant and evaluated as a reflection of the dominant flora of the area. Pollen types belonging to Pinus, Quercus, Olea europaea, Poaceae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Plantago, Platanus, Pistacia, and Amaranthaceae were classified as dominant pollen types for the region and the total amount for them were 91.95% of the annual pollen index. The highest pollen count in the year was recorded in the month of April. April-May months are the pollination periods and can be thought of as a risky period for sensitive individuals for the region. One of the most exciting findings of this study was about the high levels of allergenic Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere. This was the first reported of the airborne pollen of rageweed as a dominant pollen type in Turkey. Statistical analyses revealed the effects of meteorological factors on weekly pollen concentrations of dominant pollen types, and many significant correlations were found.

621-630 Download
31

Establishment, growth and productivity of selected medicinal plant species in the arid zone 100-200 mm rainfall, in Jordan


Jamal R. Qasem, Jamal S. Sawwan and Ahmad K. Al-Mattary

Establishment, growth and productivity of selected medicinal plant species in the arid zone 100-200 mm rainfall, in Jordan


ABSTRACT:

Six field experiments were conducted at Al-Muwaqar (arid) and Al-Jubeiha (Mediterranean) locations, Jordan for four years to study establishment, growth and production of selected medicinal species under supplimentary irrigation, water harvesting and soil conditioner treatments. Results showed that 70% of plot area left for water harvesting significantly increased leaf number and total fresh and dry weights of Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Origanum syriacum L., compared with no water harvesting. The larger the water harvesting area the more growth obtained and up to 90% however, total yield remained lower than that of no water harvesting. Soil conditioner (polymer) at 300 g/m2 significantly increased growth of all species and soil moisture content more than in water harvesting treatments. R. officinalis was best established, while water harvesting and soil conditioner were more beneficial to O. syriacum than other species. Studies on adaptability and survival of 15 medicinal plant species in Al-Muwaqar showed great variations in their performance and responses to irrigation. Although some appeared well adapted but their growth and productivity were better at Al-Jubeiha location. Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Carthamus tinctorius L., Lepidium sativum L. and Cynara scolymus L. tolerate Al-Muwaqar dry conditions, while C. scolymus was best established and yearly growing

631-640 Download
32

Multi-factoral OLSR and MLR modelling of climatological and crop production trends in coastal areas of Pakistan


Syeda Urooj Fatima, Moazzam Ali Khan, Rabia Majeed, Aamir Alamgir and S. Shahid Shaukat

Multi-factoral OLSR and MLR modelling of climatological and crop production trends in coastal areas of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Facing the impacts of climate change and decline in the agriculture crop productions, the coastal districts of Southern Pakistan, Thatta and Badin, are facing severe economic instability due to their high dependency on climate sensitive natural sources for livelihood. These issues need to be resolved by taking appropriate measure with respect to climate change mitigation and adaptation mechanisms based on trend analysis of climatological variables and future forecasting approaches. Since agriculture is the primary livelihood option of these districts, climatological variations have highly altered sowing and harvesting periods of agricultural crops. In this study climatological variable including maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, wind speed and relative humidity were statistically analyzed and their impacts on the yield of wheat, rice and sugarcane crops in Thatta and Badin were computed for a period from 1981 to 2019 (39 years). Using multi-factoral approach and applications of Pearson’s Correlation, Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLSR) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) Models, 30 OLSR-based and 6 MLR-based statistical equations were developed for future forecasting and prediction of the climatological impacts. Temperature and precipitation have shown highly significant correlation and regression estimates; whereas wind speed and relative humidity have lesser impacts on crop production. The study provides baseline for forecasting future trends in the crop yield with regards to climatological variations in the study area

641-653 Download
33

Composition of plant communities driven by environmental gradients in alpine pastures and cold desert of northwestern Himalaya, Pakistan


Inayat-Ur-Rahman, Aftab Afzal, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Zafar Iqbal, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem, Eduardo Soares Calixto, Niaz Ali and Rani Asmarayani

Composition of plant communities driven by environmental gradients in alpine pastures and cold desert of northwestern Himalaya, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Alpine life zones exist at the cold edge above the tree line in mountains where tree species do not grow, however, a large plant diversity thrives due to alpine climate adaptations to short growing seasons and low temperatures. Keeping this phenomenon in view, study was designed to determine the influential environmental variables responsible for structuring the plant communities in the alpine pastures and cold desert of Northwestern Himalayas, Pakistan. The vegetation of the aforementioned study area was quantified by following the Line transect (50 meters) method along the geographic, slope, edaphic and climatic gradients. All the recorded data of plant species and environmental variables were analyzed by various statistical softwares’ (i.e., PCORD, CANOCO and R 3.6.1). Thirty-nine species recorded in 13 stands were grouped into two major plant communities (i.e., Poa-Bistorta-Primula and Bistorta-Poa-Primula). Poa-Bistorta-Primula community has the highest number of plant species (39 species) as well as the highest value of alpha and beta diversity (2.785 and 0.916, respectively) and Pielou’s evenness (0.865) in Bistorta-Poa-Primula community. Due to the high elevation, severe low temperature is the feature throughout the growing season. Such severe climatic environment is worsened by xeric conditions which led to very short growing season from July to September. The recognized indicators of such harsh environment might be useful in monitoring variations in plant communities resulted in response to environmental changes

655-664 Download
34

Diversity  and  distribution  pattern  of  alpine  vegetation communities from Ratti Gali lake and its adjacent areas, Kashmir Himalayas, Pakistan


Muhammad Shakeel Awan, Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar, Hamayun Shaheen, Raja Waqar Ahmad Khan, Shamshad Aziz and Tariq Habib

Diversity  and  distribution  pattern  of  alpine  vegetation communities from Ratti Gali lake and its adjacent areas, Kashmir Himalayas, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Ratti Gali Lake area is an alpine area in district Neelum AJK located at altitudes > 3800 m and is an important repository of western Himalayan alpine floral taxa attributed to its unique geography and typical alpine climate. Current study was designed to investigate the floristic composition, community structure and distribution pattern of the alpine vegetation communities in the Ratti Gali area. Extensive vegetation sampling was carried out during June-August 2019 by quadrate based systematic sampling covering all the alpine microhabitats. Results revealed a total of 99 plant species recorded from the area belonging 36 families and 77 genera with Compositae as the most dominant family (16 species) followed by Rosaceae and Polygonaceae with 9 and 6 species respectively. Life form analysis revealed Hemicryptophytes as the dominant life form with 47 species (47.4%) followed by Therophytes whereas Leaf Size analysis showed the dominance of Microphylls with 35 species (35.4%) followed by Leptophylls. Bistorta amplexicaule was the most dominant species having an importance value of 29.0 followed by Geranium pratense and Sibbaldia cunneata. Study sites showed an average species count of 24.7; average value of Simpson’s diversity as 0.91; Shannon’s diversity as 2.88; species richness as 1.41; Evenness as 0.77 whereas average maturity index value as 33.07. Our findings revealed that the alpine vegetation of the area is seriously threatened due to immense anthropogenic pressure attributed to huge tourist influx, heavy over grazing, medicinal plant exploitation and soil erosion. We recommend immediate implementation of conservation measures in this fragile alpine habitat to protect the precious alpine floral wealth of the region

665-672 Download
35

Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants as herbal drugs for sustainable livestock in southern deserts of Sindh Pakistan


Amir Hussain, Muhammad Zafar, Shehla Shinwari, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shazia Sultana and Ghulam Yaseen

Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants as herbal drugs for sustainable livestock in southern deserts of Sindh Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The southern desert of Sindh, Pakistan is considered as green desert in the World due to rich diversity of medicinal plants and livestock production where ethnoveterinary medicines (EVM) are commonly practiced. Currently, this region is facing famine and natural disaster resulting in mortality of livestock. The present study was aimed to document and analyze the ethnoveterinary herbal recipes made from precious medicinal plants species. Data was collected through field surveys through opened questioners, semi structure interviews, group discussion and personal observation during field survey; and analyzed through quantitative indices such as relative frequency of citation (RFC) and the use value (UV); and to describe the preferred plant species, methods of preparation and plant part used. The data was collected from 225 informants including 145 animal experts and 80 local people. In total, 34 plant species belonging to 19 plant families were reported. The most preferred species were Senna italica, Phyla nudiflora, Solanum surrattense, Fagonia bruguieri and Asphodelus tenufolius. The frequently reported plant part used were whole plants (31%) while less used was latex and bark (1%). The frequent mode of utilization was decoction (27%) while least was extract and juices (1%). The UV varied from 0.052 (Fagiona bruguieri) to 0.013 (Capparis spinosa) whereas the value of RFC ranged from 0.052 (Senna italica) to 0.014 (Amaranthus viridis). The present study would offer baseline data for clinical research in veterinary sciences. Ethnoveterinary data documented in the present study could offer an extraordinary background for conducting studies intended at implementing clinical phytotherapy research for livestock healthcare and production. It is recommended that plant species with high citations, quantitative indices values and preferred by pastoralists should be studied for phytochemical and pharmacological properties for future drug discovery development

673-690 Download
36

Role of leaf micro-structural and topographical traits in ecological success of some arid zone grasses


Safura Bibi, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad and Mansoor Hameed

Role of leaf micro-structural and topographical traits in ecological success of some arid zone grasses


ABSTRACT:

Water deficit influences the phenotypic appearance of leaf hairs and stomata which plays a critical role in adaptability of plants growing in such habitats. Four grass species Aristida adscensionis, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata and Heteropogon contortus were collected along with soil sample from six moisture deficit areas. Soil attributes including soil pH, ECe, moisture content, saturation percentage, organic matter, P, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, NH4-N, NO3-N were recorded. Leaf topographical traits such as density and area of adaxial hairs, and microstructural traits including adaxial and adaxial stomatal density and area measured. Moisture deficit affected morpho-anatomical traits such as growth traits and development of leaf hair and stomata. Populations from hyper-arid regions relied particularly upon smaller leaf area, decreased fresh to dry biomass ratio for both root and shoot tissue, and, longer roots to extract water from soil deeper layers. Among leaf micro-structural traits, more stomata were found to be oriented on leaf abaxial as compared to the adaxial surface in hyper-arid populations of all grasses. Adaxial leaf surface covered with long hairs possibly helped survive in these environments by decreasing leaf transpirational losses in most of the species under study

691-700 Download
37

Effects of vermicompost application on quality of flue-cured tobacco


Bo Lin, Bensheng Li, Ziguang Huang, Xi Zheng, Yaohui Mu, Aiping Ye, Chenxi Zhang, Suilong Ai, Nabil S. Mustafad and Lixin Zhang

Effects of vermicompost application on quality of flue-cured tobacco


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different proportions of vermicompost (without vermicompost, 1800 kg ha-1 vermicompost, 2400 kg ha-1 vermicompost, 3000 kg ha-1 vermicompost, 3600 kg ha-1 vermicompost) on the flue-cured tobacco economic traits and tobacco internal quality. Results showed that the application of 3000 kg ha-1 vermicompost in the field significantly increased the contents of nicotine, total nitrogen and potassium, enhanced the ratio of potassium to chloride, coordinated the chemical ingredients of tobacco leaves, improved the sensory quality, and made flue-cured tobacco as high-quality tobacco. Therefore, application of 3000 kg ha-1 vermicompost proved to be more effective in improving economic benefits and internal quality of tobacco. Such effects were associated with increased contents of carotene degradation products, Maillard reaction products, cembratriendid alkyl degrading products and other aromatic compositions in flue-cured tobacco leaves by vermicompost and with improved intrinsic quality of tobacco.

701-706 Download
38

Molecular characterization of some algae by protein banding pattern and ISSR markers collected from the Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia


Mohammed Ali Alshehri, Al Thabiani Aziz, Othman Alzahrani, Gamal Osman and Abdulrahman Alasmari

Molecular characterization of some algae by protein banding pattern and ISSR markers collected from the Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Algae have high ecological and commercial importance; the estimated turnover of the seaweed industry is USD 10 billion. In order to understand the distribution of seaweed, their identification is necessary, which is generally based on morphological characteristics, often resulting in the wrong identification at the species level. DNA fingerprinting could be used for species-level identification. The technique can resolve many intrinsic problems of morphological taxonomy as only a small amount of tissue is required for species identification. Along with conservation biology, DNA fingerprinting could also be used in the identification of invasive and endangered species. In the case of algae, DNA fingerprinting was beneficial for the recognition of high-yielding agar strains as well as for the identification of cryptic species. In this study, several identification-based problems of algae have been discussed by using different intraspecific markers, such as protein banding pattern and ISSR, for eight algae (Padina pavonica, Turbinaria gracilis, Carpomitra costata, Pterocladiella capillacea , Cladostephus spongiosus, Ulva lactuca, Sporochnus comosus, and Sargassum muticum), were collected from the Gulf of Aqaba, specifically from the beaches of Haql (28°45′N, 34°45′E). According to the available data, the ISSR marker is more effective than protein banding pattern for the measurement of algal genetic diversity. 

707-713 Download
39

Dynamics of amylases production potential by Aspergillus niger isolates from soil


Saba Sana, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad, Muhammad Nawaz, Ali Ahmad and Hafiza Rahat Farooq

Dynamics of amylases production potential by Aspergillus niger isolates from soil


ABSTRACT:

Amylases production potential of non-toxigenic starch hydrolyzing indigenous Aspergillus niger was determined. A. niger soil isolates (06) identified based on macroscopic and microscopic characters were screened for amylases production on starch agar. Three isolates (ANS03, ANS06 and ANS10) with higher starch hydrolyzing index (0.24, 0.25 and 0.20 respectively) were selected for optimization of physical and chemical conditions for higher enzyme production. Physicochemical factors including pH (4.5, 6, and 7.5), temperature (22, 28, and 37°C), substrates (maize, rice husk and wheat bran) and substrate concentration (1, 3, and 5%) were evaluated for dynamics in amylases production potential by one time one factor method. Post incubation of seven days with standardized inoculums (106 spores / mL) of selected isolates, filtrates were obtained. Qualitatively, extracellular enzymes in filtrate were detected by iodine test and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). All isolates showed starch hydrolysis to some extent by iodine test. Electrophoresis analysis revealed three proteins with 50.12, 48.98 and 37.15kDa molecular weights. Amylases were quantified from filtrates by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Among three isolates, ANS06 is the best producer with 150.61±3.26 IU amylase activity at 37°C, pH 6 and wheat bran (5%) and lowest amylase activity was found (.039±.03) at same temperature and pH but with maize (1%). ANS03 showed highest amylase activity (40.04IU±.37) at 37°C, pH 6 using 5 percent maize as substrate and lowest activity was (0.56±.08). The maximum enzyme production of ANS10 was 86.23±1.31IU at 37°C, pH 6 and 5 percent wheat bran and lowest 0.04±0.01 IU. Statistically, all isolates showed significant difference in amylase activity at all selected physical and chemical conditions. It was concluded that starch hydrolyzing potential of indigenous A. niger isolate can be used for mass production.

715-721 Download
40

Comparative study on antimicrobial activities of mangroves growing in polluted and non-polluted sites of northern Arabian Sea


Malik Wajid Hussain Chan, Jawaid Akram, Salman Gulzar, Urooj Zafar, Sadar Aslam, Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui, Shakeel Ahmed Khan and Munawwer Rasheed

Comparative study on antimicrobial activities of mangroves growing in polluted and non-polluted sites of northern Arabian Sea


ABSTRACT:

The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the antibacterial and antifungal activities of botanicals extracted using 70% methanol from leaf, bark and pneumatophore/root of four different species of mangroves growing in different polluted and non-polluted sites along the Northern coast of Arabian sea. Plants produce bioactive compounds under stress, therefore in-vitro activities of extracts of mangroves growing in polluted (Avicennia marina) and non-polluted (A. marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora mucronata and Ceriops tagal) sites were assessed. Activities were performed against five Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria and twelve fungi including ten molds (eight saprophytes and two dermatophytes) and two yeasts. Well diffusion and disc diffusion methods were used in case of bacterial strains and former was found more efficient, therefore, it was used for analyzing fungal strains. Dilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts. MIC values were observed from 0.3125 to 40 mg/mL. MIC value of 0.3125 mg/mL was observed from bark of A. corniculatum (NBCA) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Various botanicals showed MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL against different species of bacteria. In general leaf extracts were comparatively more active and antibacterial spectrum of extracts from R. mucronata was broader. In case of antifungal activity, MIC values were ranging from 5 to 20 mg/mL. MIC value of 5 mg/mL was observed in various tests, including extracts obtained from non-polluted bark of A. marina (NBMA, against Aspergillusniger and Fusariumoxysporum); NBCA, against A. niger and Candida albicans; roots of A. corniculatum (NRCA, against A. niger and Chrysosporiumsp); polluted pneumatophores of A. marina (PPMA against Paecilomycesvariotii and Aspergillusterreus); polluted bark of A. marina (PBMA against Penicilliumsp). Polluted leaf (PLMA) and non-polluted pneumatophores (NPMA) of A. marina, and roots of C. tagal (NRTC) also showed MIC, 5 mg/mL against C. albicans. In general root extracts were more active and Aegicerascorniculatumshowed broader spectrum. A. marina was the only mangrove found growing both in polluted and non-polluted habitat. Polluted stands of A. marina showed broader and higher antibacterial and antifungal activity indicating that the pollution stress has stimulated the physicochemical changes to produce botanicals responsible for antimicrobial activity.

723-729 Download
41

Effect of plant growth promoting bacteria and drought on spring maize (Zea mays L.)


Muhammad Mubeen, Asghari Bano, Barkat Ali, Zia Ul Islam, Ashfaq Ahmad, Sajjad Hussain, Shah Fahad and Wajid Nasim

Effect of plant growth promoting bacteria and drought on spring maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to determine the affectivity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on some biochemical and agronomic parameters of maize exposed to drought stress. Two PGPR species viz. Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida were applied as bioinoculant. Different methods of application of PGPR were used at different developmental stages of maize growth namely: M1: Untreated seeds (no treatment with PGPR); M2: Seeds soaked in the broth culture (7 day old) of the PGPR for 2-3 hours at room temperature prior to sowing; M3: Foliar spray of PGPR at 3-4 leaf stage of plants; M4: Broth culture (7 day old) incorporated to the soil in rhizosphere at 40 days after sowing (DAS). Results revealed that P. putida was more effective for the increase of chlorophyll content and showed linear increase in TDM (total day matter), higher CGR (crop growth rate), grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) for TDM than B. cereus. PGPR application in the rhizosphere and foliar spray were more efficient for grain yield and WUE for TDM. However, foliar spray of PGPR showed maximum harvest index. So, it is recommended that foliar spray of PGPR at 3-4 leaf stage is a good strategy for getting higher maize yields. Water stress at blister was found to be more detrimental for spring maize crop. In our study, the effect of PGPR was maximized at 60 DAS

731-739 Download
42

Biochemical characterization of wheat seed lectin and its antifungal activity against seed-borne Fusarium graminearum in-vitro and in-situ


Albandary Nasser Alsaloom

Biochemical characterization of wheat seed lectin and its antifungal activity against seed-borne Fusarium graminearum in-vitro and in-situ


ABSTRACT:

The objective of the study was to examine the inhibitory effect of lectin as a glycoprotein isolated from wheat seeds (Triticumaestivum) against the fungus Fusarium graminearum in vitro. The purified wheat seed lectin is a glycoprotein composed of two subunits of 111 and 15 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.0. The most abundant sugars found in lectin are galactose (160 mg) followed by galacturonic acid (80 mg) and arabinose (60 mg) per 100g sample respectively. The antioxidant activity of the wheat seed lectin investigated in the study revealed dose-dependent variations in DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, with a low IC50 value (4.3 µg/mL). Lectin prevented the growth of mycelium at a broad concentration range (100–400 µg/mL). Maximum inhibition was observed at a concentration of 400 µg/mL, which is equivalent to 77.77% of linear growth reduction after seven days of incubation at 25ºC. The effect of the seed dressing treatment with lectin at various concentrations (1000, 200, and 400 µg/mL) on the percentage of pre- and post-emergence of damping-off grown in Fusarium graminearum infested soil under greenhouse conditions was also estimated. The results reveal that all the examined lectin concentrations decreased damping-off in comparison to the control. The study shows that lectin can be applied as an antifungal agent against wheat damping-off.

741-747 Download
43

Antioxidant response of brassica plants in protection against Alternaria brassicicola


Sana Munir, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi and Ahmad Naeem Shahzad

Antioxidant response of brassica plants in protection against Alternaria brassicicola


ABSTRACT:

In current study eleven Brassica genotypes, with diverse range of response to Alternaria black spot disease (ABSD), were evaluated to assess the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in disease resistance. Post-infectional POD and SOD activities increased the resistance in genotypes. Genotype BC9 accumulated highest POD and SOD activity, while lowest was observed in susceptible genotype BC1, which showed maximum ABSD incidence. The significant (p≤0.01) negative correlation was found between pre- and post-infectional POD, SOD activities and percent disease index (%DI). In contrast, post-infectional CAT activity was lower than pre-infectional CAT activity except in genotype BC3. So, there was non-significant correlation between pre- and post-infection CAT activity and % DI. It can be proposed that CAT may have not significant role in disease resistance and it is predicted that such CAT activity is due to its enzyme inhibition by ABSD. Correlative evidence established the role of POD and SOD in black spot disease resistance in Brassica. The SOD and POD activities can be utilized as biochemical markers in screening of Brassica germplasm to differentiate resistant genotypes against ABSD

749-754 Download
44

Optimization of fermentation parameters for enhanced APHE production from Streptomyces griseocarneus through submerged fermentation


Abida Rafique, Ali Nawaz and Hamid Mukhtar

Optimization of fermentation parameters for enhanced APHE production from Streptomyces griseocarneus through submerged fermentation


ABSTRACT:

Increasing resistance of microbes against antimicrobial drugs keep scientists busy in exploring novel and potent antibiotics. The present study is concerned with the production of antitumor antibiotic from Streptomyces griseocarneus NRRL B1068 using submerged fermentation technique. The antibiotic activity was tested against three test microorganisms including A. niger, E. coli and B. subtilis by agar well diffusion method. The production of antibiotic was enhanced by optimizing culture and physical conditions. Different culture media were screened and M1 medium consisting of (g/L), potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 3.24; dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 5.65; hydrated magnesium sulphate, 1.0; and 1 ml stock solution of salts (ferrous sulphate, 0.1; manganese chloride, 0.1; and zinc sulphate, 0.1) supplemented with 7.5% glucose and 2.0% lysine was found best for antibiotic synthesis. Optimum temperature, pH and incubation period for the production of antitumor antibiotic were found to be 30ºC, 7.2 and 7 days, respectively. Seven days old inoculum in a concentration of 8% (v/v) was determined best for antitumor antibiotic production by Streptomyces griseocarneus NRRL B1068

755-762 Download
45

Screening of phytate degrading fungi and optimization of culture conditions for phytase synthesis using agro-industrial by-products


Shahzad Mahmood, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid, Muhammad Nadeem and Ikram-Ul-Haq

Screening of phytate degrading fungi and optimization of culture conditions for phytase synthesis using agro-industrial by-products


ABSTRACT:

The present study is concerned with the screening of microbial strains and suitable fermentation medium for the best production of phytase using solid state fermentation process. The results revealed that fermentation medium M5 gave maximum yield with Aspergillus niger. Different culture conditions such as effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, different surfactants, their concentration levels, incubation period, incubation temperature, pH of the medium, moisture level and inoculum size on the production of phytase were also studied to improve the yield. The results showed that glucose (1% w/w), NH4NO3 (0.5% w/w) and tween-40 (0.5% w/w) were best carbon source, nitrogen source and surfactant for phytase production, respectively. Maximum activity of enzyme (297.25±7.94 IU/g) was recorded after 5 days of incubation at 35°C, pH 6, with 80% (v/w) moisture level and 10% (v/w) inoculum size, where as the enzyme activity was 198.78±5.80 IU/g under unoptimized cultural conditions. All these results indicate that optimization of culture conditions is very important to improve the production of phytase by Aspergillus niger using solid state fermentation process

763-770 Download
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