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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 5
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1

Obituary Prof. Abdul Ghafoor 


Saood Omer and M. Qaiser

Obituary Prof. Abdul Ghafoor 


ABSTRACT:

Professor Abdul Ghafoor was born on 1st January 1938 in a small village named Kamali (Indian Punjab). He migrated to Pakistan in 1947 with his maternal grandfather after crossing river of blood. All his family members including his mother, paternal grand parents and siblings were martyred. He was sent by his mother to his maternal grandfather before this mishap. Fortunately his father was already in Pakistan as he was working and posted in Karachi. Prof. Ghafoor completed his early education including Matriculation from Army Public School, Karachi and Intermediate (F.Sc.) from D. J. College and finally obtained his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees (Botany) from University of Karachi (1962).

1537-1537 Download
2

Physiological alterations of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. seedlings under saline water stress and nitrogen fertilizer application


Ya Su, Yi Pei, Akbar Towson, Yongjie He, Jiangli Nie and Baiming Wang

Physiological alterations of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. seedlings under saline water stress and nitrogen fertilizer application


ABSTRACT:

Adequate management of nitrogen fertilizer application in agriculture can contribute substantially to expanding Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. cultivation in the saline-alkali region of Tianjin. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of chlorophyll and osmotic adjustment substance content in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. cultivated with different irrigation water salinity and nitrogen concentration. The experiment was carried out under the condition of pot experiment in the greenhouse of Tianjin Agriculture University. The randomized block design with 4×3 factor was adopted for the experiment, with four doses of N (0.3, 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 mmol·L-1) and three levels of irrigation water salinity (CK,150,300 mmol·L-1). In this experiment, each treatment was repeated 3 times, with a total of 36 experimental units and 3 plants in each pot. Growth and contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble sugar and soluble protein were quantified at 60 days after transplantation. With increasing irrigation water salinity, the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids reduced and the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein increased. With the increase of nitrogen concentration, the content of chloroplast pigments first increased and then decreased. Except for the control, soluble sugar and soluble protein content gradually decreased. In a word, increments in N dose attenuate the deleterious effects of irrigation water salinity, and the optimum nitrogen concentration for the growth of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. seedlings is 5.0 mmol·L-1.

1539-1544 Download
3

Interactive effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and drought stress on the physiological responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Haiyan Kong, Zhen Zhang, Juan Qin and Nudrat Aisha Akram

Interactive effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and drought stress on the physiological responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Water deficit is confirmed to be the most destructive factor in abiotic stress, which can inhibit crop growth. Here we examined the effect of exogenous applied 10 μM abscisic acid (ABA) on the physiological and biochemical responses to water deficit in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) over a 12-day period at seedling stage. ABA application by root irrigation was transported to the aboveground part to increase the leaf ABA accumulation, which led to the decrease of leaf stomatal conductance (Gs) to reduce water loss. Drenching the soil with ABA trigged an early closure of stomata in the leaves of winter wheat, resulting in broadened the soil water content (SWC) threshold range of non-hydraulic root-sourced signal (nHRS). Exogenous application of ABA also decreased the leaf hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and increased SOD, CAT and POD activities, leading to reduce the damage of free radicals accumulation on the structure of cell membrane system in wheat plants. Collectively, these results suggested that exogenously applied ABA under drought stress confer growth promoting and stress relieving effects on wheat plants

1545-1551 Download
4

Foliar applied salicylic acid ameliorates water and salt stress by improving gas exchange and photosynthetic pigments in wheat


Zahoor Ahmad, Ejaz Ahmad Waraich, Rana Muhammad Sabir Tariq, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Sajid Ali, Walid Soufan, Montaser M. Hassan, M. Sohidul Islam and Ayman El Sabagh

Foliar applied salicylic acid ameliorates water and salt stress by improving gas exchange and photosynthetic pigments in wheat


ABSTRACT:

Abiotic stresses adversly effect the growth and physiological processes in crop plants, which ultimately lead to significant reduction in the yield. Based upon emerging threats of salinity and drought stresses, present investigation was done to evaluate the effect of foliar applied salicylic acid (SA) on the growth, gas exchange attributes and leaf pigments in wheat under water and salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a warehouse upon three commercial wheat varieties (Galaxy-2013, Punjab-2011 & Millat-2011) treated with two levels of foliar application of SA (Control, SA @ 100 mg/L) under CRD-factorial arrangement which was replicated thrice. According to the results, all the growth attributes, pigments and gas exchange parameters were significantly (p≤0.01) affected by the salt and drought stresses, and foliar application of SA remarkably remediated the adverse effects of stresses and improved the studied traits in all wheat cultivars. Elevated levels of chlorophyll a (2.31 mg g-1 FW), chlorophyll b (3.24 mg g-1 FW) and total chlorophyll content (5.55 mg g-1 FW) were found in SA treated plants under both types of stresses. Similarly, the maximum leaf photosynthetic rate (5.33 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), leaf transpiration rate (3.47 mmol H2O m-2 s-1) and stomatal conductance (0.85 mmol H2O m-2 s-1) were recorded by Glaxy-2013 under foliage applied SA (100 mg/L. In conclusion, wheat cultivar Glaxy-2013 surpassed all other cultivars by exhibiting significantly improved growth attributes salt and drought stresses

1553-1560 Download
5

Effects of exogenously applied melatonin on growth, photosynthesis, ion accumulation and antioxidant capacity of canola (Brassica napus L.) under chromium stress


Ahsan Ayyaz, Yamna Noor, Hussan Bano, Muhammad Awais Ghani, Muhammad Javed, Muhammad Iqbal, Zafar Ullah Zafar and Muhammad Ahsan Farooq

Effects of exogenously applied melatonin on growth, photosynthesis, ion accumulation and antioxidant capacity of canola (Brassica napus L.) under chromium stress


ABSTRACT:

The present investigation was performed to examine the positive role of exogenous application of melatonin on bio-mass production, photosynthetic pigments, total soluble proteins, nutrients uptake and oxidative defense on canola under chromium (Cr) stress. Two week old plants of a canola cultivar Ac-Excel were subjected to three stress levels of chromium (Cr) stress (0, 50 and 100 µM) and four levels of melatonin (MT) (0, 1, 5, and 10 µM) were applied foliarly. Cr stress significantly reduced the plant growth attributes, chlorophyll contents, total soluble proteins and total free amino acids, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and yield attributes of canola. Foliar application of melatonin significantly increased plant growth status in terms of shoot height, number of leaves, fresh and dry biomass, enhance accumulation of total soluble proteins under Cr stress. Overall, foliar application of melatonin considerably improved stress tolerance of canola plants by up regulating the ROS scavenging enzymes (catalase, peroxidase). Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements (Fo, Fm, Fv, Fo/Fm, Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm and other JIP-test parameters) revealed that chromium stress caused PSII photoinhibition by damaging donor end of PSII (oxygen evolving complex) and acceptor end of PSII (over reduction of QA). However exogenous application of melatonin protected the oxygen evolving complex of PSII and helped out in maintaining PSII activity. Overall melatonin induced growth improvement in canola cultivar under chromium stress was seemed to be associated with activation of antioxidant defense system which protected PSII from oxidative damage thereby resulting in enhanced photosynthetic capacity.

1561-1570 Download
6

Effects of exogenous spermidine on polyamine metabolism in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under high-temperature stress


Haoting Huang, Rui Liu, Yingyan Han, Jinghong Hao, Chaojie Liu and Shuangxi Fan

Effects of exogenous spermidine on polyamine metabolism in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under high-temperature stress


ABSTRACT:

The physiological mechanism by which exogenous spermidine (Spd) alleviates high-temperature stress of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was explored. The effects of exogenous Spd on the content of key enzymes of PA metabolism and endogenous polyamines (PAs) in lettuce under high-temperature stress were studied with G-S59 and P-S11 as test materials. The results showed that under high-temperature stress, the plant height, dry fresh weight of shoots and dry fresh weight of underground parts were all significantly reduced, and the growth of lettuce seedlings was inhibited. Exogenous Spd could significantly alleviate the inhibition of lettuce seedling growth by high-temperature stress. The contents of free, conjugate and bound putrescine (Put) were significantly decreased in leaves of lettuce seedlings under high-temperature stress, and in contrast, the contents of Spd and spermine (Spm) in free and bound states were significantly increased. Exogenous Spd effectively increased the Spd and Put contents but inhibited the increase in Spm content. Exogenous Spd could increase the plants Spd content by increasing the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO), polyamine oxidase (PAO), s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing the amount of upstream Spd, inhibiting the production of downstream Spm and maintaining higher endogenous Spd levels. The effects were more obvious in heat-resistant varieties such as P-S11. The results showed that exogenous Spd promoted the synthesis of endogenous Put and Spd, which might have great effects on the heat tolerance of lettuce seedlings.

1571-1582 Download
7

A study on the evaluation of waterlogging tolerance of different Dactylis glomerata L. germplasm resources and the difference in  root microstructure  under waterlogging stress


Yin-Chen Wang, Jing-Xin Mao, Shao-Qing Wang, Yang Yuan, Yan Fan, Jian Zhang, Lin-Feng Jiang, Min-Yang Li, Xing-Yun Yang, Jin-Hua Zhang and Bing Zeng

A study on the evaluation of waterlogging tolerance of different Dactylis glomerata L. germplasm resources and the difference in  root microstructure  under waterlogging stress


ABSTRACT:

In order to characterize the physiological mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance of Dactylis glomerata L. and to help rationally select waterlogging-tolerant species to alleviate the waterlogging damage to agricultural production, effects of waterlogging on the growth, morphological indexes, physiological changes and root microstructure of Dactylis glomerata L. were studied. A total of 20 varieties (lines) of Dactylis glomerata L. from different areas were flooded treatment for 0 day and 28 days, respectively. Morphological indexes and physiological indexes of 20 Dactylis glomerata L. resources were evaluated under waterlogging stress comprehensively. In addition, paraffin section technology was used for observing the microstructure changes on root of 6 types of Dactylis glomerata L. under waterlogging stress for 0 day, 14 days and 28 days respectively. Our results demonstrated that the orders of 20 Dactylis glomerata L. resources by ability of waterlogging tolerance were ‘Dianbei’ > ‘Cambria’ > ‘Aldebaran’ > ‘Athos’ > ‘Donata’ > ‘Sparta’> ‘PI 231482’ >‘Endurance’ > ‘PI 598418’ > ‘02-114’ > ‘PI 311388’ > ‘01472’ > ‘PG28’ > ‘Glorus Sweden’ = ‘PI593995’> ‘Smithii PI 441032’ = ‘PI594994’ > ‘Geneal Belgnaio’ > ‘PG49’ > ‘Amba’. What’s more, with the extension of waterlogging stress time, the number/size of vessel and the diameter of vascular cylinder were significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Cells ruptured and structure collapsed were found in the root microstructure of ‘PI 594994’, ‘Geneal Belgnaio’, ‘PG 49’ while structurally-complete of root in ‘Dianbei’, ‘Cambria’, ‘Aldebaran’ for under waterlogging stress 28 days. Therefore, they could be used as the key selection accessions and studied on their genes of waterlogging tolerance for further research.

1583-1592 Download
8

Physiological implication of moringa extracts applications for osmolytes production in maize crop under heat stress


Asima Batool, Abdul Wahid, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Naeem Akhtar, Zuhair Hasnain and Nasira Perveen

Physiological implication of moringa extracts applications for osmolytes production in maize crop under heat stress


ABSTRACT:

The research work presented in this manuscript was carried out to know the pattern of various osmolytes accumulation in maize plants exposed to heat stress after application of different types and modes of extracts of moringa plants.

Two maize hybrids (SB-11 heat tolerant, ICI-984 heat sensitive) were grown under control and heat stress conditions. These were exposed to exogenously application of water and aqueous leaf (fresh and shade dried) and flower extracts of moringa plant using three different modes i.e., seed priming, medium supplementation and foliar spray.

Data suggested that all the types and modes of moringa extract applications were substantially effectual in enhancing the osmolytes synthesis. Maize plants from heat tolerant hybrid indicated a greater while heat stressed plants revealed a lesser accumulation of all the omsolytes. Among the modes of extract application, the medium supplementation of extracts was substantially more effectual than foliar spray while seed priming was the least effectual. Moreover, among the osmolytes, the most conspicuous accumulation was recorded for shoot free proline and shoot glycinebetaine, while total free amino acids did not display much variation across the application modes.

The differences in the synthesis of osmolytes may be attributable to the possible differences in the phytochemical constituents of extracts.  Such a biosynthesis pattern of osmolytes may lead to heat tolerance in maize hybrids.

1593-1604 Download
9

Influence of salt stress on the flg22  induced ROS production in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves


Amrahov Nurlan Rashid, Martin Janda, Mammadov Ziaddin Mahmud, Olga Valentova, Lenka Burketova and Quliyev Akif Alekber

Influence of salt stress on the flg22  induced ROS production in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves


ABSTRACT:

In their natural habitats, plants have to cope with multiple stress factors triggering respective response pathways, leading to mutual interference. The aim of the study is to effect of salt stress in combination with immune response triggered by microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants. We measured ROS production after treatment with flg22 and the influence of concomitant salt stress (NaCl and Na2CO3). The maximum combined effect of NaCl solution and flg22 on ROS production was achieved at 6 mM salt, which was almost 2 times higher than the single effect of MAMP. A similar maximum combined effect with Na2CO3 was observed at 10 mM concentration. High concentration of NaCl and Na2CO3 was accompanied with declining of ROS production, which was completely inhibited at 150 mM of NaCl and at 50 mM of Na2CO3. The immediate and long term (24 h) effect of NaCl on leaf tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the impact of salt stress on flg22 induced ROS production probably did not affect the genetic aspects of the tissue response, but was associated with ionic and osmotic stresses. Experiments with mannitol, KCl and CaCl2 allowed concluding that the observed effect was due to the ionic stress of the salt rather than the osmotic one

1605-1610 Download
10

Exploration of status and intensity of Pb and Cd pollution in roadside soils and cereal grains


Atif Muhmood, Abdul Majeed, Abid Niaz, Asrar Hussain Shah and Abdul Wakeel

Exploration of status and intensity of Pb and Cd pollution in roadside soils and cereal grains


ABSTRACT:

Heavy metal pollution is becoming one of the major problems around the globe resulting from the increase in population, urbanization, and industrialization. Therefore, it is need of time and important to quantify the level of heavy metals especially Pb and Cd in the soils and cereals grown along the highways. Here, we explore the status and intensity of Pb and Cd pollution in roadside soils and cereals grown on these fields. A total of 500 soil and 250-grain samples were collected from the wheat and rice field located along the road from Faisalabad to Sheikupura and Sheikupura to Lahore. The outcomes depicted that the contents of Pb and Cd in the soils from the wheat fields located along Faisalabad to Sheikupura was ranged from 1.18 to 4.98 mg kgˉ¹ and from 0.008 to 0.62 mg kgˉ¹ respectively. Together these new data shows that the contents of both Pb and Cd in the soils from the wheat field located along the Sheikupura to Lahore road were lower than the soils from the fields along Faisalabad to Sheikupura road. The average contents of Pb and Cd recorded in the grains of wheat and rice grown along the road from Faisalabad to Sheikupura was 278 and 75.3 µg kgˉ¹ respectively and 269 and 39.5 µg kgˉ¹ respectively. Therefore, growing cereals in the vicinity of highways and heavy industries for longer times may cause heavy metals accumulation in the cereal grains.

1611-1616 Download
11

Lead nitrate (Pb (NO3)2) impact on seed germination and seedling growth of different soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties


Ali Rahmi Kaya and Tamer Eryigit

Lead nitrate (Pb (NO3)2) impact on seed germination and seedling growth of different soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties


ABSTRACT:

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of increasing doses (control, 100, 200, and 400 mg L-1) of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3))2 on seed germination and seedling development of 12 different soybean varieties in the Department of Field Crops laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu İmam University in May 2017. It was carried out according to the Completely randomized block design with three replications. In the experiment, some basic germination and seedling growth determining parameters such as germination percentage, germination index, radicle length, plumule length, seedling length, radicle fresh weight, plumule fresh weight, seedling fresh weight, radicle dry weight, plumule dry weight, seedling dry weight, vigor index, and germinated seed number were observed. Based on the characteristics studied in the trial, it was observed that cultivars reacted differently to lead concentrations due to their genotypic structure. Therefore, not only Pb doses were found to have negative effects on some characteristics of varieties, but also, they were also found to have positive effects on some properties of the varieties. These different responses to lead, a heavy metal, show that some kinds of soybeans can be used to resist said heavy metal doses.

1617-1627 Download
12

Evaluation of clodinafop-propargyl resistant Avena fatua L. (wild oat) in Sargodha division of Punjab-Pakistan


Ali Raza, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Azim Khan, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Kamran, Tasawer Abbas, Muhammad Latif, Noraiz Hamid and Omer Suha Uslu

Evaluation of clodinafop-propargyl resistant Avena fatua L. (wild oat) in Sargodha division of Punjab-Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Avenafatua L. (Wild oat) is one of the world's worst agricultural weeds and is an ever-increasing threat in wheat growing areas of Pakistan. The injudicious application of herbicides for the control of A. fatua has resulted in the evolution of herbicide resistance and made it the second most herbicide resistance weed in the world. Studies were conducted to test the resistance status of A. fatuato clodinafop-propargyl during winter 2018-19 after conducting a field survey for the collection of suspected A. fatuaseeds from various locations of Sargodha division of Punjab, Pakistan. For the resistance confirmation, dose-response assays were conducted under the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Four doses of clodinafop-propargyl (0, 0.5X, 1X, and 2X) were applied at 3-4 leaf stages of A. fatua. Mortality percentage and dry biomass of different biotypes were recorded at three weeks after herbicide spray. Lethal dose to kill 50% of plants (LD50), and resistance index (RI) were recorded based on mortality percentage. Results revealed that three biotypes (AF-SS-4, AF-SS-5 and AF-KSB-1) were resistant to clodinafop-propargyl. The mortality percentage for the resistant biotypes was 53%, 59% and 83%, respectively even at 2X. Resistance index was in the range of 5 to 7. Confirmation of A. fatuaresistance to the selected herbicide was the second case for herbicide resistance in Pakistan. Further research is warranted to evaluate the spreading of herbicide-resistant A. fatua in other areas and to suggest alternate practices to control A. fatua

1629-1635 Download
13

Removal  of  some  plant  toxic  heavy  metals  from  soil  using Mimosa pigra L. plant and effect of methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica L. on metal removing efficacy


Usama Mahalel, Zeinab A. Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed Sheded and Arafa Hamed

Removal  of  some  plant  toxic  heavy  metals  from  soil  using Mimosa pigra L. plant and effect of methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica L. on metal removing efficacy


ABSTRACT:

The principal concern of our study, which is carried out in microcosmic conditions, is focused on removing some plant toxic heavy metals such as Ni, Se, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu from soil by using Mimosa pigra plant, as well as the measuring the effect of these harmful elements on some morphological characters of seedlings such as length, number of leaves, fresh weigh, dry weigh and chlorophyll A and B. The investigation also evaluates the effect of Acacia. nilotica methanolic extract (ANME) on heavy metals removing process. Seedlings of M. pigra were subjected to two treatments; first by two different concentrations of heavy metals solutions, the second by adding of ANME. Atomic absorption analysis of seedlings exhibited that M. pigra seedlings had a good ability to remove Ni (20 ppm), Zn (80.01 ppm), Cr (8.82 ppm), Cd (17.57 ppm) and Cu (223.75), especially in case of seedlings treated with high concentrations of heavy metals, while accumulation of Se and Pb was not affected by increasing the concentration of elements. Addition of ANME enhanced the accumulation of Ni (35.1 ppm), Cr (11ppm), and Se (186.24 ppm). Accumulation of heavy metals resulted in reduction in length, number of leaves, fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll a and b content of M. pigra seedlings. Statistical data analysis was carried out using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

1637-1643 Download
14

Evaluation of crop rotation suitability in food lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)


Li Mouqiang, Wang Wenzhu, Fan Shengfeng, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Zhang Lipeng, Yang Hongyu and Shi Guiying

Evaluation of crop rotation suitability in food lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)


ABSTRACT:

Evaluation the interactive allelopathy between different crops is a wise strategy for determining the advantageous effects and avoid the disadvantageous effects among plants in short times. Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) is the only one edible sweet lily cropped in Western China, and there must exist different allelopathic relationship between the lily and some other crops. In order to explore suitable rotation crop of the lily to achieve the soil remediation, we investigated the interactive allelopathic effect between the lily and three other main crops (potato, peas, “Dang shen” (Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. ) by soil extract solution irrigation treatments. The experiment was designed as donor crop (lily)-receptor crops (potato, peas, “Dang shen”) combination and donor crops (potato, peas, “Dang shen”, lily)-receptor crop (lily) combination. The allelopathic effect was evaluated using the allelopathic effect index (RI) and synthetical allelopathic index (SE). The results showed that in the donor crop (lily)-receptor crops (potato, peas, “Dang shen”) combination, at the concentration of 0.1g/ml,0.3g/ml, 0.5g/ml, lily enhanced peas growth (SE was 0.0193, 0.0543, 0.0367, respectively), while it enhanced potato at lower concentration and inhibited it at high concentration (SE was 0.0433, 0.0727,-0.0560, respectively), and completely inhibited “Dang shen” (SE was -0.0675,-0.1215,-0.1920, respectively). But in the donor crops (potato, peas, “Dang shen”, lily)-receptor crop (lily) combination, at the concentration of 0.1g/ml,0.3g/ml,0.5g/ml, peas completely enhanced lily (SE was 0.056,0.102,0.004 respectively), while potato enhanced lily at lower concentration and inhibited it at high concentration (SE was 0.026,0.012,-0.074 ,respectively), so did “Dang shen”- lily combination ( SE was 0.039,-0.111,-0.171, respectively). In addition, dynamics of receptor plantlets POD, SOD, CAT activities and MDA content, which reflected if receptor crops got hurt and the adverse stress degree suffered from the donor crops, were consistent with the seedling growth performance. Therefore, these three crops have different effects for the lily rotation. The results suggested that among the three crops, peas is the most suitable as a rotation crop for alleviating the adverse effect of continuous cropping while “Dang shen” is unsuitable for this rotation system.

1645-1653 Download
15

Macro and micro-nutrients diversity in the seeds of field pea germplasm


Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Yeter Çilesiz, İlker Yüce, Faheem Shehzad Baloch and Tolga Karaköy

Macro and micro-nutrients diversity in the seeds of field pea germplasm


ABSTRACT:

The world is confronting with food shortage and malnutrition problems. Millions of people mainly from Asia and Africa are at maximum risk of hidden hunger due to the intake of micronutrient deficient plant-based food. Legumes are considered “poor man's meat” crops due to the presence of good concentrations of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. Biofortification of these crops either through conventional breeding or modern biotechnology techniques can be helpful to overcome malnutrition problems. Present study aimed to investigate the micro and macro nutrients diversity in 160 field pea genotypes. All studied seven traits reflected a good level of variations and revealed significant range of variations for nitrogen (N) (28.49-54.78 g kg-1), phosphorus (P) (1.648-4.04 g kg-1), potassium (K) (13.13-50.41 g kg-1), manganese (Mn) (7.96-22.83 mg kg-1), copper (Cu) (3.51-21.79 mg kg-1), iron (Fe) (29.32-80.69 mg kg-1) and zinc (Zn) (28.15-55.80 mg kg-1). Zinc reflected a highly significant and positive correlation with all studied traits except Mn. Genotype13 and Genotype 5 were found superior genotypes for the Zn (55.80 mg kg-1) and Fe (80.69 mg kg-1) contents, respectively, and can be suggested as candidate parents for the future pea biofortification and breeding activities. Cluster constellation plot analysis divided the genotypes in to two main groups A and B upon their Zn contents. We are confident that distinct genotypes evaluated from this study will be very useful for the development of improved pea cultivars through modern and conventional breeding activities to overcome malnutrition problems.

1655-1664 Download
16

Standardization of different protocols for genomic DNA isolation from Phoenix dactylifera L.


Shamsa Kanwal, Shakra Jamil, Rahil Shahzad, Sajid-Ur-Rahman and Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal

Standardization of different protocols for genomic DNA isolation from Phoenix dactylifera L.


ABSTRACT:

DNA fingerprinting, gene sequencing, genetic diversity studies and other valuable applications in molecular biology require highly purified DNA isolation for further use. DNA isolation is quite difficult from the hard and fibrous leaves of date palm. Tissues also contain high concentration of polyphenolics and polysaccharides linked with genomic DNA that may interfere with PCR amplification. This study was aimed at selection of the most appropriate method for DNA isolation from fibrous tissues of date palm and finding the alternative ways of grinding leaf samples to evade the problems linked with availability and usage of liquid nitrogen in date palm growing areas.  DNA extraction from leaves of five date palm varieties was accomplished using different protocols including modified DNAzol method, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method: (a) using liquid nitrogen for sample grinding and (b) grinding of leaf samples using sterile sand. Three different lysis buffers with different constituents were used. Study was carried out to observe the sodium chloride (NaCl) effects on produce and pureness of DNA individually and in combination with polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP) and lithium chloride (LiCl). It was concluded that DNA extracted using DNAzol was best in purity and yield.  It was observed that crushing the leaf samples of date palm using sterile sand along with addition of lysis buffer containing NaCl (1.4 M) without addition of liquid nitrogen, or PVP and LiCl, gave adequate DNA yield and satisfactory purity.

1665-1668 Download
17

Genetic diversity study of indigenous rice accessions from northern mountainous areas of Pakistan using microsatellite/SSR markers


Ayesha Bibi, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Khatiba Bibi, Muneeba Fida Abbasi and Kehkishan Akbar

Genetic diversity study of indigenous rice accessions from northern mountainous areas of Pakistan using microsatellite/SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

A total of 96 indigenous rice accessions from Northern areas of Pakistan were used as research material, while IR6, JP5, Nipponbare, and Super-basmati were included as check for comparison. Total genomic DNA was isolated from dehusked dry seeds and young seedlings of all the lines using standard protocols utilizing 36 SSR primers distributed over 12 chromosomes of rice. The major objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity within and among the subpopulation of indigenous rice accessions and secondly to examine the extent of population structure of indigenous rice germplasm from northern Pakistan. A total of 127 different scorable and reproducible alleles were scored. The total number of alleles per loci amplified by each SSR primer ranged from 2-7 with an average of 3.5 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged widely among loci from 0.39 (RM240 on chromosome 2) to 0.80 (RM119 on chromosome 4) with an average of 0.638 per locus. UPGMA (unweighted pair group method) analysis clustered rice accessions into eight major groups, I to VIII effectively differentiating most of the japonica and other short and long non-aromatic accessions. Microsatellites showed sufficient variation to distinguish between indica and japonica type. A number of SSR markers obtained could be used to generate indica and japonica specific markers, and to differentiate rice grown at high altitudes of Northern Pakistan into two different groups.

1669-1674 Download
18

Genetic and environmental effects on allometry of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) from Yunnan, southwest China


Ji Zhang, Tao Li, Yifan Cai and Yuanzhong Wang

Genetic and environmental effects on allometry of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) from Yunnan, southwest China


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plant (MP) cultivation is taken into consideration for the sustainable use of MPs. The effort in developing effective management of MPs has focused on biomass allocation of to the medicinal parts. Two experiments were designed and carried out to explore genetic and environmental effects on the biomass partitioning patterns of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo in southwest China. We found that there were significant differences in the average of stem biomass (SB), leaf biomass (LB), total biomass (TB), and stem length (SL), respectively, among nine provenances of D. officinale (p<0.01). The allometric relationships differed among provenances, indicating different growth strategies in different provenances of D. officinale. Significant differences in the average of SB, LB, TB, and SL, respectively, were also found among the same provenance of D. officinale cultivated at five different sites (p<0.01). It suggested that environmental factors influenced the biomass accumulation in the plants. These findings show that the biomass allocation of D. officinale was able to respond to both genetic and environmental effects. Therefore, the provenances with high-yield should be selected for commercial cultivation, and a suitable environment for D. officinale growth should be considered.

1675-1682 Download
19

Genetic diversity and population structure of cultivated Dendrobium huoshanense (C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng) using SNP markers generated from GBS analysis


Meirong Ye, Xiaopeng Wang, Yuli Zhou, Shoucheng Huang and Airong Liu

Genetic diversity and population structure of cultivated Dendrobium huoshanense (C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng) using SNP markers generated from GBS analysis


ABSTRACT:

Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng, plants have been declared as geographical indicators (GI) of different ecoregions of China, and wild D. huoshanense has been listed as one of the rare and endangered medicinal herbs of China, owing to overexploitation, habitat deteriorationand, et al., Therefore, D. huoshanense plants have been cultivated on a large scale for protecting the endangered species and meeting the great market demands. However, the genetic diversity and population structure of cultivated D. huoshanense are still unknown. Therefore, genetic diversity and population structure of 72 cultivated D. huoshanense samples were investigated in the study, using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis. A total of 100,098,874 clean read pairs were generated, with 1,390,262 clean read pairs per sample on average, and the ratio of mapped reads to total clean reads was 96.45%. A total of 108,557,703 SNPs were detected which included 94,382,323 (87%) homozygous and 14,175,380 (13%) heterozygous loci. Transition SNPs were more frequent than transversed SNPs, and the ratio of transition SNPs to transversion SNPs was 1.47. An unrooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on 359,521 filtered SNPs classified 72 cultivated D. huoshanense samples into two major clusters. According to ADMIXTURE analysis, these samples collection could be divided into two groups, which was in agreement with the NJ tree. According to AMOVA analysis, 96.68% variance was due to variation within populations, and 3.32% among populations, indicating a high gene exchange (or low genetic differentiation) among these populations.These results provided a valuable resource for understanding genetic diversity of cultivated D. huoshanense.

1683-1690 Download
20

Complete chloroplast genome of Eurya alata, a nectar shrub that blossoms in winter


Cheng Zhang, Yongfu Li, Min Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Yifan Duan and Xianrong Wang

Complete chloroplast genome of Eurya alata, a nectar shrub that blossoms in winter


ABSTRACT:

Eurya alata is one of the few nectar plants that bloom in winter, mainly distributed in the south of the Yangtze River in China. In this research, the chloroplast genome of E. alata is assembled and compared with other seven Pentaphylacaceae species. The chloroplast genome of E. alata is 157,190 bp and consists of four parts, among which LSC (87,230 bp) and SSC (18,216 bp) are separated by IRa and IRb (51,744 bp). The chloroplast genome encodes 136 genes. They are eight rRNA, 39 tRNA, and 89 protein-coding genes. Besides, 35 SSRs and 49 long-repeat sequences are observed. The protein-coding region of E. alata is less variable than the non-coding region. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Euryodendron excelsum is the closest species to E. alata. In this study, the structure and characteristics of the chloroplast genome of E. alata were revealed. These results will be helpful for further research in both Eurya and the Pentaphylacaceae family.

1691-1700 Download
21

Development and characterization of nineteen new microsatellite markers (SSRs) for Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) based on transcriptome sequencing


Zeng-Liang Zhou, Dong-Nan Hu, Yi-Ni Zhang, Rui-Lan Cao, Li Cheng, Meng Yan, Shuang Liu, Shang-Xing Chen and Juan Liu

Development and characterization of nineteen new microsatellite markers (SSRs) for Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) based on transcriptome sequencing


ABSTRACT:

Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) is an evergreen tree species with many essential oils that have been used in the fragrance, medicine and chemical industry. However, limited variation of existing microsatellite markers of C. camphor was found, which may hinder its applications in genetic diversity. In this study, newly developed microsatellite makers with di- or trinucleotide motifs were isolated using the next-generation transcriptome sequencing approach. Nineteen polymorphic SSR loci of C. camphor were developed and characterized. The number of alleles (Na) varied from 1 to 7 per polymorphic locus for each population, and the observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho, He) ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.964 respectively. Moreover, four microsatellites loci Cc-44459, Cc-94, Cc-68 and Cc-12 exhibited significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species amplification showed that most of loci had the transferability in C. parthenoxylon and C. kanehirae, except for C. burmannii. The 19 newly developed microsatellite markers will be useful for exploring the population genetics of C. camphor and other species from the same genus

1701-1705 Download
22

In silico promoter characterization of PR genes and expression analysis in transgenic tomato plants expressing OsRGLP1


Aghogho Ohwofasa, Sumera Perveen, Tehmina Ahsen Khan, Bushra Ijaz and Tayyaba Yasmin

In silico promoter characterization of PR genes and expression analysis in transgenic tomato plants expressing OsRGLP1


ABSTRACT:

Transgenic approaches have shown a huge potential in crop improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. The regulated expression of stress induced genes provides insights about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Pathogenesis related proteins in healthy transgenic tomato plants over expressing an important stress responsive gene (OsRGLP1). The OsRGLP1 was constitutively expressed in leaves and other parts of transgenic plants. We observed that OsRGLP1 brought about an increase in the expression of tomato PR2 and PR5 genes while no significant difference was observed in the expression of tomato PR1 gene in healthy transgenic tomato plants when compared with control. The promoter analysis of all three PR genes indicated that many conserved cis acting regulatory elements (CARES) were found in the promoters of all 3 PR genes analyzed.  Furthermore, some CARES were common between all three PR genes and the promoter of OsRGLP1. This could possibly suggest that similar transcription factors are involved in the expression and regulation of all 4 genes. These results can improve our understanding of the regulation and expression of tomato PR1, PR2 and PR5 which can be geared towards improving the overall immunity of tomato plant to stress factors in relation with GLP genes.

1707-1716 Download
23

Cloning and characterization of two gibberellin receptor genes in yam (Dioscorea opposita)


Wen-Hong Long, Sheng-Sheng Xu, Jin-Gui Meng, Jun-Xia Yang, Rong-Ping Yang, Yan-Bi Duan, Xue-Mei Zhang and Chun-Hua Ma

Cloning and characterization of two gibberellin receptor genes in yam (Dioscorea opposita)


ABSTRACT:

GID1 (gibberellin insensitive dwarf1) is a gibberellin receptor and plays an important role in the function of gibberellin. The full-length cDNA sequences of gibberellin receptor genes DoGID1B (GenBank No. MK253679) and DoGID1B2 (GenBank No. MK301538) were cloned by RT-PCR and RACE from yam (Dioscorea opposita). The expression of genes DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 in yam bulbils in dormant and sprouting stage and its response to paclobutrazol were studied by RT-qPCR. Amino acid composition, physicochemical properties, hydrophilicity, signal peptide, transmembrane structure, curled spiral composition and domain of the two deduced protein DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 were highly similar to GID1 proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana (GenBank No. NM_116166.5) and rice (Oryza sativa Japonica, GenBank No. XM_015784475.2). Both DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 proteins contain binding sites for hormones GA, repressor protein DELLA and hormone-sensitive lipase. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the deduced DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 proteins shared high sequence identity with GID1s from other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 proteins were grouped in the clade of monocotyledon GID1, but the two proteins were clustered in different sub-clades. RT-qPCR studies showed that the expression of DoGID1B and DoGID1B2 genes was up-regulated when yam bulbils sprouting, and the up-regulation of DoGID1B was higher than that of DoGID1B2. In addition, the up-regulation could be shifted earlier by paclobutrazol. These findings help us to reveal the molecular mechanism of gibberellin transduction and to regulate the growth and sprouting of yam

1717-1725 Download
24

Morphological attributes and total seed protein revealed diversity in Zizipus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn. populations from Malakand division, Pakistan


Nisar Uddin, Niaz Ali, Noor Muhammad, Syeda Andleeb Zehra, Mohammad Nisar and Muhammad Khalil Ullah Khan

Morphological attributes and total seed protein revealed diversity in Zizipus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn. populations from Malakand division, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) is a multipurpose wild tree species well adapted to the arid regions of Pakistan. The tree is drought tolerant and may ensure food security due to its sustained fruit production from poor and eroded soils of arid regions. The genetic diversity/evolutionary history of the Z. nummularia among the genotypes is still not well understood growing in agro-ecological regions of Malakand Division, KP, Pakistan. This study has evaluated intraspecies morphological as well as total seed protein subunits diversity within 120 genotypes of Z. nummularia. It was recognized that except leaf type (alternate), leaf shape (ovate), and leaf color (green) that showed monomorphism; the genotypes exhibited polymorphism of varying degrees in all other morphological traits viz., vigor, leaf margin, tomentose (dense), stem color, spine length, fruit color, and fruit shape. Total seed protein profiling was carried out on 12% slab gel electrophoresis, 12 bands (loci) with molecular weight ranges from 10KDa to 180KDa were detected in Z. nummularia. The majority loci represented high polymorphism. The locus contribution towards genetic disagreement (LCTGD) and locus linkage of Z. nummularia was 91.66% and 8.333% respectively. Notably, the B-1 locus was monomorphic in Z. nummularia and was treated as species-specific whereas, B-2-B-12 was polymorphic. The average genetic disagreement for B1-B-12 was 0.15, 0.24, 0.19, 0.18, 0.15, 0.16, 0.16, 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, 0.14 and 0.31, respectively. Both the UPGMA and PCA analyses revealed the coherence of Z. nummularia populations with the agro-ecological regions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first-ever report documenting intra-specific variation and genetic architecture of the endemic Z. nummularia genotypes growing in Districts Dir Lower, Buner, and Swat. The study reveals that the existence of enough diversity within Z. nummularia genotypes growing in the region. The collected samples/materials can also be included in the crossing scheme to generate offspring that capture greater genetic diversity for selection again in the future.

1727-1735 Download
25

Molecular analyses of selected tea genotypes irradiated with gamma rays


Amina Sardar, Azhar Hussain Shah, Basharat Hussain Shah, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Uzma Khan and Muhammad Asif Nawaz

Molecular analyses of selected tea genotypes irradiated with gamma rays


ABSTRACT:

Thirty six tea genotypes (M1-M36) along with three check genotypes (Qi men, P3 and Indonesian) treated with gamma irradiation were evaluated with help of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. All the genotypes were treated with 10 Kr gamma radiations and grown by using augmented design. A total of 8 RAPD markers were used for PCR amplification of all 39 genotypes. Maximum polymorphic bands were recorded. However 16 unique extra alleles were found in the experimental samples. The genetic similarity values varied among genotypes. The phylogenetic analysis classified all the genotypes into six diverged groups (I-VI). The groups (I-VI) contained 17, 8, 4, 2, 7 and 1 genotype, respectively. Maximum variability in the allelic pattern was observed in treated samples. The variability in band patterns might be due to the mutation. The 3D analysis identified 4 elite tea genotypes (Qi men, M19, M28 and M31). The important tea genotypes treated with gamma radiations were characterized at molecular level. However further characterization through SSRs or SNP markers are needed to check further genomic variability at different gamma radiation treatments.

1737-1742 Download
26

The relationship between nutrients and gender conversion in male Amur grape


Hailin Shen, Zhendong Liu, Ke Yan, Liren Zou, Chu Zhang, Yining Hui, Jing Yang, Yinshan Guo, Kun Li, Jinghui Wen and Xiuwu Guo

The relationship between nutrients and gender conversion in male Amur grape


ABSTRACT:

Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is a dioecious species. To elucidate the cause of pistil abortion in male amur grape from the perspective of nutrition, we performed a metabolic pathway analysis based on its transcriptome data and used optical microscopes to observe slices of the pistil of a male line during its development. Abnormality was found in its ovary shape and structure, and the expression of some genes in the glucose metabolism pathway changed, and the content of starch and protein in the ovule decreased during pistil development. These abnormities may thus serve as important contributors to pistil abortion in male flower. However, abortion could be eliminated by N1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N3-phenylurea (CPPU) treatment, which caused the recovery of functional pistil in male amur grape. Altogether, this study provides information from the perspective of nutrition regarding sex conversion mechanism in male amur grape and may promote sex determination studies in Vitis species

1743-1752 Download
27

Production of amygdalin by means of callus culture in some Prunus species


Ahmet Aygun and Birnur Hatice Erdemel

Production of amygdalin by means of callus culture in some Prunus species


ABSTRACT:

Amygdalin is a glycoside which commonly found in the seeds of stone fruits. This active ingredient has a great importance in drug industry. Amygdalin is commonly obtained from the seeds of three different Prunus species (almond, cherry laurel and apricot) by producing in vitro callus cultures. In this study, analyses of amygdalin was performed with HPLC from the explants, calluses and kernels of these three species. According to the results obtained, the maximum amygdalin was noted from the whole kernel of the apricot fruits as 5888.45 mg per 100 gwhereas the maximum amygdalin content of cotyledons was 213.47 mg per 100 g which was measured from the almond explants. Amygdalin content of the Prunus calluses were then noted as 1376.13 mg, 140.74 mg and 74.08 mg in 100 g at cherry laurel, apricot and almond, respectively. Present results suggested that the callus cultures of Prunus species can be used in order to obtain amygdalin.

1753-1758 Download
28

Allium (Amaryllidaceae) species in Pakistan: two new records and a new species from Zhob (Balochistan)


Nazar Khan, Reinhard M. Fritsch, Amir Sultan and Tahir Khan

Allium (Amaryllidaceae) species in Pakistan: two new records and a new species from Zhob (Balochistan)


ABSTRACT:

Allium caroli-henrici, A. registanicum are newly recorded from Zhob district of Pakistan, and a new species Allium zhobicum is described and illustrated. The new species belongs to Allium subg. Melanocrommyum sect. Thaumasioprason and is characterized by rounded bulbs with coriaceous outer tunics, entire to papillate linear leaves, lilac to white scarcely recurved, elliptical linear to oblong tepals and a six-lobed ovary with exserted stigma and violet style. The key to Allium species in Flora of Pakistan is amended including the diagnostic characters of the newly recorded species.

1759-1765 Download
29

Charybdis glaucophylla Bacch. & Al. (Asparagaceae) new to NW Africa


Ridha El Mokni and Salvatore Pasta

Charybdis glaucophylla Bacch. & Al. (Asparagaceae) new to NW Africa


ABSTRACT:

Charybdis glaucophylla Bacch. & al. (Asparagaceae) is here reported for the first time for the Kroumiria region (NW Tunisia) and for the entire African continent. Basic ecological and demographic information on the local population is provided, too

1767-1770 Download
30

Studies on varying nutrient status  at pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive stages of five plant species from Koh-e-Sufaid range, Kurram Valley, Pakistan


Wahid Hussain, Lal Badshah, Asghar Ali, Hidayat Hussain and Farrukh Hussain

Studies on varying nutrient status  at pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive stages of five plant species from Koh-e-Sufaid range, Kurram Valley, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This study was designed to investigate the mineral composition at three phenological stages of some selected fodder forage. Therefore, five taxa viz., Indigofera gerardiana, Tagetes minutia, Rubus fruticosus, Medicago sativa, and Quercus baloot were tested for different minerals such as Mg, K, Na, Ca, Zn, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu. The highest concentration of macronutrients i.e. Ca (96700 µg/g), Mn (99800 µg/g) were found at post-reproductive phase in Indigofera gerardiana and K (90200 µg/g) was recorded during pre-reproductive phase in Tagetes minutia while the Rubus fruticosus exhibited (17800 µg/g) and (59900µg/g) Co and Cu respectively. Similarly, the highest level of Chromium (Cr) recorded (76600µg/g) at reproductive phase in Tagetes minuta, Nickle concentration was recorded maximum i.e. 46400 µg/g at pre-reproductive phase in Rubus fruticosus. Furthermore, Zn contents were (88800 µg/g) at pre-reproductive both in Medicago sativa and Tagetes minuta and subsequently Fe (59300 µg/g) at pre-reproductive phase in Indigofera gerardiana. This study helped in correlating the mineral status of these plant species to their palatability status. The mineral profile of the plants analyzed indicates that mineral levels were as per the required standards and their concentrations were not drastically different from other parts of Pakistan.

1771-1777 Download
31

A step towards the documentation of indigenous knowledge about the medicinal plants in Mollagori: a tribal war affected area of FATA, Pakistan


Nafees Ullah, Siraj-Ud-Din, Fazli Rahim, Rainer W. Bussmann, Hammad Ahmad Jan and Sher Wali

A step towards the documentation of indigenous knowledge about the medicinal plants in Mollagori: a tribal war affected area of FATA, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The present work was conducted with the aim to record the ethnic medicinal knowledge. This work is the first effort to document the folk knowledge of medicinal plants. From 2013-14, 87 participants were interviewed through semi-structured questionnaires. During the field work 45 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families were encountered. Lamiaceae was the dominant family in terms of species (5 sp.). The most common life form was herbs (60%), and leaves (16 sp. 28%) were most commonly used in various ailments. The most important mode of preparation was decoction (34.88%). According to FI value was Ziziphus nummularia (0.42) was the most important species. The highest ICF value was recorded for Anti-Poisoning (0.928) recipes, and the maximum Jaccard Similarity Index in comparison with Malakand Pass Hills (14.16%). The documentation of the therapeutic flora shows that the use of medicinal plants in the study area plays a vital role in the basic healthcare system of the native communities. The predominant use of whole plants and seed is an alarming situation for the conservation of local medicinal flora. Therefore, education of the local communities about the conservation of medicinal plants is the need. This work will also serve as baseline for future investigations.

1779-1789 Download
32

Determination of pollen fertility and hybridization success among Rosa hybrida


Muhammad Faisal Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz, Muhammad Azam Khan, Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi, Umer Habib and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

Determination of pollen fertility and hybridization success among Rosa hybrida


ABSTRACT:

Breeding among Rosa species is a tedious process with low success rate due to presence of variability in pollen fertility and environmental conditions. Introduction of varieties and development of new hybrid lines is direly needed for rose industry in Pakistan, particularly in Pothwar area. Present study was designed to introduce existing varieties to this area and to check their adaptability and pollen fertility for initiating conventional breeding. Experiment was laid out at University Research Farm Koont by using factorial RCBD. Twenty-one varieties were scrutinized for pollen traits to get effective pollen donor parents for improvement of desired traits in locally-adapted cultivars. The number of anthers per flower, pollen viability, germination percentage and pollen diameter were observed for selection of seed setting and pollen donor parents. 30 cross-combinations were formed by use of 3 seed setting and 10 pollen-donor parents. Therefore 10 crosses were performed for each cross combination in this study. Successful hip setting was recorded after doing the recommended pollination practices. Variations in results was found regarding pollen behavior and its success rate in open field. Helen naude and Angel face contain significant number of anthers. Highest pollen viability percentage was observed in “Gruss-an-teplitz” while maximum hip set percentage and seeds were produced by Bora bora (V14) crosses when both were compared to “Gruss-an-teplitz (V21)” and “Midas touch (V6)” crosses. Hip fresh weight positively correlated with number of seeds in each cross combination. Overall Gruss-an-teplitz proved better as female parent and yielded significant hip set percentage after hybridization

1791-1800 Download
33

Economic valuation of ecosystem services in alpine pastures of western Himalayas: a case study of Kaghan valley, Pakistan


Anwar Ali, Muhammad Ayaz Khan, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf and Muhammad Arif Goheer

Economic valuation of ecosystem services in alpine pastures of western Himalayas: a case study of Kaghan valley, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Alpine pastures of Kaghan valley are one of the most productive grazing lands in Pakistan. These pastures provide many ecosystem services which are important for livelihood of the local people, nomadic graziers and economy of the country. Alpine pastures of Kaghan spread over an area of 71,939 ha constituting 28% of the total area of the valley. Present study was conducted to quantify the economic value of provisioning ecosystem services i.e. forage production in the study area. The data was collected from 40 fenced experimental plots laid out at eight sites during June-September 2019. Livestock population was estimated through a field survey by interviewing 485 graziers. Results indicated that 65% of the vegetation was comprised of forbs, 24% grasses and 11% was shrubs. Average dry weight of forage was calculated as 2,900 kg ha-1. Total forage production in the grazeable areas of alpine pastures of Kaghan Valley was estimated as 146,035 tonnes per year. The average price of air-dried forage in the area was Rs. 12,000 per tonne or US$ 74.48 per tonne. Therefore, total economic value of forage production in the grazeable areas of Kaghan valley was Rs. 1,752 million or US$ 10.87 million per year. Total livestock population of the Alpine pastures of Kaghan valley was estimated as 163,550 animals. About 56% of the livestock grazing in the pastures comprised of goats, 39% sheep, 2% cows, 2% horses, 1% donkeys, 0.4% mules and 0.3% buffaloes. It was concluded that the alpine pastures of Kaghan valley are very productive and have a key role in the local economy. Sustainable management of alpine pastures will ensure the continuity of valuable ecosystem services.

 

1801-1806 Download
34

Quantitative analysis of medicinal flora used as herbal remedies in Hindu Kush mountain range, northern Pakistan


Nazim Hassan, Umar Zeb, Asfa Batool, Khan Sher, Iqra Naeem and Waqif Khan

Quantitative analysis of medicinal flora used as herbal remedies in Hindu Kush mountain range, northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This research aims to collect significant data on traditional uses of medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants as remedies in Northern Pakistan. In this regard ethnobotanical data were compiled from 128 informants through group discussion and well-organized questionnaire. Demographic features, part used, preparation methods, mode of application, life form, and ethno medicinal uses were noted. For data analysis quantitative indices i.e. (ICF) Informant consensus factor, (FL) Fidelity level, (UV) Use value, (RFC) Relative frequency citation and (DMR) data matrix ranking were used. A comparison with 6 published ethnobotanical studies at national and international level was carried out for authentication of ethnomedicinal relevance of data documented. A total of 94 medicinal plant species from 34 families were documented. Family Lamiaceae and Asteraceae (13%) were the most leading families. Ailments were classified into 13 different categories. Leaves (34%) were commonly used for the preparation of ethno medicines. Major contribution (65%) was obtained from herbaceous flora. The most frequently used method for the preparation of ethno medicine was decoction (41%). Highest number of use reports (107) and ICF (0.84) were observed for antispasmodic. High fidelity level 95.45% was observed for Berberis lyceum. Use value (UV) was high (0.67) for Urtica dioica while RFC (0.45) was observed high for Ajuga bracteosa. Plants with high FIC value should be screened for comprehensive pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Medicinal flora was found at risk due to unwise harvesting and over grazing. Further plant exploration, awareness, conservation, Joint collaboration and wise use of plant resources are recommended.

1807-1819 Download
35

Distribution and ecology of some Carex L. species in sub-tropical pine and Himalayan moist temperate forests


Sundas Aslam, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Shahbaz

Distribution and ecology of some Carex L. species in sub-tropical pine and Himalayan moist temperate forests


ABSTRACT:

Carex (Family Cyperaceae) resembles superficially with grasses and rushes. This genus primarily is confined to high elevations, and is among the least studied groups in Pakistan. The present study was focused on the investigation of distributional patterns and ecology of genus Carex in the chir pine (sub-tropical pine forests) and blue pine (Himalayan moist temperate forests) region. About 40 species were collected from five different sites, namely Ayubia, Bansra Gali, Bhurban, Ghora Gali and Patriata. Species were identified with the help of various herbaria, flora and internet resources. Ecological studies were conducted by the quadrat method, and the quadrats were laid along a transect line. Three species, Carex ecostata, C. raphidocarpa and C. lindleyana, were the new records in Pakistan. Relative density was the highest in C. halleriana at Ayubia (elevation 2380 m). At Bhurban (elevation 1890 m), four species (C. nubigena, C. atrofusca, C. diandra and C. pruinosa) were recorded more frequently than all other species. At Ghora Galli (elevation 1850 m), species like C. sanguinea, C. chitralensis and C. turkestanica were recorded more frequently. No Carex species dominated the habitats at Bansra Galli (elevation 1650 m) and Patriata (elevation 1800). Soil physicochemical characteristics showed little variation at all study sites, but variation regarding soil ECe was relatively high. Variation in soil attributes and altitudinal gradients affected the diversity and distributional pattern of Carex species in the Himalayan mountains

1821-1829 Download
36

Vegetation classification of the Margalla foothills, Islamabad  under the influence of edaphic factors and anthropogenic activities using modern ecological tools 


Majid Iqbal, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Zeeshan Ahmad, Murtaza Hussain, Syed Nasar Shah, Saqib Kamran, Fazal Manan, Zahoor Ul Haq and Saif Ullah

Vegetation classification of the Margalla foothills, Islamabad  under the influence of edaphic factors and anthropogenic activities using modern ecological tools 


ABSTRACT:

The Margalla Hills falls in moist subtropical ecosystem with rich floristic diversity. Frequent field trips were conducted to record the floristic and ecological characteristics of vegetation. A total of 360 quadrats were laid down along 12 transects (8 on dry and 4 on the foothills' wet sites). Quadrat size was kept 10 x 10 m2, 5 x 5 m2 and 1x1 m2 for trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively. Phytosociological attributes were determined for each plant species. Cluster, Two-way Cluster and Indicator Species Analyses of PCORD Version 5 were used to classify potential Landscape types and their respective indicators. Canonical Corresponding Analyses (CCA) and Detrented Corresponding Analyses (DCA) analyses were applied using CANOCO software to determine the significant effect of various environmental and edaphic variables on indicator species distribution patterns. Preliminary, a total of 187 plant species were recorded belong to 57 families. The topmost dominant families were Poaceae (27 species), followed by Leguminosae (17 species), Lamiaceae (11 species) and Moraceae (8 species). Therophytes (40%) followed by Phanerophytes (28%) were the region's dominant life forms. Microphylls leaf form was dominant (38%), followed by Mesophylls (30%). Six landscape types were identified after the Cluster Analysis with Sorenson distance measurements in the region. Environmental gradient analyses showed that the low potassium concentration, higher electrical conductivity, moderate organic matter, clay loam soil condition, anthropogenic activities, and grazing pressures significantly affect plant species distribution, composition, abundance, and different landscape type formation and their respective indicators

1831-1843 Download
37

Community composition and structure along the environmental gradients of Larix gmelinii forest in northeast China


Xiaohang Bai, Sehrish Sadia and Jinghua Yu

Community composition and structure along the environmental gradients of Larix gmelinii forest in northeast China


ABSTRACT:

Larix gmelinii forest is one of the most important cold-temperate conifer forests which plays a crucial role on national ecological security in China. Understory plants of Larix gmelinii forest has different distribution and ecological strategy. This paper quantitatively explored the relationship between community composition and environmental factors in natural Larix gmelinii forest in Northeast China. The regional sample plots (n=175, size=30 m×30 m) were classified into 6 plant associations by two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), and different plant associations showed different habitat preferences. Species richness and diversity showed a similar trend. Both of them had significantly negative correlation with elevation, isothermality, temperature seasonality, showing significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Species evenness had significantly negative correlation with mean annual temperature and annual precipitation, showing significant positive correlation with elevation and isothermality. Species richness and diversity in Asso.II (Larix gmelinii-Spiraea chamaedryfolia + Corylus heterophylla-Eriophorum vaginatum) and Asso.VI (Larix gmelinii-Carex Larix gmelinii-Sorbaria sorbifolia-Geranium wilfordii) showed higher index than others. However, species evenness in Asso.III (Larix gmelinii-Ledum palustre+Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Deyeuxia angustifolia) and Asso.IV (Larix gmelinii-Rhododendron dauricum-Pyrola dahurica) showed higher index than others. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) claimed that mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and elevation were primary environmental factors affecting species association distribution. The study can be used as a reference for Larix gmelinii forest ecosystem protection and a theoretical basis for scientifically sustainable management in similar areas.

1845-1850 Download
38

Evaluation of cotton seed of advanced lines for nutritional quality through biochemical analysis


Shahwar Fatima, Sajjad Haidar and Noreen Bibi

Evaluation of cotton seed of advanced lines for nutritional quality through biochemical analysis


ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a study to find an advanced line of cotton which has desirable yield and quality parameters with better nutritional constituents and low amount of gossypol contents in the seed. The randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was used for this experiment during 2017-18 at NIAB. Seed biochemical composition was analyzed for gossypol contents, total soluble sugars, protein fractions, amino acids, crude fibers and micro/macro nutrients. Analysis of gossypol contents revealed highly significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes. Gossypol content in all of advanced lines was lower than standard checks. Total amino acids were statistically highly significant among all the genotypes. For instance, the content of total free amino acids was highest (0.1686 µg/g FW) in NIAB-4-44-3 while lowest (0.0219 µg/g FW) in NIAB-4-54. There were no significant differences among advanced lines and standard checks for the contents of total soluble sugars. However, significant variations were observed for the contents of glucose and sucrose with the amount of maximum glucose in NIAB-4-54 and highest sucrose in NIAB-4-79-2. Among four protein fractions (albumin, globulin, glutelin, prolamin), albumin was abundantly present in all genotypes. Water soluble albumin fraction ranged from 3.35 mg/g fresh weight (FW) to 3.82 mg/g FW being maximum in NIAB-14-43-19 while lowest in NIAB-4-79-2. Crude fiber, crude protein, ash and other micro nutrients were also high in NIAB-4-44-3. From these results it is concluded that NIAB-4-44-3 has better nutritional quality with higher contents of amino acid and crude fiber while lowest amount of gossypol, hence, can be a better source for animal feed and human consumption

1851-1857 Download
39

Assessing nitrogen nutrition of banana Basrai cultivar (Dwarf Cavendish) through leaf analysis and chlorophyll determination


Bagh Ali Abro, Mehrunisa Memon, Zia-Ul-Hassan, Mohammad Younis Arain, Abdul Razaq, Dildar Ali Abro and Sajad Ali

Assessing nitrogen nutrition of banana Basrai cultivar (Dwarf Cavendish) through leaf analysis and chlorophyll determination


ABSTRACT:

Adequate supply of N nutrition is essential in banana production and is an indirect indicator of chlorophyll content, as considerable amount of it is incorporated in green pigment. Traditional methods of N determination are expensive and lengthy or require high technology instruments, affecting its timely determination. This study assessed N nutrition of banana leaf tissue through traditional Kjeldahl’s method and regressed with chlorophyll content, each by spectrophotometry and SPAD-502. Fully grown suckers identical in appearance were randomly selected from thirty banana growing sites of district Naushehroferoze. Kjeldahl’s N content was between 1.80 and 4.60 % with 60% samples falling under low, 3% under high and remaining were sufficient in N nutrition. There was strong, linear and significant relationship of chlorophyll determined by SPAD with chlorophyll “a” (r = 0.81) and total (r = 0.86) by spectrophotometry. In case of Kjeldahl’s N, similar relationships were developed with chlorophyll content determined by SPAD meter (r = 0.85), chlorophyll “a” (r = 0.79) and total (r= 0.80) by spectrophotometry. Coefficient of determination explained 72% contribution of chlorophyll content by SPAD, and 63% and 64% (“a” and “total”, respectively) by spectrophotometry to the total N content in leaf tissue. While,  chlorophyll determination by SPAD meter explained 67%, 19% and 74% to spectrophotometric chlorophyll “a”, “b” and “total”, respectively. This study recommends that both the techniques of chlorophyll determination are closely associated with each other; however, spectrophotometric chlorophyll determinations have an edge over SPAD readings. Under spectrophotometric determination, chlorophyll “a” is the major portion of total chlorophyll associated with both N and SPAD values.

1859-1864 Download
40

Vegetation dynamics along altitudinal gradients in Shigar valley (Central Karakorum) Pakistan: zonation, physiognomy, ecosystem services and environmental impacts


Zaheer Abbas, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Jan Alam, Thomas Peer, Zainul Abideen, Rainer W. Bussmann and Said Muhammad

Vegetation dynamics along altitudinal gradients in Shigar valley (Central Karakorum) Pakistan: zonation, physiognomy, ecosystem services and environmental impacts


ABSTRACT:

This paper provides the first insight into the altitudinal zonation of vegetation of Shigar valley, Central Karakorum Mountains, Pakistan. The study was conducted in the period of 2013-2016 and focused on floristic and structural differentiation of vegetation; ethnobotany, and environmental impacts in the region. Based on altitude, climate, and indicator species, four vegetation zones were recognized including sub-montane, montane, sub-alpine, and alpine belt. From these belts, a total of 345 plant taxa were collected. The sub-montane belt presented the highest species richness. Perennials prevailed in all vegetation types. Annuals drastically decreased with altitude. Hemicryptophytes occurred in all zones, and chamaephytes only at lower, dry and rocky sites. Phanerophytes (shrubs, trees) decreased with altitude and were almost absent in the alpine belt. Microphylls and nanophylls had an abrupt decline with altitude. Plant functional effects related to ecosystem services were sixteen and the maximum services were found in the sub-alpine (13) belt, followed by the sub-montane (12), the montane (9) and the alpine belt (4). All vegetation types were used by the local people, and twenty use categories with 83 species were found, including medicinal, beverages, edible, fuel, fence sources etc. Edible wild plants (fruits, vegetables), fuel wood, thatching, and fencing materials were provided by all vegetation belts except the alpine belt. The use of plants impaired plant functional effects in the ecosystem. Eight types of natural and human caused degradation processes were recognized, most common in the sub-montane and montane belt. The sustainable use of the resources requires appropriate monitoring activities, and regulation for conservation and management of this vulnerable mountain ecosystem.

1865-1874 Download
41

Distribution pattern of southern corn leaf blight in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan and its PCR based detection in asymptomatic leaves and plant debris


Azra, Shaukat Hussain, Amna Fareed, Saeedullah, Safeer Ullah Shah and Muhammad Iqbal

Distribution pattern of southern corn leaf blight in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan and its PCR based detection in asymptomatic leaves and plant debris


ABSTRACT:

Southern corn leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, is an important disease of maize in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan.  Extensive surveys were carried out during kharif 2015 to assess the distribution pattern of the disease in various districts of KP. The disease was prevalent in all surveyed areas with varying degree of severity. Plains of KP were more prone to the disease due to favorable environmental conditions than highlands. A direct PCR protocol for detection of the pathogen in asymptomatic leaves was developed using species specific primers JB588/JB591, JB587/JB596 and JB588/JB598. Primer pairs JB588/JB591 and JB587/JB596 were equally effective in detecting the pathogen as compared to the primer pair JB588/JB598. Nested PCR was however required to detect the pathogen in plant debris. Primer pair JB587/JB596 proved reliable in detecting the pathogen in plant debris through nested PCR.

1875-1882 Download
42

Achene micro-morphology of Anaphalis DC. (Gnaphalieae-Asteraceae) from China


Xuemin Xu, Zhen Wei, Tao Zhang and Shixin Zhu

Achene micro-morphology of Anaphalis DC. (Gnaphalieae-Asteraceae) from China


ABSTRACT:

Anaphalis DC. is the largest genus in Asian Gnaphalieae, and China, containing 54 known species, is one of the largest centers of Anaphalis diversity. In the present study, the achene micro-morphology of 39 Chinese Anaphalis taxa were studied in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the Chinese Anaphalis could be classified into two groups based on achene surface ornamentation viz. reticulate-claviform (Group I) and ligulate protuberant (Group Ⅱ). Achene micro-morphological characteristics were useful for the delimitation of interspecific and supraspecific classification within Anaphalis.

1883-1892 Download
43

Determination of the content of biologically active substances in some aquatic higher plants


Aliya Amangeldievna Ramazanova, Gulzira Izmukhanovna Yernazarova, Svetlana Kazbekovna Turasheva and Nurzhanyat Tatukhanovna Ablaikhanova

Determination of the content of biologically active substances in some aquatic higher plants


ABSTRACT:

The article identifies the following biologically active substances in the surface and the underground parts of Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia Stratiotes, and Lemna minor aquatic plants (roots, stems, leaves): alkaloids, anthraquinones, proteins, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, anthraquinones, and coumarins. A brief overview of scientific works has been given for certain types of biologically active substances and their biological activity, importance, biosynthesis, and genetic transfer. The results of this research show that high amount of biologically active substances (BAS) was found in Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant in terms of tannins, which in the roots amounted to 7.476%, and in the above-ground part — to 6.73%. The content of polysaccharides was 5.907%, and in the roots — 2.642%. By the amount of BAS detected in the composition of Pistia stratiotes aquatic plant, polysaccharides content in the aerial part was 3.073%, and in the roots — 4.881%, the content of flavonoids in the aerial part was 4.833%, and in the roots — 3.716%. Among BAS in Lemna minor water plant, the content of flavonoids was 5.463%.

1893-1899 Download
44

Identification and in-vitro assessment of a glycoprotein elicitor isolated from Colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane


Ambreen Khadija Alvi and Javed Iqbal

Identification and in-vitro assessment of a glycoprotein elicitor isolated from Colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane


ABSTRACT:

The fungal pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum, the causal agent of red rot disease, is one of the most damaging pathogens of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). The identification of elicitors that initiate defense mechanism in plants against pathogen has become an area of considerable interest in the era where scientists are aiming to reduce the use of fungicides. In this study Colletotrichum falcatum spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Then spores were obtained from pure culture and grown in Czapek Dox liquid medium for isolation of cell wall elicitor from two week old mycelial mat of Colletotrichum falcatum.  Crude elicitor was purified by gel filtration using Sephadex G-200 column. Twenty three fractions were collected and analyzed for the presence of sugars and proteins for further identification of elicitor molecule. Sugarcane callus was prepared from explants of red rot resistant genotype HSF-240 on agar solidified MS basal medium augmented with 3-4 mg L-1 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid). Suspension cultured cells were prepared after formation of white friable callus which was used for further studies. The third fraction (F3) induced the highest PAL activity (2.181 m mol g-1 f. wt. h-1) and phenolic contents (0.196 mg ml-1) 6 h after treatment in sugarcane suspension-cultured cells of the resistant genotype, HSF-240, and was considered to have the active elicitor molecules. Moreover, this fraction itself had higher soluble proteins (0.999 mg ml-1) and sugars (1.87 mg ml-1) which confirmed that the elicitor molecules were glyco-protein in nature. The molecular weight of the elicitor molecule was calculated by drawing a regression plot from the regression equation (y = -66658x + 36) and estimated to be approximately 2133.446 kDa

1901-1908 Download
45

Molecular markers and field-based screening of wheat germplasm for leaf rust resistance


Muhammad Ismail, Muhammad Rameez Khan, Aamir Iqbal, Zakir Hussain Facho, Abdullah Jalal, Iqbal Munir, Farhatullah and Sajid Ali

Molecular markers and field-based screening of wheat germplasm for leaf rust resistance


ABSTRACT:

Leaf rust disease in wheat (caused by Puccinia triticina), is the best controlled through sustainable deployment of genetic resistance, which requires rigorous testing through field testing and marker assisted selection. A set of 28 exotic lines and three local checks were screened for leaf rust resistance using three Lr genes linked molecular markers and field testing at three locations (Lakki-Marwat, Peshawar and Mansehra). Overall leaf rust pressure was low during the wheat season of 2015-16, with maximum at Lakki-Marwat (up to 70%), followed by Peshawar (up to 50%) and minimum at Mansehra (up to 30%). The tested germplasm had variable resistance level as revealed through ACI (average co-efficient of infection); where 16 out of 28 genotypes were completely resistant, while few genotypes showed partial resistance. The maximum CI value was recorded for wheat line W-SA-87, which was 55 at Lakki Marwat, 33 at Peshawar and 15 at Mansehra, while several (18) lines had CI value of zero across the three locations. Variability existed in yield parameters with W-SA-84 (466 g per 4.5 m2 plot), W-SA-78 (443 g) and W-SA-79 (431 g) producing the better grain yield among the advance lines. Molecular genotyping revealed that STS-7 (linked with LrPr) was the most frequent (83.8%), present in 26 lines; followed by SC-Y15 (linked with Lr37) present in 24 lines (77.4%), while csLV34 (linked with Lr34) was present in 16 lines (71.1%). Interestingly, in 45% of the studied germplasm all three of the resistant genes were identified. Cluster analysis resulted in four clusters, grouping different wheat lines on the basis of both phenotypic (disease severity and yield parameters) and molecular genotypic data. These results would be useful for crossing and selection of resistance lines to reduce the leaf rust disease and ensure higher wheat yield.

1909-1920 Download
46

The use of  cinnamon  aqueous  and  ethanolic  extracts  to control some growth criteria of the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus I2


Eman F. Sharaf and Hanan S. Al-Johani

The use of  cinnamon  aqueous  and  ethanolic  extracts  to control some growth criteria of the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus I2


ABSTRACT:

The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of aqueous and ethanol cinnamon extract on some growth criteria of the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus I2. Ethanol extract or hot water extract of cinnamon were prepared and mixed with Aspergillus fumigatus I2 spore suspension and calculations were performed for count and percentage of the germinated spores. Various concentrations of ethanol cinnamon extract were performed to test their effect on fungal linear growth on Czapek Dox’s agar medium and dry weight, protein and polysaccharide content in Czapek Dox’s liquid medium. The results showed that Cinnamon ethanol extract was effective as it completely inhibited the germination of spores for 48 hours while the aqueous one has a fungistatic effect which reduced with an increase in the incubation period. There was significant effect of cinnamon ethanol extracts (different concentration) on both A. fumigatus I2 linear growth and dry weight that reduced, notably when concentration increases. The presence of the cinnamon extract in A. fumigatus I2 growth medium is found to decrease the mycelium polysaccharide and protein contents. GC-Mass spectrometry also showed the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the cinnamon ethanol and aqueous extracts alongside benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, and volatile oil. The test revealed an increasing concentration of the active ingredients with the ethanol extract highlighting its substantial antifungal activities. 

1921-1926 Download
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