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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 1
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1

Ecophysiological responses of Solanum lycopersicum L. to different levels of salt stress


Gulcin Isik

Ecophysiological responses of Solanum lycopersicum L. to different levels of salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Germination is one of the most important stage for the development of plants. One of the factors affecting germination is salt stress. All over the world due to increasing drought and semi-drought conditions most plants face salinity in soil. In this study, ecophysiological responses of Solanum lycopersicum “Marmande” seeds under different NaCl concentrations (% 0.5, 1, 2, 50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, 0.25 M, 0.45 M) were studied. Germination percentage, germination rate, total biomass, root length, green pixels and salt tolerance index (STI) were measured. The highest germination percentage and rate were observed in 0.5 % NaCl application (97.5%; 79.59) and the lowest were in 0.45 mM NaCl (2.5%; 5.88). Biomass, root length and STI reached the highest value at 50 mM NaCl application (respectively 460, 67 kg/ha, 11, 96 cm, 1,142). The biomass, root length and STI value of 2%, 0,25 M and 0,45 M NaCl applications were very low (respectively 0.001 kg/ha, 0.01, 0.001). There was no seedling development for green pixel count for 2%, 0,25 M and 0.45 M NaCl applications so the value was equal to 0, but other NaCl applications resulted in homogenic groups statistically.

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2
Oxidative stress alleviation through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and osmoregulators generation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt (NaCl) stress by ascorbic acid (ASA)

Amara Hassan, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Abida Parveen, Mobeen, Sajjad Ali, Abdul Shakoor, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Sohaib Chattha, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh and Shafaqat Ali

Oxidative stress alleviation through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and osmoregulators generation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt (NaCl) stress by ascorbic acid (ASA)

ABSTRACT:

Among crops, Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) is one of the most economically important species, considered as an excellent model for studies of agronomy, plant physiology and abiotic stress, with a rapid growth rate and a high adaptability to various habitats. Ascorbic acid (AsA), also referred to as vitamin C, is a major nonenzyme antioxidant in plants and plays an important role in mediating certain oxidative stresses caused by biotic and abiotic stress. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of AsA (0, 30 and 60 mM) in H. vulgare using two specific salinity levels, 0 and 150 mM. The results from the present study showed that the high soil salinity concentration decreased plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic pigments in H. vulgare thus elevating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting that high NaCl concentrations induce oxidative stress in H. vulgare. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) came into play to reduce salinity stress and showed that H. vulgare could tolerate low levels of salt stress, i.e., 150 mM. It was also noticed that exogenous application of AsA considerably increased plant height, plant leaf area, sheet number, tillers number, plant fresh and dry biomass, photosynthesis pigments, and reduced the oxidative stress (H2O2 and MDA) in plants which in turn reduced the enzymatic (SOD and POD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and AsA). Research findings, therefore, suggested that AsA application can ameliorate salinity stress in H. Vulgare and resulted in improved plant growth and composition under abiotic stress condition, as depicted by reduced the genetaion of ROS

7-15 Download
3

Effect of zinc on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange attributes and zinc concentration in rice


Niaz Ahmed, Hafiz Zeeshan Hussain, Muhammad Arif Ali, Ashfaq Ahmad Rahi, Muhammad Saleem and Fiaz Ahmad

Effect of zinc on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange attributes and zinc concentration in rice


ABSTRACT:

The deficiency of Zn is one of the major human’s health-related issues all over the world. Most food nutritionists suggest to take Zn fortified food to overcome the deficiency of Zn. However, our food is also becoming Zn deficient due to multiple factors, i.e., soil pH, low organic matter, high yielding varieties, over phosphorus application. In addition to the above, our farming community is also unaware of how they can examine the Zn deficiency symptoms. It is a fact that most cereals, i.e., maize and rice, are highly susceptible to Zn deficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to find out the relation of Zn deficiency with respect to chlorophyll content and gas exchange attributes that could be an important indicator for Zn deficiency or optimum level in cereals, i.e., rice. Results showed that chlorophyll contents and gas exchange attributes were significantly low in control (No Zn) over those treatments where Zn was applied at variable rates. The highest level of Zn also significantly enhanced chlorophyll a (134 and 65%), chlorophyll b (143 and 43%), total chlorophyll (142 and 60%), photosynthetic rate (102 and 59%), transpiration rate (68 and 43%) and stomatal conductance (60 and 111%) in both Super Basmati (SB) and KSK-434 rice varieties. In conclusion, chlorophyll content and gas exchange attribute reduction are major indicators of Zn deficiency in rice. For improvement in fine grains and coarse grains, rice 10 kg ha-1 Zn application is more economical for improvement in Zn concentration.

17-24 Download
4

Potassium dynamic in the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under induced saline sodic condition


Nabeel Rizwan, Qudrat Ullah Khan and Asghar Ali Khan

Potassium dynamic in the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under induced saline sodic condition


ABSTRACT:

To study the fate of potassium in the maize rhizosphere under induced saline sodic conditions an experiment was conducted at Department of Soil Science, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan) during year 2019. In a factorial experiment six potassium levels i.e. 0, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 and three NaCl concentrations viz. 60, 120 and 180 mM were investigated. Different soil and agronomic parameters were studied. The result showed that in the treatments where no potassium was applied the pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) was increased and potassium declined by increasing the NaCl to 180 mM. The increment of potassium has significantly reduced pH, EC and SAR and increased potassium in the soil. Comparing the uptake of potassium by shoot and root of maize it has showed greater uptake of potassium in the shoot as compared to the roots. However, the potassium levels significantly influenced the uptake of potassium under severe saline sodic conditions. The growth parameters including chlorophyll contents, plant height and root size was significantly influenced by application of potassium levels and high concentration of salts. The fresh and dry weight of shoot and root were also significantly influenced by the application of potassium levels and increasing salt concentration. It was evident that the fresh and dry shoot and roots tend to tolerate the salt content more effectively by increasing levels of potassium. From the research it is concluded that increment of potassium at higher level under induced salt condition may improve the soil properties and growth of crop

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5

Screening of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for drought tolerance using photosynthetic pigments and anti-oxidative enzymes as selection criteria


Ambreen Khadija Alvi, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Tanzila Rafique, Mehwish Naseer, Fozia Farhat, Habiba Tasleem and Arfa Nasim

Screening of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for drought tolerance using photosynthetic pigments and anti-oxidative enzymes as selection criteria


ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to screen the drought tolerance in some promising maize genotypes viz. FH-1285, FH-949, FH-1292, FH-985, FH-1046, FH-1257, FH-922, FH-988, FH-1137 obtained from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), and, Yousafwala hybrid, 3025w/6129, SWL-539516, YSC-15, P1543/2567600 developed by Maize Research Institute, Yousafwala, Sahiwal, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates. Drought was applied at three leaf stage by maintaining three levels of irrigation i.e.100% field capacity (full watering), 70% field capacity (mild drought stress) and 40% field capacity (severe drought stress). After 50 days of maintaining drought, plant sample was collected to record the growth and physio-biochemical parameters i.e. concentration of photosynthetic pigments, (Chl. a, Chl. b, total chl. and carotenoid content), anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and total soluble proteins. Drought stress severely hampered growth attributes that was clearly linked to a concurrent decrease in concentration of photosynthetic pigments at both mild and in particular at severe drought stress. Genotypes Yousafwala hybrid, P3164w/2403481 and FH-1137 showed less decrease in all growth parameters at both mild and severe drought levels indicating their resistant nature, whereas, genotypes FH-922, FH-985, FH-949 and FH-1257 were drought sensitive as they showed more than 50% growth reduction under severe drought stress. Genotypes P1543/2567600, YSC-15, FH-949 and FH-949 were considered moderately tolerant as they showed less decrease in growth parameters under mild drought conditions (70% field capacity), but under severe drought conditions (40% field capacity) a greater decrease in growth was recorded in the same genotypes. Antioxidant enzymes i.e. SOD, POD and CAT activity increased at both drought levels (70% and 40% field capacity) as compared to control plants (100% field capacity) accompanied by a concurrent increase in total soluble proteins in the genotypes Yousafwala hybrid, FH-1257, 3025w/6129, SWL-539516 and P3164w/2403481. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in distinct clusters indicating similarities among the various genotypes regarding their resistance to drought stress. The drought tolerant genotypes Yousafwala hybrid, P3164w/2403481 and FH-1137 are recommended for cultivation and improved crop yield in water deficit areas. 

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6

Identification of wheat mutants with improved drought tolerance and grain yield potential using biplot analysis


Saima Mir Arain, Mahboob Ali Sial and Karim Dino Jamali

Identification of wheat mutants with improved drought tolerance and grain yield potential using biplot analysis


ABSTRACT:

Water shortage resulting from climate change has become one of the major threats to agricultural production globally. Performance of 68 mutants (M4) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 35 of Bhittai and 33 of Kiran-95 varieties, induced by gamma-rays were evaluated, along with wild-types and a drought-resistant check, under three irrigation treatments, viz., T-1(no irrigation), T-2 (two irrigations) and T-3 (four irrigations). Drought susceptibility index (DSI) and relative yield (RY) values were used to describe yield stability and yield potential of wheat genotypes. BM-14, BM-15, KM-26, and KM-27 had the lowest DSI (.3, .18, -0.1,0.27) and higher relative yield under stress (.88, 1.00,1.00,1.00), than all other entries and check varieties; indicated better performance under water-deficit stress. A significant positive association was observed between biomass and grain yield in both the mutant populations of Bhittai (r=0.61) and Kiran-95(r=0.83) under T-1. However, a significantly negative relationship was observed in DSI with grain yield (r=-0.70; r=-0.68), biological yield (r=-0.30; r=-0.67), and harvest index (r=-0.66; r=-0.29) in Bhittai and Kiran mutants, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified seven of Bhittai and 11of Kiran-95 mutants for both water-stress and irrigated conditions. Furthermore, mutants with low DSI and high RY could be employed to breed varieties with both high yield stability and high yield potential (DSI<1 and RY>mean RY) for drought-prone areas.

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7

Hydrogen sulfide generated by hydrogen peroxide mediates darkness-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana


Yinli Ma, Liuxi Wang, Luhan Shao, Jiao Niu and Fengxi Zheng

Hydrogen sulfide generated by hydrogen peroxide mediates darkness-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana


ABSTRACT:

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in the regulation of stomatal movement in plants. Here we present the relationships and functions of H2S and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in stomatal movement by darkness in Arabidopsis thaliana. H2S synthesis inhibitors and scavengers inhibited darkness-induced stomatal closure, H2S generation and L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-/D-CDes) activity increase in wild-type leaves. Darkness induced stomatal closure in wild-type plants, but failed in L-/D-CDes deletion mutants Atl-cdes and Atd-cdes. Additionally, both L-/D-CDes activity and H2S content were significantly decreased after applying H2O2 synthesis inhibitors and scavengers, but there was almost no effects on H2O2 levels in the presence of H2S synthesis inhibitors and scavengers in wild-type leaves in darkness. Moreover, darkness couldn't increase H2S content and L-/D-CDes activity of mutant lines of NADPH oxidase gene AtrbohF and AtrbohD/F mutants leaves, but increased H2O2 levels in Atl-cdes and Atd-cdes guard cells. Taken together, we conclude that both H2S and H2O2 are involved in darkness-induced stomatal closure, and H2S functioned downstream of H2O2 in A. thaliana. Darkness induced H2O2 synthesis via promoting the activity of NADPH oxidase, and further led to the production of L-/D-CDes-derived H2S and stomatal closure in A. thaliana. NADPH oxidase gene AtrbohF participated in the process.

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8

Transcript abundance of heat shock protein genes confer heat tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)


Muhammad Majid Ali, Zulfiqar Ali, Furqan Ahmad, Fahim Nawaz, Qamar Shakil, Saghir Ahmad and Asif Ali Khan

Transcript abundance of heat shock protein genes confer heat tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)


ABSTRACT:

The one dark view of industrialization is the emission of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels which lead towards temperature elevation and global warming. Global warming is a destructive force for agriculture espacially for crop husbandry. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important natural fibre crop grown across the globe and highly vulnerable due to global warming and other climatic changes. It faces biotic and abiotic stresses throughout the world including Pakistan but heat is particularly one of the major abiotic stress that impacting cotton production negatively in Pakistan. Developing heat tolerance in cotton is one of the feasible approaches to overcome the heat problem that needs existence of variability as a pre-requisite. In the present studies, 30 cotton genotypes were assessed for their response to heat stress in randomized complete block design in two replicates at the research area of MNS-University of Agriculture Multan. Relative cell membrane injury was measured to assess heat tolerance. Total RNA was extracted from the one heat tolerant and one heat sensitive genotype. Transcript abundance analysis of HSPs genes (GhHS26 and GhHS97) was performed by RT-PCR to understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance. The CIM-616 was found to be heat tolerant while the SLH-337 heat sensitive genotype.

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9

Comparison of water adaptability between Coix lacryma-jobi and Coix aquatica based on photosynthesis


Jin-Lan Shi, Zheng-Fu Xu, An-Na He, Can Hu and Zhang-Qiang Lu

Comparison of water adaptability between Coix lacryma-jobi and Coix aquatica based on photosynthesis


ABSTRACT:

Coix lacryma-jobi is a traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has a long history of eating and planting in China. This paper compares the photosynthetic physiology and morphological characteristics of C. lacryma-jobi and C. aquatica, according to their characteristics of the environment and natural distribution. In order to explain the photosynthetic physiology and morphological mechanism in adapting to the living environment, and make suggestions for planting of C. lacryma-jobi. The experiment designed four groups of treatment: C. lacryma-jobi planted in dry land (CL-D), C. lacryma-jobi planted in flooded land (CL-F), C. aquatica planted in dry land (CA-D), C. aquatica planted in flooded land (CA-F). Li-6400 portable photosynthesis device was used to measure photosynthesis, TTC method was used to measure root viability, and paraffin section method was used to observe root microstructure. The results showed that, the daily variation of net photosynthetic rate (PN) of CA-D treatment group was slightly lower than that of other groups. PN of CA-D was significantly lower than that of CA-F in August. The light response curve also showed that the PN of CA-D was lower than other groups. Stomatal limitation was the main factor affecting PN and E. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter results showed that there was no obvious adversity in the four groups of treatments. However, the photochemical quenching (qP) and apparent electron transfer rate (ETR) of the two species under dry cultivation were significantly lower than those of flooded cultivation. The adverse effect of dry cultivation on the electron transport capacity of C. aquatica was greater, and the chlorophyll content of C. aquatica in dry land was also significantly lower than in flooded land. Root vigor of the two plants under flooded culture was higher than that of dry land in August. The root cross-section structure of the two species was very similar. Parenchymatous parenchyma cells increased and formed ventilated tissue in flooded land. The vascular bundles number of C. lacryma-jobi was significantly more than that of C. aquatica under dry land. Adequate water could increase leaf area, tiller number, and fruiting rate of the two species. In summary, both types of the plants are more suitable for a well-watered environment, so sufficient water must ensure when planting C. lacryma-jobi. And the adaptability of C. lacryma-jobi to dry land is stronger than that of C. aquatica, which indicates that the C. aquatica has slowed down during the evolution process.

 

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10

Uniconazole mitigates disadvantageous effects of drought stress on Cannabis sativa L. seedlings


Ying Jiang, Naijie Feng, Yufeng Sun, Dianfeng Zheng, Chengwei Han, Xiaonan Wang, Kun Cao, Lei Xu and Shuxia Liu

Uniconazole mitigates disadvantageous effects of drought stress on Cannabis sativa L. seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Uniconazole, S-(+)-uniconazole plays a primary role in plants experiencing different adverse stresses. Its role in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) drought tolerance is unknown at this time. We assessed the physiological indices of plants under drought stress to elucidate the functions of exogenous uniconazole on the growth of industrial hemp. The results showed that, exogenous uniconazole significantly inhibited plant height, and reduced leaf area. Uniconazole supplementation increased leaf relative water content (RWC) but decreased the proline (Pro) contents. Uniconazole application reduced oxidative damage and accumulations of superoxide anion (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Uniconazole increased antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)) activities and promoted the antioxidant defense system to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). The uniconazole-treated plants maintained leaf cell structure integrity and relieved the damage of photosynthetic system subjected to drought stress. Uniconazole enhanced chlorophyll (Chl) content and Pn. Thus, these results indicated that uniconazole had a positive effect in improving the drought tolerance of industrial hemp seedlings.

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11

The effects of phosphorus deficiency on the morpho-physiology  and  expression of LusWRKYs in Linum usitatissimum L.


Wengong Huang, Weidong Jiang, Yubo Yao, Xixia Song, Hongmei Yuan, Chuanying Ren, Liguo Zhang, Si Chen, Zhongyi Sun and Qinghua Kang

The effects of phosphorus deficiency on the morpho-physiology  and  expression of LusWRKYs in Linum usitatissimum L.


ABSTRACT:

Phosphorus (P) is a necessary factor for plant growth and development. It is easy to be combined by organic matter and minerals, which limits the effective utilization of plants. Flax is an important industrial crop that is often negatively impacted by P deficiency. Flax was used to explore adaptability of flax to P deficiency and mechanism of gene expression regulation. Flax seedlings were deal with four levels of P (0mM, 0.5mM, 1mM, and 2mM KH2PO4) for 15 days. Under P deficiency (0mM), biomass and shoot dry weight of flax decreased significantly, 36.36% and 61.11% lower than that of 1mM. P deficiency inhibited growth and development of flax. Under P deficiency (0mM), dry weight of root, root/shoot ratio, lateral roots number, length and surface area of total root were significantly increased, which increased accordingly by 75.00%, 29.73%, 14.29%, 28.66% and 33.33% compared with 1mM of P. P deficiency could induce root growth of flax to promote absorption of P. Contents of auxin (IAA), brassinolide (BR), ethylene (ETH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) of lateral roots were increased under P deficiency (0mM), which was accordingly by 48.29%, 61.11%, 58.26% and 55.88% higher than that of 1mM. Contents of gibberellin 3 (GA3), cytokinin (CTK) and abscisic acid (ABA) in lateral roots were decreased accordingly by 93.92%, 38.89% and 42.51% compared with 1mM P. Growth of lateral roots may be stimulated by regulating contents of hormones and acid phosphatase. Expression of genes LusWRKY7, LusWRKY22, LusWRKY48 and LusWRKY71 in lateral roots of flax seedlings was significantly increased under P deficiency (0mM), which indicated that these genes were involved in the regulation of P deficiency stress. This study comprehensively explained dependence of flax on P with regard to phenotype, physiology and molecular mechanism also provided ideas for efficient cultivation of flax and genetic improvement of P related traits.

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12

Osmotic components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers in response to soil moisture deficit during fiber expansion


Feiyu Tang, Deyi Shao, Gong Chen and Haihua Luo

Osmotic components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers in response to soil moisture deficit during fiber expansion


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to determine how main osmotic active substances (malate, potassium and soluble sugars) in cotton fibers respond to soil drought. A pot study with two water regimes was performed in 2015 and 2016 using two cotton lines A001 and A705. The irrigated plants (control) were watered at 1-d interval with the optimum quantity of underground water determined on the basis of a gravimetric method. Drought treatment was defined as withdrawing water from pots until the leaf wilting symptom was visible, and water stressed plants were exposed to limited water supply for 25 days receiving 50% of the control irrigation at 2-d interval. Following 25 days of water deficit treatment, those plants were re-watered with the same quantity as the control. Drought induction caused a significant reduction in fiber length and strength in A001. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) in A001 and A705 were reduced significantly by soil drought indicating the present water deficit design did generate a photosynthetically physiological difference. The depressed leaf photosynthesis led to the deficient accumulation of soluble sugars, malate and potassium in water stressed fibers, and in turn to the reduced fiber length.

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13

Nano-zinc oxide effects on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) transplant quality in comparison with conventional zinc oxide


Saad M. Howladar

Nano-zinc oxide effects on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) transplant quality in comparison with conventional zinc oxide


ABSTRACT:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth has been reported to be sensitive or moderately sensitive undesirable fluctuations in the environmental conditions resulting from climate changes. Consequently, producing strong eggplant transplants for open fields is needed. A nursery study was implemented in 2018 to evaluate the potential beneficial impacts of nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) in comparison with conventional zinc oxide (c-ZnO) on growth characteristics, physiological parameters, nutrient contents, and antioxidative activities in eggplant transplants. Foliar application of 200 mg l‒1 c-ZnO (c-ZnO200) significantly increased growth characteristics, leaf relative content of water (RWC), membranes stability index (MSI), efficiency of photosynthesis (e.g., performance index; PI, Fv/Fm, and SPAD chlorophyll), nutrient (Zn, N, P, and K+) contents, components of non-enzymatic antioxidants (soluble sugars, AsA, free proline, and GSH) and osmoprotectant contents, and antioxidative enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, and SOD) activities comparing with control. Application of 25 mg l‒1 n-ZnO (n-ZnO25) showed the same results of all investigated parameters obtained from c-ZnO200 application. Foliar spray of 50 mg l‒1 n-ZnO (n-ZnO50) significantly increased all abovementioned parameters compared to other treatments including 100 mg l‒1 n-ZnO (showed toxic effect) and the control. Foliar application of n-ZnO50 is, therefore, the best treatment, recommended for producing healthy eggplant transplants for open fields

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14

Lead harms seed germination and growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. and Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC.


Khurshid Anwar, Aqsa Nadeem, Yamin Bibi, Farwa Iftikhar, Noshin Ilyas, Ghulam Yaseen and Muhammad Kabir

Lead harms seed germination and growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. and Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC.


ABSTRACT:

Lead produced significant (p<0.05) effects on various growth parameters of A. lebbekand P. juliflora i.e., root, shoot, seedling length, number of leaves, leaf area and seedling biomass. The seeds of A. lebbeck exhibited germination at 0ppm, 10pm, 20ppm and 30ppm in lab. Lead treatments at control to 10, 20, and 30ppm reduced the percentage of seed germination from 92% to 77% respectively in P. juliflora. Number of leaves, leaf area and biomass of both seedlings exhibited significant (p<0.05) decrease when treatments of lead were increased from 20 ppm to 30 ppm. Lead treatments of 25, 50 and 75 ppm were also carried out in pot experiment. Lead treatments at 75 ppm demonstrated much reduction in growth as compared with control. The rise in absorption of lead directly effects shoot growth and root length is also reduced. But at 25 ppm shoot growth of A. lebbeck was better than control but shoot growth of P. juliflora was reduced. The shoot length was much reduced by increase in concentration of lead. The seedlings grown in control soils have better growth as compared with lead treated soils. The increase in concentration of lead decreases the seedling size. The seedlings which were treated with the 25ppm and 50 ppm were almost of same size but 75 ppm caused much reduction in both seedlings growth. Increased concentration of lead reduced the dry weight. General fallouts of different limits showed that lead is much toxic element, which caused much reduction in seed germination and growth of both A. lebbeck and P. juliflora.

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15

Exogenously applied aluminum induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in wheat seedlings


Huize Chen, Xindan Xu and Weizhong Liu

Exogenously applied aluminum induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in wheat seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Aluminum (Al) toxicity significantly limits plant productivity, hinders plant growth, and reduces food production in most crops, including wheat. The present study explored the effects of AlCl3 on wheat seedlings at the physiological and cytological levels. The results showed that Al3+ stress affected chlorophyll synthesis in wheat seedling leaves. We found that chlorophyll content and Al3+ concentration are negatively correlated in wheat seedlings. Root length, number of adventitious roots, and cell division index at the root tip showed a negative correlation with Al3+ concentration. Besides, Al3+ stress caused chromosomal aberrations in wheat seedlings, such as micronuclei and polynuclear formation, chromosomal breakage, the formation of a chromosomal bridge, and chromosomal loop. Exogenous application of excess Al could cause H2O2 accumulation in meristematic and elongation regions of the root, membrane oxidation, programmed cell death, and DNA damage. These results showed that excessive application of exogenous Al inhibited the normal growth of wheat and affected various physiological activities in wheat. Therefore, Al toxicity severely affects the growth and development of wheat seedlings

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16
The survival of plants under essential and nonessential metals through modified metabolic pathways

Abu Talha Farrukh, Rafia Azmat, Ailyan Saleem, Sumeira Moin and Waseem Ahmed

The survival of plants under essential and nonessential metals through modified metabolic pathways

ABSTRACT:

The current article highlights the survival of the plant Spinacia oleracea under essential micronutrients metal like Cu and Mn and one nonessential metal Pb. The plants were cultivated by randomized design under a natural environment, where Spinacia oleracea was treated with Cu, Mn, and Pb solution respectively in triplicates for six months. Accumulation of metals was tested using Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and their impact on the survival of plants investigated through primary and secondary biochemical analysis. Results showed hyperaccumulation of metals in tissues of tested plants followed by an increase in the concentration of cellulose and lignin in Cu and Mn plants (6.0 ± 0.2µg/g & 935 ± 1.0 mg/g; 7.1 ± 0.1 µg/g & 985 ± 1.7 mg/g respectively) while it was reduced in Pb plants (5 ± 0.1µg/g & 279 ± 0.2 mg/g) over control plant (1 ± 0.1µg/g & 329 ± 0.2 mg/g) respectively. Furthermore, plant chloroplast pigments, starch, proteins, proline, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, amylase, and peroxidase showed variations in concentrations followed by the erect and strengthening toxic plants over untreated ones. The elevated concentration of secondary metabolites in metal-mediated plants conveyed evidence of survival of these plants under metal pollution until the maturity level. The outcome of the research provides a better understanding of the established defense system against the elevated concentration of essential and no essential metals.

 

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17

PCR-mediated identification and characterization of rice bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae) isolates collected from Sindh province of Pakistan


Muhammad Tahir Khan, Javed Asghar Tariq, Muhammad Arif, Shafquat Yasmeen And Imtiaz Ahmed Khan

PCR-mediated identification and characterization of rice bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae) isolates collected from Sindh province of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of rice crop. Its severe incidence has been reported in the Sindh province of Pakistan in recent years. It can cause up to 50% crop losses, whereas in favorable conditions, the disease can result in premature plant death. This study was conducted to identify and characterize the BLB causing pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in Sindh province through molecular approaches. Pure cultures of 120 bacterial isolates, obtained from various locations of the province, were developed using the streaking method. The purified cultures were grown overnight in LB medium until saturation. Cultures of the bacterial isolates were then subjected to DNA isolation employing the CTAB method. The extracted bacterial DNA was subjected to PCR reaction. XOR primer pair [XOR-F (5'-GCATGACGTCATCGTCCTGT-3') and XOR-R2 (5'-CTCGGAGCTATATGCCGTGC-3')] was employed for amplification of 16S-23S rDNA spacer region-specific to Xoo bacterium. The PCR product was run in 1.2% gel electrophoresis in TBE buffer. The targeted band of 470 bp was observed in a total of 34 isolates analyzed through PCR. The identified Xoo isolates were further subjected to RAPD-PCR, which yielded various polymorphic bands. The binary data collected from RAPD analysis was used for investigating genetic relatedness and diversity of the Xoo isolated using the un-weighted pair-group (UPGMA) method. The UPGMA analysis showed extensive genetic variability among the studied isolates as the isolates were observed to cluster into seven clusters. This is the first report of PCR-based confirmation of Xoo in Sindh province, as per our knowledge. Rapid, reliable, and accurate identification of Xoo is very important to adopt disease management strategies to minimize crop losses. Moreover, the RAPD based genetic analysis of these isolates may serve as a platform study for refined characterization of new isolates for which racial classification has not been determined in Sindh province.

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18

Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of two MAPKKK genes in Chrysanthemum


Ren Liping, Yin Dandan, Wan Wenyang, Fang Tingting, Su Xiaohui and Cao Xiaohan

Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of two MAPKKK genes in Chrysanthemum


ABSTRACT:

MAPKKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase) genes are involved in plant growth and stress responses.The expression profiles of MAPKKK genes in response to various stimuli, including high temperature, drought, and salt, as well as different hormones, were investigated in this study using a Chrysanthemum morifolium variety called 'Jinba' (such as abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and ethylene). According to our previous transcriptome data, we identified and cloned two MAPKKK genes with complete open reading frames. These two MAPKKK genes were studied in bioinformatics and expression models in response to various stimuli. Both of these genes belonged to the MEKK subfamily, according to cluster analysis. They were most abundantly expressed in the leaves, according to expression analysis, and their levels of expression were subjected to treatments. Our findings suggest that CmMAPKKK genes may be involved in multiple stress responses and hormone responses, which will facilitate our future researches on their functions.

143-150 Download
19

Discrimination between Chrozophora oblongifolia and Ricinus communis from Taif, KSA using DNA barcoding


Shawkat M. Ahmed and Ahmed Noureldeen

Discrimination between Chrozophora oblongifolia and Ricinus communis from Taif, KSA using DNA barcoding


ABSTRACT:

The use of highly discriminative approaches for the identification and characterization of genotypes (especially with known medicinal value) is essential for plant conservation and appropriate use. Therefore, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Chrozophora oblongifolia L. and Ricinus communis L. collected from Taif were presented using ITS, ITS2, rbcLa and matK sequences. rbcLa region recorded higher percentage of the variable sites within the two species. Tajima test and Transition/Transversion bias (R) showed no molecular evolution within C. oblongifolia genome, whereas, they indicated an accelerated evolution within R. communis genome. The intraspecific divergence of ITS and ITS2 was lower than that of matK and rbcLa loci. The phylogentic analysis proved that the rbcLa site showed a higher intraspecific difference than ITS2 in C. oblongifolia. Although, accessions of R. communis from the same country or continent showed limited genetic diversity, they did not get together and revealed intraspecific divergence. For a rapid and accurate identification of Euphorbiaceous species having medicinal importance, our analyses enforced the employment of the ITS2 mini-barcode as a universal barcode

151-159 Download
20

QTL mapping of “A-genome” for interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum


Wajad Nazeer, Muhammad Naeem, Maria Basheer, Jehanzaib Farooq, Abdul Latif Khan Tipu and Saghir Ahmad

QTL mapping of “A-genome” for interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum


ABSTRACT:

Cotton production in Pakistan is vital for economic development of the country. It contributes around 0.6 percent to GDP and 3.1 percent of the value added in agriculture for the year 2020. Similarly, it earned 61.5% of the foreign exchange for the country in the year 2006 and have fallen to 51% in 2018.  Thus, it needs to utilize molecular tools for the enhancement of seed cototn yield and use of QTL (Quantitative trait loci) for improvemetn of crops yield is well documented. Thus the plant materials used in this study was 280 individual progenies of BC4F2 mapping population raised from cross between G. hirsutum and G. arboreum. These backcross progenies were manually planted in 450 cm rows for each genotype during 2013~2014 in China at Jiangpu Farm Nanjing and a total of 8488 simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) were employed on this BC4F2 population. The results showed that 2056 SSRmarkers were found to be polymorphic with 83% dominant and 17 % codominant. Total 26 QTLs were detected for twelve different traits on various chromosomes. Five QTLs (Quantitative trait loci) were recognized for seed cotton yield on chromosome number 1, 5, 9, 11 and 12, showing PVE of 3.8 to 9.1%. SSR markers such as BNL3347, BNL140, GH594, GH100, NAU462, NAU650, NAU2508, NAU150, NAU3401 and NAU-400 would be helpul in Marker Assisted selection. Identified QTLs can prove to be expedient for identification of right progenies in cotton breeding program including gene mapping

161-167 Download
21

Physiological and biochemical attributes of Agave sisalana resilient adaptation to climatic and spatio-temporal conditions


Sobia Shahzad, Mumtaz Hussain, Muhammad Arfan and Hassan Munir

Physiological and biochemical attributes of Agave sisalana resilient adaptation to climatic and spatio-temporal conditions


ABSTRACT:

Plant’s behavior varies physiologically and chemically in wake of its adaptation to environmental changes. Sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) is less explored in climatic conditions of Pakistan. In the present work, physiological and biochemical responses of sisal plant under different natural environmental conditions in Punjab province of Pakistan‘s five districts having diverse climates from arid to semi-arid were selected. The selected districts included Chakwal, Khushab, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Layyah were studied through seasonal surveying during all four seasons and sampling of plant material were done for a period of two years 2017-2019. The data regarding total chlorophyll content, total soluble protein content, total soluble sugar content, total soluble phenolics, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration and water use efficiency were investigated. The spring season reflected highest value of photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and sub stomatal CO2 concentration at Rawalpindi district during 2018-2019 as compared to other seasons. The maximum total soluble sugars and total soluble phenolics content were also recorded in Rawalpindi district during spring of 2018-2019. Total soluble protein content increased in the Chakwal district during winter season of both years. However, total chlorophyll contents were maximum in spring season and were reduced during summer and autumn seasons in district Chakwal during 2018-2019. Overall spatial and temporal heterogeneity was clearly seen for the physiological and biochemical attributes of Agave sisalana. Based on hardy growth habit, sisal cultivation in problem soils affected by extreme dearth of water, frost and extensive salinity have been suggested as future thrust

169-178 Download
22

Relationship between different agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production in wild milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) in Pakistan


Mehreen Javeria and Khalid Hussain

Relationship between different agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production in wild milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) is an important medicinal plant that have a complex of flavonolignans mainly silymarin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry to prepare medicines against liver diseases. Mostly, the seeds collected from wild plants are used to extract silymarin contents, although, it is also produced in leaves and roots. Silymarin contents can vary under different agro-climatic regions. This study was aimed with a novel idea to find the relationship between varied agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production that has not been established so far. To evaluate these aspects, wild plants of milk thistle were collected from five different agro-climatic regions of Pakistan during two seasons 2018-19 and 2019-20. Fluctuating agro-climatic conditions significantly changed the antioxidant activities, ion accumulation and production of silymarin contents in milk thistle. Silymarin contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from all the parts of milk thistle.  Higher contents of silymarin (2.01 to 3.19%) were present in seeds and lowest concentration of silymarin contents was observed in roots (0.021 to 0.094%) and leaves (0.121 to 0.721%). Higher silymarin contents (3.19%) was found in seeds during 2019-20 at region Dina. This region was relatively different in agro-climatic conditions due to high rainfall and humidity, low temperature, soil Ec and pH. There was a positive correlation of silymarin contents with average rainfall and soil organic matter that was directly linked with silymarin production. While, temperature, humidity %, soil Ec and pH showed negative correlation with silymarin production. It was concluded that the production of silymarin consents have strong relationship with agro-climatic regions. These outcomes can be imperative for the collection and cultivation of milk thistle

179-185 Download
23

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical heterogeneity significantly alters nutritional value of tomato fruit


Madiha Saeed, Imran Khan, Abdul Hameed, Ikram Ullah, Muhammad Shafiq Chaudhry, Ayesha Naveed-Ul-Haq and Sidra Kaleem

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical heterogeneity significantly alters nutritional value of tomato fruit


ABSTRACT:

Soil chemical heterogeneity critically alters colonization and diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in roots of same host plant among different agro-ecological zones. AMF, being a natural soil bio-fertilizer, significantly affects the plant metabolome, changing the quality of its fruit. In present study, subsequent effect of soil chemistry and AMF on nutritional value of tomato fruit from place to place have been monitored. For this purpose, tomato plants along with their rhizospheric soil were sampled from different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. Soil edaphic factors, AMF root colonization status, rhizospheric spore densities and diversity were estimated and also correlated. Also, the variation in secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit was examined. Out results indicated that agro-ecological zones having low soil phosphorus availability exhibits high AMF colonization and diversity, subsequently possessing high phenolic and flavonoid content in tomato fruits resulting in enhanced antioxidant capacity. The concluded correlative effect of spatial AMF diversity and soil chemistry on metabolomic profiles of host plant suggests detailed studies so that qualitative value of various food plants can be enhanced. 

187-193 Download
24

Phenotypic variation analysis of ethyl methane sulfonate induced mutant population of pepper 


Huang Dongfu, He Jianwen, Fu Wenting, Hu Mingwen and Yang Hong

Phenotypic variation analysis of ethyl methane sulfonate induced mutant population of pepper 


ABSTRACT:

In this study, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was used to chemically mutagenize the seeds of Pepper Zunla-1 to increase the genetic variations of the peppers (Capsicum annuum). The lethal dose 50% (LD50) for peppers was determined by analyzing the relative germination rates of pepper seeds in different concentrations of EMS at different mutagenesis durations, and the mutant phenotypes of 2,271 M1 generation plants and 295 M2 generation plants were investigated. In different developmental stages of the M1 generation, mutations were observed in the leaf shape, floral organ, stem, leaf color, fertility, and fruit shape, and leaf-color and fertility chimeras were also identified. A total of 94 lines in the M2 generation showed mutant phenotypes, with an overall mutation frequency of 31.86%. The types of mutations involved the leaves, stems, fruits, fertility, growth period, and floral organs, accounting for 20%, 34.55%, 21.82%, 7.27%, 12.12%, and 4.24%, respectively, of the overall mutation frequency. Moreover, the mutation types could be further divided into several subtypes. The diverse types of the M2 generation mutants not only were valuable to the applications of genetic modification of peppers, but also had great implications for the discovery of new genes of peppers

195-203 Download
25

Current state of populations and ontogenesis of Allium altaicum Pall. (Amaryllidaceae) in Kazakhstan


Kubentayev Serik Argynbecovich, Kotukhov Yuri Andreevich, Mukhtubaeva Saule Kakimzhanovna, Kubentayeva Balsulu Bulatbekovna, Izbastina Klara Serzhanovna and Khalymbetova Aizhan Esenbekovna

Current state of populations and ontogenesis of Allium altaicum Pall. (Amaryllidaceae) in Kazakhstan


ABSTRACT:

Allium altaicum Pall. is one of the most valuable food and medicinal plants. The geographical distribution of the Altai onion in the territory of Kazakhstan was studied. The ecological and phytocenotic characteristics of the habitats of the species in different ecological and geomorphological conditions are given. The ontogeny and the seasonal rhythm of development were studied, the abundance and morphometric parameters were determined, the limiting factors responsible for the decline in the number of the species were identified and protection measures proposed. The distribution of Allium altaicum in the East and South Kazakhstan regions is established. Altai onion in the studied region has wide ecological amplitude, grows in mountain-steppe and high-mountain regions of Kazakhstan. In ontogeny, 7 age states are identified; the Altai onion populations in the studied region belong to the generative type. In the phenological aspect, in the highlands, there is a shortened growing season (4 months) and a rapid passage of phenophases; in the mountain-steppe regions, a relatively long growing season (6 months) is noted. The main limiting factors for the decline in the number of the species are the collection of leaves by the local population, grazing and forest fires, as well as the recreational effects of the “Ayuda” and the “Sibinsky lakes”. The species needs state protection; we consider it necessary to include Allium altaicum in the next edition of the Red Book of Kazakhstan.

205-213 Download
26

Molecular phylogeny of different species of family Verbenaceae using chloroplast rps14 gene


Ayesha Malik, Shahana Arif, Wasim Akhtar and Tariq Mahmood

Molecular phylogeny of different species of family Verbenaceae using chloroplast rps14 gene


ABSTRACT:

Family Verbenaceae  has immense importance for ornamental, forage resources, aromatic and medicinal purposes. In the present study chloroplast rps14 gene is used for determination of phylogenetic relationship among Verbenaceae   species and structural validation of rps14 protein through Ramachandran plots. The rps14 gene was amplified and sequenced analysis was done by MEGA7, I-TASSER and RAMPAGE. In phylogram the Verbenaceae   species show little genetic distance of 0.0050 that revealed close genetic relationship between them. The genetic diversity ranges from 0.092 to 0.017 and value of overall mean distance was 0.067. The nucleotide diversity in Tajima’s Neutrality Test was 0.063165. The phylogenetic tree based on rps14 gene depicted close relationship of Verbena tenuisecta, V. officinalis, V. bonariensis and V. incisa among them with BS value of 67% The Duranta erecta and Citharexylum spinosum show close relationship in group I with BS value of 57%. In Group II V. tenuisecta and V. officinalis depicted close phylogenetic association with BS value of 100%. The rps14 protein structure validation by RAMPAGE revealed that V. tenuisecta, C. spinosum, V. bonariensis, V. incisa and P. volubilis had good quality protein structural models because these species had ≤ 2% amino acid residues occurred in the outlier region. This study shows close genetic relationship and low genetic diversity between Verbenaceae   species. The low nucleotide diversity also revealed close relationship between Verbenaceae   species. The phylogenetic tree indicated close genetic relationship between Verbenaceae   species with well supported BS values. The validation of rps14 protein structure by RAMPAGE predicted the best quality protein structural models. This study demonstrated the rps14 gene as useful marker for assessment of phylogenetic studies.

215-221 Download
27

Effect of mutation induced by gamma-irradiation in ornamental plant lilium (Lilium longiflorum cv. Tresor)


Hanifeh Seyed Hajizadeh, Seyed Najmedin Mortazavi, Farzaneh Tohidi, Hasibe Yildiz, Murat Helvaci, Turgut Alas and Volkan Okatan

Effect of mutation induced by gamma-irradiation in ornamental plant lilium (Lilium longiflorum cv. Tresor)


ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity and its utilization in plant breeding is the main objective. Induction of Mutation has known as the major pathway for the induction of genetic diversity in flowers. In order to study the effect of gamma rays on the mutagenicity of lily cut flower a project was carried out in a completely randomized design with tree replications. Lilium bulbs were irradiated with six different levels of gamma rays (control, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy). Then the number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, stem height, leaf relative water content, ion leakage, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll were measured. Irradiation results showed a significant difference in leaf number, ion leakage and chlorophyll a, b and total. In this GR50 most mutations occur in the sample and the damage will be minimal (growth reduction by 50%). Due to high coefficient of determination (R2) obtained in dry weight; this factor is used to determine the GR50 compared with other characters is more suitable. The optimal dose of radiation at the plant was computed between 22.5-27.5 Gy. The consequence of treatment on leaf relative water content was not significant. In general High-gamma irradiation doses had harmful effects on growth of Lilium.

223-230 Download
28

Taxonomic reaffirmation of some members of family Cannabaceae, Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae and Urticaceae of order rosales using DNA barcoding markers


Zaib-Un-Nisa, Zaheer-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Ajaib, Saad Ullah, Sohaib Muhammad and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

Taxonomic reaffirmation of some members of family Cannabaceae, Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae and Urticaceae of order rosales using DNA barcoding markers


ABSTRACT:

DNA Barcode Analysis was carried out as new taxonomic approach to re-affirm the identity and the phylogenetic relationship of five families of order Rosales by using three molecular markers such as rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA. This study will serve as contribution to the previous taxonomic position of the order Rosales on the basis of morphological characters as well as DNA sequence data. According to the DNA Barcode data cladogram of order Rosales indicated that family Moraceae formed an individual clade in all Neighbour Joining trees formed on the basis of rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, rbcL+matK and rbcL+matK+trnH-psbA while in previous studies it was sister to Urticaceae and Cannabaceae. Another change was also observed in the placement of Family Rosaceae that did not form a separate clade as it did in previous studies but it was sister to Cannabaceae, Rhamnaceae and Urticaceae and embedded among these families. Our study does not support the previous taxonomic position of order Rosales based on morphological characters and some DNA sequences which are not standard barcodes now. The PCR amplification success rate was found highest 96% for rbcL followed by matK 64% while lowest for trnH-psbA 58%. The gene sequencing tree was successfully constructed when markers were used both singly and in combinations. The phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that, separate clusters forming species with more than 50% bootstrap value were the discriminate species, indicating high reliability of evolutionary relationship among the taxa. In the present study it was found that all three DNA Barcode markers when employed in combination exhibited maximum discriminatory power amongst all the studied species in the families of order Rosales

231-241 Download
29

Additions to invasive flora of Pakistan including two new generic records


Amir Sultan, Sayed Afzal Shah and Mahrine Rashid

Additions to invasive flora of Pakistan including two new generic records


ABSTRACT:

Three globally expanding invasive species are presented as new records for the flora of Pakistan, also comprising two new generic records. Anredera cordifolia (Basellaceae) was observed in various localities of Swat, Rawalpindi and Islamabad districts, Dentella repens (Rubiaceae) was observed around Rawal Lake, Islamabad while Oenothera laciniata (Onagraceae) was observed in the Botanical Conservatory at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Their descriptions and illustrations are provided for easy identification and global ranges are portrayed on maps.

243-248 Download
30

Why are some plant species becoming extinct while others spreading?


Andrzej Urbisz

Why are some plant species becoming extinct while others spreading?


ABSTRACT:

The research was carried out in the Kraków-CzÄ™stochowa Jurassic Upland (Southern Poland). Two groups of plants were distinguished in the vascular flora of this area, each consisting of 32 species: probably extinct and invasive. All species were described in respect of 33 traits related to their morphology, anatomy, reproduction biology, phenology, chorology, taxonomy, habitat requirements, life strategy and response to human impact. The objective of this study is to answer the question which traits of plant species determine their extinction or spreading. To demonstrate statistically significant differences between invasive and extinct species, Pearson’s chi-square test was applied. The statistically significant differences were found for 16 traits.  The compared groups of plants differed the most in terms of stem height, human use, the degree of hemeroby, urbanity, the number of sites, types of plant communities in which they occur, the nitrogen content in the substrate and the life strategy. Statistically significant differences were also determined for the pollination method, anatomical structure of leaves, dicliny, the type and weight of a diaspore, duration of the flowering period, taxonomic affinity with a family and the soil moisture value. It has been found that invasive species are mostly medium-sized plants (0.5–2 m high), often cultivated by man, abundant on anthropogenic habitats; they are nitrophilous, mesophilic, self-pollinating and C-strategists. On the other hand, extinct species are up to 0.5 m high. They are not crop plants and occur mostly on natural and semi-natural habitats, on substrates with low content of nitrogen and they are CSR-strategists.

249-256 Download
31

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated wastewater using Allium cepa assay in Almadinah Almonawrah, Saudi Arabia 


Mohammad K. Alotaibi

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated wastewater using Allium cepa assay in Almadinah Almonawrah, Saudi Arabia 


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated wastewater that is discharged in the downstream Alhamed valley, in Almadinah Almonawrah city, Saudi Arabia. Treated wastewater samples were collected from the outlet of sewage treatment plant (STP) and three downstream locations, approximately (10, 20, and 30 km) of the plant. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the samples were assessed using Allium cepa mitotic index (MI) and chromosome aberrations (CA) assays respectively. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of treated wastewater for 12 hours. Bulbs exposed to tap water were used as negative controls. Chromosome aberrations (CA) were induced by treated wastewater in a dose dependent manner. In addition, CA were significantly higher at the outlet of STP than the downstream locations. Moreover, the frequency of CA decreased as the distance from STP increased. With respect to cytotoxicity, treated wastewater from all locations induced significant decreases in MI and significant increases in the frequency of aberrant cells except the 30 km sampling point (concentration 12.5%). In conclusion, treated wastewater seems to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic compounds that get eliminated by movement of the water away from STP.

257-262 Download
32

Geo-spatially integrated soil quality evaluation: a case of Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan


Syed Ali Asad Naqvi, Aqsa Islam, Liaqat Ali Waseem, Dostdar Hussain, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Syed Jamil Hasan Kazmi, Muhammad Sajjad and Saima Shaikh

Geo-spatially integrated soil quality evaluation: a case of Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Agricultural development and rapid human population growth are among the key prevalent factors that have caused soil degradation in several terrestrial ecosystems. Soil quality is being increasingly affected by water and wind-related erosion, aridity, salinity due to misuse, and erroneous agrarian practices. Evaluating soil quality is an essential tool for crop management and soil sustainability; this is exclusively unique in semi-arid and dry regions where the observation of soil quality offers a prospect to gauge land management systems. Here, we evaluated the soil quality in the agricultural district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, the Integrated Quality Index (IQI) model was executed through Total Dataset (TDS) and Minimum Dataset (MDS) methods of data selection. TDS shows the soil quality results of all the selected indicators (i.e., EC, pH, CaCO3, OM, P, K, SP). To select the MDS, the Principal Component Analysis was used and three indicators were selected including pH, EC, and OM. Among the two indices (IQITDS and IQIMDS), moderate and low soil quality were recognized as a leading grade for soil quality of the study area. The reason for low-quality soil was a considerably low percentage of OM, a lower amount of CaCO3 in soil, a high rate of pH and EC, and a lesser amount of Phosphorous and K in the soil of the study area. The results for TDS and MDS were found to be appropriate to each other as confirmed by the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model (Adjusted R2 0.81). Thus, this approach might be used as a helpful tool for the development of quantitative techniques to estimate soil quality. This is helpful to identify areas where soil quality is low and can be improved with better management practices and maintain a suitable amount of fertilizers in the soil.

263-273 Download
33

Ectomycorrhizal status of Pinus wallichiana (blue pine) growing in Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan


Muhammad Hanif, Abdul Nasir Khalid, Samina Sarwar and Nousheen Yousaf

Ectomycorrhizal status of Pinus wallichiana (blue pine) growing in Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The root system and morphotypes of Pinus wallichiana were investigated for symbiotic association of fungal communities by analyzing them at molecular level for the first time in Pakistan. From twenty one (21) soil cores, twenty three (23) molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) belonging to 11 genera were identified. These included Cortinarius, Helvella, Hymenoscyphus, Hypocrea, Inocybe, Nectria, Ophiocordyceps, Russula, Sebacinaceae, Suillus and Tomentella. Biodiversity, species richness and community structure of these fungi have been described with reference to this novel host. Hymenoschyphus sp. Trtsf14 was found to be most abundant taxon (30.61%), followed by Inocybe sp. MHNIT-01 (35.41%) and Suillus sibiricus (18.75%), respectively. Neither accumulation curve nor any species richness estimators approached an asymptote and thus more extensive sampling is suggested for completion of below ground fungal communities

275-283 Download
34

Evaluation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the control of charcoal rot of Mung bean


Amjid Khan, Shehzad Asad, Asghari Bano, Rashid Abbas Khan and Tauqeer Ahmed Qadri

Evaluation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the control of charcoal rot of Mung bean


ABSTRACT:

This research work was performed to evaluate the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to control charcoal rot disease of Mung bean. The PGPR, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas putida were used to inoculate the seeds of two varieties of Mung cv. NM-11 and cv. Chakwal prior to sowing. The growth of fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Causal agent of charcoal rot) was checked in dual culture assay in the presences of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas putida. The soil was infested with Macrophomina phaseolina spores before sowing the seeds. The experiment was conducted in pots under greenhouse condition. After 12 weeks of seed germination, nutrients content, disease and growth parameters were measured. Both the PGPR inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina and decreases the incidence of disease (DI), disease severity index (DSI) and disease mortality in both the varieties of Mung bean under stressed condition. There was maximum (53%) reduction in incidence of disease and (53%) disease severity index and (60%) disease mortality in cv. Chakwal was due to P. putida. Both the PGPR significantly enhanced all the growth parameters such as length of shoot and root and their weight. PGPR application, also alleviated M. phaseolina induced inhibition in nutrients content of leaves. P. putida being more effective than P. stutzeri in both the varieties of Mung bean and recommended for future use as biofungicides

285-289 Download
35

Antifungal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against three maize leaf phytopathogens


Weidong Huang, Bin Lan and Haibing Yu

Antifungal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against three maize leaf phytopathogens


ABSTRACT:

Bamboo leaf extract was applied to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles in condition of silver nitrate (AgNO3). Several parameters like extract volume, concentration of AgNO3, and potential of hydrogen (pH) were carried out to confirm the optimized synthesis system. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). In addition, inhibition effect of silver nanoparticles towards three maize leaf phytopathogens of Bipolaris maydis, Exserohilum turcicum, and Curvularia lunata was determined. The optimized biosynthesis condition included 15 mL extract, 8 mM AgNO3 at pH 7. The obtained nanoparticles with an average size of 13 nm demonstrated prominent antifungal activity against the three phytopathogens, and the highest inhibition rate reached 93.6% at 200 μg/mL of silver nanoparticles. In addition, when the concentration reached 100 μg/mL the conidia germination of these three pathogens was completely inhibited. The results obtained here provide a neotype pathway for comprehensive control phytopathogens, and it is possible to screen one kind of novel bacteriostatic agents.

291-296 Download
36

Rhizobacteria having ACC-deaminase and biogas slurry can mitigate salinity adverse effects in wheat


Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Rizwan Yaseen, Muhammad Abid, Mazhar Abbas, Maqshoof Ahmad, Ashfaq Ahmad Rahi and Subhan Danish

Rhizobacteria having ACC-deaminase and biogas slurry can mitigate salinity adverse effects in wheat


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is a major hurdle to the sustainable production of crops at the world scale. It elevates the level of ethylene in plants that causes poor root growth and development thus resulting in low yield. Inoculation of rhizobacteria having ACC deaminase (ACCD) is an effective technique to regularize the endogenous ethylene generated via salinity induced stress. On the other hand, biogas slurry (BGS) is also well known for its plant-growth-promoting role, even in stressful conditions. Therefore, the present field trials were conducted to explore the individual and combined treatment effects of rhizobacteria and BGS on wheat under salinity stress. There were three ACC deminase rhizobacteria i.e., Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus cereus and Alcaligenes faecalis inoculated with and without BGS (as 600 kg ha-1) on physiological, growth and yield indices of wheat under salinity stress. The results showed that the B. cereus+BGS significantly improved plant height (17 and 35%), number of tillers plant-1 (46.2 and 57.9%), 1000-grain weight (34 and 33%), grain (46 and 50%) and straw (37 and 37%) yield over control under salinity stress in study 1 and 2, respectively. A significant decrease (24 and 29%) in electrolyte leakage also validated the effectiveness of B. cereus and B. cereus+BGS over control in the experiments 1 and 2, respectively, under salinity stress. Relative water content were also enhanced (36 and 27%) with B. cereus+BGS over control in the study 1 and 2, respectively. It is conclusively stated that the combined use of B. cereus+BGS is an efficacious treatment to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity in wheat.

297-303 Download
37

First report of postharvest decay of Actinidia deliciosa caused by Penicillium expansum in Pakistan


Sidra Javed and Arshad Javaid

First report of postharvest decay of Actinidia deliciosa caused by Penicillium expansum in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. (Kiwifruit) has been known for its highnutritional and medicinal values. It contains several phytoconstituents which belongs to the class of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids and quinones. During November/December 2016 in Lahore, Pakistan, postharvest decay was observed on Kiwifruit after 15 days of storage at 5 °C. Blue green fungal mass was observed on infected fruit surface, followed by soft, watery and pale yellow to light brown colored lesions.Based on physiological characteristics andBLAST analysis, fungus was identified as Penicillium expansum (Link). The pathogenicity was verified with Koch’s postulates. As per our knowledge, this is the first description of postharvest decay of kiwifruit caused by P. expansum in Pakistan.

305-307 Download
38

Alkaline pre-treatment of wheat straw for production of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae SS-4 immobilized in nanoparticles


Sidra Sarwar, Arifa Tahir, Ikram Ul Haq and Faiza Anum

Alkaline pre-treatment of wheat straw for production of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae SS-4 immobilized in nanoparticles


ABSTRACT:

This study was designed to evaluate cost effective bioprocess to enhance production of bioethanol by utilizing immobilized S. Cerevisiae SS-4 in calcium alginate (Ca) beads and calcium alginate magnetic nanoparticles (Ca-MNP) beads to improve bio ethanol production using wheat straw.The method of pre-treatment had a pronounced effect on the yield of reducing sugars.Maximum delignification (58%) and 36.31% saccharification was observed with 2.5% (v/v) NaOH. As concentration of NaOH increases, cellulose content decreases while increase in weight loss was observed. Results showed that immobilized cells of S. cerevisiae SS-4 in Ca-MNP gave high yield of ethanol (49.71g/L) as compared to immobilized cells of S. cerevisiae SS-4 in Ca (45.66 g/L) and free cells (36.52g/L) at pH 4.5, 28 ºC for 72 hrs. Magnet recovery method was used to recover nanoparticles and reusability was evaluated after five time usage

309-315 Download
39
Comparative effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and various organic carriers on wheat growth, physiology, antioxidative activities and rhizosphere properties

Azhar Hussain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Aurangzaib, Muhammad Naeem, Shahid Mustafa, Muhammad Sohaib and Muhammad Khalid

Comparative effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and various organic carriers on wheat growth, physiology, antioxidative activities and rhizosphere properties

ABSTRACT:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) plays a key role in soil fertility and crop production. Inoculation of PGPR and various organic manures are known to sustain plant growth. Organic carrier materials were meet the requirements of a biofertilizer carrier i.e porosity, lightweight and environmental friendly. The present study describes the synergistic effects of PGPR and different organic carrier materials on wheat growth, physiology, antioxidants and rhizospheric soil properties. Plant growth parameters were increased as plant height (18%) enhanced with the combined use of PGPR and cow dung, while shoot fresh biomass (34%) and leaf area (77%) increase due to the combined use of PGPR + fruits and vegetable wastes. Plant root characteristics including root surface area, root length and root volume were improved due to individual as well as combined inoculation of PGPR and different organic carrier materials. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities related to ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) were also improved due to separate as well as combined inoculation of PGPR and applied organic carrier materials. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, membrane stability index and relative water contents were also significantly improved in all applied treatments. For each parameter combined application showed more promising results. So it can be concluded that various nutrient-rich organic carrier materials and PGPR should be applied in agricultural soils to sustain productivity and support crop production

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40

Impact of fungicides on photosynthetic behavior of marine phytoplankton


Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib

Impact of fungicides on photosynthetic behavior of marine phytoplankton


ABSTRACT:

Phytoplankton are the primary producers of marine ecosystem and form the base of food web. If population of phytoplankton are affected by any pollutant such as fungicide the marine organisms are indirectly affected. In current research, the effect of different fungicides on photosynthetic behavior of phytoplankton is examined. Fungicides such as Topsin, Metalaxl, Mencozeb and Benlate were used in this experiment. Benlate is the most toxic for phytoplankton as it suppressed the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton as compared to other fungicides. There is a need to create awareness among people about toxicity of fungicides on marine phytoplankton to cut down the excessive use of fungicides and use natural methods to control fungal infections on crops

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41
Natural dye yielding potential and compounds of selected vegetable residues belonging to Brassicaceae: an approach towards sustainability

Fatima Batool, Shahid Adeel, Muhammad Azeem and Naeem Iqbal

Natural dye yielding potential and compounds of selected vegetable residues belonging to Brassicaceae: an approach towards sustainability

ABSTRACT:

The cruciferous vegetables are well known for their ethnobotanic and economic importance throughout the world. Traditionally, the members of Brassicaceae are used as vegetables, food plants, ornamentals as well as source of oil and natural dyes. Though there are evidences regarding the historic use of Brassicaceae plants for coloring of various items but information for utilization of these in modern textile dyeing is negligible. Current study is concerned with the utilization of residual material of Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata (cabbage), Brassica oleraceae L. var. botrytis (cauliflower) and Brassica rapa L. var. purple top (turnip) to achieve maximum dye yielding potential as well as determine their phytochemical nature. Results revealed that colorants of varying shades could be extracted from above mentioned plant residues using different extraction media (acidic, alkaline, aqueous and organic). Variety of color shades including light brown, brown, yellowish green, yellow, dark green, creamy white, light green, olive green and dark brown could be produced from these plant residues using eco friendly bio as well as chemical mordants. The analysis of these plant residues revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, sugars and glycosides. Stability of these vegetable residues based colorants in terms of fastness properties including wet rubbing, washing, dry rubbing and light fastness proved to be good to excellent.

 

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42

Antifungal activity of Alternathera philoxeroides organic solvent extracts against plant pathogenic fungi


Awais Amin, Muhammad Akbar, Tayyaba Khalil, Waheed Akram and Aqeel Ahmad

Antifungal activity of Alternathera philoxeroides organic solvent extracts against plant pathogenic fungi


ABSTRACT:

Fungal phytopathogens greatly affect the agriculture industry. At present these pathogens are being controlled by synthetic fungicides but all of these fungicides have serious environmental effects and human health hazards. In search of ecofriendly natural fungicidal extracts, antifungal activity of leaf, stem and root of alligator weed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart). Griseb] was evaluated in the present investigation. The extracts were prepared by soaking the dry powder of plant parts (Leaves, stem and root) into four organic solvents viz. methanol, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Antifungal activity was examined by using food poisoning technique against four plant pathogenic fungal species; Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger Tiegh. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Antifungal activity was checked at 5 concentrations ranging from 5-25 mg/ml. Synthetic fungicide, defeater plus was used as positive control while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used as negative control. It was found that n-hexane fraction of A. philoxeroides leaves exhibited the highest (40%) antifungal activity against A. alternata and A. flavus while there was 32% decline in case of M. phaseolina and 25% decrease in fungal biomass in A. niger at concentration of 25 mg/ml. The present study concluded that A. philoxeroides has antifungal constituents that can be isolated and identified to be used as natural ecofriendly fungicides in future.

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43

What structural traits ensuring Solidago canadensis L. to invade heterogeneous habitats successfully?


Yuliang Wang, Shoucheng Huang and Song Wang

What structural traits ensuring Solidago canadensis L. to invade heterogeneous habitats successfully?


ABSTRACT:

Solidago canadensis is a non-native weed that has invaded China, which has had a large ecological impact on the areas. In this paper, we attempts to understand the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Solidago canadensis that ensure it to invade to heterogeneous habitats. We found that the characteristics that facilitate S. canadensis invasion and adaptation to heterogeneous ecological environments are as follows: low leaf porosity, thick cuticle, and long trichomes, which play a role in water retention and protection. The developed vascular bundles and bundle sheath extensions within the leaf blades increase the transport capacity of photosynthetic products through the leaf blade, thereby fulfilling the developmental needs of underground vegetative organs. In addition, the secondary structures of the stem differentiate early. S. canadensis has septate fibers and large amounts of alternating tissues and vestured pits. Simple and transverse perforation plates account for 94.9 and 51%, respectively, and alternate pitting accounts for 53.8%. The primary root stops developing relatively early to adapt to the development needs of underground structures. Flowering, inflorescence structure, and failure to establish continuous access to local insects, lead to failure in the development of capitulum. The exterior of mature pollen grains is enclosed by a callose wall, which facilitates pollen transmission. Rhizomes have become the substance and structural basis of independent propagules

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44
Integrated nutrient management in banana: comparative role of FYM and composted pressmud for the improvement of soil properties

Ambrin Rajput, Mehrunisa Memon, Kazi Suleman Memon, Tanveer Ali Sial and Hadi Bux Laghari

Integrated nutrient management in banana: comparative role of FYM and composted pressmud for the improvement of soil properties

ABSTRACT:

Banana crop requires high nutrient supply for optimal production and economic benefits. Low crop yields are due to the low fertility of the soil, which can be improved with the addition of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients. This study evaluated the role of FYM and pressmud in improving the soil properties of the banana field. A field experiment involving the use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients was laid out in a split-plot design. The organic sources i.e. control, FYM and composted pressmud (CPM), each at 20 t ha-1 constituted the major split and mineral fertilizer treatments (full N, N+1/2P, N+3/4P, N+P, N+P+K and 1.25 NP) as sub-split. The fertilizer rates were based on the recommended rates of N, P2O5 and K2O (500-250-500 kg ha-1). Each treatment received a blanket application of ZnSO4 at 10 kg ha-1. Banana (Cv. Dwarf Cavendish) was grown for one cropping cycle. Soil samples were secured from each treatment after the banana harvest and included a composite sample before conducting the experiment. The results showed that the increased fertilizer rates did not increase soil EC, pH, OM, soil macro and micro-nutrients. FYM  improved the fertility of surface soil by increasing organic matter (49.2%), Olsen P (45.2%), NH4OAc-K (3.9%), and DTPA-Cu (16.4%), Fe (61.8%), Mn (17.5%), and Zn (44.5%) over control and was superior over CPM. However, the later requires extended use to establish its beneficial effect on soil properties with particular reference to EC. Banana flourishes well on soils with very low salt content. FYM or CPM, in both cases the values decreased with the increase in soil depth.

355-362 Download
45
Computational analysis of catalase from different source organisms

Muhammad Naveed Shahid, Mahnoor Amjad, Umair Ashraf, Adil Jamal and Javed Iqbal Wattoo

Computational analysis of catalase from different source organisms

ABSTRACT:

The catalase enzyme is present widely in all living organisms. It is the key enzyme in terms of signaling and the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and belongs to a large superfamily. The main reason to study evolution is the great role of catalase in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide as it is very necessary for all aerobic eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It has great importance due to its linkage with cancer and aging. The sequences of catalase enzymes are present in a wide range of public databases. For the assessment of phylogeny of catalase sequences, 45 full-length amino acid sequences of catalase were searched and collected for further study. The sequences were used for multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic construction, motif discovery, domain identification, and discovering individual amino acid composition. MSA revealed amino acid glycine and aspartic acid play an important role in the evolution from prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms with concern for catalase. Two main sequence clusters were obtained by phylogenetic analysis. One cluster comprised of 15 plant species, 8 bacterial species, and 3 fungal species. Cluster II contained 7 bacterial species and 12 fungal species. All the observed organisms showed similar domain structures but some fungal and bacterial sequences possessed the c-terminal domains. The average amino acid frequency was 7.35% that was very much high in contrast to other amino acids. This idea about amino acid frequencies demonstrated that alanine played a vital role in the composition of catalase.

 

363-369 Download
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