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Year 2004 , Volume  36, Issue 4
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLII. BRASSICACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN, M. QAISER AND REHANA KHAN*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLII. BRASSICACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 77 species belonging to 36 genera of the family Brassicaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar sub-prolate to prolate, or prolate-spheroidal rarely oblate-spheroidal, tricolpate rarely 4-8 colpate. Sexine thinner or thicker than nexine. Tectum fine to coarsely reticulate with more or less regular pattern of muri or reticulate - rugulate. On the basis of tectal surface four distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Arabis bijuga-type, Farsetia ramosissima-type, Draba lanceolata -type and Erysimum melicentae - type.

683-700 Download
2
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCORZONERA (CICHORIEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN
AKBAR ALI MEO AND MIR AJAB KHAN

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCORZONERA (CICHORIEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphological characters of 5 species of Scorzonera have been investigated from Pakistan by light microscopy. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal in equatorial view, semi-angular to inter-semi-angular in polar view, trizonocolporate, non-lacunate and echinate. Pollen characters such as size, shape, colpi and exine thickness, and aperture type are found considerably important. Scorzonera hondae can be distinguished due to its sub-prolate shape whereas S. picridioides has oblate-spheroidal subprolate P/E ratio (0.95). The pollen spine character is a diagnostic character in this genus. S. hondae has the highest spine length (4.8 µm) and S. laciniata can be distinguished due to lowest spine length 2.5 µm. There is a great range of variation in exine thickness which has proved useful at specific level. On the basis of exine thickness 3 groups viz. Group 1: S. virgata, S. laciniata, Group II: S. picridioides, Group III: S. ammophila, S. hondae are recognized.

701-710 Download
3
ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN FALL IN USAK, TURKEY
ADEM BICAKCI, R. DUNDAR KOC*, SEVCAN TATLIDIL, O. NURI BENLIOGLU*

ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN FALL IN USAK, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, pollen grains were identified by using Durham sampler in the atmosphere of Usak, Turkey. During the year 2000, a total number of 5,464 grains per cm2 were recorded. Pollen fall comprised of grains belonging 39 taxa consisting of 25 xarboreal

711-717 Download
4
A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY FOR THE GENERIC DELIMITATION OF INULA L. (S.STR.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (INULEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY FOR THE GENERIC DELIMITATION OF INULA L. (S.STR.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (INULEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Micromorphological characters viz., receptacular surface and anther apices strengthen the existence of 22 taxa of Inula L., (s.str.) and its allied genera (Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Drittichia Greuter and Iphiona Cass.) from Pakistan and Kashmir. The receptacles are without scaly ridges in the genera Inula L. (s.str.) and Pentanema, while the genera Duhaldea, Dittrichia and Iphiona have unevenly incised scaly ridges on receptacle. Acute-obtuse anther apices are present in Inula, Pentanema, Dittrichia and Iphiona. The genus Duhaldea is characterized by the presence of truncate-emarginate anther apices.

719-724 Download
5
THE EPIDERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUIT SKIN OF SOME SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS IN RELATION TO FRUIT CRACKING
LEYLA DEMIRSOY AND HUSNU DEMIRSOY

THE EPIDERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUIT SKIN OF SOME SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS IN RELATION TO FRUIT CRACKING
ABSTRACT:
The epidermal characteristics of fruit skin of 8 sweet cherry cultivars were determined in terms of susceptibility to cracking. The cultivars 0900 Ziraat and Bella di Pistoia having the thickest cuticle, had the lowest cracking index. There was a negative correlation between the cuticle thickness and fruit cracking. There were no correlations relationship between fruit cracking and thickness of epidermis, thickness of subepidermis and number of subepidermal cell layers.

725-731 Download
6
PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF TWO STONEWORT ALGAE (CHAROPHYTA) OF SINDH
B. GHAZALA, B. NAILA, MUSTAFA SHAMEEL, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND SULTAN MAHMOOD LEGHARI*

PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF TWO STONEWORT ALGAE (CHAROPHYTA) OF SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Two stonewort green algae, Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kützing and Nitella flexilis (Linnaeus) C. A. Agardh were collected from Kinjhar and Haleji lakes, Distt. Thatta, Sindh during October to December 1999. Their methanol extracts revealed the presence of a variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) by GC-MS and ß-sitosterol by EI-MS & 1H-NMR. In C. contraria, 9 saturated, 5 mono- and 2 tri-unsaturated FAs were detected, and N. flexilis contained 5 saturated, 7 mono-

733-743 Download
7
RIGID BODY REFINEMENT OF WATER MEDIATED TRIPLE HELICAL STRUCTURE OF ß-D-1,3 XYLAN FROM PALMARIA PALMATA (L.) KUNTZE, RHODOPHYTA)
NAHEED AKHTAR, SADAF NAEEM, WASEEM AHMED* AND M.A. HALEEM**

RIGID BODY REFINEMENT OF WATER MEDIATED TRIPLE HELICAL STRUCTURE OF ß-D-1,3 XYLAN FROM PALMARIA PALMATA (L.) KUNTZE, RHODOPHYTA)
ABSTRACT:
The triple helical structure of ß-D-1,3 xylan from the cell wall of Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze, (Rhodophyta) has been refined using the rigid body refinement technique. Water molecule is also included in the refinement. Using the least square rigid body refinement procedure the structure has been refined to an R-value of 0.338. The agreement between the calculated and observed structure factors is reasonably good. The results indicate that the sugar rings have limited freedom to rotate about 1, 3 glycosidic links and the molecule should be 9% smaller in radius. The position of water molecule is also refined. The loosely bound water follows the helical path. The present results support the view that inter and intra chain hydrogen bonds are possible in the water mediated structures.

745-750 Download
8
AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PROPAGATION OF IXORA COCCINEA
SAIFULLAH KHAN, MARIAM IFTIKHAR AND BUSHRA SAEED

AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PROPAGATION OF IXORA COCCINEA
ABSTRACT:
A simple and efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ixora coccinea cv. Super King, a beautiful ornamental plant using shoot tip and nodal segments as explants. The explants were cultured in Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP incubated for 10 weeks initially and subcultured onto fresh medium after every 4 weeks. The proliferating clusters were cultured in WPM basal medium fortified with Peptone (40 mg/l) and 3% sucrose for elongation of shoots, formation of root initials and further proliferation of axillary shoots. Separation and culturing of elongated shoots in fresh medium for 2 to 3 weeks yielded 7 to 8 cm long plantlets which were acclimatized in polytunnels. The most suitable medium for rooting was half-WPM enriched with IBA at a concentration of 0.05 mg/L. An increase in axillary shoot number of up to 10 per shoot were observed. This exponential rise in plants was very encouraging for the development of an efficient commercial micropropagation system.

751-756 Download
9
IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF CORDYLINE TERMINALIS FOR COMMERCIALIZATION
SAIFULLAH KHAN* SHEEBA NAZ AND BUSHRA SAEED

IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF CORDYLINE TERMINALIS FOR COMMERCIALIZATION
ABSTRACT:
The current study envisages producing Cordyline plants on a large scale employing cost-effective In vitro protocols. The effect of various concentrations and types of plant growth regulators were observed to optimize the efficient media for propagation. Axillary buds excised from the greenhouse grown mother plants of Cordyline terminalis were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0-2.0 mg/L), Kinetin (2.0-4.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.1-0.5 mg/L). A rich solid mass of white-green callus was produced. Greatest number and length of shoots were produced in a medium containing kinetin (4.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.5mg/L). Rooting started on the same media when the plants had attained a height of 2.5 cm. Four weeks after a rich mass of roots were obtained the plants were transplanted individually in small clay pots and kept in close tunnels where the relative humidity was approximately 80%. Four weeks after acclimatization, the explants were shifted into green houses.

757-761 Download
10
ADVENTITIOUS ROOT FORMATION IN LEAF-BUD CUTTINGS OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.)
FATMA KOYUNCU* AND FIKRI BALTA

ADVENTITIOUS ROOT FORMATION IN LEAF-BUD CUTTINGS OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Anatomical changes during adventitious root initiation are described in cuttings with single leaf and node of Turkish tea (Camellia sinensis L.) clone Fener-3. In this clone no preformed root initials or primordia were found. The rooting process consists of these stages; cuttings exhibited meristematic activity of vascular zone (especially, phloem parenchyma), root initial formation, differentiation of root primordia, and root elongation. Thus, adventitious root primordia arose from near the vascular cambium and secondary phloem parenchymatous tissue also contributed. Continuous cell division, elongation and differentiation within callus gave rise to formation of root primordia. Presence of perivascular fibers and sclereids did no mechanical barrier in inhibition of root formation and to retard rooting. The development of adventitious roots is directly correlated with the appearance of root initials. According to the process of root initiation, cuttings of Fener-3 Turkish tea clone may be described as easy to root.

763-768 Download
11
QUANTITATIVE EFFECTS OF PLANTING TIME ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA)
SEZGIN UZUN AND HAYATI KAR*

QUANTITATIVE EFFECTS OF PLANTING TIME ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA)
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out in the research field of The Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute in Turkey from spring to winter

769-777 Download
12
AN ASSESSMENT OF VARIABILITY FOR ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI*, ANILA SHAUKAT*, A. BAKHSH1, M. ARSHAD1 AND A. GHAFOOR2

AN ASSESSMENT OF VARIABILITY FOR ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Two hundred and nineteen chickpea genotypes were studied for genetic variability in qualitative and quantitative traits of economic importance. The experiment was planted in RCBD with 2 replications. Results revealed highly significant differences for plant height (cm), number of primary and number of secondary branches, number of pods per plant

779-785 Download
13
EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS AND WATER DEFICIT ON PLANT GROWTH AND ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT OF LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS L.)
AHMET OZTURK, ALI UNLUKARA, ARIF IPEK1 AND BILAL GURBUZ1

EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS AND WATER DEFICIT ON PLANT GROWTH AND ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT OF LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to determine the effects of salt stress (0.25

787-792 Download
14
EFFECTS OF SALT AND WATER STRESS ON THE GERMINATION OF CHENOPODIUM GLAUCUM L., SEED
DEYU DUAN, XIAOJING LIU, M. AJMAL KHAN1 AND BILQUEES GUL1

EFFECTS OF SALT AND WATER STRESS ON THE GERMINATION OF CHENOPODIUM GLAUCUM L., SEED
ABSTRACT:
Effect of salts (Na2SO4, Na2CO3, MgSO4, NaCl, MgCl2), soil extract and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on the germination of Chenopodium glaucum L., seed was studied. Maximum germination was obtained in distilled water. Germination decreased with increase in salinity. The inhibition of germination by salt solutions was in the order of MgCl2 > Na2SO4 > Na2CO3 > NaCl > Soil extract > MgSO4. Germination also decreased with decrease in osmotic potential caused by PEG treatment. Seed germination percentage was lower in NaCl than in iso-osmotic PEG solutions at osmotic potential less than -0.5 MPa. Non-germinated seeds under various salt treatments when transferred to distilled water recovered completely, indicating little ionic effect of salinity on seed germination and viability. Germination inhibition, therefore, appears to be osmotic. Similar recovery response was noted when seeds from PEG solution were transferred to water.

793-800 Download
15
EFFECT OF SOME GROWTH HORMONES (GA3, IAA AND KINETIN) ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND EARLY OR DELAYED INITIATION OF BUD OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
M. NAEEM, IRAM BHATTI*, RAZA HAFEEZ AHMAD* AND M. YASIN ASHRAF**

EFFECT OF SOME GROWTH HORMONES (GA3, IAA AND KINETIN) ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND EARLY OR DELAYED INITIATION OF BUD OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
ABSTRACT:
The effect of growth hormones on the morphology of shoot of lentil was examined. The hormones viz.

801-809 Download
16
DETERMINATION OF GRAFTING UNION SUCCESS IN 0900 ZIRAAT AND STARKS GOLD CHERRY CULTIVARS ON GISELA 5 AND SL 64 ROOT STOCKS
GÜNER SEFEROĞLU, F.EKMEL TEKĺNTAŞ, AND SELMA &Oumĺ;ZYĺĞĺT*

DETERMINATION OF GRAFTING UNION SUCCESS IN 0900 ZIRAAT AND STARKS GOLD CHERRY CULTIVARS ON GISELA 5 AND SL 64 ROOT STOCKS
ABSTRACT:
This research was conducted to determine the compatibility of graft combinations in 0900 Ziraat and Starks Gold Cherry scions and Gisela 5 and SL 64 L clone stocks. Sometimes intensive necrotic layers and insufficient cambial continuity was detected at the 6 months old graft sections at both combination. At the cross and longitudinal sections of 12 months graft of all combinations, development of cambial continuity and new healthy vascular system formed successfully. In addition differences in tissue development quality were observed depending on combinations. However, to find out the reasons of late incompatibility of some combinations, more research on biochemical differences and further field observations of the combinations would be useful.

811-816 Download
17
IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
BUSHRA RASHID*, TAYYAB HUSNAIN AND SHEIKH RIAZUDDIN

IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
ABSTRACT:
Shoot apices from in-vitro germinated seedlings of 22 cotton varieties were cultured on basal MS salts and vitamins (Murashige & Skoog

817-823 Download
18
MAPPING QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLS) FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) USING RFLPS
M. SHAHID MASOOD, YANAGIHARA SEIJI*, ZABTA K. SHINWARI AND RASHID ANWAR

MAPPING QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLS) FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) USING RFLPS
ABSTRACT:
Recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross between Tesanai 2 (moderately salt tolerant) and CB (salt sensitive) through single seed descent procedure were used to identify RFLP markers linked to QTLs involved in salinity tolerance. The RI population (F8) was evaluated for six different parameters using Yoshida's modified nutrient solution at an EC level of 12 dSm-1. The genotyping of 96 RI lines utilized 74 RFLP markers that revealed polymorphism. A linkage map was constructed from 12 linkage groups based on RI segregation data. The map covered 1349.5 cM of the rice genome with an average distance of 18.24cM between marker loci. Based on regression ANOVA (P = 0.05), one marker locus was found significantly associated with seedling survival days

825-834 Download
19
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT LANDRACES FROM PAKISTAN BASED ON POLYMORPHISM FOR HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS (HMW-GS)
M. SHAHID MASOOD, M. ASGHAR AND RASHID ANWAR

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WHEAT LANDRACES FROM PAKISTAN BASED ON POLYMORPHISM FOR HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS (HMW-GS)
ABSTRACT:
A total of 77 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces collected from different areas of Pakistan were assessed for genetic diversity in terms of HMW-Glutenin sub-units. Considerable amount of variation was observed in this set of germplasm ranging from monomorphism to polymorphism as revealed by SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS~PAGE). Of the 8 alleles detected at Glu-1 loci, three belong to each Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 and 2 belong to Glu-D1 locus. The most frequent subunits were 1 and 2* at Glu-A1 locus, 7+8 at Glu-B1 locus and 2+12 at Glu-D1 locus. Maximum variation was observed in Diamir followed by Ghizer. A higher gene diversity between the populations (Dst = 0.29%) was observed as compared to the gene diversity within the populations (Hs =10%). High value for gene diversity between population relative to total gene diversity (Gst = 0.7376) indicated a substantial amount of gene differentiation among the populations. The information generated could be exploited by the plant breeders to develop new cultivars and by the gene bank managers to properly document and maintain the germplasm collections.

835-843 Download
20
INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
SAMIULLAH KHAN, MOHD. RAFIQ WANI AND KOUSER PARVEEN

INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
ABSTRACT:
Mutations were induced in two mungbean varieties, K-851 and Pusa Baisakhi using sodium azide (SA) as a mutagen. The immediate effects of mutagenic treatments were measured in terms of biological damage caused in M1 generation. All the mutagenic treatments brought reduction in seed germination, pollen fertility and survival at maturity. Such reduction, with an exception of survival, were found to be dose dependent.

845-850 Download
21
SOIL AND FORAGE MINERAL (TRACE ELEMENTS) STATUS OF A GRAZING PASTURE IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN, ALTAF HUSSAIN, M. ASHRAF, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM*** M.Y. ASHRAF* AND MUHAMMAD SAEED AHMAD**

SOIL AND FORAGE MINERAL (TRACE ELEMENTS) STATUS OF A GRAZING PASTURE IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to determine the trace mineral status of forage and soils on a goat ranch in the semi-arid region of south western Punjab, Pakistan. Forage and soil samples were collected twice a year during winter and summer from three different sites within the ranch. Site I represented land characterized by natural pasture with low intensity forage accessible to animals. Site II represented land site within proximity of main experimental station where small ruminants were provided hay, crop wastes and also by-products. Site III was grazing reserves characterized by the availability of sown pastures including different improved forage varieties. Seven composite samples from each of the three grazing sites of the pasture were collected during each sampling. Higher forage values of Cu and Mn were found in winter than those during summer. However, Fe and Zn were higher in summer. In general, higher trace elements values were found in grazing site II. Of all forage trace minerals, only Mn was adequate. Concentrations of Cu, Fe and Zn in forage from all three grazing sites during both seasons were below the critical level. All soil elements were higher in grazing sites III than those in other grazing sites. Concentrations below the critical level were found for soil Cu during both seasons in grazing site II and during summer in site I, and for Mn in both seasons in all sites within the pasture.

851-856 Download
22
A STUDY OF THE TREND IN PREVALENCE OF OPPORTUNISTIC CANDIDAL CO-INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
SEHAR AFSHAN NAZ AND PERWEEN TARIQ*

A STUDY OF THE TREND IN PREVALENCE OF OPPORTUNISTIC CANDIDAL CO-INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
ABSTRACT:
Five hundred clinical specimens of sputa, bronchial aspirations, and pleural effusions were collected from hospitalized tuberculous patients for the isolation of Candida species. The patients were categorized in two groups. Group A included tuberculous patients having some complications like nonsubsiding fever, marked cough and persistence of other symptoms in spite of taking antituberculous treatment. Group B included turberculous patients having no complications. The Candida species were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Candida species were isolated from 15.2% (76/500) specimens. The incidence rate of Candidal co-infection was higher in Group A patients (16.1%) as compared to Group B patients (13.8%). Among the Candida species, Candida tropicalis (8.4%) predominated over Candida albicans (6.8%). Furthermore, the incidence of Candidal infection was higher in male patients (16.3%) as compared to female patients (13.9%).

857-862 Download
23
PERSISTENCE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND FENPROPATHRIN ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH FERTILIZERS IN SOIL AND THEIR EFFECT ON SOIL MICROBES
SHAHIDA AKHTAR, SYEDA TALAT SHAHEEN GILANI AND NUSRAT HASAN

PERSISTENCE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND FENPROPATHRIN ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH FERTILIZERS IN SOIL AND THEIR EFFECT ON SOIL MICROBES
ABSTRACT:
The study was designed to determine the persistence of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) and fenpropathrin (pyrethroid) pesticide alone and in combination with synthetic fertilizers viz., Urea, DAP, SOP and Foliar fertilizer Polydol with tap/hard water. All the fertilizers were added @ 1% to the soil collected from vegetable growing area of Memon Goth, Karachi and insecticide fortification was done @ 100 ppm and 1000 ppm. Results indicated that the addition of fertilizers had no effect on the persistence of OP and pyrethroid pesticides. Similarly, the changes observed in the pH both with tap and hard water had no effect on the persistence. The 2-months study showed 100% persistence of both the pesticides.

863-870 Download
24
PURIFICATION OF PHYTOTOXIN FROM CULTURE FILTRATES OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM f.sp. CICERIS AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON CHICKPEA
IFTIKHAR A. KHAN, S. S. ALAM AND *A. JABBAR

PURIFICATION OF PHYTOTOXIN FROM CULTURE FILTRATES OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM f.sp. CICERIS AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris was grown on liquid minimal medium for the production of culture filtrates. Highest phytotoxic activity was extracted by petroleum spirit while n-hexane could not recover any toxicity from culture filtrates. The fungal bioassay revealed that different solvent extracts yielded 5 different inhibitory zones and for the recovery of maximum toxicity from culture filtrates, extraction with petroleum spirit followed by ethyl acetate should be done. Chloroplast assay revealed 6 different active bands in different solvent extracts. No solvent extracted the major compound extracted by petroleum spirit at Rf value 0.60. Two phytotoxic compounds 1 & 2 were purified from culture filtrates of FOC, which caused wilting and leaf burning of chickpea cuttings. The culture filtrate of FOC inhibited the synthesis of chlorophyll 'a' and 'b' of both chickpea varieties which might be responsible for the yellowing/chlorosis of leaves. The inhibition was more prominent in Aug-424 susceptible as compared to CM 98 resistant cultivars. The culture filtrates of FOC reduced the root length of germinating seeds of chickpea and might also be major factor for effecting the germination of seeds in wilt-infested soils.

871-880 Download
25
EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS) PRODUCTS AGAINST VARIOUS LIFE STAGES OF PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS (MONT.) DE BARY
A. RASHID, I. AHMAD, S. IRAM, J. I. MIRZA AND C. A. RAUF*

EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS) PRODUCTS AGAINST VARIOUS LIFE STAGES OF PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS (MONT.) DE BARY
ABSTRACT:
Efficacy of different neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) products was investigated against Phytophthora infestans using two isolates viz., NR-971 and BN-971 differing in aggressiveness. NR-971 was virulent against 0,1,3,4,7,10,11 resistant genes while BN-971 showed virulence against 0,1,2,3,4,7 resistant genes. Three products from neem viz., neem leaf diffusate, neem leaf powder and neem seed cake were evaluated for their effect on mycelial growth, sporangial production and sporangial germination of the 2 isolates. Neem leaf diffusate and neem leaf powder completely inhibited the mycelial growth of both isolates at 2.0% v/v and 80% w/v concentration, respectively while neem seed cake showed 100% mycelial growth inhibition in NR-971 isolate at 1.0% and that of BN-971 isolate at 0.8% w/v concentration. Neem leaf diffusate completely inhibited sporangial production of NR-971 isolate at 1.0% and that of BN-971 isolate at 0.4% w/v concentration. Both neem leaf powder and neem seed cake completely inhibited sporangial production sporangial germination of NR-971 and BN-971 isolate at 0.6% and 0.4% w/v concentrations, respectively. The more virulent isolate NR-971 was found more sensitive to neem products than less virulent isolate BN-971.

881-886 Download
26
FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
SAIMA TAZEEN AND BUSHRA MIRZA*

FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to standardize the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation protocol for Vigna radiata. For this purpose some important parameters like sensitivity of explants to kanamycin, pH of co-culture media, age of explants, types of explants, co-cultivation time and optical density of Agrobacterium culture medium were studied. Agrobacterium strain C58C1 harboring a binary vector p35SGUSINT containing neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene as selectable marker and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene was used for transformation. Kanamycin at a concentration of 50mg/l was used to select transformed cells. Transient and stable GUS expressions were studied in transformed explants and regenerated calli respectively. Highest transient GUS (70%) expression was observed at pH 5.8 after 3 days of co-culturing in 2-days-old explants. Optical density of 560nm=1 was considered optimal to obtain the highest transformation rate. Agrobacterium culture containing both kanamycin and ampicillin had dramatic effect on transformation efficiency. Primary leaves showed higher transformation efficiency (80%) than hypocotyl (60%) or root (40%) explants. Transformed calli were resistant to up to 800mg/l of kanamycin concentration. Transformed shoot were produced on shoot regeneration medium containing 50mg/l kanamycin and 500mg/l cefotaxime.

887-896 Download
27
OCCURRENCE OF GYMNOCONIA PECKIANA IN TURKEY
ELSAD HÜSEYIN*, FARUK SELÇUK AND MAKBULE KARAHAN

OCCURRENCE OF GYMNOCONIA PECKIANA IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Gymnoconia peckiana (Howe) Trott., a rust fungus belonging to the family Pucciniaceae collected during a field trip around Trabzon in 1999 is reported as a new record for Turkey.

897-899 Download
28
ZAGHOUANIA PHILLYREAE PAT., (UREDINALES) A NEW REPORT FROM TURKEY
ELŞAD HÜSEYİN

ZAGHOUANIA PHILLYREAE PAT., (UREDINALES) A NEW REPORT FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study Zaghouania phillyreae Pat., a member of the Pucciniaceae family (Uredinales, Basidiomycota) is reported for the first time from Turkey.

901-904 Download
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