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Year 2005 , Volume  37, Issue 4
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-XLVII. EUPHORBIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-XLVII. EUPHORBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 40 species representing 6 genera viz., Andrachne, Chrozophora, Dalechampia, Euphorbia, Mallotus and Phyllanthus of the family Euphorbiaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Euphorbiaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate or prolate often oblate-spheroidal, colporate (tri rarely 6-7), colpi generally with costae, colpal membrane psilate to sparsely or densely granulated, ora la-longate, sexine as thick as nexine or slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface commonly reticulate or rugulate - reticulate rarely striate or verrucate. On the basis of exine pattern 5 distinct pollen types viz., Andrachne-aspera - type, Chrozophora oblongifolia-type, Euphorbia hirta-type and Mallotus philippensis - type and Phyllanthus urinaria - type are recognized.

785-796 Download
2
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE ORDER ULOTRICHALES (CHLOROPHYTA) FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE ORDER ULOTRICHALES (CHLOROPHYTA) FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirteen species belonging to the genera Binuclearia, Geminella, Heterothrichopsis, Ulothrix and Uronema were collected from various freshwater habitats in Gujranwala, Jauharabad, Kasur, Lahore, Pasrur, Sheikhupura and Sialkot districts of the Punjab; Bahrain, Kalam and Utrod river in Swat (NWFP) and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir during March 2003-July 2005. They were taxonomically determined and have been described for the first time from these areas.

797-806 Download
3
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON OF TURKEY
NESLIHAN BALKIS*

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports three species of dinoflagellates viz., Ceratium deflexum (Kofoid) Jörgensen, Ceratium longissimum (Schröder) Kofoid, Triposolenia bicornis Kofoid and three species of diatoms viz., Lyrella lyra (Ehrenberg) Karajeva, Pleurosigma reversum Gregory, Trachyneis aspera (Ehrenberg) Cleve, all belonging to marine phytoplankton for the first time from coastal waters of Turkey. Ceratium deflexum was also new record for the Aegean Sea and Pleurosigma reversum for the Eastern Mediterranean. Original photographs and some ecological and morphological characteristics of six phytoplankton species are given.

807-814 Download
4
ULTRA-STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON ROOT NODULES OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH.
RAIHA QADRI AND A. MAHMOOD

ULTRA-STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON ROOT NODULES OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH.
ABSTRACT:
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., commonly known as Siris is a mimosoid tree legume widely distributed in Pakistani soils. The roots of A. lebbeck establish symbiosis with root nodule bacteria and form nodules which develop singly as well as in clusters on the primary and secondary roots. Mature nodules are oblate, elongate, branched and coralloid. Rhizobia in root nodules from naturally nodulated plants showed intercellular movement. Both determinate and indeterminate type of nodules were observed having similar structure. Anatomically nodules could be differentiated into a nodule meristem, nodule cortex, containing the vascular bundles surrounding the infected tissues. Nodule meristem was multilayered, comprising of thin walled, tightly packed and actively dividing cells. Nodule cortex was mainly composed of parenchymatous tissue. Distinct periderm was present. Amphicribal vascular bundles were arranged around the bacteroid region which showed both the infected and un-infected interstitial cells with starch grains in their cytoplasm. Infected cells were non-vacuolated. Studies was carried out to examine the initiation, early development and ultrastructure of root nodules of A. lebbeck.

815-822 Download
5
TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES IN ORYZA SATIVA L. CVS. BASMATI 385 AND SUPER BASMATI
S. M. SAQLAN NAQVI, RAZIA SULTANA AND HAMID RASHEED*

TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES IN ORYZA SATIVA L. CVS. BASMATI 385 AND SUPER BASMATI
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of the present study was to investigate and optimize callus induction frequency and regeneration in two rice cultivars viz., Basmati 385 and Super basmati and to monitor the effect of mannitol and sorbitol on regeneration. Callus induction was achieved by using different concentrations of 2, 4-D (1

823-828 Download
6
CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN SEED EXPLANTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA CV. SWAT-II)
SHAZIA BANO, MUSARRAT JABEEN, FAZAL RAHIM AND IHSAN ILAHI

CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN SEED EXPLANTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA CV. SWAT-II)
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Swat-II) were inoculated onto MS medium containing various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Excellent callus resulted on MS containing 2,4-D and Kn. However, this callus was non-embryogenic. Addition of tryptophan (TPN) @ 50 mg/l induced embryogenic callus. Increase in callus mass was obtained by a change in auxin and cytokinin level. Plantlet regeneration occurred on MS containing BAP at 0.5 mg/l in combination with IAA at a concentration of 0.2 mg/l. The plantlets were transferred to the field after hardening.

829-836 Download
7
NON-DESTRUCTIVE LEAF AREA ESTIMATION OF FLAX (LINUN USITATISSIMUM L.)
O. KURT, H. UYSAL AND S. UZUN*

NON-DESTRUCTIVE LEAF AREA ESTIMATION OF FLAX (LINUN USITATISSIMUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
In this research, a model for predicting the leaf area was developed for flax by using Linda, Antares, Bionda, Avangard, Atalanta, Flanders, Dakota, Sari-85, Ayancik and Windemore cultivars by measuring lamina width, length and leaf area without destroying in 2004. Two hundred leaves were collected from each line and an allometric relationship was derived between actual leaf area (ALA) measured using the Placom Digital Planimeter (Sokkisha Planimeter Inc., Model KP-90), leaf length (LL) and leaf width. Multiple regression analysis for the cultivars was performed. The proposed leaf area (LA) prediction model is LA (cm2)=-0,7796+0,2678*L+2,2652*W +0,0120* -0,0454* *W, R2 = 9697.

837-841 Download
8
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMAGE VALUE GRADIENT PROBLEM IN THE AMAZON LANDSAT TM DATA
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN*

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMAGE VALUE GRADIENT PROBLEM IN THE AMAZON LANDSAT TM DATA
ABSTRACT:
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the image value gradient problem which was observed in Landsat TM images during the production of WAGIS mosaic (Toivonen et al.

843-852 Download
9
SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF ASH CONTENT OF THE HALOPHYTE ZYGOPHYLLUM QATARENSE HADIDI FROM SALINE AND NON-SALINE HABITATS IN BAHRAIN
J. A. ABBAS*

SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF ASH CONTENT OF THE HALOPHYTE ZYGOPHYLLUM QATARENSE HADIDI FROM SALINE AND NON-SALINE HABITATS IN BAHRAIN
ABSTRACT:
The roots and leaves of the halophytic plant Zygophyllum qatarense Hadidi from saline and non-saline habitats in Bahrain island were analysed for their ash content during four seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall. Ash content of leaves was higher than that in the roots from the two habitats. Statistical analyses of the results showed significant seasonal differences in the ash content in both roots and leaves in each of the two habitats. Comparison between the ash content of leaves from the two habitats showed no significant difference between the averages for the leaves in all seasons except in the spring. Root comparisons showed significant differences between the two habitats in all seasons except in the fall. The results demonstrated that the change in soil salinity is reflected, at least in some seasons, in the ash content of Z. qatarense. The only significant difference in the ash content between the leaves of the two habitats was during spring. However, the only nonsignificant difference in the ash content between the roots of the two habitats was during the fall.

853-858 Download
10
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUNFLOWER IN RESPONSE TO SEASONAL VARIATIONS
FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN, GHULAM QADIR *MUMTAZ AKHTAR CHEEMA

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUNFLOWER IN RESPONSE TO SEASONAL VARIATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted to quantify the growth and development of sunflower in response to seasonal variation over two seasons i.e. spring and autumn. Sunflower hybrids were sown in a randomized complete block design. Growth and development parameters i.e. stem girth, plant height and dry matter accumulation m-2 were recorded at the time of maturity. Stem girth of spring crop was observed to be larger than that of autumn crop. The hybrid Suncorss-42 showed the maximum stem girth in spring which was significantly different from that of XF-263 showing the lowest stem girth in both the seasons. Plant height also followed the similar pattern like stem girth. The hybrid Suncross-42 produced the tallest plants with maximum dry matter and achene yield in both the seasons. Overall superiority of spring crop in terms of stem girth, plant height, dry matter accumulation and achene production over autumn crop may be attributed to the environmental factors prevailing during the crop life cycle and duration of crop in the field.

859-864 Download
11
SEED TREATMENT WITH PHYTOHORMONES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY. III. PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN GERMINATING SEEDS AND ROOTING HARACTERISTICS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO 2,4-D
F. AZAM, A. LODHI, S. FAROOQ, R. HARRY-O'KURU* AND S.H. IMAM**

SEED TREATMENT WITH PHYTOHORMONES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY. III. PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN GERMINATING SEEDS AND ROOTING HARACTERISTICS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO 2,4-D
ABSTRACT:
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a commonly used herbicide. Over the past few years, its auxin-like action has been extensively exploited for modifying plant roots to achieve enhanced bacterial colonization and N2 fixation. We adopted seed soaking as a mode of administering 2,4-D and observed changes in seed germination and rooting characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Soaking of seeds in an aqueous solution containing 2,4-D (0 - 200 g mL-1) resulted in delayed or arrested seed germination. However, the number of primary roots increased dramatically and this effect was more pronounced at higher concentrations of 2,4-D. Delay in seed germination was due to decreased metabolism of seed reserves as observed by much lowered respiration rates (loss of CO2). FTIR spectroscopy revealed a relatively slow starch degradation in 2,4-D treated seeds as observed by the intensities of the characteristic absorption peaks of a broad OH band and the fingerprint region of starch. Number of primary roots increased significantly due to soaking of seed in 2,4-D solution but showed stunted growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of roots exposed to 2,4-D in the growth medium showed a strengthening of stellar system but damaged cells at the surface. Leakage of cellular material from damaged cells caused an increased colonization of roots by bacteria (revealed by SEM) and their subsequent proliferation in the rooting medium.

865-874 Download
12
EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONES ON SHOOT PROLIFERATION OF ROSE CULTIVARS
M. JAFAR JASKANI, M. QASIM, JAVERIA SHERANI1, ZAHOOR HUSSAIN AND HAIDER ABBAS2

EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONES ON SHOOT PROLIFERATION OF ROSE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Roses are commonly propagated asexually but the conventional methods are tedious and time consuming with low percentage of success. Tissue culture technique has been proved as a potential tool for quick and mass propagation of several plant species. The research was conducted to explore the optimum levels of Kinetin, NAA, IAA and BA supplemented in MS medium for micropropagation of rose cvs. Queen Elizabeth and Angel Face. Maximum shoot initiation percentage (80%) was achieved with BAP 3.0 mgL-1 + Kinetin 3.0 mgL-1. Shoot length was maximum (3.0 cm) on MS medium with IAA (3.0 mgL-1) and BAP 0.3 mgL-1 BAP while on MS medium added with BAP 3.0 mgL-1 + Kinetin 3.0 mgL-1 shoots attained the length of 1.5 cm. It was also observed that young shoot tips as an experiment performed better than mature shoot tips. Overall performance of Queen Elizabeth was better than Angel Face cultivar.

875-881 Download
13
ROLE OF GA3 AND KNO3 IN IMPROVING THE FREQUENCY OF SEED GERMINATION IN PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA L.
ERCUMENT OSMAN SARIHAN, ARIF IPEK, KHALID MAHMOOD KHAWAR*, MEHMET ATAK AND BILAL GURBUZ

ROLE OF GA3 AND KNO3 IN IMPROVING THE FREQUENCY OF SEED GERMINATION IN PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA L.
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Plantago lanceolata L., obtained from crops of 1992- 2001 were treated with 100

883-887 Download
14
MORPHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF THREE POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) CULTIVARS FROM DIVERSE EXPLANTS, A PREREQUISITE IN GENETIC MANIPULATION
IQBAL HUSSAIN, AISH MUHAMMAD, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY, REHANA ASGHAR*, S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI** AND HAMID RASHID#

MORPHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF THREE POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) CULTIVARS FROM DIVERSE EXPLANTS, A PREREQUISITE IN GENETIC MANIPULATION
ABSTRACT:
In vitro response and its relationship with different varieties, explants and media were investigated in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Direct In vitro regeneration protocol from diverse explant source is a prerequisite for transformation studies. Three potato cultivars viz., Cardinal, Altamash and Diamont were selected for in vitro responses. High regeneration and morphogenic potential of different explants i.e., shoot tips, leaf discs, nodes and internodes have been tested for direct regeneration. Basal media was Murashige & Skoog and different hormonal combinations of benzyl adenine and indoleacetic acid were supplemented. Statistical analysis showed that explant source had significant effect on direct regeneration and the nodal explants had maximum regeneration. The number of shoots obtained from node was 17.6 from Cardinal followed by Diamont 14.3 and Altamash 9.0. Shoot apices also resulted in shoot regeneration comparatively better than leaf discs and internodal explants but lesser than from nodes. Most suitable medium was MS with 2.0 mg/l BAP and IAA @ 0.5 mg/l giving maximum regeneration. It was also observed that interaction of cultivars with explant and media is highly significant at P 1.0%.

889-898 Download
15
EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND EXPLANT TYPE ON IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
NYLA JABEEN*, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY, HAMID RASHID AND BUSHRA MIRZA**

EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND EXPLANT TYPE ON IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
In order to select the best tomato cultivar for Agrobacterium mediated gene transformation studies, In vitro regeneration frequency of hypocotyls, leaf disc and shoot tip of five tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum) was investigated on a regeneration medium supplemented with 1 mg/l zeatin and 0.1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid. Significant differences in regeneration capacity between genotypes and explant types, expressed as frequency of regeneration, average number of callus, shoot primordial and regenerated shoot primordial were observed. Regeneration in 5 cultivars of tomato using 3 different explant types was achieved. The regeneration capacity was strongly influenced by the cultivar and explant type. The highest regeneration capacity was observed in cultivar Riograndea (80% by using shoot tip, 64.5% by using hypocotyl and 56% by using leaf disc) from all types of explant. Of the explant types shoot tip was found the best explant source for direct shoot formation (80% shoot primordial were regenerated) while hypocotyl was found the best explant source for shoot formation through callogenesis (64.5% shoot primordia were regenerated)

899-903 Download
16
INFLUENCES OF WINTER COVER CROP RESIDUES AND TILLAGE ON COTTON LINT YIELD AND QUALITY
AYDIN UNAY, ENGIN TAN*, CAHIT KONAK AND ESEN CELEN**

INFLUENCES OF WINTER COVER CROP RESIDUES AND TILLAGE ON COTTON LINT YIELD AND QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
The cotton growing in Turkey has monoculture system and any crop is not grown in approximately five months between two cotton growing which caused lower seed cotton yield, poor lint quality and early leaf senescence. The influences of different tillage systems and winter cover crops on cotton lint yield and quality were evaluated in Aegean Region of Turkey during two cotton-growing seasons. In second year compared to the first year, the dry matter yield of cover crop root residues increased by 40% in conventional tillage system and 60% in no tillage system. Similar increases were also determined for residue organic matter yield in soil. Dry matter and organic matter in soil harvest residues were higher in conventional tillage system as compared to no tillage system. Among cover crop treatments common vetch + oat and hairy vetch + oat mixtures provided the highest dry matter and organic matter in soil harvest residues. Cotton lint yield and quality were not affected by cover crop treatments and tillage systems. Also, tillage by cover crop interactions was non-significant for cotton lint yield and quality. During the observations at 50% boll opening period of cotton, it was monitored that leaf senescence decreased under no-tillage cotton production system in both years.

905-911 Download
17
FOLIAR SPRAY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS ANTAGONISTIC TO SODIUM ? A TECHNIQUE TO INDUCE SALT TOLERANCE IN PLANTS GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
RAFIQ AHMAD AND RIZWANA JABEEN

FOLIAR SPRAY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS ANTAGONISTIC TO SODIUM ? A TECHNIQUE TO INDUCE SALT TOLERANCE IN PLANTS GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Plants growing in saline substrates show deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in the rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements necessary for growth. Potassium an essential mineral element is much affected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plants growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray material containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Plants were grown in Lysimeters filled with sandy loam and irrigated with 0.2% (EC iw 3.4 dSm-1) and 0.4% (EC iw 6.1 dSm-1) dilutions of sea salt. They were further subjected to four treatments viz., i) non - spray, ii) foliar spray with water, iii) foliar spray with 250 ppm KNO3, iv) foliar spray with 500 ppm KNO3 respectively. Those sprayed by 250 ppm KNO3 under saline conditions not only inhibited toxic effects of salt on fruit formation, but also increased their production 76.91 % by weight per plant, Spray with higher concentrations of KNO3 did not show much benefit.

913-920 Download
18
EVALUATION OF VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE MICRO-MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS IN A SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN, ALTAF HUSSAIN, M. ASHRAF, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM* AND IJAZ JAVED**

EVALUATION OF VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE MICRO-MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS IN A SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
An investigation was conducted to evaluate the micro-mineral status of pasture having high population of small ruminants in Punjab, Pakistan. Soil and forage samples were collected fortnightly for two seasons. It was found that sampling period affected soil Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se2+ while all forage minerals except Se2+ were affected by sampling times. Seasonal effects were observed in soil Fe2+, Mn2+ and Se2+, and forage Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Se2+. All soil mineral levels except Co2+ and Se2+ were found to be above the critical levels and likely to be adequate for normal growth of plants growing therein, whereas soil Co2+ and Se2+ were in severe deficient levels during both seasons for the normal plant growth. The levels of Fe2+, Zn2+, Co2+, and Se2+ in soil were higher, whereas those of Cu2+ and Mn2+were lower during winter than those during summer. Forages contained marginal deficient level of Co2+ during winter, those of Cu2+ and Se2+ during the summer. Moderate deficient levels of Fe2+and severe deficient level of Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ were found during the summer. Forage Co2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Se2+ during winter were found to be adequate for the requirements of ruminants. Consequently, grazing animals at this location need continued mineral supplementation of these elements to prevent diseases caused by nutrient deficiency, and to support optimum animal productivity.

921-931 Download
19
SUBSOIL COMPACTION EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND YIELD OF MAIZE FODDER (Zea mays L.)
†WASEEM RAZA, SOHAIL YOUSAF, ABID NIAZ*, M. KHALID RASHEED*, IQBAL HUSSAIN

SUBSOIL COMPACTION EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND YIELD OF MAIZE FODDER (Zea mays L.)
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted during the years 2003-2004 at Soil Chemistry Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, to evaluate the effect of hardpan and NPK fertilizers on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of maize fodder. Three hardpan levels, natural hardpan broken by chiseling (HP0); natural hardpan (HP1) and artificial hardpan (HP2) by compacting soil with 10 ton-loaded trolley, were developed with three levels of NPK fertilizers (half recommended; recommended and double recommended dose). The results revealed that hardpan significantly reduced the nutrients uptake and yield of maize fodder in both the years. Chisel broken hardpan (HP0) increased the yield of maize fodder 10 and 11% over natural hardpan (HP1) and 14 and 20% over artificial hardpan (HP2) during the years 2003 and 2004, respectively. Application of highest fertilizer nutrients dose significantly increased the fresh fodder yield of maize crop in both years. Lowest fodder yield was 35.6 and 29.7 ton-1 while highest yield was 40.9 and 35.6 ton-1, obtained during 2003 and 2004, respectively. Maximum nutrient use efficiency (NUE) was obtained from the field where recommended dose of NPK fertilizer (90-60-40 kg ha-1) was added, that was 77 and 65 kg maize fodder/kg nutrient in the years 2003 and 2004, respectively. The effect of hardpan and fertilizers on nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration was significant during the year 2003 while during the year 2004 this effect on nitrogen concentration in maize plants was non-significant while on phosphorus and potassium concentration was significant. Chisel broken hardpan (HP 0) increased nitrogen uptake 1.2 and 6% over natural hardpan (HP1) and 22 and 24% over artificial hardpan (HP2) during the years 2003 and 2004, respectively.

933-940 Download
20
EFFECTS OF CAPSICUM LEACHATES ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLL ACCUMULATION IN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK SEEDLINGS
ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI* AND ARIF-UZ-ZAMAN

EFFECTS OF CAPSICUM LEACHATES ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLL ACCUMULATION IN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of three concentrations of Capsicum leachates on germination, seedling growth, chlorophyll and chlorophyll supply-orientation (precursors for chlorophyll biosynthesis) in Vigna radiata var. NM98 were investigated. Capsicum leachates inhibited the germination of V. radiata seeds and also negatively affected root and shoot growths at 50 or 75%. Two-week old etiolated seedlings of V. radiata were cultured in growth chamber in one-tenth Hoagland culture solution with or without 25, 50 or 75% leachates. Leaves were harvested at 0, 6

941-947 Download
21
PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY AND TRAIT ASSOCIATION IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) LANDRACES FROM BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
M. SHAHID MASOOD, ASIF JAVAID, M. ASHIQ RABBANI AND RASHID ANWAR

PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY AND TRAIT ASSOCIATION IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) LANDRACES FROM BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A total of 298 wheat landraces collected from Baluchistan province of Pakistan were used to estimate genetic variation for 12 quantitative characters. Substantial amount of genetic diversity was displayed for most of the characters studied. Mean values of landrace genotypes were compared with three improved cultivars. The landraces were, on average, later in days to heading, having more leaf area, and taller than the cultivars but had lower values for grain filling period, spike length, spikelets /spike, biological yield, grain yield and chlorophyll content. Days to heading correlated positively with days to physiological maturity, plant height and number of spikelets per spike but negatively with 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. The important trait grain yield was negatively correlated with all the characters in this study except 1000-grain weight and biological yield.

949-957 Download
22
MITIGATION OF SALINITY EFFECTS ON SESBANIA ACULEATA L., THROUGH ENHANCED AVAILABILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE
F. AZAM, F. AZIZ*, M.H. SIAL*, M. ASHRAF* AND S. FAROOQ

MITIGATION OF SALINITY EFFECTS ON SESBANIA ACULEATA L., THROUGH ENHANCED AVAILABILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of CO2 on growth and nitrogen fixation in Sesbania aculeata L., under different salinity and water regimes. Salinization of soil led to decrease in different growth attributes of the plants. The negative effect of salinity was mitigated to a significant extent at elevated CO2. Growth and N content of the plants was better when grown at 25 than 15% soil moisture level. Roots of Sesbania were densely nodulated, the weight of nodules being reduced with the increase in salinity but more at higher moisture level. The analysis of shoot material for total N and 15N showed significant amounts of N2 being fixed by the plants. The shoot contained 23-67% of the N from fixation under different growth conditions and 33-77% from the soil. Contribution of biological fixed N to the total N content of shoots decreased with salinity but was more at higher moisture in all the cases. Enclosure of plants in the polyethylene chamber led to an increase in the contribution of biologically fixed N to the total N of shoots irrespective of the soil conditions. Soil salinity had in general a depressing effect on contribution of biologically fixed N suggesting a decrease in the rhizobial activity vis-à-vis decreased photosynthate supply to the root-zone. Significantly higher amounts of N seemed to have been fixed at 25% than 15% soil moisture. Elevated CO2 favoured N2 fixation leading to a greater contribution of fixed N to the total plant N.

959-967 Download
23
A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR GROWING THE GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSSK.) VIERH., IN THE FIELD
FAYYAZ RASOOL AND S.M. SAIFULLAH**

A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR GROWING THE GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSSK.) VIERH., IN THE FIELD
ABSTRACT:
The present paper describes a new technique for growing the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., in nurseries developed near the high tide mark of the coastal belts. It consists in making long narrow furrows with slanting walls with a 'V' shaped cross section. The propagules were sowed on the slanting sides to avoid submergence and exposure for longer periods. The results showed 98% survival rate of both propagules and seedlings.

969-972 Download
24
PREVALENCE AND DISEASE INCIDENCE OF FOLIAR BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN RICE WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM OF PUNJAB
SHAZIA IRAM AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD

PREVALENCE AND DISEASE INCIDENCE OF FOLIAR BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN RICE WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM OF PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
Foliar blight is a major biotic constraint to wheat in the Indo-Gangetic plains of south Asia, particularly in the rice-wheat system .The disease occurs as a complex of spot blotch and tan spot caused by Cochliobolus sativus and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, respectively. A survey was conducted for the assessment of foliar blight of wheat in main rice-wheat cropping areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Foliar samples were collected at the maturity stage of wheat crop from 20 key locations of 4 districts viz., Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Sialkot and Narowal. The foliar fungi were isolated using blotter method. Prevalence of foliar blight was 100% in the four surveyed districts Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. From leaf samples, Alternaria alternata, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Stemphylium spp., and Cladosporium spp., were isolated. Foliar blight was more prevalent fungal disease and it could not be differentiated from spot blotch, tan spot and alternaria blight but was confirmed in laboratory after the isolation of fungi. The source of primary inoculum in rice-wheat systems are still not well documented but indications suggest that seed may play an important role in disease transmission. Seed treatment may prove useful as a part of an integrated disease management approach based on improved resistance and good agronomy.

973-980 Download
25
EFFECT OF LOW pH ON CONTINUOUS CITRIC ACID FERMENTATION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
SIKANDER ALI, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND JAVED IQBAL

EFFECT OF LOW pH ON CONTINUOUS CITRIC ACID FERMENTATION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the effect of low pH on continuous citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger strain SK-17. Microbial cultivations were carried out in a stainless steel stirred bioreactor of 15 L total capacity. The bioconversion of glucose to citric acid at low pH was investigated on cellulose fabric. Sucrose solution (100 g/l) was made to flow through capillaries of a vertical fabric support and oxidized to citric acid at the interface. Conditions of temperature, humidity, airflow and glucose feed rate were optimised. The emerging broth contained a product concentration of 120-140 g/l of citric acid, which is higher than the expected [maximum of 109 g citric acid per 100 g sucrose] as a result of evaporative concentration during the downward flow.

981-987 Download
26
INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT BY SEED TREATMENT WITH SALICYLIC ACID AND BION
NIGHAT SARWAR, M. HAYAT ZAHID CH., IKRAMUL HAQ, AND F. F. JAMIL

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT BY SEED TREATMENT WITH SALICYLIC ACID AND BION
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of chickpea variety AUG424, susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum ciceri (FOC), were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite, thoroughly rinsed with sterilized water and immersed in two concentrations of Salicylic acid (1.0 & 1.5 mM) and Bion (0.3& 0.4mM). Seeds treated with 2% Benlate were used as standard. Control represented, the seeds soaked in distilled water. Control and treated seeds were sown in two sets of pots containing sterilized soil (experiment 1) and soil inoculated with FOC (experiment 2). Chemically treated and control seeds were grown under controlled environment. Two week old seedlings grown in sterilized soil were up rooted, roots were cut at 1cm from tip and immersed in spore suspension (106 micro conidia/ml) of FOC for three hours and then the seedlings were transplanted into new pots containing sterilized soil. Plants of both sets were observed daily for up to 40 days to record wilt disease by counting the total and wilted plants in each pot. At the end of the experiment, surviving plants were cut at collar region for observing the fungus growth inside the vascular tissues. Fresh and dry weight of the shoots and roots were recorded. Wilt disease was significantly reduced with all the treatments in both experiments. On the basis of disease rating done after root cutting, wilt incidence was significantly less in chemically treated plants as compared to control ones. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were higher in treated plants as compared to control ones especially in plants grown from Bion treated seeds.

989-995 Download
27
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MENTHA PIPERITA,PISUM SATIVUM AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA
SABAHAT SAEED AND PERWEEN TARIQ*

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MENTHA PIPERITA,PISUM SATIVUM AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA
ABSTRACT:
The juices of leaves and stem of Mentha piperita (peppermint), skin and seeds of Pisum sativum (garden pea), skin and pulp of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) were screened for antibacterial activities against 56 isolates belonging to 11 different species of Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli (19), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9), Salmonella typhi

997-1001 Download
28
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS FUNGAL STRAINS FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENT FOR THEIR USE IN BIOREMEDIATION
RANI FARYAL* AND ABDUL HAMEED**

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS FUNGAL STRAINS FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENT FOR THEIR USE IN BIOREMEDIATION
ABSTRACT:
Bioremediation is an inexpensive mean to remove hazardous metal ions from the contaminated effluent. Effluent from the local textile industry was characterized for the incidence of fungal strains and its physiochemical properties were investigated. Sampling was done spanning a distance of five km from the effluent's discharge point. Effluent was analyzed and highest colony forming units per mL were found at the end point (5x103). Penicillium, Rhizopus and Candida were the three main fungal genera found in such alkaline pH where as Drechslera sp., and Rhodotorula sp., were in low number. Effluent was also analyzed for Mn, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Concentration of all these metal ions in the effluent were above the recommended N.E.Q.S. There was increase in TSS, TDS, BOD,COD,EC, colour and metal ions concentration.

1003-1008 Download
29
RUST FUNGUS PUCCINIA SMILACIS ON SMILAX EXCELSA IN ANATOLIA
ELSAD HÜSEYIN* AND MAKBULE KARAHAN

RUST FUNGUS PUCCINIA SMILACIS ON SMILAX EXCELSA IN ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
Puccinia smilacis Schwein., member of the family Pucciniaceae (Uredinales, Basidiomycota) is reported for the first time on Smilax excelsa L., from Turkey. The morphological and microscopical features of this fungus are described and illustrated based on Turkish samples.

1009-1013 Download
30
PROPOLIS EFFECT ON SCLEROTIAL FORMATIONS OF MORCHELLA CONICA PERS.
P. GÜLER*, S. BOZCUK**, F. MUTLU*** AND K. SORKUN**

PROPOLIS EFFECT ON SCLEROTIAL FORMATIONS OF MORCHELLA CONICA PERS.
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the effects of propolis at different concentrations on sclerotial formations of Morchella conica Pers., were examined. The propolis used was obtained from three different regions of Turkey. The propolis extracts were prepared at 0.5

1015-1022 Download
31
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
FOUZIA YAQUB AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
ABSTRACT:
Trichoderma harzianum and T. longibrachiatum were found to inhibit the in vitro growth of S. rolfsii and produced coiling around mycelium of S. rolfsii resulting in lysis of hyphae. T. pseudokoningii, T. polysporum and Gliocladium virens also inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii. Where Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans, A. sulphureus, A. parasiticus, A. tamarii, A. versicolar, A. versiclar and A. wentii were used, colonies of Aspergillus spp., and S. rolfsii met each other but S. rolfsii later overgrew the colonies of Aspergillus spp.

1015-1022 Download
32
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF MANGO DECLINE IN SINDH
MUHAMMAD ALI KHANZADA, A. MUBEEN LODHI AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF MANGO DECLINE IN SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Mycelial growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae was significantly inhibited by Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl when used @ 1 ppm a.i. or more. Alliete was effective at relatively high concentrations i.e., @ 1000 and 10000 ppm a.i., whereas, Copxykil, Cuprocaffaro and Thiovit failed to inhibit the mycelial growth of L. theobromae. In field experiment, Carbendazim was found to be more effective than Thiophanate-methyl and Alliete in reducing the fungal infection in mango plants, suppressing the gum exudation, dieback and wilting resulting in significant enhancement in vegetative growth of plants.

1023-1030 Download
33
HYGROPHORUS MARZUOLUS, A NEW REPORT FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

HYGROPHORUS MARZUOLUS, A NEW REPORT FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Hygrophorus marzuolus (Fr.) Bres., is reported for the first time from Gilgit Valley, Pakistan. This species is characterized by the production of white fruiting body with black-gray cap and ellipsoidal spores that are 6-8x4-5µm in size.

1031-1032 Download
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