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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 7
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1
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF FAMILY SOLANACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF FAMILY SOLANACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 20 species representing 7 genera viz., Datura, Lycium, Hyoscymus, Nicotiana, Physalis, Solanum and Withania of the family Solanaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Solanaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal or sub-oblate to sub-prolate, tricolporate, colpi generally with costae, colpal membrane psilate to sparsely or densely granulated, ora la-longate, sexine as thick as nexine, or slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface commonly scabrate to verrucate or striate to reticulate rarely rugulate-fossulate. On the basis of exine pattern 6 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Datura fastuosa-type, Lycium dasytemum-type, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia-type, Physalis divaricata-type, Solanum nigrum-type and Withania somnifera-type. Pollen morphology of the family is significantly helpful at the generic and specific level.

2243-2256 Download
2
PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE GENUS SALIX L. (SALICACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI, SYED ANEEL GILANI1, SYEDA JAVARIA GILANI, KISHWAR NAZIR SULTANA2 AND MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN

PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE GENUS SALIX L. (SALICACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study is confined to the plynological study of the Salix L., of Pakistan. In this study the genus Salix L., has shown the different shapes of the pollen grains, such as the circular, elliptic, broadly and narrowly elliptic and triangular. Similarly the general outline was oblate to circular in the polar view and triangular to circular in equatorial view that ranged between 14 – 28 m in polar axis (P) and 15 – 25 m in equatorial axis (E). Considerable morphological variations have been observed in two species, viz., S. persica and S. australior in which the pollen grains were broadly elliptic in equatorial view whereas in the other species they were elliptic-obtuse in the equatorial view.

2257-2263 Download
3
A SURVEY OF WEEDS FOUND IN COTTON FIELDS OF THE KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RABIA ASMA MEMON, G. RAZA BHATTI*, SHAHIDA KHALID**, RASHIDA SOOMRO* AND SHAKEEL AHMED*

A SURVEY OF WEEDS FOUND IN COTTON FIELDS OF THE KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey of weeds of cotton fields from 8 Talukas of the district Khairpur has been carried out during 1999-2001. Thirty-six weed species belonging to 16 families are reported. The weed communities were recorded from various Talukas on the basis of density analysis. The most frequently occurring weeds of cotton crop placed in the “Assertive” category are Trianthema portulacastrum (76.88%), Dactyloctenium aegyptium (73.75%), Brachiaria eruciformis (70.63%), Corchorus aestuans (68.75%), Euphorbia serpens (67.50%) and Setaria pumila (61.25%). A similarity index (SI) of species has been determined. Most common family representing cotton weeds is Poaceae having 45.74 FIV.

2265-2274 Download
4
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SUDHAN GALI AND GANGA CHOTTI HILLS, DISTRICT BAGH, AZAD KASHMIR
RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI, MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN, SYED ANEEL GILANI*, KISHWAR SULTANA* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF**

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SUDHAN GALI AND GANGA CHOTTI HILLS, DISTRICT BAGH, AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The aims of this paper are the study of plants, traditionally employed by inhabitants of Sudhan Gali and Ganga Chotti Hills, district Bagh, Azad Kashmir. Various threrapeutic applications of 33 plant species belonging to 29 genera and 17 families and phonological observations were also made.

2275-2283 Download
5
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF PLANTS OF MIANWALI DISTRICT PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI, SYED ANEEL GILANI* AND M. ASAD GHUFRAN

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF PLANTS OF MIANWALI DISTRICT PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Medicinally important plants are necessary for the production of the various drugs and curing diseases. The local people use 26 species of the vascular plants of the Mianwali district for medicine, furniture and agricultural implements and as the food. The local community is extremely knowledgeable about the local plants but unfortunately this knowledge is going to be lost as traditional culture is disappearing. The information obtained while studying the flora of Mianwali District, Punjab is presented here. For each plant its botanical name, family name, vernacular names and method of using this plant is given. Total of 21 species belonging to 16 families were recorded for the medicinal use and five species utilized for agricultural implements and for other purposes.

2285-2290 Download
6
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF SELECTED MEDICINAL WILD PLANTS OF DISTRICT ATTOCK, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI AND MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF SELECTED MEDICINAL WILD PLANTS OF DISTRICT ATTOCK, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study includes indigenous knowledge of selected medicinal wild plants of District Attock. This study is mainly focused on traditional uses of plants of the area used by local people. For each species the information is provided regarding scientific names, local name, family name, plant part used and medicinal importance. A total of 49 species belonging to 29 families are reported from the study area. During the course of study 10 Hakims (Specialists) and about 80 local people were interviewed.

2291-2299 Download
7
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF MAHAL KOHISTAN (KHIRTHAR NATIONAL PARK)
ABDUL QADIR PANHWAR* AND HIDAYTULLAH ABRO**

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF MAHAL KOHISTAN (KHIRTHAR NATIONAL PARK)
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mahal Kohistan (Khirthar National Park) revealed that the local people use 50 species of plants in traditional health care system and miscellaneous uses. Plants have healing powers to combat various ailments viz., anaemia, arthritis, asthma, biliousness, boils, bronchitis, cholera, colic, constipation, diabetes, diarrhoea, dipsia, dropsy, dysentery, dyspepsia, enlargement of spleen, epilepsy, epistaxis, erysipelas, fevers, gripping, hemicrania, hepatitis, hiecoughs, hydrophobia, impotence, jaundice, laryngitis, leprosy, leucoderma, leucoma, mania, mastitis, measles, nyctalopia, otalgia, ophthalmia, piles, rashes, ringworm, scabies, scurvy, stomatitis, syphilis, tumours, tuberculosis, toothache, ulcers and vertigo. Miscellaneous uses include (i) agricultural implements (ploughs, yokes), shafts, beams, pins (ii) turnery, household articles, dippers, stirrers, spoons, chiks (door-screens), kilks (pens), huts (pillars), doors, cots, frames, mats, sandals, fans, baskets, brooms, chhaj (winnowing fans), ropes, cordage, making shawls and handkerchiefs, stuffing pillows and quilts (iii) building items (pillars, beams, rafters), (iv) foods, vegetables, pickles, culinary (v) fodder for cattle, goats, sheep, camels, horses, asses and onagers (vi) fencing, hedging (vii) tanning leather, dyeing (viii) cementing broken pottery (shreds), (ix) fuel, tinders (x) Magico-religious, cultural (tattooing), and rosaries.

2301-2315 Download
8
EUPHORIOXYLON THANOBOLENSIS SP. NOV. A NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL WOOD FAMILY SAPINDACEAE FROM THANOBOLA KHAN DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
BASIR AHMED, MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT, NABEELA SHAH AND NOOR-UL-AIN SOOMRO

EUPHORIOXYLON THANOBOLENSIS SP. NOV. A NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL WOOD FAMILY SAPINDACEAE FROM THANOBOLA KHAN DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Euphorioxylon thanobolensis sp.nov., a new silicified wood has been described from Tertiary Manchhar formation exposed near Thanobola khan, district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The xylotomical features of the present fossil show close resemblance to the genus Euphoria of the family Sapindaceae. The absence of growth rings indicates that plants were growing in tropical type of climate. This is the first report from this locality.

2317-2325 Download
9
SHOREOXYLON RANIKOTENSIS SP. NOV., A NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL WOOD DIPTEROCARPIACEAE FROM RANIKOT FORT AREA, DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
MAJEEDA SHAR, S.A.S. TRIMIZI AND BASIR AHMED

SHOREOXYLON RANIKOTENSIS SP. NOV., A NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL WOOD DIPTEROCARPIACEAE FROM RANIKOT FORT AREA, DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Shoreoxylon ranikotensis sp. nov. a new silicified wood fossil has been described from Quaternary deposits of Dada formation exposed near Ranikot fort area, district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. (Lat. 25o.45’ – 26o.00’ N. Long. 67o.45’ – 68o.00’). The xylotomical attributes of the present fossil wood show close affinities with the genus Shorea of the family Dipteriocarpiaceae. The mode of occurrence of this fossil indicates that the plant from which this fossil wood had developed was not growing in situ but transported from some other area, into the present location.

2327-2335 Download
10
ANOGEISSOXYLON REHMANENSE SP. NOV., A NEW FOSSIL SPECIES OF THE FAMILY COMBRETACEAE FROM REHMAN DHORO, DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
BASIR AHMED, MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT AND NOOR-UL-AIN SOOMRO

ANOGEISSOXYLON REHMANENSE SP. NOV., A NEW FOSSIL SPECIES OF THE FAMILY COMBRETACEAE FROM REHMAN DHORO, DISTRICT JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Anogeissoxylon rehmanense sp.nov., a new silicified wood is described from Tertiary deposits of Bara formation exposed near Rehman dhoro district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The xylotomical features of the present fossil show close affinities with the genus Anogeissus of the family Combretaceae. The modern comparable forms of this taxon indicate a tropical climate in which the plant in question was growing.

2337-2344 Download
11
EVALUATION OF SEMI-DWARF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS
SAIMA ARAIN, K.D. JAMALI, M.H. NAQVI, A.M. SOOMRO, M.A. ARAIN AND SYED ASHRAF ALI

EVALUATION OF SEMI-DWARF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS
ABSTRACT:
Yield and its component studies were conducted for semi-dwarf F6 wheat breeding material. Sixteen genotypes and two checks viz., Sarsabz and Kiran-95 were selected for these studies. The data recorded for days to heading, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spikelet, number of grains per spike, grain yield of main spike

2345-2348 Download
12
BREEDING FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN SEMI-DWARF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
KARIM DINO JAMALI, SAIMA ARAIN, M.H. NAQVI, A.M. SOOMRO, M.A. ARAIN AND SYED ASHRAF ALI

BREEDING FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN SEMI-DWARF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Yield and yield component studies were conducted for 15 advanced lines/genotypes including three check varieties viz. Sarsabz, Kiran-95 and Soghat-90. The data were recorded for the plant height, days to heading, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spikelet, number of grains per spike, grain yield of main spike

2349-2352 Download
13
EFFECT OF SOME WILD PLANTS LEAVES AND FLOWER POWDER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF RICE CV IRRI-6
M.A. AHMEDANI1, S. YASMIN2, M.A. ARAIN1, K.H. SHAH1, M. SUHAIL2 AND M.A. NAHYOON1

EFFECT OF SOME WILD PLANTS LEAVES AND FLOWER POWDER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF RICE CV IRRI-6
ABSTRACT:
Pot studies were conducted to observe the effect of indigenous plants such as Prosopis glandulosa, Cassia angustifolia, Azadirechta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus on the growth, yield & quality parameters of rice cultivar IRR1-6. Powdered form of indigenous plants (leaves and flowers) was incorporated @ 2000 kg/ha into the soils belonging to four cropping histories i.e. orchard, kallar grass, wheat & rice fields. Pots were arranged in RCB design with four replicates. The data were collected on growth, yield and grain and straw nitrogen contents. The plant treatments, applied to all the four soils resulted in diversified environments for the rice crop parameters. Variability however depended on the nature of soils used. Among the soils tested orchard and wheat soils were found to provide most favourite soil rhizosphare for rice growth in the form of good soil structural conditions & high organic matter contents. Treatment with P. glandulosa has a profound effect on parameters of rice growth and yield as compared to the other treatments. Among rice quality parameters grain and straw nitrogen contents were improved over the control due to the wild plants treatment under various soils.

2353-2360 Download
14
ASSOCIATION OF SEED YIELD AND SOME IMPORTANT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
IQBAL SAEED, GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK* AND ROSHAN ZAMIR

ASSOCIATION OF SEED YIELD AND SOME IMPORTANT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Forty-three mungbean genotypes/accessions were studied for association of seed yield per plant with some important morphological traits i.e., lower node of the pod bearing peduncle, nodes on main stem, average internodal length, pod bearing branches per plant, pod clusters per plant, pod clusters on main stem and pod clusters on branches. Seed yield per plant showed a positive and significant association with pod bearing branches per plant, pod clusters per plant and pod clusters on branches. The pod bearing branches per plant and pod clusters on branches had a negligible and negative direct effect on total correlation respectively, but their indirect contribution through pod clusters per plant towards total correlation was positive and high. The high direct effect and total correlation of pod clusters per plant confirmed its important role in selection for high yielding genotypes. The total variability calculated through multiple correlation in the population for yield improvement accounted for by pod bearing branches per plant, pod clusters per plant and pod clusters on branches was 0.698% compared to 0.793% accounted for by all the traits. The pod clusters per plant showed a significant partial regression coefficient with the seed yield per plant. High heritability was observed for seed yield per plant, node of the first peduncle, pod clusters on branches and pod clusters per plant. The present results revealed that the greater number of pod clusters per plant could be used relatively better selection criterion.

2361-2366 Download
15
GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SOME MOTHBEAN [VIGNA ACONITIFOLIA (JACQ) MARECHAL] GENOTYPES
MUHAMMAD YAQOOB1*, NAJIBULLAH2 AND PERVEZ KHALIQ2

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SOME MOTHBEAN [VIGNA ACONITIFOLIA (JACQ) MARECHAL] GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Mothbean crop has entirely been eliminated from the Punjab and NWFP provinces while it is very rarely and partially grown in some part of Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan with very poor yield production. The main reason for low production of this crop is non-availability of high yielding disease resistant varieties. An effort has been made to collect and screen out mothbean germplasm for high yield and resistance to disease. For this purpose a set of 66 mothbean germplasm accessions (collected from various part of country) was evaluated at Agricultural Research Institute, D.I.Khan during 2004. Most of the accessions were usually found a mixture of several variable genotypes. High yielding, desirable, plants were screened for further investigations. The materials thus selected, were again planted during successive year (2005) in a triplicated randomized complete block design for studying genetic variability in various morphological traits. The results revealed a significant variation in all the characters except number of clusters per plant. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) were higher in magnitude then genotypic co-efficient of variability (GCV) indicating the dominant influence of environment on the traits under study. High h2 (86.08 %)was calculated for number of pods per plant.

2367-2372 Download
16
GENETIC RESISTANCE AND SELECTION RESPONSE IN MOTHBEAN AGAINST YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS DISEASE
MUHAMMAD YAQOOB1, A.M. HAQQANI2 AND NAJIBULLAH3

GENETIC RESISTANCE AND SELECTION RESPONSE IN MOTHBEAN AGAINST YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
Mothbean is severely attacked by Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) disease. The virus is considered to be transmitted through vector whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn) a sucking insect of Vigna group. The only way to overcome this problem is development of disease resistant varieties. The local land races are highly susceptible to this dread disease. To purify the available germ plasms accessions a country-wide survey was conducted and some 66 lines of mothbean including the accession from PGRI, NARC, Islamabad were collected for screening against YMV. All the 66 germ plasm accession were planted at Agricultural Research Institute, D.I.Khan during 2004. Most of the lines were totally destroyed by YMV. Some desirable tolerant, moderately tolerant, resistant and highly resistant plant were selected. The seed thus obtained was again planted during next year 2005 along with susceptible checks for confirmation of host plant resistance and study of selection response of mothbean against YMV. The disease data were recorded on 1-9 rating scale. The observations revealed that there exists greater genetic variability in mothbean lines against their response to yellow mosaic virus. The results further revealed that selection response was quite positive. The lines showing resistance in previous year had again shown the resistance and vice versa.

2373-2377 Download
17
GENETIC EXPLOITATION OF LENTIL THROUGH INDUCED MUTATIONS
J.A. FAZAL ALI AND N.A. SHAIKH

GENETIC EXPLOITATION OF LENTIL THROUGH INDUCED MUTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic exploitation through induced mutations has been very instrumental in improvement of crops. Genetic diversity in lentil was created in a local variety Masoor- 85 and exotic cultivar ICARDA- 8 by treating with gamma rays ranging from 100–600 Gy. Desirable segregants were selected in M2 for high yield, earliness and 100 grain weight. These mutants were confirmed for their yield contributing factors and growth behavior in M3 generation. True breeding lines were evaluated for yield potential. The promising mutant strains giving better yield potential were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in different station yield trials. Mutant strain AEL 49/20 produced highest grain yield in zonal trials conducted under different agro climatic zones in Sindh province. Observing its better performance, AEL 49/20 was promoted in National uniform yield trials, where it ranked first in the province of Sindh. On the basis of outstanding performance it is approved and released as the first lentil variety “NIA- MASOOR -05” in the province of Sindh for general cultivation. In this study enhancement of genetic potential for improvement of lentil is discussed.

2379-2388 Download
18
SCENARIO OF GLADIOLUS PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
TARIQ RIAZ, SALIK NAWAZ KHAN* AND ARSHAD JAVAID

SCENARIO OF GLADIOLUS PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Consumption of cut flowers is going to increase day by day in Pakistan. It is related with the rising living standards, education and electronic media that have promoted this business in recent years. The production and consumption of cut flowers has increased over the past decade and this increase is expected to continue. However, local consumption and demand is yet to be satisfied. Gladiolus is one of the most popular cut flowers. The consumers appreciate it due to its magnificent inflorescence. A survey of the Punjab was carried out during 2004-2005 to investigate the production status of Gladiolus in the province in comparison to other cut flowers. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the growers and sellers of the Punjab. The results of the survey revealed that varied agro-climatic conditions in Punjab could allow commercial cultivation of all varieties of Gladiolus flowers either in open field or under green house conditions. However, the commercial cultivation of Gladiolus in the country has so far been restricted to limited areas of the province mainly due to domestic market for these flowers. Comprehensive survey indicates Gladiolus is next to roses in preference by the consumers in various cities of the Punjab.

2389-2393 Download
19
IN VITRO RE-GENERATION OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) FROM SHOOT TIPS OF MATURE TREES
ROSHAN ZAMIR, N. ALI*, S.T. SHAH, T. MUHAMMAD AND S.A. SHAH

IN VITRO RE-GENERATION OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) FROM SHOOT TIPS OF MATURE TREES
ABSTRACT:
Micropropagation of guava through shoot tip culture from five years old bearing plants was carried out at Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture, Peshawar. Shoot tips after sterilization was cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP and L-glutamin. Maximum number of shoots (72 %) was developed in to plantlets when MS was supplemented with BAP 1 mg/L and 500 mg/L L-glutamine. MS control and BAP 1mg/L combined with glutamine 250 mg/L gave minimum (22%) plantlets. Maximum (3.5) number of shoots per culture was found in 0.5 mg/L BAP alongwith 500 mg/L L-glutamine. MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/L IAA + 2.5 mg/L IBA gave maximum (54) plants rooted with average number of roots (3.8) per plantlet. The In-vitro produced plantlets were successfully established in soil.

2395-2398 Download
20
BREEDING HIGH YIELDING DESI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
G.S.S. KHATTAK, I. SAEED AND R. ZAMIR

BREEDING HIGH YIELDING DESI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of the 2 local desi chickpea varieties viz., Pb-91and C-44 were irradiated through gamma rays at 200 and 300 Gy doses during the year 2000. The M1 to M4 generations were raised from 2000-2001 to 2003-2004 at NIFA experimental field, Peshawar. The selected high yielding mutants were evaluated in replicated yield trials during 2004-2005 for yield and some important agronomic traits. The mutants derived from Pb-91 ranged for days to 50% flowering, 90% pods maturity and plant height from 149 to 156 days

2399-2405 Download
21
STUDY OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF SPRING WHEAT
SHOUKAT ALI MANGI, MAHBOOB ALI SIAL*, BASHIR AHMED ANSARI AND M. AFZAL ARAIN*

STUDY OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF SPRING WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The estimation of heritability of important agronomic characters has a great significance with selection for superior genotypes. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate 7 F4 progenies of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed from 8 parental lines at the experimental field of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam. Six different yield contributing characters viz., plant height, number of tillers per plant, spike length, number of grains per spike, seed index (1000-grain weight) and grain yield per plant were studied. All the genotypes differed significantly (p>0.01) from each other for all the measured characters; which indicated the existence of genetic variability among the material studied. The progenies Marvi-2000 x Soghat-90 and Khirman x RWM-9313 have proven to be the best combiner progeny with potential to transfer the highest heritability (h2 b.s) associated with high genetic advance (GA) for yield and its related characters. Therefore these transgressive segregates could be selected towards the improvement of wheat crop.

2407-2413 Download
22
AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR TERMINAL HEAT STRESS
MUHAMMAD IRFAQ KHAN, TILA MOHAMMAD, FAZLE SUBHAN, MUHAMAD AMIN AND SYED TARIQ SHAH

AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR TERMINAL HEAT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar, to identify high yielding bread wheat genotypes against terminal heat stress in the central agro ecological zone of NWFP. The genotypes included in the trial were selected on the basis of yield performance and other agronomic characters under normal and late planting conditions from NIFA Observation Nursery (NON) sown during 2001-2002. For the confirmation of their desired traits the selected genotypes were again planted under the same sowing conditions during 2002-2003 using two different sowing dates as a separate factor. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that significant differences in days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, biological yield, spikes per m2

2415-2425 Download
23
PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT COTTON VARIETIES UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF JAMSHORO
TAHIRA JATT, H. ABRO, A.S. LARIK* AND Z.A. SOOMRO*

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT COTTON VARIETIES UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF JAMSHORO
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was laid out in complete block design with three replications at the department of Botany, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan during 2007 for assessing the performance of commercial cotton cultivars viz., CIM-707, CIM-443, CIM-506, CIM-446, TH-3/83, FH-901, Chnadi-95 and Reshmi. The data was recorded on plant height, sympodia/plant, bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant. Significantly maximum plant height (127.5 cm) and sympodia/plant (23.0) were displayed by variety TH-3/83 while the maximum seed cotton yield per plant (48.5 g) was shown by CIM-446 followed by TH-3/83. Maximum number of bolls/plant (18.56) and boll weight (5.11) were recorded for varieties FH-901 and Reshmi respectively. Correlation studies revealed that seed cotton yield/plant was significantly associated with sympodia/plant (0.379**), bolls/plant (0.509**) and boll weight (0.329*) which contributed 14.20%

2427-2430 Download
24
ESTABLISHMENT OF CALLUS AND SUSPENSION CULTURE IN JATROPHA CURCAS
RASHIDA SOOMRO AND RABIA ASMA MEMON*

ESTABLISHMENT OF CALLUS AND SUSPENSION CULTURE IN JATROPHA CURCAS
ABSTRACT:
Callus cultures were initiated from leaf and hypocotyl explants isolated from 4 days old seedling of Jatropha curcas L., on Murashige & Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with different growth regulator formulations including 2,4-D, BA, GA3, and coconut milk. Excellent growth of callus was obtained in medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L 2, 4-D alone and with 2% v/v coconut milk in hypocotyl explants, Callus produced from hypocotyl explants grew faster during 7 to 30 days of culture then stabilized at a low growth rate. Calli cultured on this medium showed 8 fold increase in fresh weight by the fourth week of incubation. Callus was soft, friable, globular, lush green in color. Hypocotyl explant and 0.5mg/L 2, 4-D proved to be most effective in inducing of callus on a large scale in short period of time. The friable green callus was then used for establishment of homogeneous and chlorophyllous suspension culture. Maximum growth of suspension culture was achieved in medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L 2, 4-D, with initial inoculum cell density of 1%. The growth rates of cells were initially slow but as the cultures proceeded, the growth increased significantly and accumulated a great amount of fresh weight (5fold) over a period of 21 days then the growth of cells was stable for 30 days. The fresh weight was balanced in terms of dry weight which almost corresponded to fresh weight. Total chlorophyll content in cell culture varied between 50.7 to 75.7ug/g FW with in growth cycle of these cultures.

2431-2441 Download
25
HETEROSIS AND HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SUPERIOR SEGREGANTS SELECTION IN CHICKPEA
AHMED BAKHSH*, SHAHID RIAZ MALIK**, UMER IQBAL**, AND WAHEED ARSHAD*

HETEROSIS AND HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SUPERIOR SEGREGANTS SELECTION IN CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Nine F1 hybrids of chickpea and their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design to estimate heterosis and heritability of grain yield and yield components. Significant differences among genotypes were found in grain yield and seven yield components. The magnitude of heterosis varied significantly between hybrids. Heterosis over mid parent in primary and secondary branches ranged from 12.31% to 56.82% and from 11.19% to 93.03%, respectively. Heterotic effects for 100 seed weight, grain yield per plant and biological yield per plant respectively varied from 18.78% to 32.96%, 4.05% to128.49% and 9.25% to 116.82%. Balkasar x C-235 exhibited maximum heterosis and heterobeltiosis for primary branches, secondary branches, grain yield plant-1 and biological yield plant-1, whereas, Punjab-1xILC482 expressed maximum heterosis (103.97%) and heterobeltiosis (75.80%) for number of pods plant-1. Broad sense heritability for different traits ranged from 45.23% to 85.76%. Maximum heritability was recorded for number of seed per pod and 100 seed weight. High heterosis with moderate heritability and high genetic advance obtained for number of pods plant-1 provide opportunity for identification of superior segregates from Punjab-1xILC482, C-235xBittal-98 and BalkasarxC-235.

2443-2449 Download
26
EXPLOITATION OF EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS MUNGBEAN GERMPLASM FOR IMPROVING SEED YIELD AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUE SADIQ, SAJJAD HAIDAR* GHULAM ABBAS, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA

EXPLOITATION OF EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS MUNGBEAN GERMPLASM FOR IMPROVING SEED YIELD AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
ABSTRACT:
Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is an important short duration kharif pulse crop in Pakistan. To enhance genetic variability for large seed size, hybridization between exotic and indigenous germplasm was initiated at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad in 1980 to improve the yield potential. F1 were irradiated and top crosses were also made. The improvement programme has culminated in the development of large seeded varieties with high yield potential i.e., NM-51, NM-54, NM-92 and NM-98. A new high yielding, having large seed size and disease resistance mungbean variety i.e., NIAB MUNG 2006 has been approved during 2006 by the Punjab Seed Council for general cultivation in the irrigated tract of the Punjab province. Due to high yield potential, short duration and disease resistance, these varieties were adopted at a faster rate and are grown on 90% of mungbean acreage in the country thus curtailing mungbean import and enhancing mungbean production in the country. The achievements of mungbean improvement programme are discussed.

2451-2456 Download
27
SUSTAINABLE RICE PRODUCTION THROUGH THE USE OF MUTATION BREEDING
H.R. BUGHIO, M.A. ASAD, I.A. ODHANO, M.S. BUGHIO, M.A. KHAN AND N.N. MASTOI

SUSTAINABLE RICE PRODUCTION THROUGH THE USE OF MUTATION BREEDING
ABSTRACT:
The most significant achievements in rice breeding at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, Pakistan through mutagenesis are the evolution of four high yielding and better quality varieties. These varieties have been released by the Provincial Seed Council, Government of Sindh for general cultivation. The first rice variety “Shadab” was released in 1987 by treating the seeds of IR6 with chemical mutagen, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS 0.5%). Its yield potential is 7 tones/ha and is endowed with high yield and fine grain quality. Shadab is being cultivated on more than 0.06 million hectares and has contributed 21 million US$ as additional income in provincial economy. The 2nd variety in the series was “Shua-92” evolved by irradiating the seeds of IR8 with 15 Gy fast neutrons. In addition to high yield and fine grain quality, Shua-92 also possesses salt tolerance and was released in 1993. The yield potential of Shua-92 is 8.5 tones/ha and it is being cultivated over an area of 0.16 million hectares in the Sindh province. The cultivation of Shua-92 has contributed an additional income of 223 million US$ in provincial economy. The 3rd variety was developed by exposing the seeds of rice variety Jajai-77 (aromatic) to 200 Gy gamma rays and Sugdasi type “Khushboo-95” a short stature endowed with high yield was released in 1996. Due to its short stature, it escapes from lodging and produces higher yields with better inputs. The yield potential of Khushboo-95 is 5.5 tones/ha and it occupies 0.02 million hectares and has provided an additional income of 8 million US$ to farmers. The 4th rice variety “Sarshar” was developed by irradiating the seeds of IR8 with 150 Gy gamma rays. It is a high yielding variety with fine grain quality characteristics and is endowed with tolerance to shattering and insect pests. The yield potential of Sarshar is 9.5 tones/ha and it occupies an area of 0.08 million hectares. It has contributed an additional income of 32 million US$ to farmers. The rice varieties developed by NIA, Tando Jam, have significantly enhanced the yield per hectare and uplifted the socio-economic conditions of the farmers in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan.

2457-2461 Download
28
IMPROVEM ENT OF GRAIN YIELD IN RICE VARIETY BASMATI-370 (ORYZA SATIVA L.), THROUGH MUTAGENESIS
H.R. BUGHIO, I.A. ODHANO, M.A. ASAD AND M.S. BUGHIO

IMPROVEM ENT OF GRAIN YIELD IN RICE VARIETY BASMATI-370 (ORYZA SATIVA L.), THROUGH MUTAGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
A high yielding rice mutant variety Mehak has been developed from a fine aromatic variety Basmati-370, through gamma rays (150 Gy). The mutant variety Mehak was found significantly better than its mother variety Basmati-370 in respect of yield and yield contributing traits. It has shown consistency in better paddy yield than all the mutant lines including its parent and local check in various micro, preliminary and advanced yield trials at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam for three years. On the basis of three years yield it has shown 80% increase in paddy yield over its parent Basmati-370 and 40% yield increase than check variety Super Basmati. The mutant variety is also inherited with excellent aroma and other physico-chemical properties of check varieties Super Basmati and Basmati-2000.

2463-2466 Download
29
IN VITRO CLONAL PROPAGATION AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FIELD ESTABLISHED STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERTONI
MUHAMMAD RAFIQ1*, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT1, SHER MUHAMAMD MANGRIO2, HABIB AHMED NAQVI1 AND IQBAL AHMED QARSHI3

IN VITRO CLONAL PROPAGATION AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FIELD ESTABLISHED STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERTONI
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to optimize growth medium and growth conditions for In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni through nodular stem sections. Varying concentrations of different growth regulators BAP, Kn, and IAA were applied through growth medium to assess their effects on shoots development while NAA and IBA were applied to assess their role in root formation. Although all plant growth regulators promoted shoot formation, maximum shoot formation was observed by supplementing 2.0 mgL-1 BAP. In contrast 0.5 mgL-1 NAA caused the maximum root formation in nodular stem sections of S. rebaudiana. Furthermore, survival rate of regenerated plants were 92 and 83% during hardening and shifting to green house, respectively. Various biochemical attributes (carbohydrates, proteins) in the leaves were also measured and compared with leaf extract of Egyptian cultivar to assess its quality.

2467-2474 Download
30
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH YIELDING CANOLA QUALITY RAPESEED VARIETY DURR-E-NIFA FOR GENERAL CULTIVATION IN NWFP
SYED ANWAR SHAH, R. ZAMIR AND S. T. SHAH

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH YIELDING CANOLA QUALITY RAPESEED VARIETY DURR-E-NIFA FOR GENERAL CULTIVATION IN NWFP
ABSTRACT:
An Australian canola genotype ‘Dunkeld’ and a local rapeseed mutant variety ‘Abasin-95’ were hybridized at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar during Rabi

2475-2481 Download
31
DETECTION OF POLYMORPHISM IN RICE GERMPLASM USING RAPD MARKER
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, ZIA-UL-QAMAR AND MUHAMMAD RASHID

DETECTION OF POLYMORPHISM IN RICE GERMPLASM USING RAPD MARKER
ABSTRACT:
Preliminary studies on 34 rice accessions (aromatic and non-aromatic) originated from South and Southeast Asian countries were analyzed for genetic diversity applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Amplification of genomic DNA from these accessions using 14 random primers produced a variety of RAPD patterns. UPGMA based cluster analysis resolved the accessions into three major clusters ranging from 47.83 to 97.52 similarity coefficients. The least similarity was shown by accession YAU-R2-1 which shared with none of the other clusters (a red pericarp accession belonging to China). The mutants in cluster A (Pakistani origin) showed more than 94% similarity among themselves whereas the accessions belonging to Philippines were grouped in two clusters. Cluster B consisted of 15 accessions (land races) with similarity coefficients ranging from 62.0 to 93.6% while 6 accessions were grouped in cluster C (mutants along with their parents) with similarity coefficients ranging from 72.9% and 87.1%. This might be an indicative of a relatively broader genetic base as compared to the germplasm belonging to Pakistan. This study demonstrated the ability of RAPD markers to reliably differentiate between different accessions of diverse origin and also represented an initial but important step in using RAPD markers as a tool for evaluating genetic diversity in rice germplasm.

2483-2493 Download
32
SALT TOLERANCE STUDIES IN SOME MUTANTS OF BRASSICA (BRASSICA JUNCEA, CV: S- 9)
M.U. SHIRAZI, M.A. KHAN, B. KHANZADA, S.M. MUJTABA, MUKHTIAR ALI, MUHAMMAD ALI, SABA MUMTAZ, AISHA SHEREEN, AQIL SIDDIQUE AND J. A. SHAH

SALT TOLERANCE STUDIES IN SOME MUTANTS OF BRASSICA (BRASSICA JUNCEA, CV: S- 9)
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance studies were conducted in mutants of locally grown variety of Brassica juncea (cv. S-9). The studies were conducted in gravel culture exposed to two salinity levels (i.e. Control (1.5 dS/m) and 12.0 dS/m). Crop was irrigated weekly, with 1/4th strength modified Hoagland nutrient solution, salinized by common salt (NaCl). Among the mutants tested, the performance of the mutants (S-97- 1.0 E/20, S-97- 1.0 E/21) was comparatively better than the others showing less than 50% reduction in different growth parameters (i.e. plant height, number of pods, pod length and grain yield / plant). On the other hand, the mutants S-97-100/45, S-97-100/48 and the parent genotype (S-9) showed sensitivity at 12 dS/m salinity level. The performance of S-97- 1.0 E/29 and S-97-75/36 mutants was intermediate. The leaf samples analyzed for inorganic osmolyte (i.e. sodium and potassium), showed that the mutants S-97-1.0E/20 and S-97-1.0E/21 had high K/Na ratio, possibly due to less decrease in potassium (K+). Hence it was concluded that the adaptability of tolerant brassica mutants might be due to high K/Na ratio for turgor maintenance.

2495-2500 Download
33
SCREENING FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT GENTOYPES AT AN EARLY SEEDLING STAGE
M.A. KHAN1, S. YASMIN2, R. ANSARI1, M.U. SHIRAZI1 AND M.Y. ASHRAF3

SCREENING FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT GENTOYPES AT AN EARLY SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Twenty-four wheat genotypes were screened for salt tolerance at an early seedling growth stages at 0

2501-2509 Download
34
EFFECTS OF UN-TREATED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON WHEAT YIELD, METAL UPTAKE BY GRAIN AND ACCUMULATION IN THE SOIL
MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN1*, T.G. KAZI2, R. ANSARI3, S.M. MUJTABA, B. KHANZADA, M.A. KHAN, M.U. SHIRAZI AND S. MUMTAZ

EFFECTS OF UN-TREATED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON WHEAT YIELD, METAL UPTAKE BY GRAIN AND ACCUMULATION IN THE SOIL
ABSTRACT:
The high nutrients and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it an excellent fertilizer to enhance soil fertility and crop production. However, presence of metals is a major problem for such a utilization of sludge. In Pakistan, there are only two-sewage treatment plant, one in Islamabad and the other in Karachi. Due to not having sewage treatment facility, in the country on wide scale, usually sludge is directly mixed with agricultural soil. As the sewage sludge, produced in municipal station, is highly toxic, therefore, there is a danger for the uptake of toxic metals by plant and accumulation in the soil. The present study describes the effects of un-treated sewage sludge on wheat yield and uptake of metals by grain as well as addition of metals to the soil. The treatment consisted of sewage sludge @ 10

2511-2517 Download
35
PARTHENIUM INVASION IN PAKISTAN – A THREAT STILL UNRECOGNIZED
ASAD SHABBIR* AND RUKHSANA BAJWA

PARTHENIUM INVASION IN PAKISTAN – A THREAT STILL UNRECOGNIZED
ABSTRACT:
Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L) an alien invasive weed species, is spreading throughout Pakistan. Worldwide, it has been designated as one of the most troublesome weed species. The adverse effects of this weed on human beings, livestock, crop production and biodiversity are well documented. Due to a lack of information on its spread in Pakistan since its invasion, a phytosociological survey with special reference to parthenium weed was carried out in Islamabad during August-October. 2002. Six main sectors of Islamabad were selected for sampling. The phytosociological survey of these sectors of Islamabad revealed a total of 30 weed species reported along with P. hysterophorus. The survey also showed a high relative frequency, relative density and importance value of P. hysterophorus in general, however, the percentage relative frequency of weed in these sectors ranged from 13.5% to 39.1%. This survey revealed that P. hysterophorus had an appreciable degree of sociability with Senna occidentalis (L.). Link, Desmostachya bipinnata L. Stapf., and Lantana camara L., in these sectors. Data on the association of L. camara with P. hysterophorus suggests that a transition phase of competition or succession is in progress between these two alien species. The population of many common medicinal plants growing in the wastelands of Islamabad may rapidly decline due to the aggressive colonization by Parthenium weed. The ever-increasing infestation of this weed in urban areas also poses a serious threat to the health of the inhabitants of Islamabad.

2519-2526 Download
36
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) TO SALINE STRESS
AISHA SHEREEN, R.U. ANSARI, S. YASMIN, S. RAZA, S. MUMTAZ, M.A. KHAN AND S.M. MUJTABA

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) TO SALINE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A water culture experiment was conducted to study the physiological responses of salt tolerant and salt sensitive inbred lines of rice. Different growth and physiological attributes including ion uptake and synthesis of proline were studied after an exposure of two weeks salinity treatments (50 and 75mM NaCl along with non-saline control). The studies revealed that growth at early seedling stage was very sensitive. Data on ions uptake and proline contents of shoot revealed that in tolerant lines there was a less uptake of Sodium and higher production of proline contents in comparison to sensitive lines. A significant positive correlation was found between shoot Na and proline contents.

2527-2534 Download
37
EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND WATERLOGGING ON ION UPTAKE AND GROWTH OF WHEAT VARIETIES
KEERIO M. IBRAHIM1*, DAVID WRIGHT2, R. B. MIRBAHAR1 AND MAHJABEEN PANHWAR1

EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND WATERLOGGING ON ION UPTAKE AND GROWTH OF WHEAT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Salinity and waterlogging are the widespread problems of many areas of Pakistan. Wheat varieties were tested at salinity, waterlogging and saline-waterlogging treatments for their performance to Na+, K+, stomatal conductance, SPAD (Special Products Analysis Division) chlorophyll, grain dry weight, ear/plant and grain/plant measurements. Na+ content in leaves was continuously increased with saline and saline-waterlogged treatments. Also, K+ content was increased with salinity treatment but decreased with saline-waterlogged treatment. Stomatal conductance decreased with waterlogging, saline and saline-waterlogged treatments but SPAD readings were not influenced by these treatments. Generally, waterlogging increase the grain dry weight, ear and grain number per plant. However, this was greatly reduced by saline and saline-waterlogged treatments in all varieties.

2535-2540 Download
38
ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MEDICINAL FLOWERS
MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI

ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MEDICINAL FLOWERS
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan has lush and diverse flora. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to determine the medicinal flowering plants found in Pakistan and they are used as remedies for various disorders or diseases.Certain commonly used medicinal flowers of Karachi were investigated for their elemental composition with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Eleven elements Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn were analyzed. On an average, the quantity of Na was found to be the highest among these flowers (39315.61 ppm) followed by Ca (22490.98 ppm) and K (20751.53 ppm). The average amounts of Zn (99.53 ppm) Cu (17.47 ppm) and Ni (6.20 ppm) were quite low; Cr was detected in lowest quantity (0.17 ppm). The results suggest that these medicinal flowers could potentially be used as raw materials in herbal formulation.

2541-2552 Download
39
COMPETITIVE SEEDLING GROWTH AND K+/Na+ RATIO IN DIFFERENT MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
M. AKRAM1*, M. ASGHAR MALIK1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, M. FARRUKH SALEEM1 AND M. HUSSAIN

COMPETITIVE SEEDLING GROWTH AND K+/Na+ RATIO IN DIFFERENT MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variation for salt tolerance was assessed in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids using solution-culture technique. The study was conducted in gravel culture exposed to three salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl). Seven days old maize seedlings were transplanted in gravel containing ½ strength Hoagland nutrient solutions and salinized with common salt (NaCl). The experiment was conducted in the rain protected wire house of Plant Stress Physiology Laboratory of NIAB Faisalabad, Pakistan. Ten maize hybrids were used for mass screening against three salinity levels. Substantial variations were observed in the root, shoot length and biomass of different cultivars at different salinity levels. The leaf sample analysed for inorganic osmolytes (sodium and potassium) showed that hybrid Pioneer 32B33 and Pioneer 30Y87 have high K+/Na+ ratio. From this study it was concluded that hybrids with high biomass, root shoot fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio are salt tolerant.

2553-2563 Download
40
ION PARTITIONING, K/Ca AND K/Na RATIOS OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS GROWN UNDER NaCl SALINITY
T.M. QURESHI1, M.Y. ASHRAF1*, A. BANO2 AND F. HUSSAIN1

ION PARTITIONING, K/Ca AND K/Na RATIOS OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS GROWN UNDER NaCl SALINITY
ABSTRACT:
Effect of NaCl salinity on growth, ion partitioning, K/Ca and K/Na ratios of four provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was studied under 5 salinity levels i.e. 0, 0.5

2565-2574 Download
41
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS AT SEEDLING STAGE
S.M. MUJTABA, MUHAMMAD ALI, M.Y. ASHRAF, B. KHANZADA, S.M. FARHAN, M.U. SHIRAZI, M.A. KHAN, A. SHEREEN AND S. MUMTAZ

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS AT SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Twelve wheat genotypes/lines were tested for different levels, 0.00 (control), -0.5 and -0.75 MPa of osmotic stresses (PEG-6000) for 20 days in a growth cabinet under a 10 h photoperiod (41.69 mmol m-2 s-1) to study growth and physiological attributes including nitrate reductase activity (NRA), proline and potassium contents. It was observed that root and shoot length, NRA and potassium (K+) contents decreased however the proline contents increased by the imposition of osmotic stress. Comparatively less reduction in all these attributes and ion contents was observed in tolerant genotypes.

2575-2579 Download
42
ALLEVIATING SEED DORMANCY OF TECTONA GRANDIS L. BY TEMPERATURE, PLANT GROWTH REGULATERS AND INORGANIC SALTS
TAHIRA JATT, M. SUHAIL, HIDAYTULLA ABRO AND ABDUL SATAR LARIK*

ALLEVIATING SEED DORMANCY OF TECTONA GRANDIS L. BY TEMPERATURE, PLANT GROWTH REGULATERS AND INORGANIC SALTS
ABSTRACT:
Preliminary studies on the germination of teek seeds (Tectona grandis L.) were carried out at the institute of Plant Sciences, University of Sindh by subjecting the seeds with some physical and chemical methods. The viability of seeds were confirmed by 2,3,5- triphenyltetrazolium Chloride. Results revealed that by altering temperature at the germination stage the inhabitatry effect of seed coat was reduced. However scarification treatment with GA3, Kinetine, H2SO4 and KNO3 also promote the seed germination due to increased softening of the seed coat.

2581-2583 Download
43
EFFECT OF WILD OATS (AVENA FATUA L.) DENSITY ON WHEAT YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS UNDER VARYING NITROGEN REGIMES
GUL HASSAN* AND HAROON KHAN

EFFECT OF WILD OATS (AVENA FATUA L.) DENSITY ON WHEAT YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS UNDER VARYING NITROGEN REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
A field study was conducted at Malakandher Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during Rabi 2003-4 to quantify the competition between wheat and wild oats. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications under a split-plot arrangement. The experiment comprised of 3-nitrogen levels (75

2585-2594 Download
44
RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOILS UNDER RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION
SAEED A. ABRO* AND A.R. MAHAR

RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOILS UNDER RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment on a saline-sodic soil with pH 8.21-8.42, ECe 6.40-7.90 dSm-1 and SAR 17.79-23.46mmol-1was carried out using five soil reclaiming treatments viz., leaching (Control), Farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 tons ha-1, Rice Husk (RH) @ 10 tons ha-1, FYM+RH @ 5+5 tons ha-1 and Gypsum @ 100% soil requirement in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Rice variety SARSHAR and wheat variety TD-1 were sown in rotation. The effects of amendments were analyzed on soil physical and chemical properties as well as crop growth and yield. The results showed that all treatments including control significantly lowered the soil pH, ECe and SAR levels after rice harvest. After wheat harvest, however, the slight increase in pH and ECe were observed while, the SAR levels decreased further. Despite this increase, the pH and ECe remained significantly lowered than original levels. The treatment order of SAR decrease was T5>T4>T2>T3>T1. Although the inter treatment differences were significant but the plant height, grains panicle-1 and 1000 grain weight were found the highest in T2 followed by T4. The highest grain yield kg ha-1 of wheat was observed in T4 followed by T1.

2595-2600 Download
45
EFFECTIVE USE OF BRACKISH WATER ON SALINE-SODIC SOILS FOR RICE AND WHEAT PRODUCTION
SAEED A ABRO*, A. R. MAHAR AND K.H. TALPUR

EFFECTIVE USE OF BRACKISH WATER ON SALINE-SODIC SOILS FOR RICE AND WHEAT PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
The majority of ground water pumped through tube-well is brackish and unfit for irrigation. But this water can be utilized on problem soils if amendments are added. A field experiment was carried out to utilize the brackish water with pH 7.7, EC 2.93 dSm-1, TSS 1875, SAR 5.4 on saline-sodic soil with pH 8.28-8.48, ECe 6.28-7.44 dSm-1 and SAR 17.25-23.37 in a randomized block design. The five amendments [T1=Brackish water only (control), T2= FYM @10 tons ha-1, T3= RH @10 tons ha-1, T4= FYM+RH @ 5+5 tons ha-1 and T5= gypsum100% soil requirements] were applied in rice-wheat cropping system. The effects of brackish water were assessed on the soil properties and on crop growth and yield. The pH remained unaffected by the treatments as well as crops while EC and SAR levels reduced significantly in all treatments after harvest of rice and wheat. ECe slightly increased after wheat harvest. The highest reduction of EC and SAR were found in T5 followed by T4 and T3. The grains panicle-1

2601-2606 Download
46
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA AND XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM IN PAKISTAN
SHAZIA SHAFIQUE, ARSHAD JAVAID*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SOBIYA SHAFIQE

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA AND XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Achyranthes aspera L., and Xanthium strumarium L. are two troublesome weeds that generally grow on wastelands. A mealy bug species was found to be a biological control agent severely damaging these two weeds. Very heavy infestation of mealy bug was recorded on these two weeds during the months of October and November in an open undisturbed area in Quaid-e-Azam Campus, University of the Punjab, Lahore. Mealy bug was feeding on terminal and axilliary buds, stem surface and inflorescence. The invaded plants first showed the symptoms of die back and ultimately dead. The mealy bug attack was not found on rice, maize and shorghum, the main crops in the season. Three wasteland weeds, however, viz., Malvestrum tricuspidatum A. Gray, Sida spinosa L., and Parthenium hysterophorus L., were found to be attacked by the mealy bug. Further study regarding the screening of other important crops against mealy bug attack is required before its use as a biological control agent against the studied weeds.

2607-2610 Download
47
CAUSES OF RAPID SPREAD OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. IN PAKISTAN AND POSSIBLE CONTROL MEASURES – A REVIEW
ARSHAD JAVAID*, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

CAUSES OF RAPID SPREAD OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. IN PAKISTAN AND POSSIBLE CONTROL MEASURES – A REVIEW
ABSTRACT:
Parthenium hysterophorus L., an annual herb native to the subtropics of North and South America, has achieved major weed status in Pakistan during the last 15-20 years. This weed is rapidly spreading in rain fed districts of northern Punjab while in southern Punjab this weed is either absent or less frequent. It is growing luxuriantly in forests, grasslands, wastelands, around the agricultural fields and sometimes in less competitive field crops, and is rapidly replacing the local flora. Highly adaptive nature to adverse environmental conditions, fast growing rate, high productive potential, absence of natural enemies, and interference by resource depletion and allelopathy are the major causes of its establishment in a variety of ecosystems. The weed can be successfully controlled by herbicide Buctril Super at a very low dosage of 0.67 ml L-1 of water. The allelopathic grasses like Desmostachya bipinnata and Imperata cylindrica restrict the spread of this weed. Various studies conducted in our laboratory by using aqueous extracts of allelopathic grasses, trees and crops have revealed that allelochemicals have great herbicidal potential against this noxious weed. In a recent survey, we found beetle Zygogramma biocorata Pallister causing defoliation of this weed. It can be used as a successful biological agent for the control of this noxious alien weed.

2611-2618 Download
48
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF ALLELOPATHIC TREES ON GERMINATION AND SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF WHEAT
SOBIYA SHAFIQUE, ARSHAD JAVAID*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF ALLELOPATHIC TREES ON GERMINATION AND SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Effect of aqueous leaf extracts of 8 allelopathic tree species viz., Accacia nilotica (L.) Willd ex Del., Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Azadirachta indica (L.) A. Juss., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Ficus bengalensis L., Mangifera indica L., Melia azedarach L. and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels was studied on germination and seed-borne mycoflora of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were soaked in 20% aqueous leaf extract of test allelopathic tree species for 10 and 20 minutes. Surface sterilization of seeds with 1% Sodium hypochlorite for 2 minutes was used as reference. Five fungal species were isolated from untreated seeds. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was recorded with highest percentage (43%) followed by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. (30%), Cladosporium sp. (17%) Rhizopus arrhizus A. Fischer (7%) and Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (3.3%). Surface sterilization with HgCl2 significantly reduced A. alternata (13%) and completely checked the growth of all other fungi. Aqueous extracts of all the test tree species significantly reduced the frequency of occurrence of the two most frequent seed-borne fungi viz., A. alternata and F. solani. Generally there was not any pronounced difference between effectiveness of 10 and 20 minutes treatments. Aqueous treatment for 10 minutes generally enhanced seed germination as compared to control.

2619-2624 Download
49
KERATINOLYTIC MYCOFLAORA FROM THE SLUDGE IN KHAIRPUR, SINDH, PAKISTAN
I.H. SOOMRO, M. ZARDARI, Y.F. KAZI AND H. ABRO*

KERATINOLYTIC MYCOFLAORA FROM THE SLUDGE IN KHAIRPUR, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Keratinolytic mycoflora from sludge were studied by Hair Bait Technique in Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. Fifteen species of fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, A.fumigatus, A. flavus, A.candidus, A. wentii, Alternaria alternata, A. tenuis, Drechslera spicifera, Chochliobolus lunatus, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis, Penicillium sp., Chrysosporuim asperatum, Chaetomium crispatum and Acremonium sp:, were isolated form the sludge. A niger was found dominant as it was isolated from 19.78% whereas C. crispatum was lowest since it was recovered from 01.06% in occurrence.

2625-2627 Download
50
CHECK LIST OF BASIDIOMYCETES (APHYLLO. AND PHRAGMO.) OF KAGHAN VALLEY-11
KISHWAR SULTANA AND RIZWANA ALEEM QRESHI

CHECK LIST OF BASIDIOMYCETES (APHYLLO. AND PHRAGMO.) OF KAGHAN VALLEY-11
ABSTRACT:
The present list of Basidiomycetes: orders: Tremellales, Dacrymycetales and Aphyllophorales (toad stools) of Kaghan valley includes 110 species belonging to 57 genera. Taxonomically they were treated under 3 orders after Ahmad

2629-2649 Download
51
INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT TO CONTROL SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.) DECLINE IN PAKISTAN
RUKHSANA BAJWA AND ARSHAD JAVAID

INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT TO CONTROL SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.) DECLINE IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Surveys of different areas of Punjab conducted during 2003-2005, revealed that shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) plants are severely suffering from wilt and dieback diseases. Maximum mortality of up to 80% was observed along the canal bank followed by 20–40% along the highways and roadsides. The least disease incidence and mortality rate was observed in plants growing on agricultural and well managed lands. Generally older plants were found to be more susceptible to dieback attack than the younger ones. However, wilt was common both in young and old plants. Stressed conditions especially drought and high soil moisture content were found to be responsible for attack of pathogen and severity of the disease. Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. was isolated from the roots of shisham plants suffering from wilt disease. From roots of dying back trees Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend.): Fr., and Phytophthora cinamomi Rands were isolated. Shisham decline can be controlled by adopting integrated disease management (IDM) approach. Benomyl was effective in controlling wilt in 6‑8 years old shisham plants. Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, T. viride Pers. ex Gray and T. aureoviride Rifai can be used as biological control agent to reduce the inoculum of F. solani. Eighteen phenotypically different varieties of Shisham have been identified from Punjab University, Quaid-e-Azam Lahore, Pakistan and adjacent areas. Resistant shisham varieties should be planted on well drained sandy loam soils to control wilt and dieback. The severely infected and dead plants should be uprooted followed by disinfection of the soil to avoid further spread of the pathogenic inoculum.

2651-2656 Download
52
EFFECT OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON LIFE CYCLE OF CHARCOAL ROT INFECTED SUNFLOWER PLANT
SALIK NAWAZ KHAN1, NAJMA AYUB2, IFTIKHAR AHMAD3, SHEHZAD AND ASAD3

EFFECT OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON LIFE CYCLE OF CHARCOAL ROT INFECTED SUNFLOWER PLANT
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae. Helianthus. annuus ssp. lenticularis (wild), H. annuus ssp annuus (weed) and H. annuus ssp macrocarpus cultivated. H. annuus ssp macrocarpus, the giant sunflower, is cultivated for edible seed. Climatic conditions like temperature, atmospheric humidity and available moisture play a significant role in activation and multiplication of Macrophomina phaseolina. High moisture and low temperature favour the rapid spread of the fungus at seedling stage. Sunflower seed was surface sterilized with 5% chlorox. In greenhouse studies, NPK fertilizers were not applied. There was no significant difference in germination period of plants grown under field and greenhouse conditions. The plants infected with Macrophomina phaseolina grown under greenhouse conditions completed all stages of its life cycle appeared after seedling stage earlier than plants cultivated under field conditions during spring and autumn seasons. M. phaseolina-infected plants approached seedling stage five days earlier than the plants grown under field conditions. Vegetative, reproductive, maturity stage 10 days after maturity appeared 15, 5, and 7 days earlier than charcoal rot infected spring crop grown under field conditions. Inadequate food translocation affects physiological processes like length of growth stages of the plant. Plants raised in greenhouse were affected by charcoal rot at earlier stages of plant growth.

2657-2662 Download
53
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL MYCOFLORA OF RIVER INDUS AT KOTRI
M. SUHAIL, S. AKHUND, T. JATT, ISHRAT RANI AND H. ABRO

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL MYCOFLORA OF RIVER INDUS AT KOTRI
ABSTRACT:
During the period from June 2004 to May 2005, a survey of the soil mycoflora was carried out at 3 sites (Right bank, Center and Left bank) from the bed of river Indus at Kotri. A total of 24 soil samples were observed by using three different methods; soil plate, soil dilution and baiting technique. Out of 73 fungal strains

2663-2666 Download
54
EFFICACY OF MICROBIAL BIOAGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA
M. ASHRAF ZAHID*, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL, A. ALI AND S. HUSSAIN

EFFICACY OF MICROBIAL BIOAGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Study was conducted In vivo to evaluate the antagonistic effects of two microorganisms against collar rot disease of chickpea caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. The effect of microbial amendments viz., Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and root nodulating bacteria Rhizobium sp., on the collar rot disease in Cicer was studied individually and in combination when applied to the soil. The results depicted that 100% seedling mortality was recorded in the control treatment where only test fungus i.e., S. rolfsii was added to the soil. Maximum reduction in seedling mortality was obtained when VAM and Rhizobium sp. were applied in combination. Likewise, the two microorganisms when used alone significantly reduced the effect of disease on plant growth. Treatment with Rhizobium sp., had greater synergistic effect on plant height, shoot and root weight, nodules plant-1, pods plant-1 and 100-seed weight of chickpea as compared to VAM. It was inferred that both the amendments used have effectively improved various yield parameters by controlling the disease and reducing seedling mortality.

2667-2672 Download
55
EFFECT OF BACTERICIDAL PLANTS TREATMENTS ON UREA HYDROLYSIS AND NITRIFICATION IN SOILS OF DIFFERENT CROPPING HISTORIES. PART-2. NITRIFICATION
M.A. AHMEDANI1, S. YASMIN2, M.A. ARAIN1, K.H. SHAH1, H. ABRO2 AND M. A. NAHYOON1

EFFECT OF BACTERICIDAL PLANTS TREATMENTS ON UREA HYDROLYSIS AND NITRIFICATION IN SOILS OF DIFFERENT CROPPING HISTORIES. PART-2. NITRIFICATION
ABSTRACT:
Effect of some indigenous plants such as Prosopis, Azadirachta, Sphaeranthus and Cassia species, was studied on urea nitrogen transformations, especially nitrification. Soils selected from two different crop fields i.e. the wheat and kallar grass fields were used for incubation studies. Soil samples, up to depths of 0.5 meter were collected, to assess some important soil physico-chemical properties. Powdered plant material, @ 3% and 6%, was incorporated into the soils under study. The nitrogen released as NO3- –N was determined. The hydrogenase activity was determined to confirm the microbial growth index. Differential responses of indigenous plants on soil nitrification were observed in both the soils tested. The process of nitrification was slightly inhibited by the treatments of indigenous plants. Prosopis and Cassia treatments proved to be the most effective treatments for reducing N losses. Treatment effects of the wild indigenous plants will be useful in the maintenance of soil biological activities.

2673-2680 Download
56
DETERMINATION OF SORGHUM GRAINS FOR SPAWN GROWTH OF OYSTER MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ. EX. FR) KUMMER
M.M. JISKANI*, M. I. BHATTI*, K. H. WAGAN*, M. A. PATHAN* AND A. G. BHATTI**

DETERMINATION OF SORGHUM GRAINS FOR SPAWN GROWTH OF OYSTER MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ. EX. FR) KUMMER
ABSTRACT:
Two different varieties of sorghum viz., white turio and red janpuri (having red and white color of grains) were tested for better and early spawn growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex. Fr.) Kummer. The spawn growth on red janpuri (red sorghum) grains was significantly higher (38.58 mm) followed by red janpuri and white turio (red and white sorghum) grains used at 1:1 ratio (33.41 mm) and white turio (white sorghum) grains (31.50 mm).

2681-2684 Download
57
GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ. EX. FR.) KUMMER AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SPAWN RATES
M.I. BHATTI1, M.M. JISKANI1*, K. H. WAGAN1, M.A. PATHAN1 AND M.R. MAGSI2

GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ. EX. FR.) KUMMER AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SPAWN RATES
ABSTRACT:
The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex. Fr.) Kummer was cultivated on wheat straw in polythene bags (containing 500 g wheat straw on dry weight basis per bag) using sorghum grain spawn at different rates. The spawning was done followed by boiling of substrate and sterilization of bags. The bags were kept in mushroom growing room at 25 to 35oC with 80 to 100% humidity under regular white fluorescent light arranged by the tube lights in mushroom growing room (10'x14'x14'). The pinheads first appeared 32.33 days after spawning by using 70 g spawn rate per kg on substrate dry weight basis. The minimum period of 4.66 days after pinhead formation for maturation of fruiting bodies was recorded by using 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g spawn rate. The minimum period between flushes (6.33 days) was taken by using 20 g spawn rate. The maximum flushes (4.00) were harvested by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum number of bunches per bag (7.66) were obtained by using 100 g spawn rate. The maximum number of fruiting bodies per bunch (7.30) was observed by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum yield on fresh weight basis (45.4%) as well as on dry weight basis (4.63%) was also obtained by using 70 g of spawn rate per bag. The results were highly significant from each other. It is concluded that spawning at 70 g per kg on substrate dry weight basis found to be the best dose for obtaining early and high yielding crop of oyster mushroom, with minimum period for maturation of fruiting bodies, maximum number of flushes and fruiting bodies per bag.

2685-2692 Download
58
ESTABLISHMENT OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN COTTON THROUGH FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (FFS) IN SAKRAND, SINDH, PAKISTAN
GHULAM HUSSAIN MALLAH AND AKRAM KHAN KOREJO

ESTABLISHMENT OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN COTTON THROUGH FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (FFS) IN SAKRAND, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Under the guidance of National IPM project FFS activities were carried out in Sakrand Sindh during 2003. This programme made a visible impact on farmers understanding of IPM. Farmer Field School (FFS) are field based season long learning experiences for 25 farmers. One of the main reason for the success of this approach is that the decisions are not preplanned and are not dictated from a central command, but are based on the analysis of agro ecosystem and site situation and are made by the farmers with the help of Facilitators. Sustainable profitable and environmentally sound production of cotton through the development promotion and practice of IPM by farmers is the ultimate objective of this programme. From these studies it was concluded that IPM plot provided 25% more yield and a net amount of RS 3705 (38.03% profit increase over growers plot).

2693-2697 Download
59
REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN INSECT PESTS OF COTTON AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
GHULAM HUSSAIN MALLAH

REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN INSECT PESTS OF COTTON AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Development of resistance to insecticides now possess the greatest challenge to agriculture, especially to Cotton which heavily relies on chemical control. In Pakistan currently a high level resistance exists to pyrethroids and endosulfan in H.armigera and Bemisia tabaci exhibited a high resistance to some organophosphates and pyrethroids. Three factors have been regarded as playing the most important roles in insect resistance to insecticides: (i) Penetration of insecticides through the cuticle (ii) detoxication (iii) sensitivity of the target site. For resistance management (IPM) should be developed and all facts on insecticidal control should be tightened.

2699-2703 Download
60
OPTIMIZATION OF VOLUME OF FERMENTATION MEDIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE BY AN EMS MUTANT STRAIN OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS IH-72
HAMID MUKHTAR* AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

OPTIMIZATION OF VOLUME OF FERMENTATION MEDIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE BY AN EMS MUTANT STRAIN OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS IH-72
ABSTRACT:
The study deals with the effect of volume of culture medium on the enhanced production of alkaline protease by an EMS-mutant culture of Bacillus subtilis in a lab scale bioreactor and shake flasks. The laboratory scale bioreactor of 7.5 L capacity was employed for the microbial cultivation experiments in addition to 250ml Erlenmeyer flasks. The parental strain of Bacillus subtilis was improved by inducing mutations using Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). After EMS-mutagenesis

2705-2715 Download
61
BIOSYNTHESIS OF ACID PROTEASES BY PENICILLIUM GRISEOROSEUM IH-02 IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION
IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND HAMID MUKHTAR

BIOSYNTHESIS OF ACID PROTEASES BY PENICILLIUM GRISEOROSEUM IH-02 IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation describes the production of acid proteases by Penicillium griseoroseum IH-02 using solid-state fermentation technique. The enzyme biosynthesis was maximum (8.2 U/ml) when fermentation was carried out on a substrate containing soybean meal and wheat bran mixed at a ratio of 3:1 and moistened with D4 diluent. The substrate to diluent ratio was found to be optimum at 1:2. The extraction of the enzyme from fermented broth was carried out with different extractant and distilled water having pH 5.0 was found to be the best extractant of the enzyme.

2717-2724 Download
62
EVALUATION ON ANATOMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN RELATION TO LOW WATER REQUIREMENT CONDITIONS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MEHARUN-NISA KHANUM YOUSUFZAI

EVALUATION ON ANATOMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN RELATION TO LOW WATER REQUIREMENT CONDITIONS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Six bread wheat genotypes (Sarsabz, Marvi-2000, Bhittai, Khirman, SD-66 and ESW-9522) were evaluated along with drought tolerant variety Barani-86 for low water requirement. The experimental material was planted on the residual moisture after the harvest of rice crop with different irrigation levels. One irrigation, two irrigations and normal irrigation at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture Tandojam during the years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. Data on anatomical traits were collected during reproductive phase, while the morphological traits were recorded up to maturity. Significant differences were noted among the genotypes for anatomical and morphological traits of all the genotypes. SD-66 showed comparatively more tolerance to water stress environment, which was expressed by higher number of grain/spike

2725-2731 Download
63
ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS AND ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT CASSIA OBVATA COLLAD AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES
A.J. PIRZADA, W. SHAIKH, M. SUHAIL, T.G. KAZI AND H. ABRO

ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS AND ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT CASSIA OBVATA COLLAD AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES
ABSTRACT:
Different solvent extracts such as ethanol, methanol, ethylacetate, chloroform and aqueous extracts were obtained from leaves and shoot of a medicinal plant Cassia obvata Collad for screening the antifungal activity against dermatophytes such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton tonsurans and T. rubrum which were scraped from different skin portions of the patients. The aqueous extract showed maximum inhibition activity against test dermatophytes, as compared to ethanol, methanol, chloroform and ethylacetate extracts. Furthermore 9 elements such as Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn. P, S and Zn were analysed from Cassia obvata Collad which have therapeutic role in the skin diseases.

2733-2737 Download
64
EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY PRESENT IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS, RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS
ZAHIR ALI*, AFSARI S. QURESHI**, WAQAL ALI*, HASEENA GULZAR*, MOHAMMAD NISAR** AND ABDUL GHAFOOR***

EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY PRESENT IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS, RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS
ABSTRACT:
In order to investigate the genetic diversity present in the pea germplasm provided by IBGRI, NARC, Islamabad

2739-2747 Download
65
STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOMATO DAMPING-OFF DISEASE CAUSED BY RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KUHN
M.M. JISKANI*, M.A. PATHAN, K.H. WAGAN, M. IMRAN AND H. ABRO**

STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOMATO DAMPING-OFF DISEASE CAUSED BY RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KUHN
ABSTRACT:
Survey of tomato fields of Hyderabad district was conducted to estimate the incidence of damping-off disease. Maximum disease incidence was recorded at Village Darya Khan Nahiyoun (65.0%) followed by Khatian Satation (60.0%) and the minimum were at Khesano Mori (35.0%). Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn was isolated as the predominant damping-off fungus with highest frequency (60.0%) from the over all tomato fields followed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Macrophomina phaseolina, Alternaria solani and Verticillium albo-atrum. Pathogenicity test of Rhizoctonia solani was conducted by artificially inoculating the steam sterilized soil. The maximum number of infected plants emerged from the infested soil after 30 days of sowing as compared to 15 days of sowing. The overall disease incidence was 63.63% from artificially infested soil whereas 13.33% was observed in un-inoculated soil. Four fungicides viz., Topsin-M, Benlate, Copper oxychloride and Derosal were applied as soil drench. Topsin-M significantly increased the germination, number of plants and plant growth followed by Benlate, Copper oxychloride and Derosal.

2749-2754 Download
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