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Year 2012 , Volume  44, Issue 2
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1
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] FOR RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
ABDUL GHAFOOR, TAYYABA SULTANA1 AND ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI2

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] FOR RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Thirty seven pure-lines of blackgram were studied for Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to investigate diversity. Among 53 primers 36 produced polymorphic fragments in blackgram, hence could be used for investigating genetic diversity. Ninety four markers were observed from 11 primers and out of these 72% were polymorphic. The genotypes acquired from Korea, Afghanistan and AVRDC grouped together, whereas genotypes from Pakistan and India were scattered. The RAPD markers were found useful for studying genetic diversity but clustering did not exhibited indication for agronomic performance, whereas quantitative traits contributed more towards agronomic performance. Cluster revealed that only a portion of genetic diversity has been exploited for blackgram improvement that should broaden involving diverse parents from various clusters.

473-478 Download
2
A STUDY ON THE FLUORESCENT LABELED AFLP MOLECULAR MARKERS RESEARCH OF KAVA AND PIPER NIGRUM
JIANG SHI1, XIAOYAN WANG1 AND LI XIN2*

A STUDY ON THE FLUORESCENT LABELED AFLP MOLECULAR MARKERS RESEARCH OF KAVA AND PIPER NIGRUM
ABSTRACT:
This research used 6 materials of kava

479-484 Download
3
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ARGENTINA TOMATO VARIETIES REVEALED BY MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS, SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT, AND SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM MARKERS
XIAORONG HU1, HUI WANG2, JIA CHEN2 AND WENCAI YANG2*

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ARGENTINA TOMATO VARIETIES REVEALED BY MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS, SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT, AND SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty-six morphological traits as well as 47 single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers were used to investigate genetic variation in 67 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) varieties collected from Argentina between 1932 and 1974. Approximately 65.0% of the morphological traits and 55.3% of the molecular markers showed polymorphisms in the 67 varieties. Average taxonomic distance between any two varieties ranged from 0.6643 to 1.1776, while Nei’s genetic distance varied from 0 to 0.2022. Cluster analysis indicated that 67 varieties could be grouped into three clusters at both morphological and molecular levels. The varieties collected before 1960 had larger genetic variation than those collected after 1960.

485-492 Download
4
IN SILICO STUDIES ON STRUCTURE-FUNCTION OF DNA GCC- BOX BINDING DOMAIN OF BRASSICA NAPUS DREB1 PROTEIN
SYEDA QAMARUNNISA1, MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN2, NUSRAT JABEEN2, SABOOHI RAZA3, MUHAMMAD RAFIQ KHANANI2, ABID AZHAR1, JAVED A. QURESHI1, SYED HASAN MUJTABA NAQVI1*

IN SILICO STUDIES ON STRUCTURE-FUNCTION OF DNA GCC- BOX BINDING DOMAIN OF BRASSICA NAPUS DREB1 PROTEIN
ABSTRACT:
DREB1 is a transcriptional factor, which selectively binds with the promoters of the genes involved in stress response in the plants. Homology of DREB protein and its binding element have been detected in the genome of many plants. However, only a few reports exist that discusses the binding properties of this protein with the gene (s) promoter. In the present study, we have undertaken studies exploring the structure-function relationship of Brassica napus DREB1. Multiple sequence alignment, protein homology modeling and intermolecular docking of GCC-box binding domain (GBD) of the said protein was carried out using atomic coordinates of GBD from Arabdiopsis thaliana and GCC-box containing DNA respectively. Similarities and/or identities in multiple, sequence alignment, particularly at the functionally important amino acids, strongly suggested the binding specificity of B. napus DREB1 to GCC-box. Similarly, despite ~56% sequence homology, tertiary structures of both template and modeled protein were found to be extremely similar as indicated by root mean square deviation of 0.34Å. More similarities were established between GBD of both A. thaliana and B. napus DREB1 by conducting protein docking with the DNA containing GCC-box. It appears that both proteins interact through their β-sheet with the major DNA groove including both nitrogen bases and phosphate and sugar moieties. Additionally, in most cases the interacting residues were also found to be identical. Briefly, this study attempts to elucidate the molecular basis of DREB1 interaction with its target sequence in the promoter.

493-500 Download
5
A PRIMARY STUDY OF HIGH PERFORMANCE TRANSGENIC RICE THROUGH MAIZE UBI-1 PROMOTER FUSING SELECTIVE MAKER GENE
JINJUAN SHEN1, PINGZHONG CAI1,2, FENG QING1, ZHIYONG ZHANG AND GUIXUE WANG1*

A PRIMARY STUDY OF HIGH PERFORMANCE TRANSGENIC RICE THROUGH MAIZE UBI-1 PROMOTER FUSING SELECTIVE MAKER GENE
ABSTRACT:
Based on the expression vector pBI121, we successfully constructed a plant overexpression vector of Hspa4 gene fusing with selective maker gene (hygromycin-resistance gene) driven by the Ubi-1 promoter (pBI121-Ubi-Hpt-Hspa4, p121UHH). The plant expression vectors p121UHH and pCAMBIA1301-Ubi-Hspa4 (p1301UH) were transformed into the rice callus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We screened 17 p121UHH-positive transgenic plants and 15 p1301UH-positive transgenic plants by the hygromycin-resistance gene. The pick-up rate of the resistance callus was 51.7% and 42.5%, respectively, and the rate of regeneration for the resistance callus was 51.2% and 49.1%, respectively. The result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification indicated that the pick-up rate of positive transgenic plants was 51.7% and 42.5% and the total transformation efficiency was 16.5% and 6.2%, and the former was 2.66 times of the later. The results of the experiment indicate that the possibility of the appearance of false positive results in the fusing of a plant over-expression vector with a selective maker gene is much less.

501-506 Download
6
GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LR GENE STACK IN SPRING WHEAT VARIETY CHAKWAL86 AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST LEAF RUST IN RAIN FED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
AWAIS RASHEED1, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ1* AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LR GENE STACK IN SPRING WHEAT VARIETY CHAKWAL86 AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST LEAF RUST IN RAIN FED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Disease resistance remains a prime focus in crop improvement. Based on the field observations and marker assisted screening, we report the gene stack Lr10, Lr17a and Lr27+31 as a resistant combination for spring wheat cultivated in rain fed areas. To demonstrate this, a rain fed leaf rust resistant variety ‘Chakwal86’, has been genetically characterized following its cross with a susceptible variety ‘Inqilab91’. The parents, NILs and F2 population studied in the greenhouse through inoculation and in the field under natural conditions revealed a 3:1 resistance to susceptible ratio, while the F2:3 populations revealed a 1:2:1 ratio suggesting the dominant mode of resistance. The PCR-based markers developed to characterize individuals by selecting SSR based markers specific to Lr10; Lr17a and Lr27, revealed all three genes stacked in Chakwal86, while Lr10 and Lr27+31 in Inqilab91. The individual lines carrying gene combinations as found in Chakwal86 remained resistant in the field while all those not carrying Lr17a in the stack were susceptible. Hence the gene stack Lr10, Lr17a and Lr27+31 has been found an effective resistant combination for spring wheat in rain fed areas.

507-510 Download
7
DECLINE OF CONIFER FOREST COVER IN PAKISTAN: A GIS APPROACH
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, QURAT-UL-AIN ABBASI1, RUKHSANA JABEEN2 AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR SHAH3

DECLINE OF CONIFER FOREST COVER IN PAKISTAN: A GIS APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
Deforestation is one of the obstinate environmental problems globally. Pakistan, being a developing nation also encompasses crisis of depletion of forest reserves. The rising climate change consequences remain the primary culprit behind this phenomenon. The present study intends to focus attention on one of the threatened vegetation types, the Conifer forests and their consequent reduction in area during the last two decades. GIS techniques have been employed to analyze the change detection in various regions and provinces of Pakistan. The results of current study indicated that Conifer forests have been declining at the rate of 1.27% per annum since 1992, showing negative trends due to various causes associated with climate change i.e. increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall. So, the need for the conservation of these forests should be the basic task to accomplish order to avoid their vulnerability against various environmental and socio economic disturbances.

511-514 Download
8
GENETIC VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH YIELD AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF COTTON CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD KASHIF SHAHZAD SARWAR1*, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN1 AND YUSUF ZAFAR3

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH YIELD AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF COTTON CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Water scarcity is an important factor limiting cotton production worldwide particularly in Pakistan. To identify drought tolerant genotypes, it is vital to understand their genetic variation for different biochemical traits under water limited conditions. In the present study

515-520 Download
9
GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION OF RECOMBINATION RATES OF MALE VERSUS FEMALE GAMETES IN INTERSPECIFIC POPULATION OF COTTON
YU YU1,2, ZHONGXU LIN1* AND XIANLONG ZHANG1

GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION OF RECOMBINATION RATES OF MALE VERSUS FEMALE GAMETES IN INTERSPECIFIC POPULATION OF COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Based on the established SSR-based BC1 genetic linkage map

521-529 Download
10
EVALUATIONS OF DIFFERENT LEAF AND CANOPY PHOTOSYNTHESIS MODELS: A CASE STUDY WITH BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA) PLANTATIONS ON A LOESS PLATEAU
YUAN ZHENG1,2, ZHONG ZHAO2*, JING-JING ZHOU2 AND HUI ZHOU2

EVALUATIONS OF DIFFERENT LEAF AND CANOPY PHOTOSYNTHESIS MODELS: A CASE STUDY WITH BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA) PLANTATIONS ON A LOESS PLATEAU
ABSTRACT:
To evaluate the applicability of leaf and canopy photosynthesis models, we compared performance of 6 leaf models and validated 1 canopy model of photosynthesis based on field data of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) plantations on a Loess Plateau in northern China. Leaf photosynthetic light response curves and diurnal canopy photosynthetic rates were observed in the field in August 2009. Leaf photosynthesis was then fitted with Non-rectangular hyperbolic model, Rectangular hyperbolic model, Bassman exponential model, Prado exponential model, Binomial regression model, and Rectangular hyperbolic correction model, and canopy photosynthesis was fitted with an atmosphere-vegetation 2 way interaction model (AVIM). At the leaf scale, the different photosynthesis models demonstrated significant differences in calculating photosynthetic parameters of black locusts, and the Rectangular hyperbolic correction model performed better compared to other models, the limitations and merits of leaf photosynthesis models are also discussed. At the canopy scale, the AVIM model can well simulate the canopy photosynthesis for black locusts on the Loess Plateau. Although this is a case study, our findings may help to better understand the fitting capacity and applicability of these leaf and/or canopy photosynthesis models.

531-539 Download
11
CANOPY TRANSPIRATION RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATIONS IN PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS: PROPERTIES AND MODELLING
LEI HAN1,2, KANGNING HE2*, XINGBO HU2 AND DONG ZHANG2

CANOPY TRANSPIRATION RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATIONS IN PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS: PROPERTIES AND MODELLING
ABSTRACT:
Regrowth of tall, dense forests consumes more water, with the result that catchment yield may decline and even soil desiccation occurred especially in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. In this study, meteorological measurements combined with sap flow techniques provided a low-cost option to study the rates of water uptake by individual trees of Platycladus orientalis response to environmental factors on a continuous basis. A series of environmental control functions: vapour pressure deficit, solar radiation and air temperature were used to characterize canopy transpiration (Ec). A Jarvis-type model, modified to directly estimate the Ec rather than canopy conductance, explained 89% of the variation observed in Ec. Cross validation shows that this model provided good predictions of canopy transpiration for P. orientalis. Such a methodology offers a reasonable estimation of water use in the determination of water balance for land water resources planning, vegetation management and impact assessments of rehabilitation.

541-545 Download
12
GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISON OF PERENNIAL GRASSES AS RAINFED FODDER PRODUCTION
M. ANWAR, M. AKMAL*, A. SHAH, M. ASIM, AND RABIA GOHAR

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISON OF PERENNIAL GRASSES AS RAINFED FODDER PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Ten perennial fodder grasses were compared for growth and yield at New Developmental Farm, Agricultural University at Peshawar, Pakistan during 2006 and 2007. Tufts were transplanted on 16-02-2006 at 50 cm distance in 3 x 3 m plots replicated 4 times in RCB design. Fertilizer was applied 60 and 30 kg ha-1 as N and P using urea and SSP respectively. Results revealed that on 2 years average data, Pennisetum purpureum was highest in fresh matter, followed by Setaria anceps than any other grass while Panicum maximum showed the lowest fresh matter. The sequential dry matter growths against time of all grasses were in agreement with total dry matter yield with highest for Panicum typhoides, followed by with a non-significant difference with Sorghum almum, and Setaria anceps. Crop growth (CG) and mean of the growth rate with plant height were also in close association. Culm density did not vary as much as reported in dry matter and yield of the 10 species from each other. Grass Digitaria decumbense were lower in dry matter and plant height but found relatively denser than any other grass in the group. Grasses having highest dry matter were the highest in showing the leaf area index and showed the highest radiation use efficiency. Among the leaf and stem fraction of culms, grasses (e.g. P. typhoides and S. almum) showing the highest dry matter among the group and is termed as superior in growth and fodder yield. The study suggests that P. purpureum, P. typhoides and S. almum are relatively high potential grasses for cultivation at marginal and low fertile lands under rainfed condition yielding good fodder through judicious utilization of the available solar light per unit ground area.

547-552 Download
13
TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER BY LEMNA MINOR
SHAZIA IRAM1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2, YOUSAF RIAZ2 AND AYESHA ZAHRA1

TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER BY LEMNA MINOR
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are within the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phytoremediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan.

553-557 Download
14
SALICYLIC ACID PREVENTS THE DAMAGING ACTION OF SALT IN MUNG BEAN [(VIGNA RADIATA L.) WILCZEK] SEEDLINGS
SADAF SHAKEEL AND SIMEEN MANSOOR*

SALICYLIC ACID PREVENTS THE DAMAGING ACTION OF SALT IN MUNG BEAN [(VIGNA RADIATA L.) WILCZEK] SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Growth is greatly affected by salt stress, which can be improved by the pretreatment of Salicylic acid (SA) before salt stress. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of seeds presoaking in 50µM

559-562 Download
15
IMPROVING TOLERANCE OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER DURING GROWTH STAGES TO SALINITY THROUGH FOLIAR SPRAY OF NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS
NUSRAT JABEEN*AND RAFIQ AHMAD

IMPROVING TOLERANCE OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER DURING GROWTH STAGES TO SALINITY THROUGH FOLIAR SPRAY OF NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Biosaline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO3, H3BO3, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO3 was given @ 250ppm and other H3BO3and Fe-EDTA was given @ 5ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micronutrients (i.e.KNO3, H3BO3, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO3+ H3BO3+Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO3+ H3BO3+Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H3BO3 and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield.

563-572 Download
16
EVALUATION OF FORAGE QUALITY AMONG COASTAL AND INLAND GRASSES FROM KARACHI
MUHAMMAD MOINUDDIN1,2, SALMAN GULZAR2 , IRFAN AZIZ2 ABDEL RAHMAN A. ALATAR3, AHMAD K. HEGAZY3 AND M. AJMAL KHAN2

EVALUATION OF FORAGE QUALITY AMONG COASTAL AND INLAND GRASSES FROM KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Four grasses (coastal: Aeluropus lagopoides & Sporobolus tremulus, and inland: Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) were evaluated for biomass production, mineral composition and forage quality under optimal non-saline conditions. Vegetative shoots were collected from natural populations and allowed to grow under ambient environmental conditions for about six weeks. Forage quality parameters included neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP), dry matter digestibility (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Coastal species had higher ADF and crude protein values in comparison with inland species whereas, DMD were highest in Paspalum paspalodes followed by Sporobolus tremulus, Paspalidium geminatum and Aeluropus lagopoides. Estimated metabolizable energy (ME) was highest in Paspalum paspalodes with similar values in other test species. Sporobolus tremulus had the highest sulphur (1.42%) while the other three species had considerably lower values (< 0.45) which are within acceptable fodder limits for ruminants. Inland grasses (particularly Paspalum paspalodes) appeared to be better forage species producing higher biomass, DMD, ME and crude protein and low ADF and S than the coastal ones. However, with careful rationing all test species could be used as supplementary fodder for livestock.

573-577 Download
17
THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND SALT CONCENTRATIONS ON SOME POPCORN LANDRACES AND HYBRID CORN GENOTYPE GERMINATIONS
*LEYLA IDIKUT, ZIYA DUMLUPINAR, S. NESRIN KARA, CENGIZ YURURDURMAZ AND MUSTAFA ÇÖLKESEN

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND SALT CONCENTRATIONS ON SOME POPCORN LANDRACES AND HYBRID CORN GENOTYPE GERMINATIONS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, five popcorn, which belong to Adıyaman (Adıyaman-1 and Adıyaman-2) and Çanakkale provinces (Çanakkale-1, Çanakkale-2 and Çanakkale-3), and four hybrid corn genotypes (Progen Favorite, Progen 1550, HK Heroic and BC 566) were germinated at two different temperatures (13 and 22ºC) and at four different salt concentrations (0

579-587 Download
18
A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDY ON SOME TURKISH FERULA L. (APIACEAE) SPECIES USING nrDNA ITS SEQUENCES
ZEYNEP ELİBOL1*, YUSUF MENEMEN1, MEHMET SAĞIROĞLU2 AND HAYRİ DUMAN3

A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDY ON SOME TURKISH FERULA L. (APIACEAE) SPECIES USING nrDNA ITS SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
nrDNA ITS sequence variation of Ferula species were studied by comparing with the other species of Ferula, Leutea and Dorema to clarify relationships amongst the taxa and infrageneric delimitation of the genus Ferula. In total, 35 nrDNA ITS sequence accessions (34 species) of Ferula, Leutea and Dorema were included in the analyses. 10 of these accessions were newly sequenced and belonged to Turkish species. Possible phylogenetic relationships amongst the species were determined using Maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree methods. The analyses showed that the genus might be monophyletic upon the addition of Leutea and Dorema, but did not support the classification of the genus dividing into the subgenera.

589-594 Download
19
FLAVONOIDS IN THE ENDEMIC SPECIES OF ALCHEMILLA L., (SECTION ALCHEMILLA L. SUBSECTION CALYCANTHUM ROTHM. SER. ELATAE ROTHM.) FROM NORTH-EAST BLACK SEA REGION IN TURKEY.
BÜLENT KAYA1*, YUSUF MENEMEN2 AND F. ZERRIN SALTAN3

FLAVONOIDS IN THE ENDEMIC SPECIES OF ALCHEMILLA L., (SECTION ALCHEMILLA L. SUBSECTION CALYCANTHUM ROTHM. SER. ELATAE ROTHM.) FROM NORTH-EAST BLACK SEA REGION IN TURKEY.
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken to determine the flavonoids in the species of genus Alchemilla L. section Alchemilla L. subsection Calycanthum Rothm. Ser. Elatae Rothm., using the identification techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Eight endemic Turkish species were studied for their flavonoid profiles. They are A. armeniaca, A. erzincanensis, A. cimilensis, A. orduensis, A. ikizdereensis, A. oriturcica, A. bursensis and A. hirsutiflora. It is the first time that flavonoid profiles of these species have been identified. Flavonol O-glycosides and flavone C- glycosides were identified in Alchemilla endemic species. The flavonoid components determined in the species are rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside), hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), isoquercetin (quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside), quercitrin (quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) as flavonol O-glycosides, and orientin (luteolin-8-C-glucoside), vitexin (apigenin-8-C-glucoside) as the flavone C-glycosides.

595-597 Download
20
COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY ON FRUITS OF SOME TRIBES OF FAMILY GRAMINEAE FROM EGYPT
AHMED KAMAL EL-DEEN OSMAN1*, MOHAMMED A. ZAKI2, SOHAR T. HAMED1 AND NAGWA R.A. HUSSEIN1

COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY ON FRUITS OF SOME TRIBES OF FAMILY GRAMINEAE FROM EGYPT
ABSTRACT:
Anatomical study surveyed 11 tribes of family Gramineae provided by 31 species of 22 genera. Fruit anatomy is one of the significant taxonomic tools that recently used. Caryopsis fruit of grasses represents an important source of starch-rich food. Sections of each taxa fruit were examined, measured, photographed and line drawings supported. The main parts of a section are seed coat cells, aleurone layer and the starch endosperm. The cotyledon cells, scutellum, are also defined in various types. Different section dimensions were measured, generally the section dimensions found to be related in some means to the fruit size.

599-618 Download
21
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF BRASSICACEAE SPECIES BASED ON MATK SEQUENCES
LEI LIU1, BO ZHAO1, DUNYAN TAN2 AND JIANBO WANG1*

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF BRASSICACEAE SPECIES BASED ON MATK SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
The chloroplast gene matK, located in the intron of chloroplast trnK, encodes maturase, and variations of matK provide substantial resolution for phylogenetic analyses at intergeneric levels. Sequence data from 127 species (including subspecies and varieties) of Brassicaceae and one outgroup specie (Cleome gynandra) were used to construct the phylogeny of this family and elucidate the phylogenetic relationships therein using the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic results generally confirmed recently established tribal alignments and indicated that most of the 27 tribes were assigned to Lineages I–III. We found that the Orychophragmus violaceus complex, including O. violaceus, O. taibaiensis, O. hupehensis, and O. diffuses, which are native to China, should be subsumed under Lineage II, and was most closely associated with the tribe Brassiceae. Arabis was confirmed to be polyphyletic and one subclade shared a sister relationship with Boechereae, while A. alpine related species formed the other clade, which was not associated with any tribes. Previous analyses placed Conringia planisiliqua in tribe Brassiceae, but it was included within Isatideae in the current analyses, supporting previous hypotheses that it was a member of this tribe.

619-626 Download
22
OIL AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PEANUT CULTIVARS GROWN IN PAKISTAN
FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN* AND MUKHTAR AHMED

OIL AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PEANUT CULTIVARS GROWN IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmatic & Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic acid which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils.

627-630 Download
23
RADIO-SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CHICKPEA GENOTYPES IN M1 GENERATION II-FIELD STUDIES
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH1*, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA1, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

RADIO-SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CHICKPEA GENOTYPES IN M1 GENERATION II-FIELD STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of gamma rays and ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) mutagens on seed germination and plant survival of four chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes including two desi (Pb2000 and C44), one kabuli (Pb-1) and one desi x kabuli introgression genotype (CH40/91) was investigated in the M1 generation under field conditions. Seed germination and plant survival decreased in a linear fashion with the increase in gamma irradiation and EMS doses. EMS dose of 0.4% proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in desi genotypes Pb2000 and C44 to 68.3% and 62.7%, respectively. In case of kabuli cultivars Pb-1, gamma irradiation of 300Gy and in CH40/91 EMS dose of 0.2 and 0.3% were most lethal doses and reduced the percentage of survived plants to 67.9

631-634 Download
24
NUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN LEAVES OF CULTIVATED AND WILD CAMELLIA NITIDISSIMA
ZHONGCHEN XIONG1,2, XIAOXUE QI, XIAO WEI1,2*, ZONGYOU CHEN1,2, HUI TANG1,2 AND SHENGFENG CHAI1,2

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN LEAVES OF CULTIVATED AND WILD CAMELLIA NITIDISSIMA
ABSTRACT:
Camellia nitidissima is widely used to make tea in south China. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of cultivation on the nutrients of C. nitidissima. In this paper, we make comparative analyses of the nutrient content in leaves in cultivated and wild C. nitidissima. The results indicate that both cultivated and wild C. nitidissima had a full complement of amino acids with rich contents and a variety of mineral nutrients. There were no significant differences between cultivated and wild C. nitidissima in terms of water, vitamin C, gross sugar, protein, fat, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium or zinc content, but cultivated C. nitidissima had significantly higher contents of essential amino acids (26.05% ) and total amino acids (33.27%) than that of wild C. nitidissima.

635-638 Download
25
EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER UNDER SEMI-ARID CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
WAJID NASIM1,2,3*, ASHFAQ AHMAD1, HAFIZ MOHKUM HAMMAD1, HASSAN JAVED CHAUDHARY2 AND MUHAMMAD FAROOQ HUSSAIN MUNIS2

EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER UNDER SEMI-ARID CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Two years field study was carried out with the objective to determine the effect of different levels of nitrogen (N) on growth, development, yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad-Pakistan in spring 2008 and 2009. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement keeping hybrids in the main plots and N levels in the subplots with three replications. The net plot size was 4.2 m x 5.0 m. The results indicated that with increasing N rates, there was also increment in the total dry matter (TDM), grain yield and yield components while the oil content was negatively affected. There was higher grain yield during 2008 as compared to 2009, probably due to more rainfall in the formation of TDM than in the latter stages. Hysun-38 hybrid gave maximum TDM (13.51 t ha-1) and maximum grain yield (3.08 t ha-1). Minimum TDM (11.94 t ha-1) as well as grain yield (2.92 t ha-1) was observed from Hysun-33. Among different N rates

639-648 Download
26
MICRONUTRIENT AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT OF TOMATO GROWN IN TALUKA BADIN, SINDH
MEHRUNISA MEMON1, GHULAM MURTAZA JAMRO1, NOOR-UN-NISA MEMON2, KAZI SULEMAN MEMON1 AND MOHAMMAD SALEEM AKHTAR3

MICRONUTRIENT AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT OF TOMATO GROWN IN TALUKA BADIN, SINDH
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to assess the micronutrient status of soils and associated plant tissues in major tomato growing areas of Taluka Badin, Sindh. Composite soil and plant (3rd leaf from top) samples were collected from 32 major growing areas of Taluka Badin and analyzed for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and boron (B) along with selected physico-chemical properties of soils. Majority of the soils were clayey in texture (81%), non-saline (80%), alkaline and poor in organic matter. All soils were adequate in AB-DTPA extractable Cu (>0.5 mg kg-1), Fe (>4 mg kg-1), and Mn (>1.8 mg kg-1) contents. Whereas AB-DTPA extractable soil Zn and hot-water soluble B values varied in a different way. Sixty six percent soils were low (<1.0 mg kg-1)

649-654 Download
27
EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH ATTRIBUTES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI*

EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH ATTRIBUTES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0

655-659 Download
28
IRRADIATION DOSE AND EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF DESERT SHRUB NITRARIA TANGUTORUM BOBR. WITH TWO GAMMA IRRADIATION MODES
QING-HE LI1*, SAI-XIAO WANG1, YING-MING ZHAO2, JUN XU2, TING-TING GAO1 AND WEN-JIAO REN1

IRRADIATION DOSE AND EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF DESERT SHRUB NITRARIA TANGUTORUM BOBR. WITH TWO GAMMA IRRADIATION MODES
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of Nitraria tangutorum were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from 60Co gamma rays based on the two irradiation modes of without dose rate and with dose rate of 25Gy/hr. The effects of different irradiation modes and irradiation dose on the seed germination rate, emerged seedling rate and phenotypic characters of seedling have been studied. The semi-lethal dose and critical dose were determined for different irradiation mode. It has been found that there were the differences of irradiation effects between the two irradiation modes. Promotion effect on the seed germination rate, emerged seedling rate, seedling height and ground diameter in lower dose treatment were observed, while inhibition in higher dose. As compared to control, the irradiation effects on the seed germination rate and seedling height and ground diameter present the very remarkable differences at above 1500Gy dose without dose rate mode, while above 2400Gy with dose rate mode. The negative relativity exists between the relative emerged seedling rate and irradiation dose, the emerged seedling rate decreased with increasing dose. The semi-lethal dose based on the emerged seedling rate was 985Gy and 1363Gy for the irradiation without dose rate and with 25Gy/hr dose rate, respectively. The Appropriate 60Co gamma irradiation dose for the Nitraria tangutorum seeds was ranging from 950 Gy to 1500Gy without dose rate irradiation mode, while 1300Gy to 2400Gy with 25Gy/hr dose rate mode.

661-666 Download
29
CHANGES IN ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) UNDER AMBIENT CONDITION
GYANENDRA KUMAR RAI1, RAJESH KUMAR, A.K. SINGH, P.K. RAI2, MATHURA RAI, A.K. CHATURVEDI AND A.B. RAI

CHANGES IN ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) UNDER AMBIENT CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
Duration of storage increased TSS and pH of tomato juice, while ascorbic acid content decreased gradually during storage. Carotenoids content increased approximately 3.5 times during storage in tomato because of advancement of ripening stage. During ripening chlorophyll gradually degrades and the carotenoid synthesis is enhanced. Increased levels of lycopene in tomato during storage might also be due to ripening of tomato fruits. The spoilage in fruits gradually increased in all cultivars with the advancement of storage period. Spoilage of fruits started on 6th day of storage in all cultivars except Avinash-2. The average shelf life of tomato fruits ranged from 6-12 days among cultivars based on 40% spoilage. The lowest shelf life of 6 days was noted in H-86 and highest of 12 days in Avinash-2. It was concluded that the tomato harvested at breaker stage may be utilized for almost one week along with increased contents of carotenoids and lycopene compensated for the decreased levels of acidity and ascorbic acid contents.

667-670 Download
30
OPTIMIZATION OF THE CULTURE CONDITIONS IN THE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA CV. BASMATI-370)
ROMESA TAHIR1, MARIA BATOOL1, NASIR MAHMOOD MINHAS1, SHAUKAT ALI2 SHAHID MASOOD2 AND SAIF ULLAH AJMAL1*

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CULTURE CONDITIONS IN THE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA CV. BASMATI-370)
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient callus induction protocol for a fine rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety Basmati-370. Mature grains of this variety were used for callus induction. The Chu’s N6 medium was used as basal medium for callus induction and was supplemented with sucrose, Myo-inositol, Casein, agar (4 g L-1, 5 g L-1, 6 g L-1) and growth hormone 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid in different concentrations of 2ppm and 2.5ppm. The genotype responded well for all the three concentrations of agar (4 g L-1, 5 g L-1, 6 g L-1) and two concentrations of 2,4-D (2ppm

671-673 Download
31
DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAVES OF MELIA AZEDARACH AND EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AS BIOMONITRING TOOLS IN THE REGION OF QUETTA VALLEY
MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK1* AND RUKHSANA JABEEN

DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAVES OF MELIA AZEDARACH AND EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AS BIOMONITRING TOOLS IN THE REGION OF QUETTA VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
The concentrations of heavy metals viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves of two tree species, Melia azedarach and Eucalyptus citriodora (Safeda) from different sampling sites at urban areas in Quetta city , were measured. Correlation between elements and the use of tree leaves as indicators of environmental pollution was investigated. The results show that the higher concentrations of heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves of the areas of the Hudda, Barori and Mashraqi by Pass and in the areas with dense transportation activities are in function. So this preliminary study presents scientific basis to establish the applicability of the tree leaves as bio-monitoring tool for the rapid evaluation of the pollution status in the Quetta city by analyzing heavy metals concentration in the tree leaves

675-681 Download
32
GROWTH RESPONSE OF VARIOUS OLIVE CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT CUTTING LENGTHS
EHSAN ULLAH2, AZMAT ALI AWAN1, SAYED JAFFAR ABBAS1, FARHATULLAH2 SHAISTA MASROOR¹ AND OWAIS KHAN1

GROWTH RESPONSE OF VARIOUS OLIVE CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT CUTTING LENGTHS
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to study growth response of 5 olive cultivars to different cutting lengths at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar. Hardwood stem cuttings of 15

683-686 Download
33
EVALUATION OF SUNFLOWER LINES AND THEIR CROSSING COMBINATIONS FOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS, YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS
M. HANIF SIDDIQUI1*, SARDAR ALI2, JEHAN BAKHT3, AYUB KHAN2, SHER ASLAM KHAN2 AND NADIR KHAN4

EVALUATION OF SUNFLOWER LINES AND THEIR CROSSING COMBINATIONS FOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS, YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS
ABSTRACT:
The present study investigates sunflowers parental lines viz., TS-1, T-4, TS-7, TS-11, TR-1, TR-2, TR-120, SMTR-17, TR-6023 and their crossing combinations for their morphological characters and oil content. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with four replications at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI), Tarnab, Peshawar, KPK. Significant (p<0.05) variations were observed for all the parameters under investigation. Maximum seed yield (1.2 ton ha-1) was produced by TR-6023 when compared with parental lines. Among the crossing combinations, maximum seed yield (2.8 ton ha-1) was recorded by TS-7 x TR-6023 while minimum (1.08 ton ha-1) in TS-11 x SMTR-17. Maximum oil content (42.00%) was noted in TR-120 while minimum (35.00%) in TR-6023. In case of crossing combinations, maximum oil content (49%) was recorded in hybrid TS-7 x TR-6023 while minimum (31.00%) in TS-11 x TR-120.

687-690 Download
34
EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON PHENOLOGY, GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, SAJJAD ALI1, HAMAYOON KHAN1 MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4 AND MOHAMMAD SHARIF3

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON PHENOLOGY, GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The present study investigated the effect of planting density on plant growth and yield of maize varieties. An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farms Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan using randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having four replications. The experiment consist of four maize varieties viz., Azam, Pahari, Jalal-2003 and Sarhad white as main plot factor and three plant densities of 45000, 55000 and 65000 plants ha-1 as sub plot factor. Analysis of the data indicated that planting density had a significant (p<0.05) effect on leaf area index, plant barrenness (%), plant height, ear length, number of grains ear-1, grain weight ear-1

691-696 Download
35
SELECTING MUNGBEAN GENOTYPES FOR FODDER PRODUCTION ON THE BASIS OF DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY AND BIOMASS
HIDAYAT ULLAH1*, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL2, DAVID A. LIGHTFOOT3, DURR-E-NAYAB2 AND IMDADULLAH2

SELECTING MUNGBEAN GENOTYPES FOR FODDER PRODUCTION ON THE BASIS OF DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY AND BIOMASS
ABSTRACT:
Rapid change in the environment due to global warming is not only linked with the scarcity of food but with the availability of green fodder also. Thirty mungbean genotypes were evaluated using randomized complete block design for fodder yield across years at two extreme environments of Pakistan; badly affecting by the flood. Broad-sense heritability and selection response were studied for degree of indeterminacy, petiole length, fresh and dry biomass. Significant differences at (P≥0.01) were spotted out among the genotypes at both locations for the parameters under study. All the genotypes responded differently for petiole length, fresh and dry biomass in selected years except degree of indeterminacy that did not affected by the weather change in a particular environment. Of the first order interactions (L×Y, G×L), variation was observed for degree of indeterminacy while; dry biomass was highly significant only for G×L and G×Y. However, G×L×Y was absolutely non-significant for parameters studied. The parameters studied for fodder purpose were greatly influenced by the two environments. Means for degree of indeterminacy, petiole length, fresh and dry biomass were 43.1 compared to 20.8

697-703 Download
36
SURVEY OF CITRUS ORCHARDS FOR MICRONUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY IN SWAT VALLEY OF NORTH WESTERN PAKISTAN
Z. SHAH1*, M.Z. SHAH2, M. TARIQ1, H. RAHMAN3, J. BAKHT4, AMANULLAH5 AND M. SHAFI5

SURVEY OF CITRUS ORCHARDS FOR MICRONUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY IN SWAT VALLEY OF NORTH WESTERN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Citrus (Citrus sinenesis L.) orchards in Swat were assessed for micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B) deficiency during 2006. Representative soil and leaf samples from 51 citrus orchards were collected and analyzed for micronutrients. The results on leaf analysis showed that Zn was deficient in 100%, Mn in 96%, B in 24% and Cu in 16% orchards. The soil analysis showed that Zn was deficient in 10-44%, Fe in 12-18%, and Mn in 4-14% orchards, whereas Cu and B were adequate in all 51 orchards. The soil pH of citrus orchards was between 7.5 and 8.5, and EC was below 4.0 dS m-1. These results suggested that the deficiency of Zn and Mn in citrus orchards of Swat were wide-spread but that of B and Cu were sparse. The soil and plant tests for diagnosing micronutrient deficiencies in citrus orchards were poorly correlated. However, the surface soil (0-15 cm) and cumulative micronutrients contents of the profile (0-45 cm) were strongly positively correlated. Thus, the surface soil analysis can be used to measure pattern in micronutrients fertility of the profile using the regression equations developed in this study. Further studies are needed to determine suitable dose of micronutrients application to citrus orchards in Swat in field experiments.

705-710 Download
37
MACRO-MINERAL STATUS AT THREE PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF SOME RANGE SHRUBS OF GADOON HILLS, DISTRICT SWABI, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ZAMAN SHER1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2 AND MOHAMMAD SALEEM3

MACRO-MINERAL STATUS AT THREE PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF SOME RANGE SHRUBS OF GADOON HILLS, DISTRICT SWABI, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the macro-mineral status of some shrubs species at three phenological stages which are commonly grazed by livestock in Gadoon hills, District Swabi, Pakistan. Eight shrubs species viz., Berberis lycium, Debregeasia salicifolia, Dodonaea viscosa, Gymnosporia royleana, Indigofera heterantha, Justicia adhatoda, Rosa moschata and Zizyphus nummularia were analyzed for Ca, K, Mg, Na, and N contents. Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Nitrogen contents differed significantly among the shrubs and among all phenological stages except Debregeasia and Indigofera in which the Ca concentration was similar. Potassium contents differed significantly among the various investigated shrubs but such difference was not found among the different phenological stages. Gymnosporia showed extremely low nitrogen contents than all other shrubs. The reproductive stage of Indigofera contained highest amount of nitrogen among all the shrubs. The present study showed that macro-mineral contents were quite high in all the tested shrubs at all the phenological stages, which generally might fulfill the requirement of grazing animals.

711-716 Download
38
OZONE BIOMONITORING IN PAKISTAN USING TOBACCO CULTIVAR BEL-W3
KAFIATULLAH1, ABDUL WAHID2, SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD3* AND SYED RAZI ABBAS SHAMSI1

OZONE BIOMONITORING IN PAKISTAN USING TOBACCO CULTIVAR BEL-W3
ABSTRACT:
The present study depicts a comparison of ozone (O3) concentrations over a decade time (1993-94 to 2006) using plant biomonitoring and continuous ozone monitors techniques in Lahore city of Pakistan. The variations in O3 levels were assessed at city centre, suburbs and semi-rural/rural locations in and around the city of Lahore by using American O3-sensitive tobacco biomonitor plant (Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. Bel-W3) for the first time in Pakistan during 1993 and 1994 seasons through weekly assessment of visible damage to leaves. Results for both 1993 and 1994 seasons indicated significant differences between sites in the mean 6-h O3 concentrations with a range of over 20 ppb and 15 ppb across the sites in 1993 and 1994, respectively. An inverse relationship between the levels of NO2 and O3 was found during investigation. The highest O3 levels of 75-80 ppb were found at rural areas and the lowest at city centre sites. The extent of O3 injury on the tobacco cv. Bel-W3 leaves reflected the trends seen in O3 concentrations. The highest and lowest leaf injury indices of 18-27% and 5-7% occurred at the rural and city centre sites, respectively. Results for 2006 season indicated the highest seasonal mean O3 concentration of 100 ppb in semi-rural areas compared with city centre sites (68 ppb). The highest 26% and 20% increase in O3 levels was observed at rural/semi-rural and city centre sites, respectively when compared with 1993 O3 survey. Application of O3 biomonitoring technique proved very cost-effective and feasible for the estimation of atmospheric O3 levels in South East Asian regions like Pakistan where shortage of electric supply, trained man power and poverty is already playing havoc.

717-723 Download
39
MEDICINAL FLORA OF HINGOL NATIONAL PARK, BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI

MEDICINAL FLORA OF HINGOL NATIONAL PARK, BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to record medicinal use of native plants by the inhabitants of the study area. Thirty nine plant species belonging to 32 genera and 22 families were documented having medicinally important and are being used by the local people for treating their various diseases. Generally

725-732 Download
40
BIODIVERSITY OF GRASSY WEEDS AND THEIR ETHNOBOTANICAL IMPORTANCE IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT (D. I. KHAN), KPK, PAKISTAN
SARFARAZ KHAN MARWAT1*, FAZAL-UR-REHMAN2, KHALID USMAN3, ABDUR RASHID4 AND SAID GHULAM3

BIODIVERSITY OF GRASSY WEEDS AND THEIR ETHNOBOTANICAL IMPORTANCE IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT (D. I. KHAN), KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study is based on research work carried out during 2005-2007 in Dera Ismail Khan District, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), Pakistan. The research area was extensively surveyed in order to investigate grassy weed species. From the study area 28 weed species of grasses belonging to 22 genera were collected. Grassy weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes by local people. Mainly, grasses are used as fodder in the area; some are used for thatching and for medicinal purpose. Data inventory constitutes botanical name, tribe, local name, English name and voucher number (Table 1.), habit and habitat, flowering and fruiting period and ethnobotanical importance (Table 2). Pictures of six plants have also been provided.

733-738 Download
41
INDIGENOUS PLANT RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION PRACTICES IN VILLAGE POPULATIONS OF KASHMIR HIMALAYAS
HAMAYUN SHAHEEN1,3*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI1 AND ZAHID ULLAH1

INDIGENOUS PLANT RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION PRACTICES IN VILLAGE POPULATIONS OF KASHMIR HIMALAYAS
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. The indigenous knowledge of plant resources has deep roots in the lifestyle of locals in mountain populations of Kashmir Himalayas. Preference is given to herbal remedies because of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Field expeditions were carried out in alpine pastures of district Bagh Azad Kashmir, focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal plants. A total of 71 herb species belonging to 22 plant families were collected from the area. The present study revealed that 45 herbs, up to about 70% of the plants collected from the study area had medicinal value. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Polygonaceae were the largest families having 10, 5 and 5 representatives respectively. Results revealed that most of the plant species had multiple uses in the treatment of diseases. Strengthening the use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the public health and living standard of local people.

739-745 Download
42
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LXIX. POACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LXIX. POACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 54 species belonging to 30 genera of the family Poaceae from Pakistan has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. It is a stenopalynous family. Pollen grains are mostly spheroidal, monoporate, rarely diporate, ± circular, pore small, operculate, non-operculate, annulate or non-annulate, tectum areolate to scabrate. On the basis of exine ornamentations 5 distinct pollen types are recognized. Palynology does not correspond with tribal and generic classification. However, palynology is significantly helpful at the specific level.

747-756 Download
43
ANTI-SAP CHEMICALS AND HOT WATER QUARANTINE TREATMENT EFFECTS ON STORAGE LIFE AND FRUIT QUALITY OF MANGO CV. SAMAR BAHISHT CHAUNSA
ABDUL JABBAR, AMAN ULLAH MALIK *, MEHDI MAQBOOL, MUHAMMAD AMIN, MUNAZZA SAEED AND RABIA HAMEED

ANTI-SAP CHEMICALS AND HOT WATER QUARANTINE TREATMENT EFFECTS ON STORAGE LIFE AND FRUIT QUALITY OF MANGO CV. SAMAR BAHISHT CHAUNSA
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed at testing the combined effects of anti-sap chemicals and hot water quarantine treatment (HWQT: 48°C-60min) on a commercial mango cv. Samar Bahisht (S.B.) Chaunsa, as potential protocol for export to China. The physiologically mature mango fruit were harvested along with 4-5 cm pedicel. After de-stemming, the fruits were treated with potential anti-sap chemicals: calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], potassium aluminium sulphate [KAl(SO4)2.12(H2O)], Tween-80 [C64H124O26]. After chemical application, half of the fruit lot was subjected to HWQT as per protocol, while the remaining half was kept without HWQT. The fruit after treatments were air dried, packed in cardboard boxes and stored (13±1°C, 85% RH) for 21 days. Sapburn injuries were scored after 24, 48, 72 hrs and 21days of storage. After storage the fruit were allowed to ripe at room temperature and assessed for physical disorders and disease incidence. Fruit were also analysed for firmness, peel colour, sugars, titratable acidity, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid contents and organoleptic characteristics (pulp colour, texture, taste, aroma, flavour). Sapburn injury score showed significant differences for chemicals and chemical-HWQT interactions. De-stemming under lime [Ca (OH)2] followed by HWQT showed least sapburn injury with more firm fruit. HW treated fruit showed significantly lower anthracnose disease incidence (1.68 vs 2.42), while higher sugars (18.32 vs 14.56%) with more pulp browning (0.74 vs 0.48) and higher total carotenoids (67.0 vs 56.1µg/g) compared to without HWQT. Organoleptic evaluation revealed smoother pulp texture in fruit without HWQT. It was concluded that mango desapping with 1.0% lime solution, followed by HWQT (48°C-60min), did not significantly impair quality during 21 days of storage, beside controlling sapburn injury and meeting market access requirement. However, in view of the exhibited heat induced effects, more studies are needed on HWQT effects on various maturity levels and improving post-storage colour development in mango cv. S.B. Chaunsa, for its export to China, by sea or road, using refrigerated containers.

757-764 Download
44
A METHOD FOR MID-TERM STORAGE OF EPIMEDIUM PUBESCENS (BERBERIDACEAE) POLLEN
QIU MEI QUAN AND YUN-XIANG LI*

A METHOD FOR MID-TERM STORAGE OF EPIMEDIUM PUBESCENS (BERBERIDACEAE) POLLEN
ABSTRACT:
Due to the different species of Epimedium separated by seasonal isolation and geography, developing a method for mid-term storage of E. pubescens is necessary to facilitate germplasm conservation, interspecific hybridization and identification of hybrid species. In order to optimize the process of hand-pollination, in this work we have studied the conservation potential of E. pubescens pollen stored for approximately 2 months at -20°C, -70°C and -196°C. The optimal desiccation time of E. pubescens pollen was found to be 210 min. In vitro pollen germination of fresh pollen was 56.0%, and it was progressively reduced after conservation at -20°C, -70°C and -196°C reaching a minimum of 4.2%, 6.0% and 4.4%, respectively after 2 months of storage. The germination capacity of pollen stored at -20°C and -196°C was similar to that observed at -70°C, therefore for reasons of convenience and economy, pollen can be efficiently stored at -20°C. There were no fruit set differences between the field pollinations performed with stored pollen and pollinations performed with fresh pollen. These results indicate that E. pubescens pollen can effectively stored at subzero temperatures for several weeks to months.

765-768 Download
45
ASSESSEMENT OF SOMACLONAL VARIATION IN IN VITRO PROPAGATED CORMELS OF GLADIOLUS
NOOR-UN-NISA MEMON1*, MUHAMMAD QASIM2, MUHAMMAD JAFFAR JASKANI2, FAISAL SAEED AWAN3, AZEEM IQBAL KHAN3, BUSHRA SADIA3 AND ZAHOOR HUSSAIN4

ASSESSEMENT OF SOMACLONAL VARIATION IN IN VITRO PROPAGATED CORMELS OF GLADIOLUS
ABSTRACT:
In vitro raised cormels of 3.0 to 4.0 mm diameter of 3 commercial grown varieties of gladiolus viz. Traderhorn, White Friendship and Peter Pears were used to assess percentage of clonal fidelity with each other and with mother cormels using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. In order to regenerate cormels under In vitro conditions, direct organogenesis was followed using cormel sprout as an explant. Cormel sprouts obtained by culturing the whole cormels (0.6 g) in a polar position on MS medium supplemented with BAP (4 mg L-1). Out of the three varieties, White friendship obtained more number of shoots (22.07). However, statistically similar number of roots was recorded in White Friendship (22.67) and Peter Pears (19.60) when MS supplemented with IBA (2 mg L-1). Cormel production was not affected by any variety of the gladiolus using MS medium supplemented with IBA (1 mg L-1) and sucrose (7%). The In vitro produced cormels were assessed for their clonal fidelity using RAPD and ISSR markers. The RAPD similarity tendencies among In vitro propagated cormels ranged from 80% to 95% in Traderhorn, 88% to 95% in White Friendship and 80% to 90% in Peter Pears. However the similarity tendencies between mother and In vitro propagated cormels, on average were 86% in Traderhorn, 92% in White Friendship and 83% in Peter Pears. In comparison, ISSR primers produced higher percentage of similarity matrix than RAPD. The ISSR cluster analysis for genetic similarity between mother and In vitro propagated cormels had varied degree of differences detected 90% in Traderhorn, 96% in White Friendship and 85% in Peter Pears. The genetic differences among In vitro propagated cormels ranged from 88 to 100% in Traderhorn, 94 to 100% in White Friendship and 82 to 100% in Peter Pears.

769-776 Download
46
MICROPROPAGATION OF MUSA ACUMINATA X M. BALBISIANA CV. PISANG AWAK (ABB GENOME) AND THREE OTHER CULTIVARS
AU VUN HUI, ARVIND BHATT AND CHAN LAI KENG*

MICROPROPAGATION OF MUSA ACUMINATA X M. BALBISIANA CV. PISANG AWAK (ABB GENOME) AND THREE OTHER CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A comparative study on three clonal propagation systems was carried out on banana cv. Pisang Awak for production of plantlets. The temporary immersion system (TIS) was found to be the most suitable method for in vitro propagation of Pisang Awak plantlets as compared to the gelled medium and the shake flask system. There was high shoot proliferation and more roots formation when they were cultured in MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L BA in TIS. The plantlets produced from gelled medium system and TIS also acclimatized well in greenhouse except those derived from the shake flask system where none of the plantlet survived after transferred to the soil. The optimized TIS propagation protocol was found to be effective for mass propagation of other three banana cultivars, Pisang Raja, Pisang Rastali and Pisang Berangan.

777-780 Download
47
WASTEWATER IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGY, BIOMASS AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
IMDAD ULLAH KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN2, HABIB UR RAHMAN1, ZARINA BIBI1 AND KALIM ULLAH1

WASTEWATER IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGY, BIOMASS AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The impact of domestic/municipal wastewater (mww) of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan was assessed through its effects on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). The pot experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in net house during winter season 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Treatments included were T0 (tube well/tap water), T1 (20% mww), T2 (40% mww), T3 (80% mww) and T4 (100% mww/raw-form municipal wastewater). The quality and chemical composition of wastewater was deviating from international (Anon.

781-785 Download
48
IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF CALLUS INDUCTION IN INTERSPECIFICALLY HYBRIDIZED F4-5 POPULATIONS OF BRASSICA
BILAL JAVED1, FARHATULLAH1*­­­, SAFDAR HUSSAIN SHAH1 AND IFTIKHAR ALI2

IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF CALLUS INDUCTION IN INTERSPECIFICALLY HYBRIDIZED F4-5 POPULATIONS OF BRASSICA
ABSTRACT:
Explants of F4-5 populations of 3 B. napus (A-20-80, Maluku and Dunkled) interspecifically hybridized with 3 B. campestris lines (1203

787-790 Download
49
IN VITRO RESPONSE OF RUELLIA LINEARIBRACTEOLATA TO DIFFERENT GROWTH HORMONES - AN ATTEMPT TO CONSERVE AN ENDANGERED SPECIES
HAIDER ABBAS1* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER2

IN VITRO RESPONSE OF RUELLIA LINEARIBRACTEOLATA TO DIFFERENT GROWTH HORMONES - AN ATTEMPT TO CONSERVE AN ENDANGERED SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Ruellia linearibracteolata Lindau is an endangered taxon in the southern region of Pakistan. Being exposed to harsh environmental conditions and subjected to multiple threats including habitat loss, grazing activities and soil erosion, Hence an urgent conservation strategy is required to avoid its extirpation. In this connection an experiment has been conducted to study its response to different growth hormones. Seeds from the wild were germinated in vitro and then aseptically grown seedlings were used as a source of explant. The efficiency of MS medium was thoroughly examined by augmenting different growth hormones. The cultures maintained in appropriate conditions with subculture after 6-7 months. 1.5 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l Kin and 0.5 mg/l NAA produced the highest number (5.80) of shoots with 58.0% shoot regeneration frequency. While, IBA (1.0 mg/l) produced maximum number (2.2) of roots along with the highest rooting frequency (95%).

791-794 Download
50
FACTOR ANALYSIS OF TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES OF GRANTSBURG SOILS IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNDER CORN AND SOYBEAN
IMTIAZ HUSSAIN1 AND K.R. OLSON2

FACTOR ANALYSIS OF TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES OF GRANTSBURG SOILS IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNDER CORN AND SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Adoption of conservation tillage resulted in changes in soil properties, soil organic matter, soil nutrients. These soil variables were strongly correlated and could not be explained independently by the univariate analysis. The objectives of the study were to use the factor analysis for the identification of the factor pattern in soil properties and to examine the changes in factor scores in no-till (NT), chisel plow (CP) and moldboard plow (MP) tillage systems at different depths after 8 years of the tillage application and planting of corn and soybean on a sloping and previously eroded with a root restricting fragipan Grantsburg soil. The soil samples from the 0 to -5 and -5 to -15 cm soil depths were analyzed for the Ca, Mg, K, P, aggregate stability, particulate organic C, N and humified organic C and N. With factor analysis

795-800 Download
51
PROFILING DEHYDRIN GENE SEQUENCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DROUGHT TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS
MUHAMMAD JURIAL BALOCH1, JIM DUNWELL2, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN3, ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI4, MIKE DENNET2 AND WAJID ALI JATOI1

PROFILING DEHYDRIN GENE SEQUENCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DROUGHT TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Physiological and yield traits such as stomatal conductance (mmol m-2s-1), Leaf relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant were studied in a separate experiment. Results revealed that five out of sixteen cultivars viz. Anmol, Moomal, Sarsabz, Bhitai and Pavan, appeared to be relatively more drought tolerant. Based on morphophysiological results, studies were continued to look at these cultivars for drought tolerance at molecular level. Initially, four well recognized primers for dehydrin genes (DHNs) responsible for drought induction in T. durum L., T. aestivum L. and O. sativa L. were used for profiling gene sequence of sixteen wheat cultivars. The primers amplified the DHN genes variably like Primer WDHN13 (T. aestivum L.) amplified the DHN gene in only seven cultivars whereas primer TdDHN15 (T. durum L.) amplified all the sixteen cultivars with even different DNA banding patterns some showing second weaker DNA bands. Third primer TdDHN16 (T. durum L.) has shown entirely different PCR amplification prototype, specially showing two strong DNA bands while fourth primer RAB16C (O. sativa L.) failed to amplify DHN gene in any of the cultivars. Examination of DNA sequences revealed several interesting features. First, it identified the two exon/one intron structure of this gene (complete sequences were not shown), a feature not previously described in the two database cDNA sequences available from T. aestivum L. (gi|21850). Secondly, the analysis identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), positions in gene sequence. Although complete gene sequence was not obtained for all the cultivars, yet there were a total of 38 variable positions in exonic (coding region) sequence, from a total gene length of 453 nucleotides. Matrix of SNP shows these 37 positions with individual sequence at positions given for each of the 14 cultivars (sequence of two cultivars was not obtained) included in this analysis. It demonstrated a considerable diversity for this gene with only three cultivars i.e. TJ-83, Marvi and TD-1 being similar to the consensus sequence. All other cultivars showed a unique combination of SNPs. In order to prove a functional link between these polymorphisms and drought tolerance in wheat, it would be necessary to conduct a more detailed study involving directed mutation of this gene and DHN gene expression.

801-806 Download
52
MAIZE SEED STORAGE MYCOFLORA IN PAKISTAN AND ITS CHEMICAL CONTROL
MUHAMMAD JAVED SALEEM1*, RUKHSANA BAJWA1, ABDUL HANNAN2 AND TANVEER A. QAISER3

MAIZE SEED STORAGE MYCOFLORA IN PAKISTAN AND ITS CHEMICAL CONTROL
ABSTRACT:
Eleven seed-borne fungal species were recorded in the 18 maize seed samples collected from 6 maize growing districts of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Fusarium moniliforme were the most prevalent species with the incidence range up to 94, 62 & 43%, respectively. Maximum number of fungal species i.e.

807-812 Download
53
BARK BEETLE, HYPOCRYPHALUS MANGIFERAE STEBBING (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) IS A VECTOR OF MANGO SUDDEN DEATH DISEASE IN PAKISTAN
ASAD MASOOD AND SHAFQAT SAEED

BARK BEETLE, HYPOCRYPHALUS MANGIFERAE STEBBING (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) IS A VECTOR OF MANGO SUDDEN DEATH DISEASE IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Role of bark beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was assessed and proved as a definitive vector in the transmission of Mango sudden death disease (MSDD). Studies were carried out in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Healthy plants of mango (Mangifera indica L.) were enclosed with beetles with and without fungus inoculum by employing a technique “Mesh Enclosure Method” (MEM). Symptoms expression revealed that the wilting was significant in 3 and 6 months but no significant differences in oozing were found and also other symptoms like black streaks and cankers were observed in the plants on which infested beetles were introduced. Re-isolation of fungi after 7.5 months showed higher frequency of Lasiodiplodia theobromae compared to Ceratocystis fimbriata. In order to confirm the results, both of the fungi were also isolated from adult beetles and beetle‘s frass. Based on our findings, H. mangiferae was found to transmit the infection of Mango Sudden Death Disease in healthy plants which necessitates an integrated approach considering the disease and its vector for the sustainable management of MSDD in orchards.

813-820 Download
54
PATHOGENIC VARIABILITY OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS ISOLATES FROM CHICKPEA IN TURKEY
HARUN BAYRAKTAR AND FATMA SARA DOLAR

PATHOGENIC VARIABILITY OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS ISOLATES FROM CHICKPEA IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, representing eight provinces located in four regions of Turkey were analyzed for pathogenic variability on a set of 10 differential cultivars of chickpea viz., JG 62, C 104, JG 74, CPS 1, BG 212, WR 315, Annigeri, Chafa, L 550, 850-3/27. All isolates were identified as races 0

821-823 Download
55
INOCULUM SOURCES, DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF BACTERIAL BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO
HAFIZ FARHAD ALI1*, MUSHARAF AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD JUNAID1, AYESHA BIBI1,ASAD ALI1, MUHAMMAD SHARIF1, BARKAT ALI2, KHALID NAWAB1 AND AMNA SADOZAI2

INOCULUM SOURCES, DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF BACTERIAL BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO
ABSTRACT:
Comprehensive surveys during spring, summer and fall

825-830 Download
56
INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON FUNGAL PREVALENCE AND QUALITY OF CITRUS FRUIT (CV. BLOOD RED)
ABDUR RAB*, MUHAMMAD SAJID, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN, KHALID NAWAB, MUHAMMAD ARIF AND MANSOOR KHAN KHATTAK

INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON FUNGAL PREVALENCE AND QUALITY OF CITRUS FRUIT (CV. BLOOD RED)
ABSTRACT:
The influence of storage temperature on post storage fungal prevalence and quality of citrus fruit (sweet orange cv. Blood Red) was investigated at the Horticultural Laboratory of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar. The fruits were exposed to 5

831-836 Download
57
OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS LOBOPHORA (DICTYOPHYCEAE, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
K. AISHA AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS LOBOPHORA (DICTYOPHYCEAE, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Fan-shaped, flabellate and rosette like fronds of a brown alga Lobophora J. Agardh were collected from various coastal areas of Karachi (Pakistan) and taxonomically investigated. This study revealed the presence of two species i.e. L. variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira and a new species L. prostrata Aisha et Shameel. The black brown coloured specimens of the new species were found prostratly attached with the rocks by their lower surface. They contained a central layer of large rectangular cells in cortical region, peripheral part in the upper surface having small squarish cells but lower surface without any peripheral cells. In lower part of the thallus, each cell produced rhizoidal filaments, which were globular and contained rectangular cells.

837-840 Download
58
SHORT TERM EXPOSURE OF UV-B RADIATION ENHANCES SALINITY TOLERANCE IN VIGNA RADIATA
NEELOFER HAMID, HINA HUSSAIN, FAIZA JAWAID AND AFSHAN RAHMAN*

SHORT TERM EXPOSURE OF UV-B RADIATION ENHANCES SALINITY TOLERANCE IN VIGNA RADIATA
ABSTRACT:
Electromagnetic radiation (7%) emitted from the sun is in the UV range (200–400) nm. Several morphological and anatomical changes have been reported from plants grown under long-term UV-B regimes. The effect of UV-B radiation (280-320nm) and salinity alone and in combination were studied. Fifteen days old seedlings of Vigna radiata were exposed to UV-B radiation for 10

841-844 Download
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