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Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 3
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STUDY ON CHROMOSOMAL STRUCTURAL HETEROZYGOSITY IN PAEONIA EMODI, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES
SHI-QUAN WANG

STUDY ON CHROMOSOMAL STRUCTURAL HETEROZYGOSITY IN PAEONIA EMODI, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Chromosomal meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of Paeonia emodi, an endangered species, was investigated in natural population represented by nine individuals. The results showed that: (1) Mean chromosome configuration was 2n = 10 = 0.20 I + 4.90 II at metaphase. Most of the chromosomes were ring bivalents, but some were rod bivalents or univalents. The existence of rod bivalent and univalent indicated the differentiation between the homologous chromosomes, most probably due to chromosomal structural heterozygosity. (2) All individuals studied were chromosomal structural heterozygotes, i.e., inversion, as indicated by bridge and/or fragment. (3) There were some variations among individuals in size of fragments, which indicated that different inversions existed in this species, i.e., paracentric inversion polymorphisms. Chromosomal structural heterozygosity is a common phenomenon in Paeonia. Further research is necessary to probe into the reasons that structural heterozygosity exists widely, and whether there is relationship between heterozygosity and ecological adaptation in this species.

713-718 Download
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CHROMOSOME LOCATION AND SSR MARKERS OF A STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENE FROM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) LINE N9738
BAOJU YANG1, WANQUAN JI1*, CHANGYOU WANG1*, FEI XUE1, M. ALI2, YAJUAN WANG1, HONG ZHANG1 AND XINLUN LIU1

CHROMOSOME LOCATION AND SSR MARKERS OF A STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENE FROM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) LINE N9738
ABSTRACT:
The objective of present study here was to determine the inheritance and chromosomal location of the resistance gene in N9738. The phenotypic data of F2 plants, from the crosses N9738/Huixianhong and N9738/Abbondanza, respectively, implied that the stripe rust resistance in N9738 was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated YrN9738. Monosomic (Nullisomic) analysis revealed YrN9738 is on wheat chromosome 1B. Seventy-eight SSR markers on chromosome 1B were screened on the parents and bulks. Four SSR markers (Xgpw7422, Xgpw5195, Xgpw7812, and Xcfd65) were used to construct a linkage map for YrN9738 and Xcfd65 was closely linked to YrN9738 with genetic distance of 3.5 cM. These linked markers were located on chromosome 1BL with Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics and ditelosomics of homoeologous group 1. Their presence in the deletion stocks of chromosome 1B located Xgpw7422 and Xgpw7812 in bin 1BL06-0.32-0.47 and Xgpw5195 in bin 1BL06-0.32. YrN9738 should be on wheat chromosome 1B near to the centromere and useful in wheat breeding programs.

719-724 Download
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INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF SALT, LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY OF A HALOPHYTIC GRASS - PHRAGMITES KARKA
AFSHEEN ZEHRA1, BILQUEES GUL1, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1, A. A. ALATAR2, A. K. HEGAZY2 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1, 2,3*

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF SALT, LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY OF A HALOPHYTIC GRASS - PHRAGMITES KARKA
ABSTRACT:
The effect of chloride and sulfate salts of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ on seed germination of a halophytic grass Phragmites karka was studied under different dark/light conditions and a range of temperature regimes. Seeds germinated better at 20/30ºC and their germination decreased with increases in salinity. This reduction in germination could be attributed to specific ion toxicity as well as variable osmotic stress due to the composition of salts. Among cations, K+ was generally most toxic followed by Mg2+ and Na+ but such generalizations could not be made in case of anions. Potassium sulfate was inhibitory than Mg2+ salts for seed germination. A better germination recovery from salt stress was found in 10/20ºC. More seeds recovered when transferred from NaCl to distilled water at all temperature regimes. Seeds treated with magnesium sulfate showed better recovery at 10/20 ºC, while recovery in Na2SO4 and MgCl2 treated seeds was better in moderate temperatures. The salts did not affect viability of seeds which probably entered into dormancy.

725-736 Download
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SEED GERMINATION OF CORISPERMUM PATELLIFORME IN DIFFERENT STORAGE LENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE: A DOMINANT ANNUAL SPECIES IN THE DESERTS OF NORTHERN CHINA
LIU SHI-ZENG, LIU YOU-JUN *, JI YONG-FU, LI ZHI-YUAN, ZHANG JIN-HU AND CHEN FANG

SEED GERMINATION OF CORISPERMUM PATELLIFORME IN DIFFERENT STORAGE LENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE: A DOMINANT ANNUAL SPECIES IN THE DESERTS OF NORTHERN CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Seed dormancy is a major constraint in seedling establishment in desert habitats, Seeds of C. patelliforme were collected from natural population in desert areas. dried and then stored for 2 and 5-years at room temperature, The experiments of seed viability and germination at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 25/15, 35/15, 25/5ºC), light (0h, 14h, 24h), moisture (0, 10.6, 16.5, 21.3, 25.5%) and salinity (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 mM) stress was conducted to evaluate the change of seed viability and germination in seed storage. The seed viability remained to be 100%. The optimal temperature for germination was changed from 25/15ºC (28.00±2.31%) to 25/5ºC (82.67±7.05%%) with the storage length increased from 2 to 5-years. and FGP at 5-year storage were higher than those at 2-year storage, but the differences were significant only at 25ºC and 25/5ºC. Difference between light treatments were not significant All the germination values in PEG-6000 and NaCl concentrations at 5-year storage were higher than those at 2-year storage. The maximum of IGP and FGP were obtained at 10.6% PEG-6000 or 50mM NaCl concentrations at 5-year storage, the RGP in seed storage were increased with the increased PEG-6000 and NaCl concentrations. A 5-year storage at room temperature significantly enhanced the germination percentage of selected species by breaking dormancy and improved the germinability in moisture and salinity stress. This is beneficial to understand the formation mechanism of persistent soil seed-bank and establishing the artificial vegetation in desert areas.

737-742 Download
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COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NACL AND SEA SALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF TWO HALOPHYTIC GRASSES UNDER VARIOUS LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE REGIMES
FAIZA SHAIKH1, BILQUEES GUL1, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1, ABDUL REHMAN A. ALATAR2, AHMED. K. HEGAZY2+ AND M. AJMAL KHAN1,2,3*

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NACL AND SEA SALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF TWO HALOPHYTIC GRASSES UNDER VARIOUS LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Effect of several concentrations of NaCl or sea salt was studied on seeds germination of two halophytic grasses- an annual (Eragrostis ciliaris) and a perennial (Dichanthium annulatum) in controlled growth chambers maintained at 10:20, 15:25, 20:30 and 25:35oC (12 h dark: light) and 24 h dark photoperiods. Sea salt and NaCl both inhibited seed germination but NaCl prevented more seed from germination. Optimal germination was obtained at temperature regime of 25:35oC for both grasses. Seeds of D. annulatum had similar germination both in light and dark at cooler temperatures in distilled water while addition of salinity in dark inhibited more seed germination compared to light treated seeds. No seeds of E. ciliaris germinated in dark and this positive photoblastic response was associated with temperature irrespective of salinity treatment. All seeds recovered from salts stress when returned to distilled water. Most of the un-germinated seeds were dormant and viable at the end of experiment indicating that they could form a viable seed bank to ensure the continuity of the population in saline habitat.

743-754 Download
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IMPACT OF SALT STRESS ON CONCENTRATIONS OF Na+, Cl- AND ORGANIC SOLUTES CONCENTRATION IN PEA CULTIVARS
MUHAMMAD ADNAN SHAHID1*, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2*, MUHAMMAD ASLAM PERVEZ3, RASHID AHMAD4, RASHAD MUKHTAR BALAL1 AND FRANCISCO GARCIA-SANCHEZ5

IMPACT OF SALT STRESS ON CONCENTRATIONS OF Na+, Cl- AND ORGANIC SOLUTES CONCENTRATION IN PEA CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
To study the salt tolerance potential in pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.), an experiment was conducted with nine local pea cultivars: Samarina Zard (SZ), Olympia (OL), Early Green (EG), Climax (CL), 2001-20 (2001), Meteor (M), Euro (E), 9200-1 (9200) and 9800-5 (9800). The plants were exposed to two NaCl treatments: 0 and 75 mM NaCl. At the end of the experiment, growth parameters, Cl- and Na+ in leaves and roots, and proline, quaternarium ammonium compounds, total free amino acids and total soluble sugars in leaves were measured. Saline treatment reduced the total biomass in all the pea cultivars. Thus, salt tolerance, based on growth reduction relative to the control treatment, was similar in all nine pea cultivars. However, regardless of the salt treatments, the cultivars EG, SZ, 9200, 9800 and CL were more vigorous among the nine cultivars. The cultivar 2001 had the highest leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations these were the lowest in 9200. In the nine cultivars studied, an increase was noted in the leaf proline, free amino acids, QAC compounds and total soluble sugars with increase in the root zone salinity. Leaf proline and amino acids concentrations were negatively correlated with the leaf Na+ concentration suggesting that the synthesis of this organic solute is linked with the osmotic process adjustment rather than Cl- and Na+ toxicity.

755-761 Download
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INFLUENCE OF SALINE STRESS ON GROWTH, GAS EXCHANGE, MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDATNS IN MUNGBEAN [(VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
SOBIA KANWAL, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF*1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ AND MUHAMMAD YASIR IQBAL

INFLUENCE OF SALINE STRESS ON GROWTH, GAS EXCHANGE, MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDATNS IN MUNGBEAN [(VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to appraise the effect of saline stress on growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, mineral nutrients and non-enzymatic antioxidants in 2 mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] lines (97001 and 97012). Seeds of each line were sown in sand-filled pots. When the plants were 30 day-old, 2 saline regimes [control (non-saline – full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution) and 50mM NaCl in Hoagland’s nutrient medium] were applied and maintained 30 days, after which time data for various growth and physiological attributes were recorded. Saline stress markedly reduced shoot fresh and dry weight, shoot length, net CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, leaf and root N contents, and leaf ascorbic acid and phenolic contents in both mungbean lines. In contrast, salt stress significantly enhanced leaf and root Na+ and root Ca2+ contents in both mungbean lines. Saline stress did not alter leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf and root K+ and P and leaf Ca2+ as well as leaf alpha-tocopherol. Overall, line 97001 showed better performance than line 97012 under both saline and non-saline conditions.

763-771 Download
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EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES AND DURATIONS OF PRIMING ON SPINACH SEEDS
ARSHAD ALAM1, NOOR UL AMIN1*, NEELAM ARA1, MURAD Ali2 AND IMRAN ALI3

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES AND DURATIONS OF PRIMING ON SPINACH SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of priming on spinach with various sources and soaking durations at the Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during 2008-09. The experiment was laid down in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Four priming sources (Distilled water, DAP, SSP, SSP+Na2CO3) and soaking durations of 4h interval (4h to 24h) along with control were studied. Number of days to emergence, germination percentage, survival percentage, leaf area (cm2), leaf yield (tons ha-1) and 100 number seeds weight (g) were significantly affected by priming sources and durations. Mean values showed that early emergence (5.952 days), maximum germination percentage (88.14), survival percentage (89.96), plant height (31.24 cm), leaf area (63.12 cm2), leaf yield (14.667 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (1.00 g) were observed in plots in which seeds were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution. In case of soaking durations, early emergence (5.917 days), maximum germination percentage (89.42), survival percentage (90.40), plant height (31.16 cm), leaf area (60.72 cm2), leaf yield (14.340 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (0.966 g) were recorded in the plots in which seeds were soaked for 24h. Mean values of interactions results showed that early emergence (5.0 days), maximum germination percentage (95.33), survival percentage (95.38), plant height (33.70 cm), leaf area (70.78 cm2), leaf yield (16.257 tons ha-1) were observed in plots where seed were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution for 24h. Overall SSP+Na2CO3 solution proved the best in most of the parameters while distilled water (control) showed comparatively poor performance.

773-777 Download
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EFFECT OF ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT1+, 2, MUHAMMAD AFZAL FAROOQ2, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3 AND SAHAR ZAIDI3

EFFECT OF ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
ABSTRACT:
The study focuses on the effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on germination, seedling growth, chlorophyll a and b contents, soluble phenols, anthocyanins, flavones contents, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) activity of mash-bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.). Even though the germination velocity was substantially increased, the final germination percentage remained significantly suppressed by UV-irradiance. Both root and shoot growth of the seedlings were markedly reduced by enhanced UV-B radiation. UV-B irradiation substantially decreased both chlorophylls a and b and the total amount of chlorophyll a plus b compared to controls. However, chlorophyll a/b ratio was generally elevated. Remarkable accumulation of total soluble phenols occurred in response to UV-B radiation. PAL activity increased markedly as a result of UV-stress in the beginning, subsequently, however, it declined, whereas, TAL activity consistently increased over the controls following UV-B irradiation up to 8 days of treatment. The levels of anthocyanins and flavones increased in treatments over the controls as they provide a protective mechanism to UV-B radiations. In general, the growth and physiological responses to UV-B radiation were more pronounced at greater exposure period.

779-785 Download
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RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY UNDER FIELD ENVIRONMENT
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, MOHAMMAD JAVED KHAN2, JEHAN BAKHT3 AND MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4

RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY UNDER FIELD ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
The study entitled “Response of wheat genotypes to salinity under field environment” was conducted to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to salinity stresses. The experiment was laid out at three different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan i.e., Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Mardan) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda) to study the performance of 11 wheat genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR-25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile i.e., Yar Hussain (EC. 3-3.5 dSm-1), Baboo Dehari (EC. 4-4.5 dSm-1) and Khitab Koroona (EC. 5-5.30 dSm-1). Different locations and wheat genotypes had significantly (p<0.05) effected grain yield, shoot Na+ and shoot K+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence). Maximum grain yield , maximum shoot K+ and minimum Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded from genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. Our results further indicated highest grain yield compared with lowest shoot K+, Na+ concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) at Yar Hussain. Maximum, K+ and Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and minimum grain yield were recorded at Khitab Koroona.

787-794 Download
15
APPLICATION OF CARROT ROOT EXTRACT INDUCED SALINITY TOLERANCE IN COWPEA (VIGNA SINENSIS L.) SEEDLINGS
SALWA MOHAMED ABBAS* AND SAMIA AGEEB AKLADIOUS

APPLICATION OF CARROT ROOT EXTRACT INDUCED SALINITY TOLERANCE IN COWPEA (VIGNA SINENSIS L.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Salt stress is considered as a restricting factor for plant products. Therefore, many compounds have been applied to minimize the harmful effects of salinity. Carrot roots extract is one of the natural biostimulant compounds with growth-stimulating characteristics. Moreover, it has been used as amendments in plant growth due to the presence of a number of plant growth-stimulating compounds. This study provides a review of the effect of carrot roots extract on the growth and development of plants grown under salt stress conditions with an importance on the use of this renewable bioresource in sustainable agricultural systems. The effect of presoaking of the cowpea seeds in carrot roots extracts (25 and 50 g/100 ml) and NaCl (100 mM) were examined. The results revealed that treating the seeds with sodium chloride accompanied by carrot root extracts increased growth parameters, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total carbohydrate of the cowpea seedlings as compared to the seeds treated with sodium chloride alone. Also, antioxidant compounds content (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, flavonoids and phenol compounds) were increased. Furthermore, treating the seeds with carrot roots extract and salt stress lead to differential expression of the genetic information in cowpea seedlings, resulting in changes in gene products, including protein and isozymes profiles. These changes induced the synthesis of certain proteins and simultaneously decreased the expression of other protein sets. The results also demonstrated that low concentration (25 mg/ L) of carrot root extract was more effective in reducing the adverse effects of salinity through the enhancement of multiple processes.

795-806 Download
16
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF WEEDS ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMINATION AND GROWTH
NASIRA JABEEN¹*, MOINUDDIN AHMED¹, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT² AND IRAM-US-SLAM¹

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF WEEDS ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMINATION AND GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
Three weed species viz., Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Euphorbia hirta L., and Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley were used in the form of powder with different ratios/quantity as treatments of 10, 25, 50 and 100g and mixed with uniform amount of soil (500g). Wheat seeds were grown and it was observed that 10 and 25g powder/500g soil of Asphodelus tenuifolius considerably increased the germination and rate of germination of wheat, while the powder of other two species reduced this phenomenon in the test species at the concentration of 25, 50 and 100g/500g soil. All the weeds powder treatments showed remarkable varied effects on the plant height and their weights (fresh, dry shoot and root weight) of the test plant. The powder of Fumaria indica and Asphodelus tenuifolius significantly reduced, while the Euphorbia hirta showed non-significant effects on the wheat plant height. Soil containing Euphorbia hirta powder showed the significant reduction in the fresh and dry shoot weight of wheat plant.

807-811 Download
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EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE ALLEVIATED CADMIUM INDUCED CHLOROSIS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS INHIBITION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CUCUMBER
LIXU YU, RONGXIA GAO, QINGHUA SHI*, XIUFENG WANG, MIN WEI AND FENGJUAN YANG

EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE ALLEVIATED CADMIUM INDUCED CHLOROSIS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS INHIBITION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
Cadmium (Cd) is one heavy metal which is toxic and can cause physiological disorder of plants. In the present experiment, effects of Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the phenotype, photosynthesis and oxidative stress of cucumber leaves were studied under Cd stress. Application of 100μM CdCl2 induced obvious chlorosis of cucumber leaves with lower pigment content and lower net photosynthetic rate (PN). Higher accumulations of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in Cd-treated cucumber leaves, which indicated Cd induced oxidative stress to cucumber leaves. Application of 100µM SNP reversed the chlorosis and lower PN induced by Cd treatment. Activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes and antioxidant capacity expressed by α,α-diphenyl-β-picryllhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, chelating activity of ferrous ions and hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging activity were significantly increased by SNP under Cd stress. On the contrary, the above effects of SNP were not observed after the application of potassium ferrocyanide which is an analog of SNP that does not release NO. Therefore, it could be concluded that the NO from SNP might account for the alleviating effect of Cd stress on cucumber plants.

813-819 Download
18
OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE CODA GENE BY RD29A PROMOTER IMPROVES SALT TOLERANCE IN NICOTIANA TABACUM
JINGJIANG1,2+, HAIYING LI1,2+, GUIPING HE2+, YAFANG YIN3, MINGYING LIU1,2, BO LIU2, GUIRONG QIAO1,2, SHENG LIN1,2,4, LIHUA XIE1,2 AND RENYING ZHUO1,2*

OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE CODA GENE BY RD29A PROMOTER IMPROVES SALT TOLERANCE IN NICOTIANA TABACUM
ABSTRACT:
Soil-salinity is a serious problem that impedes food production and reforestation worldwide. In order to improve plant salt tolerance, many genes for abiotic stress have been over-expressed by genetic engineering. The codA gene encodes for the choline oxidase of the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformisa. We analyzed the effect of overexpression of CodA on stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants using the stress-inducible Rd29A promoter. Four transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants were obtained. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the codA gene had integrated into the genome of the tobacco. When exposed to NaCl salt stress, the chlorophyll content of the transgenic plants was not altered significantly. With prolonged stress (2-4 weeks), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased by at least 50% relative to controls in all four transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation was observed after 7 days of NaCl stress in all transgenic plants, but decreased during continued salt stress in some lines, indicative of salt stress tolerance. These results showed that the codA gene may enhance salt-tolerance by inhibiting lipid peroxidation through induction of stress response genes like SOD. These results offer additional support to the suggestion that CodA is involved in the modulation of plant gene activity in response to salt stress conditions and indicate that plants over-expressing codA could be engineered for agriculture in saline soils.

821-827 Download
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GENETIC DIVERSITY AS REVEALED BY RAPD ANALYSIS AMONG CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
SAIEMA RASOOL

GENETIC DIVERSITY AS REVEALED BY RAPD ANALYSIS AMONG CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic diversity and to evaluate the relationship between eight chickpea genotypes that is the valuable source for breeding. Chickpea seed is a good source of carbohydrates and proteins, constituting 80% of the total dry seed weight. The variable response of chickpea genotypes were characterized by using the 15 RAPD primers. The total numbers of amplification products generated were 915, and among them 898 were found to be polymorphic. The number of amplification products ranged from 28-81 from 15 arbitrary primers. The molecular weight of the generated bands in the present study ranged from 100-2968 bp. Primers BG-30, C and OPA-02 generated the maximum number of amplified products. Minimum number of 28 RAPD products were obtained with OPA-04. 16 RAPD products were recorded as unique or species specific and resulted in 98.1% of polymorphism.

829-834 Download
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NITROGEN METABOLISM AND ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYMES IN CHICKPEA PLANTS GROWN IN CADMIUM AMENDED SOILS
SHAMSUL HAYAT1,2, QAISER HAYAT2, MOHAMMED NASSER ALYEMENI1 AND AQIL AHMAD2

NITROGEN METABOLISM AND ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYMES IN CHICKPEA PLANTS GROWN IN CADMIUM AMENDED SOILS
ABSTRACT:
The present experiment was conducted to elucidate the physio-morphological and biochemical responses of chickpea plants exposed to 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg cadmium (Cd) per kg of soil. Cd was given in the form of CdCl2. It was observed that all the growth parameters (length, fresh and dry mass), number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass were decreased with the increasing concentration of Cd in soil at both the sampling stage i.e. 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS). The value of leghemoglobin and carbohydrate contents of nodules was also decreased in a concentration dependent manner at 60 and 90 DAS. However, the nitrogen content of the leaf of the plants fed with lowest concentration of cadmium (25 mg/kg of soil) showed a value which is comparable to control. As the level of cadmium increased in the soil, a concomitant reduction in the photosynthetic attributes as well as of leaf nitrogen and root nitrate content was noted. A significant reduction in the activities of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase was also noted and the reduction was more significant in 100 mg Cd fed plants. The enzyme activities in 100 mg Cd fed plants decreased significantly by 37.9%, 38.0% (glutamine synthetase), 28.0%, 29.0% (glutamate synthase) and 46.0%, 44.0% (glutamate dehydrogenase) at two sampling stage (60 and 90 DAS), respectively as compared to control. However, unlike other parameters, the endogenous proline level and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase showed an increase with the increasing level of cadmium.

835-841 Download
21
GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT IN SWEETPOTATO AS LEAFY VEGETABLE USING AMMI MODEL
THIYAGU1, D., M.Y. RAFII2,3*, T.M.M. MAHMUD3, M.A. LATIF3, M.A. MALEK2 AND G. SENTOOR1

GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT IN SWEETPOTATO AS LEAFY VEGETABLE USING AMMI MODEL
ABSTRACT:
The genotype by environment (G×E) interactions can be observed by differential genotypic responses to varied environmental conditions. Its effect is to limit the accuracy of yield estimates and complicate the identification of specific genotypes for specific environments. The objective of this study was to use the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) method, with additive effects for genotypes and environments and multiplicative terms for genotype by environment interaction for analyzing data of 6 sweetpotato genotypes at 8 agro-environments. Results indicated that genotypes MIB05 and MIB14 were suitable for vegetable use for their higher shoot yield despite the root yield was low but they had low stability among agro-environments especially for 2 environments in Pontian, Johor with peat soil but these genotypes are suitable for 2 seasons of Telong, Kelantan. More breeding efforts are needed in order to improve the yield stability of these genotypes. AMMI biplot analysis has shown its advantage as helpful tool in identifying the best genotype for improving leafy vegetable for a new cycle of crossing and selection. Moreover, results indicated that MIB20 (control variety) had high stability with low interaction effects in eight agro-environments.

843-852 Download
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GROWTH DYNAMICS AND LEAF CHARACTERISTICS IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) DIFFER AT EXCESSIVE NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION
AMANULLAH1,2*, HIDAYATULLAH1, AMANULLAH JAN1 AND B.A. STEWART2

GROWTH DYNAMICS AND LEAF CHARACTERISTICS IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) DIFFER AT EXCESSIVE NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
Shoot-root ratio (by length), number of roots plant-1 (NRPP), number of tillers plant-1 (NTPP), and leaf characteristics [number of leaves plant-1 (NLPP), leaf length (LL), mean single leaf area (MSLA), leaf area plant-1 (LAPP), leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf area ratio (LAR)] response of oats (Avena sativa L., cv. Walker) was investigated under excessive nitrogen (N) as 200 mg N kg-1 (N1P0), excessive phosphorus (P) as 200 mg P kg-1 (N0P1), and combine 100 mg N + 100 mg P kg-1 of potting mix (N2P2) and control (N0P0) as check in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during winter 2009-10. The experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Shoot-root ratio increased with excessive N, excessive P and combined N + P applications due to the decline in root lengths. The lower shoot-root ratio in control was mainly attributed to the longer roots produced by oats. Phosphorus alone or combined application with N (N2P2) increased NRPP over control. At the early stages, control had more NRPP than N alone. With advancement in crop growth, combined N + P applications had more favorable effects on NTPP than other treatments. Excessive P had more but excessive N had less NTPP than control. Except SLW, all other parameters viz. NLPP, LL, LER, MSLA, LAPP, LAI, SLA, and LAR decreased due the toxic effects of excessive N. Excessive P alone or combined N + P applications had beneficial effects on various leaf characteristics of oats viz. NLPP, LL, LER, MSLA, LAPP, LAI, SLA, and LAR.

853-863 Download
23
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.) LANDRACES FROM PAKISTAN BASED ON RAPD MARKERS
MARIA SULTAN1, NAHIDA ZAKIR2, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1 AND M. SHAHID MASOOD2

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.) LANDRACES FROM PAKISTAN BASED ON RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity is very important for developing new crop varieties with high yield and other desirable traits. Consequently it assists in increasing food production and improving the level of human nutrition. Genetic diversity among 30 guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) accessions was observed at DNA level using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High quality genomic DNA was extracted and PCR conditions were optimized for amplification using 12 random primers. Twelve decamers generated a total of 76 amplification products, of which average proportion of polymorphic loci was 73%. The number of amplified products produced by each primer ranged from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.3 bands per primer. Dice similarity coefficients ranged from 0.49 to 0.93. The highest similarity index of 93% was observed between accessions ‘27350’ and ‘27351’, whereas ‘24293’ and ‘24302’ were the most varied accessions with similarity index of 49%. On the basis of similarity matrix analysis via unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), accessions were grouped into three main groups and nine subgroups or clusters. Two accessions ‘21702’ and ‘24293’ remained in distinct clusters. The results from the present study would assist in the identification and demarcation of elite guar accessions for local consumption, and also for export purposes. This work will significantly add to broaden the scope of selection of diverse parent accessions in order to expand germplasm base for future breeding programs.

865-870 Download
24
STUDY OF TOTAL SEED PROTEIN PATTERN OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BREEDING LINES OF PAKISTAN THROUGH SDS-PAGE
SARDAR ALI KHAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1* AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI2

STUDY OF TOTAL SEED PROTEIN PATTERN OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BREEDING LINES OF PAKISTAN THROUGH SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, including 87 breeding lines of Pakistan were evaluated for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12.5% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 16 scorable protein bands were witnessed, of which 13 (81%) were polymorphic and 3 (19%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 100 to 120 kDa. Two bands i.e. 5 and 6 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied from 0.67 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all rice accessions into two main clusters i.e. I and II comprising 4 and 83 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low level of genetic diversity was detected for the total seed protein profiles, eighty seven rice breeding lines of Pakistan. Therefore, in the light of our investigations it is highly suggested to include a high number of rice genotypes for better rice breeding programs. Hence SDS-PAGE along with 2-D gel electrophoresis is further recommended. Our research will meaningfully support the cataloging, improvement, genetic assessment and conservation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes in Pakistan.

871-876 Download
25
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS EXPLANTS ON THE BASIS OF EFFICIENT SHOOT REGENERATION IN GLADIOLUS
NOOR-UN-NISA MEMON1, MUHAMMAD QASIM2, MUHAMMAD JAFFAR JASKANI2, AIJAZ ALI KHOOHARO1, ZAHOOR HUSSAIN3 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD4

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS EXPLANTS ON THE BASIS OF EFFICIENT SHOOT REGENERATION IN GLADIOLUS
ABSTRACT:
Different stages/sizes of the same explants have different regenerative capacity even cultured on the same nutrient medium. In present study different stages/sizes of various explants including nodal cultures from different stages of flower spike, whole flower buds only at sleeping stage, whole cormels of different sizes, cormel sprouts of different sizes and cormel slices of the cormel were explored and optimized for efficient shoot regeneration in three commercial grown varieties of the gladiolus. Different plant growth regulators including benzyl aminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KIN) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) alone or in combination with each other were used for each explant in order to explore the possibility of increasing rate of shoot induction and regeneration. Out of five explants, cormel sprouts of medium size (12 days old) was evaluated the best explant in terms of mean shoot induction (77.50%) and number of shoots (11.60) in White friendship. On the basis of interaction of varieties and plant growth regulators, the highest results for shoot induction (98.33%) and number of shoots (22.07) were observed from same cormel sprout on MS medium containing BAP 4 mg L‑1. The heading stage of nodal cultures (7.67), medium size of cormels and cormel sprouts (11.60) each and top slice of cormels (3.65) were considered the best stages/sizes from each explant for efficient number of shoots.

877-885 Download
26
MICRONUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT APPLICATION METHODS
MUHAMMAD AMJAD NADIM1*, INAYAT ULLAH AWAN1, MOHAMMAD SAFDAR BALOCH1, NAEEM KHAN2 AND KHALID NAVEED3

MICRONUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT APPLICATION METHODS
ABSTRACT:
The present research was carried out to investigate the effect of micronutrients and their application methods on wheat variety Gomal-8 under the agro-ecology of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during the year 2010-11. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangements. Main plot possessed five micronutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and B while application methods (side dressing, foliar application and soil application) were assigned to sub-plots. The results revealed that boron application @ 2 kg ha-1 recorded higher crop growth rate (30.14 g m-2 day-1), net assimilation rate (2.78 mg m-2 day-1), number of tillers (307.00 m-2), number of grains spike-1 (61.08) and grain yield (5.63 t ha-1). The use of copper @ 8 kg ha-1 also showed encouraging results similar to boron. Among various application methods, soil application (at sowing) showed the best results as compared to side dressing and foliar application both at 4 weeks after sowing (WAS). Also, different micronutrients significantly interacted with the application methods for physiological and agronomic traits including leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and grain yield. Soil application best interacted with boron for producing higher number of tillers, grains spike-1, grain yield and almost all the physiological traits. This combination also resulted in the best net returns with higher benefit cost ratio.

887-892 Download
27
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES FOR IRON DEFICIENCY TOLERANCE
SHAMIM AKHTAR1, ARMGHAN SHAHZAD2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1AND FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN1*

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES FOR IRON DEFICIENCY TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Iron deficiency is one of the major yield limiting factors in groundnut. The soils of Pothwar (90% of groundnut production area in Pakistan) are calcareous in nature, thus groundnut is exposed to Fe deficiency. Seeds of 20 varieties/ advance breeding lines of groundnut were collected to evaluate Fe deficiency responses. Seeds were germinated in pots with 1:1 soil to sand ratio with added recommended NPK fertilizer. Fe-EDTA (0.1mmol/L) was supplemented as foliar spray to control plants, however, no additional Fe was applied to Fe deficient plants. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll content, active and total Fe concentrations were recorded for each genotype under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions. Morphological parameters including pods per plant, pod weight per plant, seeds per plant and seed weight per plant were recorded at harvesting. Genotypes were ranked by multivariate cluster analysis. Data showed that BARI-2000 and Chakori were among the Fe stress tolerant genotypes while Golden and Lisn were among the Fe deficiency intolerant genotypes. Relative values for SPAD values ranged from 60.50% in 2KCG020 to 87. 8% in BARI-2000. Total Fe concentration was 48.8%in Lisn and 66.5% in BARI-2000. Relative value of biomass produced by Chakori and Golden was 85.5% and 66.3%, respectively. The genotypes ranked best on the basis of morpho-physiological parameters will be helpful for making recommendations to groundnut farmers of the Pothwar region.

893-899 Download
28
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) COMMERCIALIZED IN PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ADNAN1, ASIF AHMAD1, ANWAAR AHMED1, NAUMAN KHALID2, IMRAN HAYAT1 AND IFTIKHAR AHMED*3

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) COMMERCIALIZED IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The quality of black and green commercial tea samples was accessed by physicochemical analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation. Significant variations in physicochemical and organoleptic parameters were observed. The moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, water extracts and ash contents of the commercial tea samples were found to be in the range of 2.46-7.47, 0.87-1.141, 0.94-2.15, 11.23-17.21, 32.34-53.61, and 3.29-5.86%, respectively while caffeine and catechin were found in the range of 2.34-4.33% and 0-7.44%, respectively. The highest percentage of moisture, protein, fat, and crude fiber contents were observed in green tea samples while highest percentage of ash and water extracts were observed in black tea samples. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and manganese were found to be in the range of 1.47-3.84 mg/l, 2.97-5.66 mg/l, 0.39-1.83 mg/l, 3.01-4.00 mg/l., 1.09-2.43 mg/l, respectively with maximum amounts found in green tea as compared to black tea.

901-907 Download
29
EFFECT OF MATURITY ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, PHENOLICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF CHERRY FRUIT
TAHIR MAHMOOD1,2, FAROOQ ANWAR1,3*, IJAZ AHMAD BHATTI1 AND TAHIRA IQBAL1

EFFECT OF MATURITY ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, PHENOLICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF CHERRY FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the proximate composition, antioxidant activity as well as the phenolics profile of cherry fruit at three maturity stages were investigated. The moisture, protein, total sugars and total organic acids contents were increased as maturity progressed while those of ash and crude fiber decreased. The extraction yield of antioxidant components (6.32-23.65%), total phenolics content (176.38-687.68 mg GAE/100g DW), total flavonoids content (36.61-51.80 mg CE/100g DW) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (44.32-72.99%) increased as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stage. HPLC analysis of the phenolics revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the amounts of flavonols namely myricetin (15.52-40.26 mg/100g DW), quercetin (11.29-24.74 mg/100g DW) and kaempferol (2.55-4.86 mg/100g DW), and phenolic acids i.e. p-hydroxybenzoic (27.31-42.83 mg/100g DW), vanillic (8.56-21.54 mg/100g DW), p-coumaric (13.68-21.33 mg/100g DW), ferulic (2.46-14.32 mg/100g DW), chlorogenic (4.22-12.14 mg/100g DW) as the fruit maturity progressed. Overall, we concluded that the fully matured cherry fruits can be explored as a promising source of natural sugars and organic acids, and high-value antioxidants (flavonol and phenolic acids) suggesting their uses as ingredients of functional foods.

909-914 Download
30
UNVEILING THE MESS OF RED POTTAGE THROUGH GEL ELECTROPHORESIS: A ROBUST AND RELIABLE METHOD TO IDENTIFY VICIA SATIVA AND LENS CULINARIS FROM A MIXED LOT OF SPLIT “RED DAL”
ABDUL GHAFOOR

UNVEILING THE MESS OF RED POTTAGE THROUGH GEL ELECTROPHORESIS: A ROBUST AND RELIABLE METHOD TO IDENTIFY VICIA SATIVA AND LENS CULINARIS FROM A MIXED LOT OF SPLIT “RED DAL”
ABSTRACT:
Due to similarity in seed texture, colour and size of vetch (Vicia sativa) with lentil (Lens culinaris), these two legumes are mixed when split as “dal” to fetch higher prices. The sole marketing as split seed of vetch cultivar “Blanche fleur” under the false name of “red dal” or its mixing with lentil created hue and cry during the last decade of previous millennium in most of the South Asian countries including Middle East. Identification of vetch from lentil was only possible through modern biochemical techniques involving sophisticated equipment and technical skill. One hundred and ten samples of split red dal along with reference sample for both the species collected from various grain markets were analyzed through SDS-PAGE technique for three times, starting in 2001 with the interval of five years. The seed protein profiling was employed for distinguishing these two legumes belonging to different genera that were successfully utilized and the information was shared with researchers to create awareness among the consumers through print media. Varying degrees of mixing was observed that was gradually deceased during second and third sampling phase which was mainly due to robust information generated and dispersed. The electrophoretic pattern indicated a clear-cut differentiation of V. sativa from L. culinaris, hence this technique is very effective for species identification.

915-919 Download
31
IMPACT OF AMBIENT AIR ON PHYSIOLOGY, POLLEN TUBE GROWTH, POLLEN GERMINATION AND YIELD IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
WAFAA TAIA1, JALAL BASAHI2 AND IBRAHIM HASSAN1,2*

IMPACT OF AMBIENT AIR ON PHYSIOLOGY, POLLEN TUBE GROWTH, POLLEN GERMINATION AND YIELD IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were exposed in open top-chambers to non-filtered ambient air (NFAA) and to charcoal filtered air (FA) to study the effect of ambient air on physiological parameters, growth, yield, as well as pollen tube and pollen growth of plants. NFAA caused reductions in net photosynthetic rates (19%), stomatal conductance (26%), yield components (29% and 25% losses in fresh weight and number of fruits/plant, respectively) as well as degradation of epicuticular wax of its leaves. Moreover, pollen collected from plants grown in NFAA showed lower germination rates and reductions in pollen tube length (41 and 10%, respectively). Our results showed that detrimental effects of O3 on reproductive growth and development are compromising current crop yields and the fitness. Fresh weight of pods was reduced by 29% due to exposure to NFAA. The significance of pollutant-induced impairment of pollen germination and growth for reproductive development are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the marked reduction in pollen germination rates and pollen tube length and their significance to crop physiology and yield from the environment in the developing world.

921-926 Download
32
CHARACTERIZATION OF A WIDE LEAF MUTANT OF RICE ORYZA SATIVA L. WITH HIGH YIELD POTENTIAL IN FIELD
LI-FENG WANG* AND YUE-YI CHEN

CHARACTERIZATION OF A WIDE LEAF MUTANT OF RICE ORYZA SATIVA L. WITH HIGH YIELD POTENTIAL IN FIELD
ABSTRACT:
A new wide leaf rice mutant with high yield in the field was identified which has the leaf width about 1.5-2 folds more than that of wild-type. It possesses fewer, larger, upright leaves per plant. The chlorophyll contents of leaves were significantly higher than those of wild-type. The maximal PSII (Photosystem II) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching (qP) were lower than those of wild-type, respectively. Because of great decrease of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), the efficiency of excitation energy trapping by open PSII reaction centers in the light–adapted state (Fv’/Fm’) was higher than that of wild-type. Low temperature fluorescence analysis showed that wide leaf mutant assigned more excited energy to PSI than to PSII. These results indicated that wide leaf mutant was better in the distribution of energy among 2 photosystems, and increase the efficiency of light utilization because of increase of chlorophyll contents. Furthermore, the SOD enzyme activities and MDA content of wide leaf mutant were nearly 44.4%, and 50.8% of those of wild-type, respectively. The low SOD and MDA contents indicated that this wide leaf mutant had high photosynthetic efficiency and its membrane structure did not probably affected(delete) by oxidation stress.

927-932 Download
33
EFFECT OF PROLINE AND ABSCISIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF FABA BEAN UNDER WATER STRESS
HAYSSAM M. ALI, MANZER H. SIDDIQUI*, MOHAMED H. AL-WHAIBI, MOHAMMED O. BASALAH, AHMED M. SAKRAN, AND MOHAMED EL-ZAIDY

EFFECT OF PROLINE AND ABSCISIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF FABA BEAN UNDER WATER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Water stress is a serious threat to the agricultural production. Therefore, the present experiment was aimed to study the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and/or proline (Pro) on the performance of faba bean under water stress condition. Under water deficit condition, all parameters [plant height and root length, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and b, and activity of peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)] of faba beans were strongly depressed, except malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro contents. On the other hand, application of ABA and Pro alone as well as in combination improved all growth characteristics by improving Pro, TSC, photosynthetic pigments, CAT and POD. These results indicate that application of ABA and Pro together was more effective, and helped the plant to restore the altered physiological process induced by water stress.

933-940 Download
34
GROWTH ANALYSIS OF INDIGENOUS SOYBEAN LAND RACES
ASIM MUHAMMAD1,*, SHAD KHAN KHALIL2, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN2 AMANULLAH2 AND SULTAN MEHMOOD1

GROWTH ANALYSIS OF INDIGENOUS SOYBEAN LAND RACES
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous land races of soybean has shown promising yield potential, yet limited information are available for leaf area and related parameters. The present study aimed at assessing the leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf weight (SLW) and crop growth rate (CGR) of three indigenous land races (Kulat brown, Kulat white, Mothi) and two improved varieties (NARC-II, Swat-84) of soybean planted at monthly interval from April to July during 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. The parameters studied were significantly affected by planting dates, varieties and planting dates x varieties. Specific leaf area and crop growth rate at seed filling stage did not respond to the interaction. Maximum leaf area (2735 m2 plant-1), leaf area index (11), and specific leaf area (391.6 cm2 g-1) was recorded for April planted crop. Gradual decrease in these parameters was observed when planting was delayed from April to July. However specific leaf weight increased from 2.7 to 10.1 mg cm-1, when planting was extended from April to June. Maximum CGR in early vegetative (1.11 mg g-1day-1), bloom (22.8 mg g-1day-1) and seed fill (6.5 mg g-1day-1) stages was recorded for July, May and April planted crops respectively. Maximum leaf area (2165 cm2), LAI (8.3), and SLA (225 cm2g-1) was recorded for Kulat brown. Swat-84 demonstrated maximum SLW (7.4 mg cm-1). Land races exhibited greater leaf area (1871 cm2), LAI (7.1) and SLA (214.7 cm2 g-1). At early vegetative, bloom and seed fill stages, maximum CGR was recorded for Swat-84 (0.97 mg g-1day-1), Mothi (19.9 mg g-1day-1) and Kulat brown (5.3 mg g-1day-1) respectively. Land races exhibited higher CGR than improved varieties except at early vegetative growth stage. The average CGR at initial vegetative stage, bloom and seed fill stage were 0.81, 17.7 and 4.6 mg g-1day-1 respectively. The average CGR for April, May, June and July planted crop was 7.5, 8.9, 7.8 and 6.2 mg g-1day-1.

941-949 Download
35
CROP GROWTH ANALYSIS AND SEED DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF WHEAT CULTIVARS IN RELATION TO SOWING DATES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
HASINA GUL1*, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN REHMAN2, SHAZMA ANWAR1, BEENA SAEED1, FARHATULLAH2 AND HABIB AKBAR1

CROP GROWTH ANALYSIS AND SEED DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF WHEAT CULTIVARS IN RELATION TO SOWING DATES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Growth attributes from sowing to physiological maturity and seed developmental changes from anthesis to physiological maturity were monitored in two varieties of wheat (Pirsabaq-2005 and Khyber-87) under the influence of four sowing dates (Oct. 24th, Nov. 13th, Dec. 3rd and Dec. 23rd) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 100, 130 and 160 Kg ha-1) at New Developmental Farm of The University of Agriculture, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa Peshawar, Pakistan during 2008-09 and 2009-10.Analysis of the two years average data indicated that early and normal (Oct. 24th and Nov. 13th) seeded crops resulted in the highest significant values of Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Absolute Growth Rate (AGR) at third month of sampling after sowing, fresh seed weight (wet basis) and fresh seed germination (%) at 50 DAA (days after anthesis) but fresh seed moisture content was reduced up to 30-40% at 50 DAA while all the studied characters were declined under late seeded condition. Individual effect of 130 kg N ha-1 was founded best for all the concern growth and seed developmental traits but further increase in nitrogen dose responded negatively to the concern study of crop and seed. All growth attributes and seed developmental profile under study revealed that interaction of early and normal sowing with 130 kg N ha-1 using Pirsabaq-2005 cultivar, were also recorded for significant relation. The overall findings concluded that growing wheat variety Pirsabaq-2005 on Oct.24th and Nov.13th and application of 130 kg N ha-1 could be more beneficial in the study area.

951-960 Download
36
PROFIT MAXIMIZING LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER IN WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER ARID ENVIRONMENT
GHULAM ABBAS1, J.Z.K. KHATTAK2, G. ABBAS3, M. ISHAQUE4, M. ASLAM 1, Z. ABBAS1, M.AMER1 AND M.B. KHOKHAR1

PROFIT MAXIMIZING LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER IN WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at Farmers field on adaptive research station Mianwali during Rabi 2006-07 and 2007-08, to evaluate the response of wheat variety BK-2002 to various levels of fertilizers. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications. Significant (p=0.05) response of potassium application on wheat was observed on tillering, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and yield with the increase of K2O up to 93 kg ha-1. The pooled data of two year revealed that maximum 1000-grain weight (47.83 g) and yield (4533 kg ha-1) were achieved by the application of 93 kg of K2O ha-1on wheat crop. All other levels of K2O application showed a decrease in the parameters of wheat production. Regression analysis of the pooled data depicted a significant (p<0.01) parabolic trend and linear trend of increase in wheat yield in 2006-07 and 2007-08 respectively.

961-965 Download
37
YIELD AND QUALITY OF CUT FLOWERS AND CORM PRODUCTION OF GLADIOLUS VARY BY CULTIVAR AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILITY
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR, GOHAR AYUB,* NOOR UL AMIN, ABDUR RAB, MASOOD AHMAD AND NEELAM ARA

YIELD AND QUALITY OF CUT FLOWERS AND CORM PRODUCTION OF GLADIOLUS VARY BY CULTIVAR AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILITY
ABSTRACT:
Nitrogen plays an important role in the production and quality of crop through enhancing vegetative growth. In spite of this fact, if it is applied in excess of the requirement of the crop then it pollutes both ground water and environment. Hence an optimum level of nitrogen needs to be investigated for Gladiolus crop. Eight cultivars viz., Deciso, Hong Kong, Jessica, Jester Ruffled, Madonna, Peters Pears, Rose Supreme and White Friendship were evaluated at three nitrogen levels (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivar Rose Supreme produced the biggest florets (1.4 cm) both at color showing and full open stage (12.1 cm), lengthiest spikes (122.5 cm) at full spike opening, maximum number of 17.2 florets spike-1, maximum first florets persistency (8.0 days), maximum number of 138.8 cormels mother corm-1 and the largest daughter corm (7.8 cm). Jessica yielded maximum number of spikes (1.4), and daughter corms (1.6) mother-1 corm. Jester Ruffled produced maximum spike lengths (97.6 cm) at first floret opening. Nitrogen did not show a significant effect on most of the yield and quality characteristics but a significant effect on the first florets size was observed where a linear increase in first florets size was associated with an increase in nitrogen levels.

967-976 Download
38
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXII. ERICACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXII. ERICACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of three genera representing 5 species of the family Ericaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually tetrads, radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly prolate-spheroidal, olate-spheroidal rarely spheroidal, trizonocolporate, sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly rugulate with viscin threads or aerolate-scabrate or subpsilate-reticulate. On the basis of size and tectum types 3 distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Cassiope fastigiata-type and Rhododendron lepidotum-type and Rhododendron hypenanthum-type.

977-979 Download
39
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES AND PLANT EXTRACTS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
IJAZ AHMAD KHAN1, M.I. KHAN1, I. KHAN1, M. IMRAN1, M. IDREES2 AND S. BIBI1

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES AND PLANT EXTRACTS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies different herbicides and plant extracts for controlling weeds in wheat crop were conducted at Malakander Research Farm, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, during Rabi season 2008. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having four replications. The experiment was comprised of two herbicides and two weeds extracts each with different doses and a weedy check. The treatments were Affinity (carfentrazone ethyl ester) 50 WDG (Full dose) @ 1.6 kg ha-1, Affinity (carfentrazone ethyl ester) 50 WDG (Half dose) @ 0.8 kg ha-1, Puma super (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl) 75 EW (Full dose) @ 1.2 L ha-1, Puma super (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl) 75 EW (Half dose) @ 0.6 L ha-1, Sorghum helepense (Full dose) @ 125g L-1, Sorghum helepense (Half dose) @ 62.5 g L-1, Partheinum hysterophorus (Full dose) @ 125 g L-1, Partheinum hysterophorus (Half dose) @ 62.5 g L-1. The data were recorded on weed density m-2 before and after herbicides application, number of spikes m-2, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield (tons ha-1 and harvest index (%). All the parameters were significantly affected by different treatments. For controlling weeds, Affinity 50 WDG (Full dose) proved to be the best treatment giving only 12.50 as compared to 193.96 weeds m-2 in weedy check plots followed by plots receiving Puma super 75 EW (Full dose). Similarly maximum grain yield (4.585 tons ha-1) was recorded in Affinity 50 WDG (Full dose) followed by Puma super 75 EW (Full dose) with grain yield of 4.413 tons ha-1. The minimum yield 2.54 tons ha-1 was observed in Partheinum hysterophorus (Half dose) plots. Affinity 50 WDG had significant effect on increasing number of spikes m-2, 1000 grains weight (g) and also out yielded all other treatments included in the studies.

981-985 Download
40
DENDROCLIMATIC AND DENDROHYDROLOGICAL RESPONSE OF TWO TREE SPECIES FROM GILGIT VALLEYS
MOINUDDIN AHMED1, MUHAMMAD USAMA ZAFAR2, ALAMDAR HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD AKBAR1, MUHAMMAD WAHAB3 AND NASRULLAH KHAN4

DENDROCLIMATIC AND DENDROHYDROLOGICAL RESPONSE OF TWO TREE SPECIES FROM GILGIT VALLEYS
ABSTRACT:
Picea smithiana and Juniperus excelsa are two tree species growing in Gilgit valleys are used to explore growth climate and growth river flow response. About 100 wood samples in the form of cores from three sites were collected. Picea smithiana from Bagrot and Haramosh (only chronologies published) and Juniperus excelsa from Nalter were sampled. A large number of Juniperus excelsa samples were rejected due to various associated problems. Crossmatched and standardized chronologies of three sites were compared with temperature, precipitation (meteorological and gridded data) and instrumental Indus river flow data. Juniperus excelsa showed strong lag year response. These species showed significant negative relationship of tree ring index with May- June temperature and positive response with March-April precipitation using instrumental and gridded data. Tree ring of these species indicate significant positive response with May-June river flow. It is shown that these species have potential to evaluate past climatic variations of the area and past water flow response of Indus River.

987-992 Download
41
GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF BRASSICA JUNCEA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL WASABI DEFENSIN GENE
SAJID ALI KHAN BANGASH1Ф, MUHAMMAD SAYYAR KHAN1Ф*, AMBREEN1, SAHIR HAMEED KHATTAK2 AND ABU NASAR SIDDIQUE1

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF BRASSICA JUNCEA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL WASABI DEFENSIN GENE
ABSTRACT:
Brassica juncea is one of the most important oilseed crop. An efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica juncea variety NIFA RAYA with Wasabi defensin gene to produce transgenic plants. This gene was isolated from the leaves of Wasabia japonica. The expression of Wasabi defensin gene; encoding antimicrobial protein, in plasmid pEKH-WD is driven by the constitutive 35S promoter. The role of a number of factors such as choice of explants, the age of explants, different ratios of growth regulators, various concentrations of growth hormones and chemicals which can directly or indirectly influence the process of transformation was evaluated. Hypocotyls and cotyledons from 4-7 days old seedlings, when used as explants for transformation, were found to be the best in terms of producing transgenic calli and shoots. Regeneration of the explants on solidified MS plates supplemented with different hormone ratios and concentrations showed that medium containing 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 NAA was the best for callus initiation. Whereas, 3 mgL-1 BAP and 0.3 mgL-1 NAA was found to be the best hormone combination for callus formation. For shoot regeneration 3 mgL-1 BAP and 0.5 mgL-1 NAA suplemented with 20 µM AgNO3 was the best combination. The transgenic nature of the transformed callus and regenerated shoots was confirmed via PCR analysis by using Wasabi defensin gene specific primers against their isolated genomic DNA.

993-998 Download
42
FLOWERING RESPONSE OF FACULTATIVE SHORT DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS TO ARTIFICIAL LIGHT INTENSITIES
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1*, M. MUNIR2 AND M. ABID3

FLOWERING RESPONSE OF FACULTATIVE SHORT DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS TO ARTIFICIAL LIGHT INTENSITIES
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of 6 Facultative SDPs (Zinnia cv. Lilliput, Sunflower cv. Elf, French Marigold cv. Orange Gate, African Marigold cv. Crush, Cockscomb cv. Bombay and Cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) were sown into module trays containing homogeneous leaf mould compost. After germination, saplings of each cultivar were shifted into four light intensity chambers (42, 45, 92 and 119µmol.m-2.s-1) for a duration of 8h (from 08:00 to 16:00h) to observe their flowering response. The findings of this study showed that Facultative SDPs raised under low irradiance (42 and 45µmol.m-2.s-1) were more responsive to produce early flowers. However, there was a non-significant difference between 42 and 45µmol.m-2.s-1 and 92 and 119µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance levels. Although Facultative SDPs under 42µmol.m-2.s-1 flowered few days earlier than those received 45µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance but the quality of plants (plant height and leaf appearance) was inferior. It is therefore concluded that for better plant quality and early flowering Facultative SDPs should be grown under 45µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance. Moreover, these plants can be kept under high light intensity (92µmol.m-2.s-1) to prolong juvenile phase for continuous supply in the market.

999-1004 Download
43
DEVELOPMENT OF AGROBACTERIUM-BASED TRANSIENT GENE EXPRESSION ASSAY IN ROSE LEAVES
ANEELA YASMIN1, AKHTAR ALI JALBANI2, M. ALI1, AQEELA NASREEN3 AND THOMAS DEBENER4

DEVELOPMENT OF AGROBACTERIUM-BASED TRANSIENT GENE EXPRESSION ASSAY IN ROSE LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Post-genomics need tools to analyze genomic data for its functional characterization within short time. Agrobacterium mediated transient gene expression assays are popular choice to analyze the function of a gene within a few days. These transient gene expression assays have already proved their utility in different plant species Here we explored the affect of different physical, chemical and biological parameters on transient gene expression in rose leaves using β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The selected rose genotypes for this study were Pariser Charme, 91/100-5 and 88/124-46 which were maintained in three different pre-culturing conditions i.e. climate chamber, in vitro culture and/ or in tunnels. The leaves of these cultivars were infiltrated with different densities of Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and the assay was optimized. The efficiency of this assay was found to mainly depend on rose genotypes, age of leaves, plant pre-culture method and density of Agrobacterium. The highest GUS expression was recorded in type B leaves (light green leaves with dark green prominent veins and red edges) of Pariser Charme and type C leaves (complete light green young leaves) of 91/100-5 grown in tunnels and when kept at 22oC in dark after agro-infiltration. The optimized bacterial density for the best GUS expression was found to be OD600 - 1.5 in simple water without acetosyringone.

1005-1009 Download
44
OSMOLYTE ACCUMULATION IN MODERATELY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA IMPROVES SALT TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA
AISHA WAHEED QURASHI* AND ANJUM NASIM SABRI

OSMOLYTE ACCUMULATION IN MODERATELY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA IMPROVES SALT TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Salinity results in poor crop yield round the globe. We hypothesized those strategies of endogenous osmolytes proline, glycine betaine and choline accumulation in moderately halophilic bacterial strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus (ST-9) and Bacillus subtilis RH-4 isolated from saline rhizosphere have a role in improving bacterial and plant growth by alleviating salt stress. We checked the effect of varying salt stress (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 M NaCl) on bacterial growth and osmolyte accumulation. The data showed that bacterial growth was affected by increasing salt stress however, cells cultured in the presence of 1.5 M NaCl stress showed higher accumulation of osmolytes. Seeds of Cicer arietinum Var. CM 98 were inoculated and grown up to full maturity at different salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 200 mM NaCl) in wire house under full sunlight. Inoculated plants showed significantly improved plant growth (germination, length, chlorophyll contents, total soluble sugars and protein content) and accumulation of endogenous osmolytes at 200 mM NaCl stress as compared to uninoculated control plants. We concluded that increased osmolyte accumulation can overturn the negative effects of high osmolarity in bacteria and plants. Both strains can be effectively used as bio inoculants for improving Cicer arietinum Var. CM98 growth under salt stress.

1011-1016 Download
45
DEGRADATION OF LEGUME PHYTATE IN SOIL USING FUNGAL PHYTASE
FAREEHA NAZ, ASMA MAQBOOL AND KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK*

DEGRADATION OF LEGUME PHYTATE IN SOIL USING FUNGAL PHYTASE
ABSTRACT:
Release of inorganic P was studied as a result of degradation of phytates during legume green manuring in soil. Aspergillus niger strain 419 was also inoculated for the production of phytase. Four sets of experiments were performed for maximum phytate degradation: (a) soil and legumes, (b) soil, legumes and phytase, (c) soil and phytase, (d) soil, legumes and A. niger strain 419. The soil in all of these samples was sterilized. Inorganic P was checked in each set after three different intervals of time (5 days, 8 days and 12 days) to estimate the degradation of phytates. The sample having A. niger strain 419 had highest content of free phosphorous after 5 days of incubation. The amount of free phosphorous reduced after 8 days in all samples except for the one containing soil, legumes and phytase. The amount of estimated inorganic P increased slightly in this sample. An increase in inorganic P was observed after 12 days in all samples except the first sample (soil and legumes). Estimated inorganic P further decreased in this sample. Same experiments were also performed with unsterilized soil. Inorganic P in all of the unsterilized samples decreased after 8 days and then increased after 12 days. The sample containing phytase, soil and legumes showed highest content of phosphorous after 12 days of interval, among unsterilized samples.

1017-1022 Download
46
ESTIMATION OF DAMAGE TO OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS) BY ROOT-KNOT DISEASE INCITED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA
TARIQ MUKHTAR1*, ISRAR ARSHAD1, MUHAMMAD ZAMEER KAYANI2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD HUSSAIN3, SAMAH BASHIR KAYANI4, ALI MURAD RAHOO5 AND MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ1

ESTIMATION OF DAMAGE TO OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS) BY ROOT-KNOT DISEASE INCITED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA
ABSTRACT:
The pathogenic potential of Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was determined at initial population densities of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 second stage juveniles per kg of soil in pots in the glasshouse inoculated after 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th week of emergence. Significant reductions in plant height and fresh shoot weight and increases in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were observed at all inoculum densities. With an increase in inoculum level, there was a progressive increase in height and shoot weight reductions, root weight, number of galls and egg masses. Plants inoculated after 2nd week of emergence were heavily damaged. However, with the increase in plant age at the time of inoculation, the damaging effects lowered significantly. Reductions in height and shoot weight and increase in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were found to be directly proportional to inoculum densities. On the other hand, with an increase in the initial inoculum density and plant age there was a corresponding decrease in the reproduction factor being inversely proportional to inoculum densities and plant ages.

1023-1027 Download
47
REDUCING DISEASE INCIDENCE OF COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS (CLCUV) IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION
ZAFAR ULLAH ZAFAR* AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR

REDUCING DISEASE INCIDENCE OF COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS (CLCUV) IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
Severity of various diseases in plants can be reduced by nutrient management. The knowledge of K nutrition on relationship between plants and pests may help in devising strategies to set up high yielding production system by reducing disease incidence. Therefore, two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, S-12 (CLCuV-susceptible) and CIM-448 (CLCuV-resistant) were supplied with varying concentration of potassium [40, 120, and 236 mg K L-1]. During the experiment, only virus susceptible cultivar S-12 exhibited typical disease symptoms on leaves, while that of CIM-448 did not show any degree of disease incidence. Moreover, at lower K supply, severity of disease incidence significantly enhanced. Although growth of both cotton cultivars decreased at low K concentration, cv. CIM-448 was superior in growth than that of virus susceptible cv. S-12 at all K concentrations. Virus resistant cultivar, cv. CIM-448 had higher leaf epicuticular wax than that of cv. S-12. However, it is interesting to note that diseased leaves of cv. S-12 had greater epicuticular wax content than that of healthy leaves of cv. S-12. Leaf K+ decreased with decrease in K regimes in both cultivars. Diseased leaves of virus susceptible cv. S-12 had higher leaf Ca2+ and N than those in healthy leaves of cvs. S-12 and CIM-448, whereas CIM-448 had higher leaf Mg2+ as compared to diseased or healthy leaves of S-12. Total soluble proteins, total free amino acids, total soluble sugars did not show any relationship with disease incidence. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were higher in CIM-448 than that in cv. S-12. Moreover, photosynthetic rate was higher in healthy leaves of cv. S-12 than that of diseased leaves. Chlorophyll ‘a’ was higher in cv. CIM-448 than that in the leaves of cv.S12. In conclusion, low supply of K decreased the growth of both cultivars, but it also increased the severity of disease incidence in cv. S-12. Increase in disease incidence in cv. S-12 is possibly associated with lower photosynthetic pigments, lower rates of photosynthesis, and lower K and N use efficiency and low accumulation of Mg2+in the leaves.

1029-1038 Download
48
SCREENING OF KILLER-SENSITIVE PATTERN (KSP) FOR BIOTYPING YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ*, SHARFUN-NAHAR AND M. H. HASHMI1

SCREENING OF KILLER-SENSITIVE PATTERN (KSP) FOR BIOTYPING YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS
ABSTRACT:
Killer-Sensitive Pattern (KSP) was screened by cross reactions in 50 yeast species belonging to 20 genera which were previously isolated from different dairy products. The Killer-Sensitive Pattern (KSP) appeared as strain character rather than species level. Among all yeasts, strain designated as YF19-Lipomyces starkeyi appeared as the most killer i.e. showed 46.93% killing activity and strains appeared as most sensitive were YF45-Bullera pyricola (77.55%), YF42-Pichia heimii (77.50%), YF87-Bullera pseudoalba (51.02%) and Y90-Williopsis californica (42.86%).

1039-1044 Download
49
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL BACTERIA FOR IMPROVING CROP YIELD IN PAKISTAN
RIFAT HAYAT*1,3, RABIA KHALID1, MUHAMMAD EHSAN1,2, IFTIKHAR AHMED*2, AKIRA YOKOTA3 AND SAFDAR ALI1

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL BACTERIA FOR IMPROVING CROP YIELD IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Nine Gram - positive bacterial strains designated as RH-1 to RH-9 were isolated from legumes rhizospheric soil and characterized for plant growth promoting (PGP) activities in legume and cereal crops as well as detailed morphological, phenotypic and biochemical studies. The strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and chemotaxonomic traits. Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the strains showed highest similarity (97.9–99.8%) to the genus Bacillus. In vitro growth promoting assay indicated that the strain RH-5 proved potential PGPR by solubilizing highest amount of inorganic P (141 µg mL-1), positive for nifH gene (+) and produced indole acetic acid (IAA; 0.82 µg mL-1) followed by strain RH-2. Phosphorus solubilization in broth culture was associated with significant drop in pH by the strain RH-5 from 7.0 to 4.8. These two strains were further evaluated for plant growth promotion in beans (mung bean; Vigna radiate, mash bean; Vigna mungo) and wheat (Triticum aestivium) under axenic condition. The strain RH-5 proved the best PGPR by increasing crops biomass and grains (wheat; 40-45%, beans; 50%) over un-inoculated control. The chemotaxonomic data (pre dominant menaquinone system: MK-7, DNA G + C content: 40-41 mol%, major cellular fatty acid: anteiso-C15:0) also supported the affiliation of both strains to the genus Bacillus. Phenotypic characterization showed that the strain RH-5 tolerated temperature: 50oC, pH: 10 and NaCl: 9%. Phylogenic and genotypic analysis showed the association of strains RH-5 and RH-2 with genus Bacillus having single phylitic lines to Bacilus gibsonii and Bacillus subtilis.

1045-1055 Download
50
STUDIES ON THE NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS FOR CEPHALOSPORIN BIOSYNTHESIS FROM ACREMONIUM CHRYSOGENUM BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
UMAR FAROOQ GOHAR, HAMID MUKHTAR AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

STUDIES ON THE NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS FOR CEPHALOSPORIN BIOSYNTHESIS FROM ACREMONIUM CHRYSOGENUM BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, cephalosporin was produced through submerged fermentation in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. About one hundred fungal strains were isolated and screened for maximum productivity of the antibiotic cephalosporin. Among these, the strain IIB-10 identified as Acremonium chrysogenum was found to have maximum production of cephalosporin when cultivated on M-4 medium containing (%, w/v): Corn meal, 2; Baker’s flour, 1.5; Ammonium sulphate, 0.1; Calcium carbonate, 0.3 and Methyl oleate, 1.6. The nutritional study for maximum cephalosporin productivity was undertaken. Sucrose as a sole carbon source at 2.5% level, peptone at a concentration of 1.5% as an organic nitrogen source and Ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 0.4% as an inorganic nitrogen source supported maximum production of cephalosporin i.e., 721.89 mg/l.

1057-1062 Download
51
INFLUENCE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITE APPLICATION ON SEED DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF SOYBEAN GROWN ON ALLOPHANIC SOIL
AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1*, S. NIGAR2, SHAD. K. KHALIL1, S.WAHAB3, A. RAB1, M. K. KHATTAK1 AND TERU HENMI4

INFLUENCE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITE APPLICATION ON SEED DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF SOYBEAN GROWN ON ALLOPHANIC SOIL
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to characterize the pattern of seed development in precociously mature soybean seeds during its progression from germination to seedling growth and maturation as affected by synthetic zeolite application and allophanic soil. Changes in seed quality i.e. viability and germination were monitored from seed initiation to physiological maturity (Growth Stage R5 to R7) of soybean under different zeolite level and allophanic soil during 2007. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of zeolite nutrition and allophanic soil on seed developmental traits of one determinate (Enrei, [MG] 1V) and indeterminate cultivar (Harosoy [MG] 11) of soybean cultivar. Seeds were harvested at 12 days interval from 60 to 120 days after anthesis (DAA) from zeolite and allophanic soil treatments. Enrei cultivar planted on KyP and KnP allophanic soil and treated with 20 and 40 (g) zeolite gave maximum fresh, dry seed weight and germination as compared to Harosoy. A decrease in fresh and dry seed weight, and germination were observed with zero (g) zeolite application to paddy soil. Moisture content seed-1 was maximum (100%) at DAA. Moisture content declined for the whole seed, from above 75 and 65% at 95 DAA to 65 and 50% at 120 DAA in both cultivars. Decrease in seed moisture content during development was accompanied by increase in desiccation tolerance and germination, reaching maximum at physiological maturity in both cultivars. Fresh and dry seed germination increased linearly in both varieties. Mean rate of change in fresh seed weight, moisture content and germination was more pronounced in Enrei than Harosoy. Immature seeds in both cultivars during early developmental stage did not germinate in all treatments of zeolite and allophanic soil.

1063-1068 Download
52
ALTERNATIVE APPROACH IN CONTROL OF TOMATO PATHOGEN BY USING ESSENTIAL OILS IN VITRO
MLADEN DJORDJEVIC1*, OLIVERA DJORDJEVIC3, RADISA DJORDJEVIC1, MIRJANA MIJATOVIC1, MIROSLAV KOSTIC2, GORAN TODOROVIC2 AND MIRKO IVANOVIC3

ALTERNATIVE APPROACH IN CONTROL OF TOMATO PATHOGEN BY USING ESSENTIAL OILS IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
Essential oils of Mentha piperita, Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus sylvestris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum and Origanum vulgare were studied for antifungal effect of their volatile phase toward tomato pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) In vitro. Antifungal effect of oils was expressed through calculating percentage of inhibition of radial growth of mycelia of pathogen, and by determining MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration). Results indicated that all of examined oils expressed antifungal activity in different concentrations. Essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) was the most efficient in inhibition of mycelial growth with total inhibition applied at lowest concentration of 0.04 µl/ml of air. MIC and MFC for this oil were also found at 0.04 µl/ml of air. Oils of anise (Pimpinella anisum) and menthe (Mentha piperita) were also very effective. Anise oil had totally inhibited mycelium applied at 0.1 µl/ml of air. MIC value was 0.3 µl/ml of air, while MFC was higher than maximal applied concentration (>0.6 µl/ml of air). Menthe oil had total inhibition of mycelial growth applied at 0.3 µl/ml of air and the MIC value was at the same point. MFC was higher than maximal applied concentration (>0.6 µl/ml of air). Other essential oils expressed high inhibition rate but it wasn’t 100%. The results of this research indicate that essential oil of oregano followed by oils of menthe and anise has potential to suppress the mycelial growth Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, In vitro. Further research should provide answers for final goal – applying essential oils In vivo.

1069-1072 Download
53
MOLECULAR AND PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IDENTIFIED AMONG ISOLATES OF ERWINIA CAROTOVORA SUB-SPECIES ATROSEPTICA ASSOCIATED WITH POTATO BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT
HAFIZ FARHAD ALI1*, MUHAMMAD JUNAID1, MUSHARAF AHMAD1, AYESHA BIBI1, ASAD ALI1, SHAUKAT HUSSAIN1, SHAH ALAM2 AND JAWAD AHMAD SHAH3

MOLECULAR AND PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IDENTIFIED AMONG ISOLATES OF ERWINIA CAROTOVORA SUB-SPECIES ATROSEPTICA ASSOCIATED WITH POTATO BLACKLEG AND SOFT ROT
ABSTRACT:
Twenty isolates of Erwinia carotovora subspecies atroseptica (Eca) causing blackleg of potato, were collected from tubers and diseased stems of potato plants grown in both plains and mountains of the North-Western Pakistan. The isolates were identified as Eca by biochemical tests and their identity was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using subspecies-specific primers Eca 1F and Eca 2R which amplified the Eca-specific band of 690 bp. Pathogenicity test divided these 20 isolates into 4 aggressiveness groups or AGs. AG 1 (7 isolates) was the most aggressive group causing an average of 5.69 cm rot on potato stem. AG 2 (4 isolates) and AG 3 (5 isolates) were moderately aggressive producing potato stem rot of 4.93 cm and 4.49 cm, respectively. AG 4 (4 isolates) was the least aggressive, causing stem rot of 3.98 cm only. These isolates were also characterized using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Averages (UPGMA) analysis of the bi-variate data obtained as a result of RAPD, divided the isolates into four well-defined clusters showing a considerable level of genetic diversity. However, these clusters were not specific to AGs, origin or particular potato variety. Isolates with different aggressiveness levels, originated from plains or mountains and cultured from different potato varieties shared the same clusters. This means that the isolates probably derived from the same source population and got dispersed from one area to another through their hosts.

1073-1078 Download
54
APPLICATION OF BACILLUS SPECIES CULTURED ON DIFFERENT LOW COST ORGANIC SUBSTRATES FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE INFECTION ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS MOENCH)
MUHAMMAD WASEEM ABBASI*, MUHAMMAD JAVED ZAKI AND MUHAMMAD ANIS

APPLICATION OF BACILLUS SPECIES CULTURED ON DIFFERENT LOW COST ORGANIC SUBSTRATES FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE INFECTION ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS MOENCH)
ABSTRACT:
Low cost organic substrates such as rice grain, chickpea, wheat grains, rice husk, chickpea husk and wheat bran were used to culture Bacillus subtilis and B. firmus. Vegetative cell counts of both bacterial species generally increased on majority of substrates in initial 5 days and declined in subsequent incubation. Spore counts also increased with time but declined at 10th day. Bacterial species cultured on various substrates were inoculated in soil before sowing of okra in a pot culture experiment. The growth of okra plants was significantly increased in all substrates except chickpea husk, as compared to control. Root-knot nematode infection severity was measured in term of galls/ root system and egg masses/ root system. Both bacterial species showed varying effectiveness when grown on different organic substrates, but they controlled root-knot nematodes infection in okra in comparison to the control.

1079-1084 Download
55
FIELD EVALUATION OF SESAME GERMPLASM AGAINST SESAME PHYLLODY DISEASE
KHALID PERVAIZ AKHTAR*, GHULAM SARWAR, NIGHAT SARWAR AND MUHAMMAD TANVIR ELAHI

FIELD EVALUATION OF SESAME GERMPLASM AGAINST SESAME PHYLLODY DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
Phyllody disease, caused by phytoplasma, is a major threat for the successful production of sesame worldwide, including Pakistan. Use of resistant varieties is considered as an economical and durable method of controlling this malady. Therefore, the resistance of 133 sesame genotypes belonging to different regions was evaluated in the field under high inoculum pressure for two consecutive years. During the first year (2007), three genotypes namely NS 98002-04, NS 98003-04 and NS 99005-01 were ranked as highly resistant as they remained symptomless till the harvest of crop while eleven others namely; NS97001-04, NS01004-04, Sumboonkkae, NS940051-04, NS20005-04, NS 11704, NS96019-04, Ahnsankkac, NS 11504, Hansumkkae and NS99006-04 were scored as resistant with percent disease infection (PDI) of 3.12, 3.33, 3.40, 3.45, 5.0, 5.30, 5.88, 7.14, 8.69, 8.70 and 10%, respectively. Other genotypes ranked between moderately resistant to highly susceptible with PDI values ranging from 10.71% to 65.12%. During second year all the tested genotypes were found to be infected with phyllody disease. However, four genotypes viz., NS98002-04, NS98003-04, NS99005-01 and NS01004-04 were resistant with PDIs of 3.25, 3.25, 3.75 and 10.0% respectively. Combined analysis of data also showed that these genotypes could be considered as promising for breeding programmes.

1085-1090 Download
56
EFFECT OF SOME PLANT OILS ON MYCELIAL GROWTH OF AGARICUS BISPORUS (LANGE) SING
MEHMET MUSA ÖZCAN1, GIYASETTİN KAŞIK2*, CELALEDDİN ÖZTÜRK2, İ. HAKKI KALYONCU3 AND GÖNÜL EROĞLU2

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT OILS ON MYCELIAL GROWTH OF AGARICUS BISPORUS (LANGE) SING
ABSTRACT:
The levels of 10μl, 30μl and 50μl concentration of plant oils of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Miller) A.W. Hill), pine stone (Pinus pinea L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum et Nakai) which was grown in Turkey were used for mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus on the agar medium. After nine days of incubation, the 10μl and 30μl concentrations of apricot oil were activated to varying degrees in stimulative the mycelial growth compared with the control group. In addition, all concentrations of parsley completely showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth. This study suggests that the data can be used as natural stimulating agents on the mycelial growth of mushroom of apricot and plum kernel oils.

1091-1097 Download
57
INTRA-SPECIFIC VARIABILITY AMONG METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE STRAINS IN THEIR ABILITY TO PRODUCE BLASTOSPORES IN LIQUID CULTURE MEDIA
ABID RIAZ1*, FAROOQ A. SHAH2 AND TARIQ M. BUTT2

INTRA-SPECIFIC VARIABILITY AMONG METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE STRAINS IN THEIR ABILITY TO PRODUCE BLASTOSPORES IN LIQUID CULTURE MEDIA
ABSTRACT:
This study describes intra specific variability among Metarhizium ansiopliae strains in terms of their ability to produce blastospores in selected liquid culture media. Blastospore production of 10 strains was evaluated in 6 different media representing different carbon and nitrogen sources. Irrespective of strain, media containing corn steep and yeast extract provided highest blastospore yield. Among different strains F10, ERL607, ARSEF 3297 and ARSEF 4556 produced significantly (p<0.001) higher number of blastospores at 48 hours post inoculation (hpi). At 72 hpi, blastospore concentration was significantly higher for strains ARSEF 3297, CA1, F10, CA 22 and ARSEF 4556, while the strains, V275, UWS-2 and PW produced significantly lower number of blastospores. The single highest average production (1.43x108 ± 1x107) was noticed in Adamek’s modified medium(AMM) in case of CA1 at 72 hpi. Media influenced the morphology and budding pattern e.g. In Adamek’s media (AM), blastospores were slender in shape and were observed frequently on apical as well as on lateral buds, whereas BH medium yielded blastospores which resembled aerial conidia. Blastospores produced on different media varied non-significantly among themselves as well as with aerial conidia in their virulence towards Tenebrio molitor. Considering the intra specific variability in blastospore production, this study highlights the importance of screening strains for their ability to produce blastospores prior to optimizing media and culture conditions for blastospore production.

1099-1103 Download
58
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLEUROTUS (FLABELLATUS) DJAMOR (R-22) CULTIVATED ON SAWDUSTS OF DIFFERENT WOODS
NASIR AHMAD KHAN1*, M. AJMAL1, JANE NICKLIN4 SADIA ASLAM3 AND M. ASIF ALI2

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLEUROTUS (FLABELLATUS) DJAMOR (R-22) CULTIVATED ON SAWDUSTS OF DIFFERENT WOODS
ABSTRACT:
The sawdust of different woods were investigated for the cultivation of exotic strain of Pleurotus (flabellatus) djamor (R-22) to find out the efficiency of different nutrients including protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, dry matter and moisture. Among all type of nutrients, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, dry matter and moisture of Pleurotus ostreatus on sawdust of different woods were observed. Protein was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (21.89), (21.64), (21.34), (21.16), (21.03) and (20.75) % respectively. Fat was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (0.80), (0.53), (0.41), (0.33), (0.24) and (0.11)% respectively. Crude fiber was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (8.92), (8.45), (8.17), (7.96), (7.70) and (7.32) % respectively. Ash was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (7.65), (6.75), (6.47), (6.39), (6.33) and (6.23%) respectively. Dry matter was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (6.47), (6.27), (6.13), (6.01), (5.87) and (5.67) % respectively. Moisture was observed on control treatment (cotton waste, kikar, mango, mixed sawdust, simbal and kail (84.55), (81.20), (79.85), (76.26), (74.35) and (71.14) % respectively. Oyster mushroom showed relatively more contents on control treatment cotton waste as compared to other substrates. The maximum protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, dry matter and moisture contents in Pleurotus (flabellatus) djamor (R-22) was obtained on Kikar sawdust .The lowest contents was obtained on kail sawdust.

1105-1108 Download
59
SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, BIOVOLUME AND GROWTH RATE OF THE HETEROTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE (NOCTILUCA SCINTILLANS) FROM COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
SONIA MUNIR1*, TAHIRA NAZ1, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN1, P.J.A. SIDDIQUI1, STEVE L. MORTON2

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, BIOVOLUME AND GROWTH RATE OF THE HETEROTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE (NOCTILUCA SCINTILLANS) FROM COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The seasonal variation of Noctiluca scintillans was investigated from coastal areas of Karachi (Manora Channel), Pakistan. Total cell abundance ranged between < 100 cells l-1 to 1340 cells l-1 during the sampling period May 2002-July 2003. High cells densities were recorded during May 2003. No green or red water discolouration was observed. Cell size biovolume ranging between 100 µm-600 µm was used to convert to carbon biomass 4.5-6.8 pg C cell-l. Greatest Insitu growth rate of N. scintillans (µ day-1) during 2006 was calculated at 0.82 µ day-1.

1109-1113 Download
60
VARIATIONS IN CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENTS DURING DECOMPOSITION OF THREE MACROALGAE INHABITING SANDSPIT BACKWATER, KARACHI
SEEMA SHAFIQUE, PIRZADA J.A. SIDDIQUI*, R.A. AZIZ AND NAFISA SHOAIB

VARIATIONS IN CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENTS DURING DECOMPOSITION OF THREE MACROALGAE INHABITING SANDSPIT BACKWATER, KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Macroalgae constitute a diverse group of photoautotroph contributing to the primary production in the area. It provides food and habitats (directly or indirectly) to many other inhabitants of the marine and coastal communities and hence forms the foundation for food chain prevailing mangrove environment. Variations in carbon and nitrogen content during decomposition of three macroalgal species, viz. Enteromorpha intestinalis, E. clathrata and Ulva reticulata occurring commonly in mangrove environment, were estimated in laboratory using litter bag technique. Known amount of each macroalgal species was decomposed in separate nylon net bags (1 mm2 mesh) incubated in well aerated seawater tanks. Significant increases in organic nitrogen and decreases in total organic carbon content were recorded during decomposition (p-value < .001) for all algal species studied. Macroalgae appear to be a key component in mangrove environment taking part in the release of particulate and dissolved nutrients and hence play very important role in nutrient dynamics and food web.

1115-1118 Download
61
EFFECT OF COLCHICINE ON IN VITRO POLYPLOIDY INDUCTION IN AFRICAN MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA)
YASAR SAJJAD1*, MUHAMMAD JAFAR JASKANI1, ASIM MEHMOOD1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2 AND HAIDER ABBAS3

EFFECT OF COLCHICINE ON IN VITRO POLYPLOIDY INDUCTION IN AFRICAN MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA)
ABSTRACT:
Colchicine was used as chemical mutagen for In vitro induction of polyploids. Nodal segments of In vitro grown marigold plantlets were cultured on MS medium supplemented with four different concentrations of colchcine (0.0%, 0.001%, 0.01% and 0.05%) for 12h, separately. After treatment, nodal segment were shifted to colchicine free MS medium for normal growth. Highest mortality rate (72.74%) and restricted shoot growth (3.80 cm) was observed in 0.05% colchicine treatment. Stomatal size and number used as cytological parameters to identify polyploids. Stomatal size was increased in 0.01% (811.34 µm) and 864.70µm in 0.05% treatments while 289.30 µm was in control. The stomatal number was reduced to 9 in 0.05% colchicine treatment as compared to control (16). The polyploids showed an increase in stomatal size and decrease in stomatal number per unit area. Thus 0.01% and 0.05% treatments found effective in inducing polyploidy in African marigold.

1255-1258 Download
62
NEWLY RECORDED SPECIES OF BOLETACEAE FORM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ1* AND SALEEM SHAHZAD2

NEWLY RECORDED SPECIES OF BOLETACEAE FORM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Family Boletaceae is characterized by tubular hymenium that contains simple/compound, minute, broad or hexagonal tubes that some times may be radial, elongated or nearly gill-like, and mostly fusiform or elongated spores. The present describes 5 new records of the members of the family Boletaceae viz., Aureoboletus gentilis, Boletus reticulatus, B. edulis, B. subtomentosus and Chalciporus piperatus from Gilgit-Baltistan. Of these, A. gentilis, B. reticulatus and B. subtomentosus are reported for the first time from Pakistan.

1473-1476 Download
63
PHENOLIC ACID AND FLAVONOL CONTENTS OF GEMMO-MODIFIED AND NATIVE EXTRACTS OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS
NAZISH JAHAN1*, KHALIL-UR-RAHMAN1, SHOUKAT ALI1 AND M. RAFIQ ASI2

PHENOLIC ACID AND FLAVONOL CONTENTS OF GEMMO-MODIFIED AND NATIVE EXTRACTS OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study the amount of three important flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and five phenolic acids (gallic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, vanillic acid and caffeic acid) were determined from four medicinally important indigenous plants like Euphorbia tirucalli, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cyperus rotundus and Rheum emodi. Methanolic extracts of native parts and gemmo-modified extracts from fresh germinating parts of medicinal plants were prepared and investigated by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC). The total flavonols contents varied significantly among medicinal plants. Rheum emodi exhibited the highest amount of total flavonols (881.5±1.3 mg kg-1) but among gemmo-modified extracts, higher flavonols were detected in gemmo-modified extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum as compared to its seed extracts. However the other gemmo-modified extract of Cyperus rotundus showed relatively less total flavonol than rhizome extract. Gallic and ferulic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids identified in all plants. The chlorogenic acid, p- coumaric acid and ferulic acids are main phenolic acids present in these plants. Caffeic acid was only detected in gemmo-modified extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum. The significant amount of a variety of flavonol and phenolic acids that may impart their medicinal potential for alleviation of any disorder were available in the investigated plants.

1515-1519 Download
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