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Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 6
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1


ABSTRACT:

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2
EFFECTS OF GROUNDWATER DEPTH ON PHOTOCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA IN ARID REGIONS OF CHINA
CHENGGANG ZHU1, YANING CHEN1*, WEIHONG LI1, JIANXIN MA1 AND XIAODONG MA2

EFFECTS OF GROUNDWATER DEPTH ON PHOTOCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA IN ARID REGIONS OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
This study has surveyed three plots with different groundwater depth (GWD) along the lower reaches of Tarim River in Northwest China. Chlorophyll fluorescence of Populus euphratica (P. euphratica) was investigated to understand the effects of increasing GWD on its photochemical efficiency and activity. Our results showed that the actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in light-adapted leaves, the electron transportation rate, and the fractions of absorbed light energy used in PSII photochemistry rose first but declined thereafter with the increase in GWD, which was accompanied by an initial declining and then increasing of non-photochemical quenching. However, the maximum efficiency of PSII in dark-adapted leaves is maintained at optimal values. The photochemical activity in moderately drought-stressed P. euphratica is slightly higher than that in relatively well-watered one and significantly decreases with the continuously increasing GWD. Although the ability of P. euphraitca to use light energy significantly declines, with an elevated excess excitation energy, the photosystem can still maintain a normal function. These data suggest that decline in photochemical efficiency and activity due to decreased water availability may not play an important role in the degeneration of P. euphratica at the lower reaches of Tarim River.

1849-1855 Download
3
EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSIN LINES) ON SOME SPECIES OF FAMILY MIMOSACEAE, MOLLUGINACEAE, NYCTAGINACEAE AND PAPILIONACEAE FROM PAKISTAN–V
SAHAR ZAIDI1*, SURAYYA KHATOON2, M. IMRAN2 AND SADAF ZOHAIR2

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSIN LINES) ON SOME SPECIES OF FAMILY MIMOSACEAE, MOLLUGINACEAE, NYCTAGINACEAE AND PAPILIONACEAE FROM PAKISTAN–V
ABSTRACT:
Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (created by high tension wires) were studied in 33 specimens belonging to 12 species of 4 angiosperm families. In the study genotoxic effects of EMFs were studied on these plants. The aspects covered in the present study include PMC meiosis, meiotic products and pollen viability. The plants were collected from localities having 132, 220 and 500 kilo volt high tension wires and controls were collected from localities free from any type of electric wires. A number of meiotic abnormalities including stickiness, pairing disturbances (univalents and multivalents), precocious chromosomes, laggards, bridges and multipolar divisions were observed both in test and controls; but these abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in test (exposed to EMFs) plants as compared to their controls (unexposed to EMFs).The test plants also showed abnormal meiotic products (dyads and hypertetrads) in some specimens. Besides this the percentages of sterile pollen grains were also significantly higher in test plants. These abnormalities and pollen sterility showed a direct correlation with the increase in voltage i.e. as the voltages increases these abnormalities and pollen sterility also increases.

1857-1864 Download
4
DENDROSEISMOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF PINE TREE SPECIES OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR-PAKISTAN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
TASVEER ZAHRA BOKHARI1, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN3, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI4, MUHAMMAD USAMA ZAFAR2 AND SAEED AHMED MALIK1

DENDROSEISMOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF PINE TREE SPECIES OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR-PAKISTAN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the dendroseismological potential of five pine tree species of Azad Kashmir-Pakistan, i.e., Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson, Pinus roxburghii Sargent, Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss., Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Donf., and Abies pindrow Royle. Since Azad Kashmir is known as a major seismological disturbed area of Pakistan, emphasis is given on landslides, earthquake other past disturbance events and their effects on annual growth rings of pine tree species of this area. A total of 325 cores from 180 trees were sampled from different parts of Azad Kashmir close to and on fault line area. Among them Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara produced cross match-able ringwidth series. Group of missing/double rings and abrupt growth change was recorded in various wood samples with a clear wound scars showing some sort of past disturbance. This preliminary study revealed that among five pine tree species, two species showed some signs of disturbance of the past. However, further extensive study is required to investigate past earthquake/disturbance and response of these two species in Azad Kashmir area.

1865-1871 Download
5
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF WATERING REGIMES AND EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED OSMOPROTECTANTS ON EARLINESS INDICES AND LEAF AREA INDEX IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CROP
SIBGHA NOREEN1*, HABIB UR REHMAN ATHAR1 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF WATERING REGIMES AND EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED OSMOPROTECTANTS ON EARLINESS INDICES AND LEAF AREA INDEX IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CROP
ABSTRACT:
Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. The exogenous application of osmoprotectants has been found effective in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth. A field experiment was conducted to quantify the interactive effects of water stress and exogenously applied salicylic acid, glycinebetaine and proline on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (cv MNH-886). The treatments included [(a) two watering regimes (well-watered 2689 m3 water; drought stressed 2078 m3 water) and (b) three osmoprotectants (untreated check; spray of 0.1% Tween-80 solution; salicylic acid 100 mgL-1, proline 100 mgL-1, glycinebetaine 100 mg L-1] and arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. The water stress was imposed at day 45 after sowing i.e. at the flowering stage. The chemicals were sprayed after two weeks of imposition of water stress conditions at peak flowering stage. The results showed that water stress caused an appreciable reduction in growth and yield attributes. However, more than 75% of the total seed cotton yield was gathered at first pick under drought stressed condition compared to well-watered crop. The foliar spray of salicylic acid proved its potential to a far greater extent compared to proline and glycinebetaine. The spray of glycinebetaine was comparatively more effective in improving earliness indices than proline in cotton crop. The research study reveals that salicylic acid and glycinebetaine may be foliarly applied to sustain cotton production under drought stressed ecologies.

1873-1881 Download
6
HOW THE COMPETITION OF XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L. AFFECTS THE PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP
ZAHID HUSSAIN1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1, SAIMA HASHIM1 AND TAMANA BAKHT1

HOW THE COMPETITION OF XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L. AFFECTS THE PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP
ABSTRACT:
Maize is greatly influenced by competition of Xanthium strumarium L., having an adverse impact on its phonology and growth. Hence, to evaluate the effect of X. strumarium on phenological characters of maize, field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 using a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement replicated three times. Four maize densities and seven varying densities of X. strumarium were tested. Data were recorded on emergence m-2, days to tasseling, days to silking, days to maturity, and plant height of maize crop. All the maize phonological characters were significantly affected by the alternate crop and weed densities. The emergence m-2 was significantly reduced with increase in the densities of both the crop and weed. The tasseling stage of maize was delayed significantly at the highest maize density of 12.5 plants m-2 and at the X. strumarium densities ranging from 8 to 12 plants m-2. The effect on silking stage of maize was significant statistically and it took 4-7 days for the maize plants in all the treatments to switch over from tasseling to silking stage. Weed density of 0 to 4 plants m-2 had a significant effect on days to maturity and the maturity stage was significantly delayed by increasing weed density from 6 to 12 plants m-2. Plant height of maize was also influenced by the varying densities of either species, and plant heights were greater at 7.5 and 10 maize plants m-2. Moreover, increasing the X. strumarium density from 0 to 6 plants m-2, maize plant height progressively increased, however the plant heights declined at 8 to 12 X. strumarium plants m-2. In light of the results it is concluded that both the crop and weed density do influence the phonological parameters of maize. However, crop density alone is not enough to cope effectively with the higher populations of X. strumarium weed; therefore, multiple cultural approaches should be employed to desirably improve the crop phenology when in competition with this weed.

1883-1887 Download
7
EFFECT OF INTERCROPPED GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON CHLOROPHYL CONTENTS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN PEPPER
IMRAN AHMAD1, ZHIHUI CHENG1*, HUANWEN MENG1, TONGJIN LIU1, WU CUI NAN1, MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN2, HUMAIRA WASILA3AND ABDUL REHMAN KHAN1

EFFECT OF INTERCROPPED GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON CHLOROPHYL CONTENTS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN PEPPER
ABSTRACT:
The effects of intercropped garlic (Allium sativum) on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, leaf photosynthetic rate and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in pepper during two years study from 2011 to 2012. Physico-chemical analysis of pepper intercropped with normal garlic (sowing clove of cv. G026 for harvesting of scape and bulb) and green garlic (sowing bulb of cv. G064 for harvesting of green garlic) were compared to mono-culture cultivation of pepper. Results showed that chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and catalase activity (CAT) were significantly enhanced at p<0.05 in the pepper intercropped with normal garlic, while chlorophyll b and peroxidase (POD) were significantly enhanced at p<0.05 in the pepper intercropped with green garlic.Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited by intercropping and high level of (PPO) activity observed in control. It can be concluded from this study that intercropping pepper with normal garlic increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and antioxidant enzymes activity as compared to other treatments.

1889-1896 Download
8
GENETICS OF FLORAL TRAITS IN CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE (CMS) AND RESTORER LINES OF HYBRID RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MAHALINGAM. A1*, R. SARASWATHI2, J. RAMALINGAM3 AND T. JAYARAJ4

GENETICS OF FLORAL TRAITS IN CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE (CMS) AND RESTORER LINES OF HYBRID RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
The present scientific study was taken up at Tamil Nadu Rice Research institute (TRRI), Aduthurai to study the genetic parameters and association among the floral traits of CMS lines and identification of parental lines having potential outcrossing ability for hybrid seed production. Among the five CMS lines and fifty one tester lines studied for eleven floral traits, CMS line COMS 23A registered higher mean value for style length, breadth and panicle exsertion. The genotype COMS 24A had greater stigma breadth, while COMS 25A had long style with good stigma length and breadth. All the CMS lines had above 99.50% pollen sterility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the CMS lines for all floral traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for five traits viz., anther length, stigma length, style breadth, glume opening angle and stigma exsertion rate suggesting the improvement of these characters through simple phenotypic selection. Association analysis of floral traits in the CMS lines revealed that glume opening angle had strong positive and significant association with stigma exsertion rate. Stigma length had positive non – significant association with stigma exsertion rate. No association between anther size and pollen fertility or spikelet fertility in tester line could be established. Out crossing will be higher in seed production of hybrids resulting from any of the four CMS lines viz., COMS 23A, COMS 25A, CRMS 31A and CRMS 32A since each CMS line had some of the desirable floral trait. COMS 23A and COMS 25A had desirable stigma characters, while CRMS 31A and CRMS 32 had desirable glume opening angle which is highly associated with higher out crossing rate.

1897-1904 Download
9
DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES OF PHOTOSYSTEM II ACTIVITY TO PHOTOOXIDATION IN RED AND GREEN TISSUES OF AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR LEAVES
LING SHAO1,2ɸ, XIONGWEI CHEN1,2ɸ, YUANJUN CHEN1, BEIYU SUN1, WAHSOON CHOW3 AND CHANGLIAN PENG1*

DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES OF PHOTOSYSTEM II ACTIVITY TO PHOTOOXIDATION IN RED AND GREEN TISSUES OF AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
In order to study the antioxidative potential of amaranthine and its relationships with photoprotection, changes of PS II activity of red and green tissue in the same edible amaranth leaf were compared under photooxidation treatment induced by MV (methyl viologen) or H2O2. In the first 90 min of MV treatment, PS II maintained stable activity; the chlorophyll-fluorescence parameters were close to those of the controls. However, with the extension of treatment time, during 90-300 min of continuous photooxidative stress, Fv/Fm, Y (II) and Y (NPQ) of leaf discs decreased significantly, while Y (NO) and Fo dramatically increased, which showed that the activity of PS II suffered irreversible photooxidative damage, suppressed or even completely inhibited. Compared with the control, under 50 mmol·L-1 of H2O2 stress for 360 min, Y(NO) and Fo increased, accompanied by Y(NPQ) and the Fv/Fm decreases, while Y(II), qP and ETR were slightly increased, reflecting that treatment with 50 mmol·L-1 H2O2 promoted distribution of light energy in photochemistry reaction. After photooxidative treatments, a lower Fo and Y (NO) but higher Fv/Fm, Y (II), qP and Y (NPQ) was found in the red leaf discs compared with the green ones. The decrease and thedecline rate of the amaranthine content in the green and red leaf discs implied that the PS II of green leaf discs have a higher sensitivity to photooxidative damage than the red ones. It is suggested that the higher content of amaranthine may be used as a detoxification mechanism to counteract photooxidation in red leaf.

1905-1912 Download
10
INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF TRIACONTANOL ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES, GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER SALINE STRESS
ROBINA AZIZ1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2

INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF TRIACONTANOL ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES, GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER SALINE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
To appraise the effect the foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under saline stress, a pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions. Two sunflower cultivars (SMH-907 and SMH-917) were grown in sand culture medium supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution for 25 days, after which time, two saline regimes [control (0 mM) and saline (150 mM)] were applied. Three TRIA levels [0 (water spray), 50 and 100 µM] were applied as foliar spray on 44-day old plants. Plants were harvested after 4 weeks of TRIA application. The root growing medium saline stress significantly reduced shoot and root fresh weights and their lengths, net CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), water use efficiency (WUE), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in both sunflower cultivars. Foliar-applied TRIA markedly increased shoot and root fresh weights and length, A, E, stomatal conductance and WUE in both cultivars under both saline and non-saline regimes. TRIA did not show prominent effect on chlorophyll fluorescence attributes such as electron transport rate and photochemical quenching of sunflower plants. The TRIA level 100 µM was more effective as compared to the others and sunflower cultivar SMH-917 showed better performance than those of cv. SMH-907 in terms of different attributes measured in this study.

1913-1918 Download
11
ACTION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF PHRAGMITES KARKA
AFSHEEN ZEHRA1, BILQUEES GUL1, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1, ABDEL REHMAN A. ALATAR2, A.K. HEGAZY2 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1,2,3*

ACTION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF PHRAGMITES KARKA
ABSTRACT:
High salinity, high temperature and absence of light may disturb the balance in endogenous growth regulators. This may put constraint on seed germination of halophytic grasses forcing them to adopt necessary measure like going into dormancy. Germination regulating chemicals may release dormancy imposed by such factors hence effect of Thiourea (10 mM), Nitrate (20 mM), Proline (0.1 mM), Betaine (0.1 mM), GA3 (3 mM), Kinetin (0.05 mM) and Fusicoccin (5 µM) was studied in alleviating the inhibitory effect of a range of NaCl and temperature on seed germination of the halophytic grass Phragmites karka. Six NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 & 500 mM) were used in 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod and in complete darkness, at different temperature regimes (10/20ºC, 15/25ºC, 20/30ºC and 25/35ºC, the lower temperature corresponding to dark and the higher to light photoperiod). Highest number of seeds germinated in non-saline control and the seed germination decreased with increase in salinity at all temperature regimes. All growth regulators significantly promoted seed germination in saline and also in non-saline conditions at all thermoperiods, except at 25-35°C. Only GA3 and fusicoccin successfully alleviated salinity enforced dormancy of seeds at this thermoperiod. Growth regulators promoted germination in darkness at all temperature regimes. Rate of germination was also significantly affected by the application of these chemicals. Salt induced dormancy of P. karka seeds was broken by the application of different growth regulators. These chemicals also alleviated the temperature (GA3 and fusicoccin) and light (Nitrate) enforced dormancy from seeds of P. karka. It is concluded that germination regulating chemicals have differential effect on the seed germination of P karka. Some of them may alleviate the dormancy while others have no effect.

1919-1924 Download
12
STOMATAL AND CHLOROPHYLL LIMITATIONS OF WHEAT CULTIVARS SUBJECTED TO WATER STRESS AT BOOTING AND ANTHESIS STAGES
ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI1*, M.D. DENNETT2, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN3, M. MUNIR4, M.J. BALOCH5, ASIF LATIF1 AND SAMRIN GUL3

STOMATAL AND CHLOROPHYLL LIMITATIONS OF WHEAT CULTIVARS SUBJECTED TO WATER STRESS AT BOOTING AND ANTHESIS STAGES
ABSTRACT:
The stomatal and chlorophyll effects were determined on yield and its contributing traits of wheat cultivars (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) under stress conditions at booting and after anthesis stages during 2009 at the University of Reading, UK. Significant water stress effects were observed on chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, leaf area, relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant. All the cultivars behaved independently and significantly different for physiological and yield traits. Cultivars Hashim-8, Zam-04 and Damani were observed as best candidate genotypes for rain-fed regions, and minimum effect and percent reduction was recorded at their booting and after anthesis stages for all traits at stress conditions. These rain-fed cultivars were also persistent at higher level of stomatal conductance and RWC % even under water stress condition, which reflects their adaptability under drought environment.

1925-1932 Download
13
OPTIMAL INTRA-ROW SPACING FOR PRODUCTION OF LOCAL FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L. MAJOR) CULTIVARS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN CONDITIONS
DERYA OZVEREN YUCEL

OPTIMAL INTRA-ROW SPACING FOR PRODUCTION OF LOCAL FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L. MAJOR) CULTIVARS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of 4 different local faba bean cultivars (LARA, YERLI, SAKIZ and SEVILLE) and intra-row spacing (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm) on the yield and yield components under the Mediterranean-type conditions of Turkey, during the two growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. All examined traits, except first pod height, were influenced by growing season and these parameters were higher in the second growing season compared with the first due to higher rainfall in the second growing season. However, there were no differences among cultivars in terms of seed yield and some yield components because of the similar characters of the seeds that were used in the research. Between 10 and 12 cm intra-row spacing were found to be the optimum for highest seed yield of faba beans grown in the Mediterranean conditions.

1933-1938 Download
14
AN ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION DOMINANCE AGAINST MOISTURE STRESS IN CHANGA MANGA FOREST
SAALEHA MAHBOOB KHAN1, SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, SUMRA ERUM1, ABDUL WAHID2 AND MUHAMMAD NAWAZ2

AN ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION DOMINANCE AGAINST MOISTURE STRESS IN CHANGA MANGA FOREST
ABSTRACT:
Multivariate technique i.e., CCA has been used to analyze the response of the species against the stress due to moisture. GLM (General Linear Model) response curve and attribute plot using 3-D contour has been used to see the response of the different species in each zone of the Changa Manga forest. Response curve shows that Cynodon dactylon was dominant in two zones i.e., zone-I and zone-III of the forest against moisture stress. Desmostachya bipinnata was dominant in zone-II where as Conyza canadensis was dominant in zone-IV. As Cynodon dactylon was the mostly dominant specie in the park the difference in the dominance has been seen in the two zone of park which has been justified by using data attribute plot.

1939-1944 Download
15
BIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROSE-SCENTED GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS, L’HÉR.) GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF TUNISIA
MAHER BOUKHRIS1,2, CHEDLYA BEN AHMED1, IMED MEZGHANI1, MOHAMED BOUAZIZ2,

BIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROSE-SCENTED GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS, L’HÉR.) GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF TUNISIA
ABSTRACT:
MAKKI BOUKHRIS1*AND SAMI SAYADI2

1945-1954 Download
16
SALT-TOLERANT PGPR STRAIN PLANOCOCCUS RIFIETOENSIS PROMOTES THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVATED IN SALINE SOIL
LUBNA RAJPUT1, ASMA IMRAN1, FATHIA MUBEEN1 AND FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ1, 2*

SALT-TOLERANT PGPR STRAIN PLANOCOCCUS RIFIETOENSIS PROMOTES THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVATED IN SALINE SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Rhizobacteria improve plant growth employing a variety of growth promoting mechanisms including nutrient up-take, root growth, proliferation and biocontrol activities. Present study characterizes a salt-tolerant, IAA producing, phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain SAL-15 containing ACC-deaminase activity and evaluates its potential for enhancing growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. TJ-83) under salinity stress In vitro and In vivo. The bacterium was identified as Planococcus rifietoensis based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. It was catalase/oxidase positive, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, orange colored alkaliphilic bacterium, able to grow up to 65 g/L NaCl salinity in the medium. The bacterium produced 264.2 µg/mL IAA in the tryptophan-supplemented medium, released 16.7 µg/mL phosphorus from inorganic-tricalcium phosphate in the Pikoviskaya’s medium and utilized ACC as nitrogen source at 100 as well as 300 mM NaCl concentration in respective media. Salinity severely reduced various growth and yield parameters of wheat (up to 60%) both in pot and field experiments. However, SAL-15 inoculation enhanced growth and yield by alleviating the toxic effects of salinity. Inoculation of SAL-15 resulted in 37% increase in overall plant growth under salt stress, 63% in the presence of inorganic tri-calcium phosphate and >60% in the presence of ACC. Based on the results, we conclude that bacterial isolate SAL-15 can be used as potent bacterial inoculum for yield improvement of wheat under salinity stress.

1955-1962 Download
17
SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BICHEMICAL RESPONSES TO CADMIUM IN SALICYLIC ACID APPLIED CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) SEEDLINGS
SONGÜL ÇANAKCI* AND ZEYNEP KARABOĞA

SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BICHEMICAL RESPONSES TO CADMIUM IN SALICYLIC ACID APPLIED CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the probability of salicylic acid (SA), serving as a mediator for protecting plants against cadmium (Cd) toxicity, was investigated. In cucumber seedlings exposed to increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 μM), the seedling and leaf elongation growth reduced, whereas the fresh and dry weight accumulation decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the leaves of the seedlings, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA) increased, while reduced glutathione (GSH), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and the photosynthetic pigment content decreased. In the leaves of seedlings, which were pre-applied with salicylic acid (0.75 mM), alleviated the negative effects of Cd on MDA and GSH. The SA pre-application caused different effects due to the Cd concentration on GSH and FAME. The beneficial effect of SA on the oxidative damages caused by Cd was mainly found rather significant for 25 and 50 μM. Our data indicated that in reducing the negative results of oxidative stress caused by the toxicity of this heavy metal, SA may have beneficial effects.

1963-1968 Download
18
ROOT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS IN THREE SCHOENOPLECTUS (REICHENB.) PALLA SPECIES FOR SALT TOLERANCE
RIFFAT BATOOL AND MANSOOR HAMEED*

ROOT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS IN THREE SCHOENOPLECTUS (REICHENB.) PALLA SPECIES FOR SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Three species of Schoenoplectus (Reichenb.) Palla collected from three different sites of Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated for root morpho-anatomical modifications. All the three species were subjected to salt stress. The salt treatments, control (0 mM salt), 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl were maintained in non-aerated solution culture. Schoenoplectus triqueter showed specific root anatomical adaptations for its better survival under harsh saline environments. Increased epidermis thickness, cortex thickness, cortical cell area, vascular bundle area, metaxylem area, phloem area and aerenchyma area in roots were critical for checking water loss and enhancing water storage capability. The dominant anatomical traits related to S. triqueter (the most tolerant among all species) were found to be increased aerenchyma area for better gas exchange and bulk salt movement. Increased cortex thickness (increasing water storage) and increased number and area of vascular tissue (increased water conduction) seemed to be crucial for its better survival under harsh saline environments.

1969-1974 Download
19
SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DIMORPHIC SEEDS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPF
ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI* AND M. AJMAL KHAN

SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DIMORPHIC SEEDS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPF
ABSTRACT:
Halopyrum mucronatum have dimorphic seeds and referred to as black and brown seeds. Black seeds when soaked in either non-saline or saline medium, showed lesser solute leakage in comparison to brown seeds. Amylase extracted from black seeds had optimum performance in acidic pH, high temperature and ability of early substrate utilization. Results are discussed in relation to physiological attributes of seeds produced in different seasons and their habitat in response to salinity.

1975-1979 Download
20
A STUDY ON RELATIONS BETWEEN SOIL AND PLANT SPECIES IN ALPINE ZONE AT KAZDAĞI NATIONAL PARK, TURKEY
BEYZA SAT GÜNGÖR

A STUDY ON RELATIONS BETWEEN SOIL AND PLANT SPECIES IN ALPINE ZONE AT KAZDAĞI NATIONAL PARK, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study examines the plant species’ distribution and cover abundance scales relations with soil and other environmental factors such as elevation, exposure, slope in the alpine region. 10 sample areas were determined for experimental field study in the alpine region. Plant species and their cover abundance scales and 0-5 and 5-15cm soil depth analysis were conducted in the field study. C, N, pH, soil salinity, soil texture, C/N and CaCO3 (%) were determined in soil laboratory analysis. To examine the effect of land use by the local people; sample areas were determined both on used area and non-used area in the alpine region.

1981-1987 Download
21
AMELIORATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN (SAR) ON GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY GROWTH TONICS
NOREEN KHALID*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN AND MUHAMMAD AQEEL

AMELIORATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN (SAR) ON GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY GROWTH TONICS
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to mimic the adverse effects of air pollution in the form of simulated acid rain (SAR) on morphological and yield attributes of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids viz. FH-385 and FH-37 and their amelioration with the application of two growth tonics (Fashion and Micron-T i.e., macro & micronutrients). The experiment was performed in the net house of Old Botanical Garden, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, in a Completely Randomized design with four replicates. Simulated acid rain (containing HNO3 at pH 3) alone and in combination with foliar spray of Fashion or Micron-T were applied 20 days after seed germination. Acid rain treatment remarkably reduced growth and yield in both hybrids while the application of Fashion excelled Micron-T in ameliorating the toxic effects of acid rain. A comparison between sunflower hybrids indicated FH-37 to be more tolerant to SAR as compared to FH-385. Based on these findings it may be recommended that growth tonics may ameliorate the toxic effects of SAR. There is need for further investigation to improve agricultural produce using such growth tonics.

1989-1993 Download
22
EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION REGIME ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, MOHAMMAD YOUSAF3 AND MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION REGIME ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted at National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad Pakistan to study the response of sunflower hybrids to irrigation levels. Four irrigation levels (control, heading stage, heading + flowering stages, and heading + flowering + grain filling stages) were applied to two sunflower hybrids (Parsun-1 and SF-187). Randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement having 5 replications were used. Irrigation levels were kept in the main plots while hybrid in the sub plots. Plant height, number of leaves plant-1 and head diameter was significantly (p≤ 0.05) affected by irrigation, hybrids and year. The effect of irrigation was non significant on 100 seed weight, seed yield ha-1 and oil content (%) due to rainfall at the experimental site during both growing seasons. The effect of the year was significant on 100 seed weight, seed yield (kg ha-1), and oil content. Taller plants, bigger heads, maximum 100 seed weight and high seed yield was produced during 2002 when sunflower crop received three irrigations at heading stage, heading + flowering stages, and heading + flowering + grain filling stages compared with other treatments.

1995-2000 Download
23
AUTOBIOCHROMATOGRAPHY: A TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF THIRAM FROM TREATED SEEDS OF WHEAT
ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA1, C.R. PRAJAPATI2 AND D. SINGH3

AUTOBIOCHROMATOGRAPHY: A TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF THIRAM FROM TREATED SEEDS OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Wheat seeds treated with different fungicides are qualitatively and quantitatively estimated regularly by different bioassays such as thin layer chromatography, autobiochromatography and spectrophotometry. Autobiochromatography is a highly sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative estimation of small amount of fungitoxic material and useful for detecting a wide range of fungicide using a broad spectrum sensitive fungus. In present investigation double zone of inhibition was observed on chromatoplates in combination of Curvularia lunata and thiram system by autobiochromatography. Plates were spotted with thiram, developed in acetone: chloroform (60:40, v/v) solvent system and autobiochromatography was done with the PDA (5% agar) seeded with the spores of C. lunata. The results of autobiochromatography bioassay revealed that thiram exceptionally produced double zone of inhibition with C. lunata fungus at 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/ml concentration. Hence, this information can be used as criterion for detection and identification of thiram extracted from treated seeds.

2001-2004 Download
24
YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AFFECTED BY APHID FEEDING AND SOWING TIME AT MULTAN, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD WASEEM SHAHZAD1, MUHAMMAD RAZAQ1*, ARJAD HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD YASEEN2, MUHAMMAD AFZAL3 AND MALIK KHALID MEHMOOD1

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AFFECTED BY APHID FEEDING AND SOWING TIME AT MULTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
We assessed feeding effect of Schizaphis graminum Rond. and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on yield losses to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Cv. Sahar) sown on November 05th (early November), November 20th (late November) and December 05th (early December) during 2011, at Multan, Punjab (Pakistan). Aphids were controlled by applying imidacloprid 200 SL with Knapsack sprayer, as one spray (5th March), two sprays (5th and 26th March 2012) and no spray (control). Aphid densities were recorded on weekly basis starting from 12th March. At harvest shoot biomass, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight and yield were recorded. Polynomial orthogonal contrasts were employed for evaluation of sowing dates, insecticides and their interactions for spray treatments on yield and yield components. Aphid (S. graminum) was dominant over R. padi and its highest number was observed on March 26th

2005-2011 Download
25
INFLUENCE OF SOWING TIME AND POTATO PROPAGULES ON THE YIELD AND TUBER QUALITY
ABDUR RAB1*, GHULAM NABI1, NOOR UL AMIN1, IHSANUL HAQ3, MUHAMMAD SAJID1, KHALID NAWAB4 AND NEELAM ARA1

INFLUENCE OF SOWING TIME AND POTATO PROPAGULES ON THE YIELD AND TUBER QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
The influence of sowing time and potato propagules on yield and quality of potato was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar during the year 2005-06. Potato tuberlets were developed from Hybrid TPS, OP-TPS and Tissue culture and evaluated against seed tubers for plant growth, yield and tuber quality. The tuberlets from hybrid TPS had significantly higher percent sprouting (92.767%), plant height (65.783 cm), soil cover (91.250 cm2), number of leaves per hill (35.67) and yield (39.126 ton ha-1) with the minimum disease incidence (0.15%), followed by mini-tubers and OP-TPS. The seed tubers had significantly high disease incidence (23.17%) and lower yield (11.414 ton ha-1) but had high tuber quality high TDS (6.242%), dry matter (23.176%) and specific gravity (1.393). Most of the parameters were none significantly affected by sowing on September 15th or September 22nd but plant height, soil cover, leaves per hill and yield declined with delaying sowing to October 8th.

2013-2018 Download
26
ESTIMATION OF VARIOUS CLASSIFACTORY ANALYSIS IN SOME HEXAPLOID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM
MUHAMMAD MOHIBULLAH1*, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI3, KASHIF WASEEM1, SADAF JAVARIA1, GHAZANFARULLAH1, RAHMAT ALI2 AND MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK4

ESTIMATION OF VARIOUS CLASSIFACTORY ANALYSIS IN SOME HEXAPLOID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of one hundred accessions were demonstrated for Cluster and Principal component analysis, the experimental plot was conducted during the growing season 2006 in augmented field design at research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan. Data were collected and analyzed for different polygenic traits. Eigenvalues > 1 were noted for three PCs out of ten, having 29.02%, 43.42% and 55.00% of the total variability with positive effects for most of the traits. While rest of the traits expressed moderate to low variability. Scatter diagram also depicted a wide range of genetic variability for various traits on the basis of altitude and latitude. According to cluster analysis all the accessions were divided into three main groups A, B and C, which were further divided in to thirteen sub-groups. Cluster 1 of group A, on the basis of mean analysis four accessions were found with 4% population, has less days to heading (84.5 ± 2.65). The Cluster 2nd accounts for 13% of the population with thirteen accessions. In group B, two accessions were found in cluster 5 with a contribution of 2% for two accessions PARC/NIAR 2450 (02), PARC/NIAR 2771 (03), having minimum days to maturity (132.5 ± 0.71). Cluster 7 contributes 3% of the population with three accessions, has a maximum number of tillers plant-1 (18.6 ± 1.65). Cluster 9 was noted for 1% of the population with one accession (PARC/JICA 3849 (01)), has less days to emergence (7) and greater plant height (149.8 cm). While in group C, clusters 12 consists four accessions with 4% contribution, having high 1000-grain weight (42.02 ± 2.88). Last cluster 13 of group C, contributed 2% to the population with two accessions PARC/MAFF 4275 (01), PARC/MAFF 4280 (01), having large spike length (20.8 ± 2.62 cm), greater number of spikelets spike-1(29.3 ± 3.61), high grain yield plant-1 (3.96 ± 0.93 gm) and greater grain yield (kg ha-1) (5001 ± 261).

2019-2025 Download
27
FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE FLOUR AND ITS BLENDS WITH WHEAT FLOUR: OPTIMIZATION OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
MUHAMMAD ASLAM SHAD1*, HAQ NAWAZ1, MISBAH NOOR2, HAFIZ BADARUDDIN AHMAD2, MAZHAR HUSSAIN2 AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM CHOUDHRY3

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE FLOUR AND ITS BLENDS WITH WHEAT FLOUR: OPTIMIZATION OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
ABSTRACT:
The functional properties such as water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), least gelation capacity (LGC), emulsifying activity (EA) and foaming capacity (FC) of full fat and defatted maize flour were studied using response-surface methodology. A positive significant linear effect (p>0.05) of concentration of maize flour in the blend on WHC, OHC and EA and a negative linear effect on LGC and FC was observed. Drying temperature had a positive significant linear effect while the quadratic and interaction effects of both variables were found to be non-significant in each case. The optimum conditions of maize concentration in blend (g/100g blend) and drying temperature (˚C) generated from the statistical model for different functional properties were: WHC; 75 and 125, OHC; 25 and 75, LGC and FC; 75 and 75 and EA; 75 and 125 respectively.

2027-2035 Download
28
THE LC-MS/MS PROFILING OF AHLs PRODUCED IN SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI NODULATING ALYSICARPUS BUPLEURIFOLIUS
SAMIULLAH KHAN1, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ1*, GHULAM MUSTAFA1, M. NAVEED1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND ALLAN DOWNIE3

THE LC-MS/MS PROFILING OF AHLs PRODUCED IN SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI NODULATING ALYSICARPUS BUPLEURIFOLIUS
ABSTRACT:
We isolated Sinorhizobium meliloti (PCC21) from root nodules of wild legume species Alysicarpus bupleurifolius and characterized the AHL diversity produced in symbiosis. The TLC and HPLC-MS/MS profiles revealed production of a diverse array of AHLs that ranged from short chain C4-HSL to long chain C12-HSL. It was observed that isolates in young nodules produced AHL abundance. The study reports a novel symbiotic association between S. meliloti and Alysicarpus bupleurifolius and points to the possible presence of more than one synthase systems, as previously described in Rm1021 and AK63. The isolation of a strain producing wide ranging AHL molecules provides an opportunity to investigate the complex genetics of AHL production in S. melitoti.

2037-2041 Download
29
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD MEDICAGO SATIVA BY SEQUENCE-RELATED AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHISM MARKERS IN XINGJIANG REGION, CHINA
MA JIN-XING1,2 , WANG TIE-MEI1, AND LU XIN-SHI1*

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD MEDICAGO SATIVA BY SEQUENCE-RELATED AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHISM MARKERS IN XINGJIANG REGION, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
SRAP (Sequence-related amplified polymorphism) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity of 22 accessions of wild Medicago sativa from Xinjiang. Studying on the 22 accessions 15 pairs of primer combinations detected a total of 252 bands, and each pair of primers amplified 12 polymorphic bands in average. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 78.68%.The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of the tested accessions ranged from 0.182 to 0.857 and the average Nei-Li’s coefficient was 0.621. These results suggested that there were rich genetic diversity with the Beijiang resources comparing to Nanjiang resourses. The result from the UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that genetic diversity of wild Medicago could be divided into 5 groups in Xinjiang region and it is of great beneficial to protect alfalfa germplasm resources for developing local husbandry.

2043-2050 Download
30
RAPID MULTIPLICATION OF ORNAMENTAL BULBOUS PLANTS OF LILIUM ORIENTALIS AND LILIUM LONGIFLORUM
FARAH ASLAM1, SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, AMINA TARIQ2, SAIQA ILYAS1 AND KIRAN SHAHZADI2

RAPID MULTIPLICATION OF ORNAMENTAL BULBOUS PLANTS OF LILIUM ORIENTALIS AND LILIUM LONGIFLORUM
ABSTRACT:
A protocol for micropropagation of Lilium orientalis and Lilium longiflorum cv. White Fox has been developed. Effect of different media and sucrose concentrations on shoot formation, root formation and vigour of the plant was observed in this study. Bulb of the plant was used as explant. Among different treatments used for culturing of the plant, the MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) 3.0 mg/L was found to be the best for shoot initiation from scales of the bulb. After that plants were transferred to different media for multiple shooting. Out of different concentrations used the medium with 0.1 mg/L BAP + 0.1mg/L NAA and 6% sucrose increased frequency of shoot formation up to 100%. An average of about 10 ± 3.94shoots/explants; well-developed roots and bulblet formation were obtained in this medium. Rooted plants were hardened-off in a greenhouse and normal plants with beautiful flowers were produced.A completely randomized design was used for the experiment withfive replicates. The data was analysed by applying one way ANOVA and the treatments’ means were compared forsignificance by Duncan’s New Multiple Range (DMR) test at 0.05% P.

2051-2055 Download
31
GIBBERELLIC ACID FERMENTED EXTRACT OBTAINED BY SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION USING CITRIC PULP BY FUSARIUM MONILIFORME: INFLUENCE ON LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA MILL., CULTIVATED IN VITRO
ANDRÉ LUÍS LOPES DA SILVA1, CRISTINE RODRIGUES1, JEFFERSON DA LUZ COSTA2, MARÍLIA PEREIRA MACHADO3, RAFAELA DE OLIVEIRA PENHA1, LUIZ ANTONIO BIASI3, LUCIANA PORTO DE SOUZA VANDENBERGHE1 AND CARLOS RICARDO SOCCOL1

GIBBERELLIC ACID FERMENTED EXTRACT OBTAINED BY SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION USING CITRIC PULP BY FUSARIUM MONILIFORME: INFLUENCE ON LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA MILL., CULTIVATED IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fermented extract contend GA3 obtained by Solid State Fermentation and comparing with a commercial source of GA3 (reagent grade) in In vitro culture of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.). The residual effects of GA3 also were evaluated in acclimatization. Nodal segments of L. angustifolia were cultured on LS culture medium, supplemented with 1320 mg.L-1 CaCl2, 30 g.L-1 sucrose and solidified with 7 g.L-1 agar. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2x4), with the first factor being the type of GA3 source (pure or fermented extract) and the second factor being the GA3 level (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg.L-1). Growth parameters were evaluated after 85 days. Acclimatization was performed using Plantmax® HT as substrate, plantlets were maintained by 14 days inside greenhouse with intermittent nebulization and after they were transferred to another greenhouse with manual irrigation. Growth parameters were evaluated after 28 days. The fermented extract and GA3 pure were analyzed by HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography). In conclusion, the differences between the GA3 sources (fermented extract and reagent grade) in nodal segments of Lavandula angustifolia cultured In vitro and the plantlets acclimatized are little. The GA3 pure increases more the root number than fermented extract. The GA3 pure promotes highest chlorosis rate than fermented extract. Fermented extract inhibits root formation at higher levels (1.0 mg.L-1). In acclimatization, the fermented extract at 0.25mg.L-1 GA3 showed a beneficial residual effect promoting plants more vigorous than other treatments.

2057-2064 Download
32
GENETIC VARIATION IN YIELD PERFORMANCE FOR THREE YEARS IN NIGELLA SATIVA L. GERMPLASM AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION
MUHAMMAD SAJJAD IQBAL1*, ABDUL GHAFOOR2, INAMULLAH1 AND HABIB AHMAD1

GENETIC VARIATION IN YIELD PERFORMANCE FOR THREE YEARS IN NIGELLA SATIVA L. GERMPLASM AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, thirty two genotypes of Nigella sativa L., germplasm were evaluated for various agriculturally important traits for 3 consecutive years along with biochemical composition. Low variance was recorded in four genotypes viz., Pk-020545, Pk-020561, Pk-020576 and Pk-020646 that indicated stability. Performance of the most of the genotypes was affected by environmental fluctuations that might be attributed to cultural practices or genetic inference. High genetic variability and heritability provide an estimate and opportunity for breeders to select the promising genotypes for specific traits. The association of oil content and fatty acid methyl esters profile (oil extracted with n-hexane) revealed that linoleic acid was significant with yield during first year. Oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (with n-hexane) were significant during second year. Zn was significantly associated with yield obtained in the third year traits with high significance could be exploited for further hybridization and breeding program is suggested. By employing biotechnological tools in preparation of effective and safe products can be obtained, additionally they could play important role in medicinal plants cultivation, new sources of production of bioactive secondary metabolites and other aspects of medicinal plant biochemistry.

2065-2070 Download
33
QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMMONLY USED VEGETABLES IN USTERZAI OF KOHAT REGION
JAVID HUSSAIN1,2*, NAJEEB UR REHMAN2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, LIAQAT ALI2, AHMED AL-HARRASI2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,2, AND FAZAL MABOOD2

QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMMONLY USED VEGETABLES IN USTERZAI OF KOHAT REGION
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the proximate composition and elemental analysis of important leafy (Malva sylvestris, Eruca sativa, and Mentha sylvestris) and fleshy (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea var. botyris, and Raphanus sativus) vegetables, which are commonly used in the rural areas of Usterzai (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa – Pakistan). The proximate parameters (moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber) were evaluated by using AOAC methods whereas elemental analyses were carried-out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that R. sativus had highest moisture contents (15.46 ± 0.16%). The ash and protein contents were highest in M. sylvestris (18.48 ± 0.01% and 16.16 ± 0.32% respectively). E. sativa has highest fiber (14.64 ± 0.24%) contents while B. oleracaea had highest carbohydrate (86.22 ± 0.54%) and energy values (354.17±0.54 Kcal/100g). In case of micro and macro nutrient concentrations, the R. sativus had highest iron (13.03 ± 0.14), copper (9.96 ± 0.16), manganese (0.79 ± 0.01), cadmium (0.21 ± 0.01) and lead (0.44 ± 0.02) while E. sativa had highest magnesium (25.65 ± 0.21) and M. sylvestris had highest sodium (81.04 ± 0.17) concentrations. In conclusion, the present support the results that B. oleracaea and R. sativus are active in nutritional qualities. Thus, toxic elements such as cadmium and lead are negligible in concentrations making these vegetables more healthful to the local people.

2071-2074 Download
34
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NOVEL AMYLASES PURIFIED FROM APPLE AND ORANGE SEEDS
UMAIRA SAEED MIRZA1, MUHAMMAD ANJUM ZIA1*, SAMREEN RASUL1 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NOVEL AMYLASES PURIFIED FROM APPLE AND ORANGE SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Amylases are starch-digesting enzymes that are naturally present in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, stem and pith of all plants. The present study is focused on the comparative studies on the a-amylase from apple and orange seeds to seek the better source. The enzyme extract was subjected to 40-60% salt precipitation. Further purification was carried out by traditional chromatographic procedures. The crude extracts obtained from apple and orange seeds presented the activities of 4.43 and 3.48 U mL-1 respectively. The purification through ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography resulted in an increase in specific activity for the apple source. The fold purification for the enzyme was 257.78 and 11.17 from apple and orange seeds, respectively. The study concluded that apple seeds are better source for purified α-amylase as compared to orange seeds. This work will also help to explore the natural sources like seeds for the isolation and purification of enzymes.

2075-2078 Download
35
FLORAL NECTAR COMPOSITION OF AN OUTCROSSING BEAN SPECIES MUCUNA SEMPERVIRENS HEMSL (FABACEAE)
TAO LIU1, AMIN SHAH2, HONG-GUANG ZHA3*, MUHAMMAD MOHSIN4 AND MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ5

FLORAL NECTAR COMPOSITION OF AN OUTCROSSING BEAN SPECIES MUCUNA SEMPERVIRENS HEMSL (FABACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Mucuna sempervirens is a perennial woody climber belonging to family Fabaceae. Hand pollination experiments have proved it to be an out crossing species. In the present study, the chemical composition of M. sempervirens’s floral nectar was analysed. Concentrations of sugars, proteins, phenolics, and hydrogen peroxide were determined through spectrophotometry. Free amino acids were identified and quantified, among which aspartic acid was the most abundant. GC-MS analysis showed that aromatic compounds were responsible for the nectar scent which lacked sulphur compounds. ICP-AES analysis determined calcium to be the nectar’s major inorganic ion. The presence of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in the nectar might serve as defence against invading microorganisms. Phenolics may act as to repel nectar thieves repeller or serve a defensive function. Our findings show that M. sempervirens’s pollination system is different from other neotropical Mucuna species. Analysis of these differences may help to better understand how Asian Mucuna species adapted and coevolved with pollinators.

2079-2084 Download
36
CONSTRUCTION OF MICROSATELLITE LINKAGE MAP AND DETECTION OF SEGREGATION DISTORTION IN INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD JAVED1*, FAHRUL ZAMAN HUYOP1, TAKASHIGE ISHII2, AZMAN ABD SAMAD1, TARIQ MAHMOOD3, MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER4 AND MUHAMMAD SALEEM5

CONSTRUCTION OF MICROSATELLITE LINKAGE MAP AND DETECTION OF SEGREGATION DISTORTION IN INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
High density molecular linkage map is a prerequisite to identify the quantitative traits loci. Construction of linkage maps, using mapping populations derived from two major subspecies: indica and japonica in rice, have been reported. However, limited work was conducted in indica subspecies. Present studies focused to construct a molecular map based on indica × indica (Shaheen Basmati × Pokkali) derived F2 mapping population. The detected microsatellite polymorphism was only 50.64% between parental cultivars. A total of 107 microsatellite markers were employed to amplify 108 loci, distributed throughout the genome. The marker data of 190 individuals was recorded for map construction. Most of the markers were found co-dominant, where as eight markers exhibited dominance in favor of Shaheen Basmati alleles and four in favor of Pokkali alleles. Detected segregation distortion was 7.47%, which was significantly low than previous studies. MapMaker was used to construct the linkage groups. The map spanned 1753.9 cM (Kosambi function) with microsatellite markers on 12 rice chromosomes and an average distance of 16.2 cM between markers. This map contained a greater and least percentage of markers on linkage group 3 and 12, respectively. Maximum common interval size (MCIS) analysis revealed that present map (indica × indica) covered the rice genome 98% of previous investigation (japonica × indica). Because of diverse background of parental cultivars, low segregation distortion and high genome coverage, revealed that molecular linkage map would be used as marker framework to investigate the genetics of important agronomic traits in indica rice.

2085-2092 Download
37
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA
S.A. MAHERA1*, S.M. SAIFULLAH1, V.U. AHMAD2 AND F.V. MOHAMMAD2

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA
ABSTRACT:
Stigmasterol-3-O-β-D glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from pnematophores (aerial roots) of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. along with two triterpenoids, ursolic acid (2) and α-amyrin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 are reported for the first time from this plant. Compound (1) was found to possess moderate anti-glycation activity.

2093-2094 Download
38
POTENTIAL OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM) EXTRACTS AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE
NORHAFIZAH MD ZAIN1, OH HONG YEW1, ISMAIL SAHID2 AND CHUAH TSE SENG1*

POTENTIAL OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM) EXTRACTS AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was undertaken to investigate the herbicidal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of culm plus leaves and root of Pennisetum purpureum against two selected weed species; Hedyotis verticillata and Leptochloa chinensis under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Extracts in different solvents and plant tissues exhibited markedly variable herbicidal activities against the target weed species. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of culm plus leaves inhibited germination of L. chinensis by 50% at a concentration of as low as 0.07 and 0.47g/L, respectively. Radicle growth of L. chinensis was strongly suppressed by aqueous root extract. Methanolic extract of culm plus leaves were proven highly phytotoxic to H. verticillata where green colour of the leaf disc was reduced by 50% at a concentration less than 0.1g/L. Aqueous root extracts at 150g/L concentration strongly inhibited seedling growth H. verticillata but less inhibition was provided by methanolic root extracts at this concentration. The results of this study suggest that P. purpureum extracts can be used as natural herbicide for weed management.

2095-2100 Download
39
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA SWARTZ DC.
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM1,2, MUHAMMAD NADIR1, AMANAT ALI1, VIQAR UDDIN AHMAD3 AND MUNAWWER RASHEED1,4*

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA SWARTZ DC.
ABSTRACT:
The air dried leaves of Prosopis juliflora Swartz DC., commonly known as Vilayati Kikar was analyzed for chemical composition. The results revealed the quantitative analysis of following classes of natural constituents: flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenols and tannins in the range of (16 ± 0.39), (3.6 ± 0.06), (2.2 ± 0.23), (0.66 ± 0.11) and (0.33 ± 0.07) % respectively. The crude fiber and ash content were also analyzed and found as (17.5 ± 0.14) and (9.5 ± 0.08) % respectively whereas, pectic substances were calculated as (4.9 ± 0.18) %. The proximate analysis of the leaves for this robust plant widely distributed in Pakistan has been carried out for the first time and has revealed high concentration of flavonoids.

2101-2104 Download
40
MICROPROPAGATION OF AGASTACHE ANISATA USING NODAL SEGMENTS AS EXPLANTS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACTS
HAMMAD AFZAL KAYANI, SAIFULLAH KHAN*, SHEEBA NAZ AND M. IQBAL CHAUDHARY

MICROPROPAGATION OF AGASTACHE ANISATA USING NODAL SEGMENTS AS EXPLANTS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACTS
ABSTRACT:
Agastache anisata (anise hyssop) is an herb grown for ornamental and culinary purpose. The present study focuses on the direct regeneration efficiency of Agastache anisata from nodal segments and subsequent acclimatization of the regenerated plants. Plant shoot organogenesis and multiplication was found at its maximum on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP) and 0.05 mg/L of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, same medium was found effective for the induction of roots, in the In vitro grown plantlets. Among the various pot mixes used for the acclimatization of rooted plantlets, equal proportion of sand and farmyard manure was found to be the best supporting material for acclimatization. The methanolic extract of Agastache anisata was evaluated and showed mild cytotoxic activity. This is the first report on in-vitro multiplication of A. anisata through plant tissue culture.

2105-2109 Download
41
PROPANIL RESISTANCE IN SPRANGLETOP (LEPTOCHLOA CHINENSIS [L.] NEES) CAUSED BY ENHANCED PROPANIL DETOXIFICATION
B.S. ISMAIL1, B.K. JULIANA1 AND T.S. CHUAH2*

PROPANIL RESISTANCE IN SPRANGLETOP (LEPTOCHLOA CHINENSIS [L.] NEES) CAUSED BY ENHANCED PROPANIL DETOXIFICATION
ABSTRACT:
The current study was conducted to elucidate the resistance mechanism of Leptochloa chinensis by comparing the difference in metabolism, aryl acylamidase activity, and chlorophyll fluorescence between the propanil-resistant (R) and the propanil-susceptible (S) biotypes of L. chinensis, using 4-week old seedlings. The concentration of propanil in the leaf and culm extracts of the R and S biotypes was found to increase after propanil treatment. The concentration of propanil in the leaf and culm extracts of the S biotype at 48 h was 12.23 and 5.49 μg mL-1, respectively. However, a lower concentration of propanil was observed in the R biotype, compared to that in the S biotype. No residue of 3, 4-dichloroaniline was observed in the S biotype. In contrast the residue of 3, 4-dichloroaniline was detected in the leaf and culm extracts of the R biotype. The level of aryl acylamidase in the leaf tissue extracts of the R biotype was ~211% higher than that in the S biotype. The fluorescence studies showed that propanil inhibited the quantum efficiency of photosystem II in both the R and S biotypes after 2 h of incubation. However, when the leaf discs were transferred and incubated in deionized water for 48 h, the quantum efficiency increased in the R biotype but decreased in the S biotype. The results of the study suggest that propanil metabolism, enhanced by aryl acylamidase activity, is the most likely factor conferring the mechanism of propanil resistance in L. chinensis plants at the 4-week growth stage.

2111-2117 Download
42
INVESTIGATION OF POTANTIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. RADICIS-LYCOPERSICI AND F. OXYSPORUM F. SP. LYCOPERSICI BY ESSENTIAL OILS, PLANT EXTRACT AND CHEMICAL ELICITORS IN VITRO
SERIFE EVRIM ARICI*, GAMZE BOZAT AND IBRAHIM AKBULUT

INVESTIGATION OF POTANTIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. RADICIS-LYCOPERSICI AND F. OXYSPORUM F. SP. LYCOPERSICI BY ESSENTIAL OILS, PLANT EXTRACT AND CHEMICAL ELICITORS IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium crown and root rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, FORL) and Fusarium wilt (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, FOL) are the most important diseases on tomatoes. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of 7 essential oil (cumin, thymus, lavandula, eucalyptus, rosemary, nigella, dill), 2 vinegars (apple and vine) and 2 chemical elicitors (BABA, JA) to FORL and FOL. Essential oils from cumin, thymus, nigella and dill showed the highest antagonistic effect against the pathogens. The inhibitory effects of vinegars and elicitors were not determined against FORL and FOL. BABA had no significant effect on mycelial growth with increasing concentration. However, the hyphal development was decreased with increasing concentration at 1000 ppm concentration. Mycelial growth of FORL and FOL was decreased by increasing JA at 100ppm concentration as well, but it was not inhibited completely.

2119-2124 Download
43
COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ADNAN NASIM AND FARHATULLAH*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability was studied in 6 x 6 complete diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Significant differences were observed for all the traits except protein and glucosinolate content. GCA mean squares were non-significant for all the traits. SCA and RCA components of variation were significant for all the traits with the respective exception of oleic acid and oil content. Prevalence of non-additive genetic control was detected for all the traits except oleic acid content for which maternal effects were more important. ACC-403, ACC-909 were good general combiners for oil content and linolenic acid; ACC-902, ACC-1500 for oleic acid and ACC-265 the worse general combiner for erucic acid. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations ACC-265 x ACC-909, ACC-403 x ACC-1500 (oil content); ACC-909 x ACC-902, ACC-909 x ACC-1500 (oleic acid content); ACC-403 x ACC-1500 (linolenic acid content) and ACC-265 x ACC-403; ACC-909 x ACC-1500; ACC-265 x ACC-902 (erucic acid content) were superior and can be further exploited.

2125-2130 Download
44
A PALYNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WETLAND PLANTS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ANDLEEB ANWAR SARDAR1*, ANJUM PERVEEN2 AND ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1

A PALYNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WETLAND PLANTS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen of 34 aquatic plants distributed in 13 dicotyledonous and 7 monocotyledonous families of Punjab (Pakistan) have been investigated by Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Pollen are generally free in most of the aquatic plants, rarely united in tetrads such as in Juncaceae and Typhaceae. Most of the pollen are radially symmetrical, isopolar-apolar, often heteropolar as in Trapa bispinosa Roxb., Nymphaea alba L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Roxb., Cyperus species, oblate-prolate spheroidal, infrequently prolate-subprolate. Non aperturate, poroid (false apertures), both simple (porate and colpate) and compound (colporate) apertures have been observed. Aquatic families also exhibit a great variation in tectum types varying from scabrate, reticulate to rugulate, verrucate, echinate, striate, sub-psilate punctuate, finely reticulate with muri patterns, areolate and scabrate-areolate punctate. The pollen characteristics are quite distinct for the identification of species. Five distinct types are recognized on the basis of tectum and apertural types i.e., Non-aperturate, Porate, Colpate, Colporate and Miscellaneous.

2131-2140 Download
45
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME DIATOMS FROM MIANWALI DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME DIATOMS FROM MIANWALI DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirteen species of pennate diatoms were collected and taxonomically investigated from various freshwater habitats in Daud Khel, Mianwali District of the Punjab Province of Pakistan during December 1986 and January 1987. The taxa Cymbella incerta Grunow, Hannaea arcus (Ehrenberg) Patrick and Pinnularia biceps Gregory have been described for the first time from Pakistan.

2141-2148 Download
46
EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES, MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AND OIL CAKES IN THE CONTROL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM, THE CAUSE OF SEED ROT AND ROOT INFECTION OF BOTTLE GOURD AND CUCUMBER
NASREEN SULTANA1* AND ABDUL GHAFFAR2

EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES, MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AND OIL CAKES IN THE CONTROL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM, THE CAUSE OF SEED ROT AND ROOT INFECTION OF BOTTLE GOURD AND CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
Fungicides, microbial antagonists and oilcakes were used In vitro and In vivo to control Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection of bottle gourd and cucumber. Aliette, Benlate and Carbendazim completely inhibit the colony growth of F. oxysoprum @ 100 ppm whereas Mancozeb, Ridomil, Topsin-M and Vitavax completely inhibited the colony growth at 1000 ppm. Fungicidal treatment of bottle gourd and cucumber seeds artificially infested with F. oxysporum significantly reduced seedling mortality and root infection. Benlate, Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely checked seedling mortality in bottle gourd. Microbial antagonists viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium virens, Bacillus subtilis and Stachybotrys atra significantly reduced seedling mortality and root rot infection of F. oxysporum in bottle gourd and cucumber In vitro and In vivo. T. harzianum was found most effective in reducing seedling mortality and root infection in cucumber and bottle gourd. Mustard cake supplemented at high ratio reduced seedling mortality and markedly increased germination in bottle gourd and cucumber.

2149-2156 Download
47
UTILIZATION OF VD TOXIN FOR RAPID SCREENING OF COTTON GERMPLASM AGAINST VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE
NOREEN BIBI1a, ZHANG GAIXIA1a, LI FENG1, FAN KAI1, YUAN SHUNA1 AND WANG XUEDE1*

UTILIZATION OF VD TOXIN FOR RAPID SCREENING OF COTTON GERMPLASM AGAINST VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE
ABSTRACT:
The degree of virulence of different isolates of Verticillium dahliae (V08sn-1, Anyang and V07df2) was evaluated using pathogen and pathogen free approaches on upland cotton. Direct use of pathogen in the soil classified isolates into highly virulent (V08sn-1), moderate virulent (Anyang) and less virulent (V07df2) with disease index of 65, 40 and 27 on the basis of leaf necrosis and vascular browning. For pathogen free approach, toxins from these isolates were prepared and their protein contents were quantified. Results revealed highest level of soluble protein in V08sn-1 (78 mg/L) followed by Anyang (55 mg/L) and V07df2 (43 mg/L). Similarly, addition of toxin (10 μg/mL) on germinating cotton seeds inhibited radical length in order of V08sn-1(62 %) > Anyang (33%) > V07df2 (17%). Besides, the addition of same quantity of toxin on detached cotton leaves produced marked symptoms of chlorosis/necrosis which was more severe in V08sn-1 and followed by Anyang and V07df2. Moreover, dipping of leaf petiole in Vd toxin of Anyang isolate resulted in leaf wilting in contrast to the leaf dipped in equivalent amount of glucose solution (55 mg/L) which demonstrated that elicitor component of Vd toxin is protein in nature. The results of Vd toxin experiment were consistent with the soil inoculation experiment using V. dahliae but the onset of diseased symptoms was quicker in former than later. These findings suggest that utilization of Vd toxin can be an environmental friendly and robust approach for plant breeders to accelerate the process of breeding new resistant lines.

2157-2162 Download
48
MYCOFLORAL PATHOGENICITY ON CORN (ZEA MAYS) SEEDS AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY DIFFERENT STRATEGIES IN AZAD KASHMIR PAKISTAN
NAZAR HUSSAIN¹, ALTAF HUSSAIN2, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ2*, MEHWISH MAQBOOL², TANVEER HUSSAIN2 AND M. ALTAF HUSSAIN2

MYCOFLORAL PATHOGENICITY ON CORN (ZEA MAYS) SEEDS AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY DIFFERENT STRATEGIES IN AZAD KASHMIR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to evaluate mycfloral pathogenicity prevailing on corn (Zea mays L.) and indigenous management strategies in different districts of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) Pakistan. Fungi were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA), isolated and identified by colony counter and microscopic analysis. Eighteen different fungal species of eight genera were found associated with maize seeds. For verification In vitro seeds inoculation tests and pathogenicity rate was measured. On infection rate basis Fusarium moniliforme was (80.75 %), Aspergillus niger (63.25%) and Rhizopus stolonifera (32.75%), respectively. Their phytogeographical prevalence was found in descending order in Bhimber (61.50%), Mirpur (60.25%) and Muzaffarabad (39.03%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that effect of different species was quite dynamic and fluctuating not only for taxa based differences but also with climate and altitudinal variations. The impact of different fungal inoculations was tested by least standard deviation (LSD) which demonstrated that d. distilled water treatment had highest seed germination rate 75.87%, with F. moniliforme 53.64%, Aspergillus niger 62.55% and their synergetic infusion showed least value of 41.73%. To reduce or eliminate the detrimental impacts of these species, four different management strategies were evaluated in experimental plot and results were analyzed by LSD. The garlic extract treatment was the best with highest seed germination rate (85.75%), followed by Benomyl treatment (84.75%), hot water treatment (79%), and distilled water treatment (65%), respectively. It was observed that all the results were significantly different from each other but the interaction between treatments and localities showed various degrees of variations.

2163-2171 Download
49
MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEED SAMPLES OF CUCURBITA PEPO L. COLLECTED FROM PAKISTAN
SUMMIAYA RAHIM*, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND M. JAVED ZAKI

MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEED SAMPLES OF CUCURBITA PEPO L. COLLECTED FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seventeen seed samples collected from Peshawar (2), Swabi (1), Tordher (1), Fatu chack (1), Mardan (2), Karachi (4), Islamabad (1), Murree (1), Abbottabad (1), Sukkur (1), Ghotki (1) and Mandibahuddin (1) areas of Pakistan were analyzed for the seed-borne mycoflora using standard blotter, agar plate and deep-freezing methods as suggested by ISTA. At least 100 fungal species belonging to 49 genera were isolated mutually from all the seed samples analyzed. Seed samples from Peshawar followed by Sukkur & Ghotki were highly infected with fungi. Agar plate method was found best for the isolation of fungi both qualitatively and quantitatively followed by standard blotter method. By using agar plate method, 79 species of 40 genera were isolated while 57 species of 29 fungal genera were isolated by the blotter method. Being frost sensitive, rot and decay of pumpkin seeds was observed in deep-freezing method. Species of Fusarium, Phoma and Macrophomina phaseolina were isolated by all three methods. However, the most dominant fungi were the species of Aspergillus followed by Rhizopus and Chaetomium. Good germination of seeds was observed in surface sterilized seeds treated with 1% Ca (OCl) 2, although surface sterilization was found less effective against fungal mycoflora. Atleast 95 species of 47 genera are newly reported from Pakistan.

2173-2179 Download
50
PHYTOREMEDIATION: ASSESSING TOLERANCE OF TREE SPECIES AGAINST HEAVY METAL (PB AND CD) TOXICITY
SARWAT ISMAIL1*, FARIHA KHAN2 AND M. ZAFAR IQBAL3

PHYTOREMEDIATION: ASSESSING TOLERANCE OF TREE SPECIES AGAINST HEAVY METAL (PB AND CD) TOXICITY
ABSTRACT:
The toxicity effects of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) on germination, root length and dry biomass of tree species viz., Thespesia populneoides, Leucaena leucocephala and Delonex regia were evaluated. Cadmium was found to be more toxic than lead. The results further showed that dose response of heavy metals were inversely proportional to germination, root growth and dry biomass. The percentage germination and higher % DFC values showed that the seeds of L. leucocephala were least affected by lead and cadmium toxicity while scoring the best germination response among the three tree species. Exposure to high concentration (125ppm) of Cd decreased the root size of L. leucocephala, T. populneoides and D. regia by 89.79, 71.8 and 62.26% respectively. However, at the same concentration, lead inhibited the root growth (39.62%) in case of D. regia while much higher reduction was observed for L. leucocephala and T. populneoides around 62.7%. Furthermore, the % phytotoxicity and tolerance index confirmed that D. regia appeared to be the most tolerant species whereas, T. populneoides and L. leucocephala were moderately tolerant and less tolerant species respectively against the Pb and Cd treatment. This study gives an insight to the possible mechanism of hypertolerance, signifying that trees can be successfully used for phytoremediation.

2181-2186 Download
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