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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

PRIMING SEEDS WITH PHYTOHORMONES ALLEVIATES CADMIUM TOXICITY IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L. WILCZEK) SEEDLINGS


Meher Hassan and Simeen Mansoor

PRIMING SEEDS WITH PHYTOHORMONES ALLEVIATES CADMIUM TOXICITY IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L. WILCZEK) SEEDLINGS


ABSTRACT:

Cadmium toxicity has deleterious effects on human, animals and plants. Mung bean seeds were sown in petri dishes after imbibing them in 50 µM Salicylic acid (SA), 100 µM Gibberellic acid (GA3) and distilled water (D/W) for 12 h and allowed to grow for 24h at 30°C. Seedlings were then treated with cadmium (0.3 mM and 0.5 mM) and harvested at 96h. Results revealed a significant decrease in all growth parameters and low level of protein in Cd treated seedlings as compared to control. In contrast, elevated levels of MDA, H2O2, antioxidant enzymes, tannin and proline were observed in cadmium treated seedlings. However, pretreatment with SA and GA3 prior to cadmium stress showed improvement in all growth parameters and protein content with the significant decline in MDA, H2O2, tannin and proline under cadmium stress that confers tolerance. Antioxidant enzymes seemed to help in declining H2O2 and MDA contents that confer membrane stability. Conclusively these results confirm the ameliorating effects of SA and GA3 under cadmium toxicity. As few articles are available on effect of mung bean under cadmium stress, therefore our research will have some contribution in understanding the damaging effect of cadmium and its amelioration by phytohormones in mung bean. We found that pretreatment of GA3 and SA is an effective way to enhance tolerance against cadmium in mung bean.  Furthermore, the response of GA3 was more effective than SA under cadmium stress.

2071-2078 Download
2

Effect of humic acid on seed germination of sub-tropical halophytes under salt stress


Sonia Bano Abbasi, Bilquees Gul, Nasiruddin Khan, Salman Gulzar and Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed

Effect of humic acid on seed germination of sub-tropical halophytes under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of exogenous applications of three humic acid types (HA1, HA2, HA3) and their concentrations (250 and 500 mg L-1) on seed germination of ten halophytes. The species included Aeluropus lagopoides, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Cyperus conglomeratus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Halopyrum mucronatum, Phragmites karka, Sporobolus ioclados and Urochondra setulosa whereas, treatments used were (1) thermoperiod (10/20 and 20/30oC); (2) photoperiod (12/12h, light/dark; and 24h dark) under non-saline conditions. Effects of humic acids on alleviation of seed germination were also studied in response to 1) the individual and combined effects of NaCl treatments (reported to cause 50% germination inhibition in species tested) and 2) photoperiod (12/12h, light/dark; and 24h dark). In non-saline conditions, humic acid did not alleviate seed germination under the sub-optimal thermoperiod (10/20oC) in most halophyte seeds studied except for that of HA1 in A. lagopoides (34%), A. macrostachyum (15%), D. bipinnata (12%) and H. perfoliata (20%). Humic acid did not improve seed germination in either photoperiod under non-saline conditions at the optimal thermoperiod (20/30oC). In the presence of the light (12/12h; light/dark photoperiod), humic acid alleviated seed germination of U. setulosa under saline conditions but not in any of the other test species. Under saline condition and complete darkness, the lower concentration treatment (250 mg L-1) of all three humic acid types significantly improved seed germination of A. lagopoides, C. conglomeratus, D. bipinnata, H. perfoliata, P. karka and U. setulosa. Under saline conditions and absence of light, higher concentration (at 500 mg L-1) of all humic acid types alleviated seed germination in S. ioclados however, no effect of either humic acid type was observed on seed germination of H. strobilaceum. In conclusion, HA could partially substitute the light requirement for seed germination of test species under saline conditions

2079-2088 Download
3

Interactive effects of salinity and proline on rice at the ultrastructural level


Han-Jing Sha, Wen-Cheng Hu, Hui-Lin Chang, Yan Jia, Hua-Long Liu, Jing-Guo Wang, De-Tang Zou and Hong-Wei Zhao

Interactive effects of salinity and proline on rice at the ultrastructural level


ABSTRACT:

The effect of foliar application of proline on the ultrastructure of rice leaves under normal and salt stress conditions was investigated. Thirty-five days old rice seedlings were transplanted into soil with different levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 mM NaCl in the soil) for 20 days, and then the leaves of fifty-five days old seedling were sprayed with proline (0, 15, 30 mM) about 10 ml plant-1 once per day for two consecutive days. Three days later, leaf samples were collected for ultrastructure under normal and salt stress conditions. The results showed that salt stress-induced alterations of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and vascular tissues. Under normal growth conditions, excessive concentrations of proline (30 mM) induced damage of chloroplast ultrastructure, but the two concentrations of proline did not apparently change the vascular tissue. Compared with salt stress alone, exogenous proline markedly suppressed the swelling of chloroplasts, maintained a well-preserved internal lamellar system in the chloroplasts, and apparently increased the number of mitochondria in sieve tube and companion cells under salt stress. The role of foliar application of 30 mM proline in protecting the mitochondria under salt stress was greater than 15 mM proline. These results indicated that the protective role of proline at the ultrastructural level in rice depended on the proline concentration and salt level

2089-2094 Download
4

Modulation effect of inoculated Raoultella planticola on glycinebetaine metabolism in two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars differing in drought tolerance


Gaili Niu, Naheeda Begum, Wei Gou, Peng Zheng, Cheng Qin, Lixin Zhang and Abd Ei-Fatah Abomohra

Modulation effect of inoculated Raoultella planticola on glycinebetaine metabolism in two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars differing in drought tolerance


ABSTRACT:

A comprehensive investigation was carried out to evaluate the changes in seed germination and glycine betaine (GB) synthesis in drought stressed maize (Zea mays L.) in response to Raoultella planticola treatment. Two maize cultivars were used in our experiment, Zheng Dan 958 (drought tolerant) and Jun Dan 20 (drought sensitive). Under drought stress, seed germination of both cultivars was drastically inhibited. However, germination rate increased, and germination period was shortened with with R. planticola Radicle length and plumules were improved, while no significant effects on hypocotyl length. Maize seedlings inoculated with R. planticola increased the level  of biosynthetic pathways of glycine betaine (GB) and choline (Cho). The activities of some key enzymes involved in GB synthesis, such as phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), were enhanced resulting in net increase in GB content. R. planticola treatment showed a marked expression of CMO, BADH and PEAMT. In conclusion, R. planticola inoculation reduced the negative effects of drought stress  by regulating GB synthesis in the seedlings of both maize cultivars under drought stress.

2095-2101 Download
5

Comparison of two most commonly used screening techniques for salt tolerance in crop plants


Muhammad Umar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Comparison of two most commonly used screening techniques for salt tolerance in crop plants


ABSTRACT:

A comparison to test the consistencies and discrepancies of two most commonly used screening techniques (soil and hydroponic) for salt tolerance in crop plants were examined. In this regard, physiological responses of four sunflower genotypes i.e. Hysun-33, Hysun-39 (known moderately salt tolerant) S.28111 and SF0049 (unreported genotypes) growing in soil filled pots and hydroponics were observed. This study was carried out under greenhouse condition in complete randomize design. plants were treated with 75, 125 and 175 mM NaCl concentrations. Stress was applied to the plants in aliquot levels 30 DAS and plants were harvested 44 DAS for further analysis. Some photosynthetic traits; chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll contents, stomatal conductance and relative water content were analysed. Plants grown in a pot experiment had higher PIabs, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments and hence higher plant fresh weight as compared to hydroponic plants. Despite differences in techniques, results revealed that both systems have shown almost similar trends in physiological traits of tested genotypes under saline environment. A significant correlation in performance index (PIabs), RWC, stomatal conductance, proline contents and total carotenoids was found. Physiological assessment and their reliability of salt tolerance in crop plants using both experimental systems were discussed

2103-2113 Download
6

Chlorophyll fluorescence and growth responses of different dwarf bamboo species to drought stress


Guibin Gao, Zhizhuang Wu, Xing Wen, Zheke Zhong, Neng Li, Hao Zhong and Yanhong Pan

Chlorophyll fluorescence and growth responses of different dwarf bamboo species to drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Physiological responses and changes in growth of dwarf bamboo under drought stress are essential for establishing an evidence-based management system to maintain soil moisture for optimal growth. In this study, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence, moisture content, and biomass accumulation of nine dwarf bamboo species placed in a drought stress environment were investigated. The species with large leaves, such as Indocalamus decorus Q. H. Dai and Sasaella glabra (Nakai) Koidz. f. albo-striata Muroi, had higher initial photosynthetic efficiency indexes than species with small leaves, such as Sasa fortunei (Van Houtte ex Munro) Fiori and Sasa pygmaea (Miq.) Rehder, but their initial light protection indexes were lower. As drought stress increased, photosynthetic efficiency indexes of large-leaved bamboo species dropped more than those of small-leaved species. In contrast, light protection indexes of large-leaved bamboo species dropped less than those of small-leaved species. The average stem and rhizome moisture content of all the bamboo species decreased tardily. However, the average moisture content of the leaf and root decreased abruptly. The initial biomass accumulation ratios of the large-leaved bamboos were higher than those of the small-leaved species. As the drought stress increased, the biomass accumulation ratio of large-leaved bamboo species declined rapidly, even falling below that of the small-leaved species, which did not decline as much. In conclusion, the biomass productivity of small-leafed dwarf bamboo species was found to be higher than that of large-leaved species under prolonged drought stress.

2115-2125 Download
7

Molecular characterization of growth and proteolysis related genes in maize under drought stress


Komal Arif, Rafiq Ahmad, Sabaz Ali Khan, Saeed Ahmad Asad, Toqeer Ahmad, Ghulam Hassen Abbasi and Muhammad Shahzad

Molecular characterization of growth and proteolysis related genes in maize under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Drought is one of the major environmental stresses that cause severe reduction in growth and yield of maize crop worldwide. Current Research was executed  to evaluate for the first time the expression pattern of growth related expansin genes, proteolysis related cysteine protease and their natural inhibitors “cystatins” genes in two maize varieties (Syngenta 8441 and Islamabad gold) under three different water levels of drought stress i.e., control, moderate and sever stress. The results of the molecular analyses demonstrated that Exp1 gene over expressed in variety Syngenta 8441 as compared to variety Islamabad gold. In contrast, the expression of ExpB2 was very low in both the varieties. However, the expression of metacaspase 2 and metacaspase 3 genes was higher in variety Islamabad gold whereas the expression of their inhibitors CC8 and CC9 was found to be very low. It is hypothesized that the expression of metacaspase 2 and metacaspase 3 was suppressed by the inhibitors CC8 and CC9 under severe drought stress in variety Syngenta 8441. According to these results, Syngenta 8441 is seemed to be a drought resistant variety while Islamabad gold is a drought sensitive variety. Further, bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed important conserved protein domains that are involved in the drought stress. As Exp1, CC8 and CC9 genes were highly expressed in maize plant under drought stress, so in future expression of one or more of these genes could be used not only to screen drought sensitive and drought tolerant or resistant maize varieties but also for the production of transgenic maize as well as other crop to enhance their drought stress tolerance. 

2127-2132 Download
8

Assessment of genetic effects of some physiological parameters in spring wheat under water stress


Salman Saleem, Muhammad Kashif, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf and Usman Saleem

Assessment of genetic effects of some physiological parameters in spring wheat under water stress


ABSTRACT:

Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and drought stress is the major abiotic stress causing decrease in yield. This study was designed to unravel the genetic nature of those physiological parameters which confer drought tolerance in wheat but are mostly ignored by the plant breeders. Contrasting wheat lines for yield under drought were crossed to develop subsequent generation F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 to study the inheritance patterns. Fixable additive gene action was observed for proline, chlorophyll and total soluble proteins under drought stress which provided the opportunity for the use of these traits in breeding program focused on drought tolerance. In this study, novel work was done to unfold the genetic nature of total soluble sugars and total soluble proteins. Due to epistatic effects complex gene action was observed for grain filling period and grain yield per plant. The information generated from this study could be used as guidelines to chalk out a breeding plan against drought tolerance.

2133-2137 Download
9

Comparison of calcium distribution in leaf cells of Carpinus pubescens and Camellia oleifera under drought and calcium stress


Ximin Zhang, Lunxian Liu, Jiyi Gong, Jing Tang, Ming Tang and Yin Yi

Comparison of calcium distribution in leaf cells of Carpinus pubescens and Camellia oleifera under drought and calcium stress


ABSTRACT:

Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the leaf cells of Carpinus pubescensand Camellia oleifera seedlings. The aim of this research was to reveal the difference of calcium distribution in cells of the leaves of both seedlings under culturing conditions of different external drought and calcium regimes. Abundant calcium precipitates accumulated mainly in the cell wall of C. pubescens and many precipitates were located in the inner plasma membrane of C. oleifera under excessive calcium as well as severe drought conditions. These results showed that C. pubescens and C. oleifera had diverse distributions of Ca2+ in the cells. C. pubescens could remove an excess of calcium from cytoplasm to cell wall and restore it. Therefore, the conceivable acclimation of C. pubescens to limestone soil might be related to its ability to transport calcium in cytoplasm caused by drought or calcium stimuli into the cell wall, thus maintaining normal physiological metabolism

2139-2143 Download
10

Proline application triggers temporal redox imbalance, but alleviates cadmium stress in wheat seedlings


Yevheniia Konotop, Mariia Kovalenko, Ildiko Matušíková, Ludmila Batsmanova and Nataliya Taran

Proline application triggers temporal redox imbalance, but alleviates cadmium stress in wheat seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Cadmium is known to be phytotoxic and as such can heavily impact crops. The adaptation of plants to different environmental factors is accompanied by the accumulation of free proline in tissues. It is declared that treatment crops in different ways with proline is favorable in terms of tolerance to environmental stresses including heavy metal pollution. In current research the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with different concentrations of proline (0, 5, 10 and 20 mM) on mitigation of cadmium-induced damages in winter wheat seedlings is studied. It was found that proline application itself significantly influenced only intracellular proline accumulation in wheat leaves. Exposure of seedlings to cadmium stress caused dehydration of leaves and enhancement of lipid peroxidation. Pre-sowing seed treatment with proline alleviated phytotoxic effects of heavy metal due to accumulation of intracellular proline in the leaves of seedlings, which in turn helped to preserve the water content in tissues. However, further research is needed to determine the most effective proline concentration range and way of proline application to wheat.

2145-2151 Download
11

Differential responses of wheat genotypes for potassium uptake and utilization efficiency under adequate and deficient potassium levels in solution culture


Muhammad Ali Khan, M.Y. Khuawer, M.U. Shirazi, S.M. Mujtaba, Maqsood A. Khaskheli and M.A. Khan

Differential responses of wheat genotypes for potassium uptake and utilization efficiency under adequate and deficient potassium levels in solution culture


ABSTRACT:

Identification of nutrient efficient genotypes as low cost, low input technology is considered one of most efficient approaches for improving crop production in poor resource environments. Potassium (K) deficiency in the soils of Pakistan is spreading rapidly and has become one of the most nutritional limiting factors for crop yield. In the present investigation, six wheat genotypes were evaluated for growth, K uptake and utilization efficiency in the Johnson’s solution modified to 0.3mM (deficient-K) and 3.0 mM (adequate-K) using K2SO4. The experiment was conducted in a factorial, completely randomized design (CRD), replicated thrice. Substantial variation was observed among the genotypes in the biomass accumulation, allocation of K-uptake and -use efficiency in root and shoot at two contrasting K level. Generally, K-deficiency decreased biomass production, K-uptake and K-use efficiency, however higher genetic potential genotypes maintained their growth and K accumulation even at low K-level. Potassium use efficiency was increased almost four folds in the genotype grown at low K and was positively correlated with K accumulation. The genotype SD-222 is responsive to adequate K-supply, while the genotype 22-03 is efficient to low K-supply. It is suggested that these two genotypes could be used in breeding programmes to improve K-efficiency.

2153-2159 Download
12

Mineral element levels and proliferative effects of several davallioids from different zones of China on osteoblastic-like UMR-l06 cell


Zi-Li Yin, Jian-Qiang Zhang, Jun-Kai Zhao, Chang-Cheng Zhu, Shu-Gang Lu, Zi-Gang Qian and Yi Jin

Mineral element levels and proliferative effects of several davallioids from different zones of China on osteoblastic-like UMR-l06 cell


ABSTRACT:

We used ICP-MS to determine the contents of thirteen mineral elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in 27 species of Davallioid from the Yunnan province in China and tested their ethanol extracts for proliferative effects on the osteoblastic-like UMR-l06 cell. The order of average concentrations of mineral elements was K>Ca>Mg>P>Na>Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. The min and max element contents for different mineral elements were K(2439.37-36929.92 mg/Kg-1 dw), Ca(2108.02-10130.27 mg/Kg-1 dw), Mg(1166.75-6996.91 mg/Kg-1 dw), P(277.63-4091.87 mg/Kg-1 dw), Na(53.11-1874.58 mg/Kg-1 dw), Mn(37.64-2430.03 mg/Kg-1 dw), Fe(33.33-1747.84 mg/Kg-1 dw) , and Zn(22.12-178.36 mg/Kg-1 dw), etc. Sixteen ethanol extracts had promoting effects on cell proliferation, and three of them, Humata platylepis (5, P%=36.3), Polypodisdesamoena (12, P%=32.3), and Drynaria rigidula (25, P%=36.8), had the most proliferative effects. From the research, we found that the high content of Ca and low content of Mn could result ina positive effect on proliferation of the osteoblast-like UMR-106 cell, while the low content of Ca and high content of Mn could result in an inhibitive effect on the proliferation of the osteoblast-like UMR-106 cell. The mineral element contents and biological activity of Davallioid showed a wide variability among different species.Mineral elements and biological activity in different Drynaria fortunei varied in the range and we confirmed that this was the result of different geo-environmental conditions and soil characteristics

2161-2168 Download
13

Growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of three grass species to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations


Yunpu Zheng, Renqiang Li, Lihua Hao, Dongjuan Cheng, Haixia Wu, Fei Li, Lili Guo, Bingru Huang and Ming Xu

Growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of three grass species to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations


ABSTRACT:

The increased atmospheric CO2concentration may have profound impacts on the structure and function of grass land ecosystems, and the question that how C3grasseswill respond to a wider range of higher CO2 levels remains unanswered. Here, we exposed three widely distributed cool-season C3 grass species Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) to ambient (400 μmol mol-1) or elevated CO2 concentrations (600, 800, 1000, and 1200 μmol mol-1) in growth chambers using an automatic CO2 controlling system. We examined growth, physiological, and biochemical responses to elevated CO2 with measurements on plant growth traits (relative growth rate and biomass), leaf gas exchange, and tissue biochemical composition (non-structural carbohydrates) of the three grass species during exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations for eight weeks. Our results showed that elevated CO2 concentrations significantly increased the averaged relative growth rates of Tall fescue and the total leaf area of Kentucky bluegrass. Meanwhile, CO2 enhancement significantly stimulated the leaf net photosynthesis rate(An) of the three species. However, both the area-based and N-based leaf dark respiration rates (Rd) of the three species were sharply decreased, and thus increased the ratio of leaf net photosynthesis and dark respiration. These results suggested that Tall fescue might be more responsive to elevated CO2in growth, physiological, and biochemical traits than the other two species, which has important implications for species composition, competition, and dynamics, and thus community structure and functionin natural and managed ecosystems under elevated CO2levels.

2169-2180 Download
14

Effect of light quality on photosynthesis and contents of active ingredients in Saxifraga stolonifera Curt


A.N. He, C.W. She, X.J. Wu, S.H. Li and M.C. Zeng

Effect of light quality on photosynthesis and contents of active ingredients in Saxifraga stolonifera Curt


ABSTRACT:

To provide a theoretical basis for artificial cultivation of Saxifraga stolonifera, we cultured the plants under different types of agriculture films and compared their effect on photosynthesis, leaf microstructure and active ingredient contents using Li 6400 portable photosynthesis instrument, paraffin method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the quality of transmitted light differed significantly under different film sheds, showing the highest UV transmittance under the white film shed as well as the highest red/blue ratio and lowest green/red ratio under the red film shed. Leaf gas exchange of S. stolonifera showed a “bimodal” diurnal variation curve under all sheds. Among them, S. stolonifera under red film shed showed the highest daily average net photosynthetic rate (PN) of 7.62 μmol m-2 s-1 and the greatest PN from the fitted photosynthesis-light response curve. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter displayed that S. stolonifera under the red film shed had the highest electron transfer rate of 58.4 μmol m-2 s-1. Saxifraga stolonifera under red shed had the thickest mesophyll tissue and the highest active ingredient content and biological yield. In conclusion, shedding with red film is most conducive for photosynthesis of S. stolonifera.

2181-2187 Download
15

Effect of copper on physiological and biochemical peculiarities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties


Saule Atabayeva, Akmaral Nurmahanova, Saltanat Asrandina, Ravilya Alybayeva, Alya Meldebekova and Nurzhaniyat Ablaikhanova

Effect of copper on physiological and biochemical peculiarities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties


ABSTRACT:

The effect of different concentrations (0.25mM, 0.5mM) of Cu2+ on growth parameters were investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). Sensitive and tolerant wheat varieties were taken for other physiological and biochemical analysis: RWC, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments and peroxydase and superoxide dismutase activity. Wheat varieties exposed to 0.5mM Cu2+ exhibited significant growth reduction. The results showed that growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were significantly reduced at 0.5 mM Cu2+ compared to untreated control plants. Wheat varieties tolerant and sensitive to Cu2+ were identified. MDA content in tolerant variety was less as compared to varieties sensitive to copper. In tolerant variety photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids) content was decreased to a less extent compared to sensitive varieties. The highest SOD and POD activity was observed at 0.5mM of copper

2189-2196 Download
16

Investigation of nuclear DNA contents of Lycoris species (Amaryllidaceae) with different chromosome number by flow cytometry


Yumei Jiang, Sheng Xu, Xiaokang Han, Rong Wang, Jia He, Bing Xia and Ren Wang

Investigation of nuclear DNA contents of Lycoris species (Amaryllidaceae) with different chromosome number by flow cytometry


ABSTRACT:

The chromosome number and karyotype of Lycoris genus display great variability. Flow cytometry was used to estimate 1Cx-values with the aim to analyze the genome size of Lycoris species with different basic chromosome numbers. Three Lycoris species with x=11, three Lycoris species with x=8 and two hybridization origination species, L. straminea (2n=19) and L. haywardii (2n=22) were quantified by flow cytometry in this study. The results demonstrated that: (1) the 1Cx-values of Lycoris lines with x=11 ranged from 20.22 pg to 25.46 pg, among which, L. radiata var. pumila and L. radiata (triploid) are markedly smaller than the other species with x=11. (2) The 1Cx-values of L. aurea, L. chinensis and L. longituba with x=8 were close, which were 30.40 pg, 32. 42 pg and 31.40 pg respectively, much larger than those with x=11, suggesting different origin between Lycoris species with x=11 and x=8. (3) The 1C DNA contents of L. straminea and L. haywardii were 26.97 pg and 23.96 pg respectively, which were close to the averages of their hypothetic parental lines, well proofing their hybridization origination. To our knowledge, the data may be helpful for the evolution studies of Lycoris genus. 

2197-2200 Download
17

Genotypes selection for plant bioassays using Lactuca sativa L. and Allium cepa L


Simone Cristina Dos Santos, Ursuléia Aparecida De Oliveira, Luciene De Oliveira Ribeiro Trindade, Mateus Donizetti Oliveira Assis, José Marcello Sallabert Campos, Eduardo Gomes Salgado and Sandro Barbosa

Genotypes selection for plant bioassays using Lactuca sativa L. and Allium cepa L


ABSTRACT:

Plant bioassays are considered an efficient, quick and inexpensive tool to monitor environmental interference caused by anthropogenic action, as well as to test the biological action of chemical substances. Lactuca sativa L. (Lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (Onion) are among the most used test organisms in plant bioassays; however, little is known about the behavior of different genotypes of these species within the bioassay dynamics. In this context, it is necessary to characterize and rank cultivars of these species that respond better to germination tests, initial growth and cytogenetic parameters for greater efficiency and reliability of the results from plant bioassays. 30 seeds were put in Petri dishes, moistened with 3.0 mL distilled water, placed in a germination chamber at 24ºC, with a 12-hour photoperiod. Germination percentage, germination speed index, number of normal seedlings, root length, shoot length, fresh and dry biomass, mitotic index, frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and DNA content were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5%, besides multicriteria analysis with the aid of TOPSIS. The most suitable cultivars for phytotoxicity and cytotoxotoxicity studies, in descending order, are Babá de Verão, Grand Rapids and Grandes Lagos (Lettuce) and Baia Periforme, Crioula and Vale Ouro (Onion). These genotypes were highly sensitive to characterize the toxicity of a chemical substance.

2201-2212 Download
18

Investigation and confirmation of introgression in Brassica species using microsatellite markers


Sidra Iqbal, Farhatullah, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Mahwish Kanwal, Nahida Yousaf and Sania Begum

Investigation and confirmation of introgression in Brassica species using microsatellite markers


ABSTRACT:

Microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are believed to be a reliable tool in the assessment of genetic variation within genomes and are therefore, widely used in population studies. In the present study, microsatellite markers were employed to confirm the process of introgression in F2hybrids derived from interspecific crosses of Oleiferous brassica species viz., B. napus (AACC genome- used as female parent) crossed with each B. juncea (AABB) and B. rapa (AA). A total of 31 SSR primers were utilized and 99 alleles were detected, with 69 (69.7%) being polymorphic. Polymorphism information content of the primer sets ranged from 0.24 to 0.75. In population of B. napus x B. junceae, pair wise similarity indices ranged from 4.4 to 9.2and from 4.2 to 8.2 in F2 hybrids ofB. napus x B. rapa.  The deviation of Introgressed hybrids towards female parent in both populations revealed that C genome has played a vital role in the introgression process of brassica species under study. Our results stressed upon the use of SSR markers in assessment of genetic diversity at molecular level. 

2213-2220 Download
19

Hybrid performance and analysis of genetic variability in green chillies (Capsicum annuum L.)


Zahoor Elahi, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Aasia Ramzan, Tahira Noor, Muhammad Uzair Qasim, Taj Naseeb Khan and Nazima Batool

Hybrid performance and analysis of genetic variability in green chillies (Capsicum annuum L.)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the indigenously developed chilli hybrids were assessed for finding the genetic differences, heritability, genetic advance and meaningful establishment of correlation of the yield with other traits of economic importance. One of the indigenously developed hybrids i.e.; Hyb.5 (1.44 kg/plant) gave significantly high green fruit yield than the commercial hybrid (222-Hyb) with 1.34 kg/plant. However, the parental line (NARC-16/9) and Hyb.4 were found at par not only to each other but also with the commercial hybrid. The small difference (0.2 to 1.5%) between the phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) values indicated the less involvement of the environmental factors in the character expression. Selection for improvement can be made for these traits by adopting proper selection procedures. High heritability (˃ 60%) with high genetic advance (˃ 30%) was recorded for the traits like number of primary branches, number of secondary branches and green fruit yield per plant except for plant height which indicated the prediction of valid results by the involvement of the additive gene action. The indigenous hybrid development can be followed up as most of the economically important traits are governed additively. The correlation of green fruit yield per plant was positively associated to all characters (r = 0.64 to 0.90) except for plant height (r = 0.11). High heritability in conjunction with high genetic advance values for green fruit yield per plant (99% and 45.45%), number of secondary branches (94% and 37.50%) and number of days to first blossoming (98% and 32.59%) indicated least influence of environment on these traits so the improvement could be made through selection 

2221-2225 Download
20

Establishment of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledon transient transformation system for gene function analysis


Zhi-Yan Zhang, Guan-Ying Li, Jie-Li Wang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Zheng Wang and Xiao-Li Tan

Establishment of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledon transient transformation system for gene function analysis


ABSTRACT:

Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is second leading oil crop worldwide, due to its importance, genomes of its relative Brassica rapa (AA genome), Brassica oleracea (CC genome), and itself AACC have been sequenced successively. Functional genomic study of rapeseed is urgently needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its yield, quality, and stress resistance. Rapeseed is recalcitrant to genetic transformation compared with other dicots. Therefore, we seek to develop a simple and efficient transient transformation system in rapeseed cotyledons. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was employed to evaluate the transient expression levels. Agrobacterium strains, densities of agrobacteria cell suspension, and the infiltrated time were optimized. To verify the reliability of this system,subcellular localization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were used. We found that the A. tumefaciens strain GV3101 was the suitable strain for transformation of the rapeseed cotyledons. Among the different incubation times, four days after infiltration with Agrobacterium GV3101 cells (OD600=0.8) provided the highest frequency of transformation. Subcellular localization and BiFC assays demonstrated a highly efficient transient transformation system in rapeseed cotyledons. The cotyledon transit expression system is efficient and fast and could accelerate functional genomics studies in B. napus

2227-2233 Download
21

Molecular phylogeny of section Drosanthe (Spach) Endl. (Hypericum L.) inferred from chloroplast genome


Gulden Dogan, Asli Yilmaz, Eyup Bagci and Zeki Kaya

Molecular phylogeny of section Drosanthe (Spach) Endl. (Hypericum L.) inferred from chloroplast genome


ABSTRACT:

The phylogenetic relationships of Drosanthe section of Hypericum genus (Hypericaceae) were analyzed by using non-coding chloroplast DNA region (trnL 3’-trnF) for 58 individuals. The section is represented by 23 taxa and nine of which are endemic to Turkey. The chloroplast phylogeny suggested that the members of this section belonged to a polyphyletic group, which imply at least two independent origins. The individuals of this section clearly formed two main clades. One clade included all members of this section except H. amblysepalum, H. spectabile, H. lysimachioides var. spathulatum and H. sorgerae. Our current phylogenetic results supported the morphological grouping in the Drosanthe section.

2235-2242 Download
22

Identification of organ-specific regulatory frameworks of Catharanthus roseus with emphasis to the TIA biosynthetic pathway


Fotouh M. El-Domyati, Ahmed Atef, Areej K.M. Al-Ghamdi, Thana K. Khan, Sherif Edris, Nour O. Gadalla, Magdy A. Al-Kordy, Ahmed M. Ramadan, Yasser M. Saad, Mernan J.S.M. Sabir, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani and Ahmed Bahieldin

Identification of organ-specific regulatory frameworks of Catharanthus roseus with emphasis to the TIA biosynthetic pathway


ABSTRACT:

Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant species having more than 100 alkaloids, including two anticancer alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine. RNA-seq data of a number of organs and treatments of C. roseus was utilized in order to identify organ-specific transcription factors (TFs) and those probably linked to the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) pathway. Organ-specific TF transcripts as well as those probably regulate genes in the MIA pathway were identified. Expression of several TF transcripts was exclusive in organs like flower, mature leaf, root/hairy root, stem and seedling. Transcripts encoding peroxidases 1 and 12 were up-regulated in mature leaf, while down-regulated in the hairy roots. TF transcripts in hairy roots indicated no differential response when knocked down for the tdc gene (TDCi) compared to wild type. A number of eight transcripts of the MIA biosynthetic pathway concordantly expressed with TFs in the steps between tryptophan and vindoline biosyntheses. These transcripts are tdc, str1, sgd, t16h, omt, nmt, d4h and dat. The most common transcription factor families involved members of bHLH, MYB and WRKY whose genes are either induced by ABA or JA (or MeJA) or regulated during adverse condition. Results of virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of two versions of bHLH25 gene confirmed its role in driving expression of str1 gene. This study highlights the regulatory frameworks in C. roseus with emphasis to the TIA pathway to be used in improving alkaloid biosynthesis via metabolic engineering

2243-2254 Download
23

Stepwise regression analysis of the correlation between leaf traits and SSR markers of Malus sieversii


Lihui Zuo, Jun Zhang, Wenlin Zhang, Ruixue Wang and Minsheng Yang

Stepwise regression analysis of the correlation between leaf traits and SSR markers of Malus sieversii


ABSTRACT:

In this study, variation of leaf traits of 18 clones selected from 600 Malus sieversii clones collected from Tianshan Mountain, Xinjiang (China) was investigated. SSR molecular markers were prepared; correlation between leaf traits and SSR(Simple Sequence Repeats) marker was determined through stepwise regression. The results showed that there were significant differences between the 15 leaf traits. The tip angle α showed the largest average variation coefficient of 25.39%, whereas the leaf index L1/L3 yielded the lowest variation of 10.31%. The repeatability of most leaf traits were more than 0.80, which indicated that genetic factors accounted for a high proportion of phenotypic leaf traits. The clones were completely separated with the clustered result of 15 leaf traits and the genetic distance were varied between 1.293 and 7.235. Furthermore, 18 clones with 30 pairs of polymorphic SSR primers, which were evenly distributed among 17 chromosome linkage groups, were subjected to cluster analysis; the clones were completely separated. The genetic distances varied between 0.089 and 0.689, with the average genetic distance was 0.4328. Cluster results of all leaf traits were not correlated with that of SSR markers. Stepwise regression results showed that the same leaf trait was closely related to several sites; likewise, the same site was closely related to several leaf traits. The sites correlation with each single trait varied between 11 and 20, in which 11 sites yielded a leaf index of L1/A1, 11 sites exhibited a leaf index of L1/A4, and 20 SSR sites were correlated with the width of 3/4 of the leaf (A4). Therefore, phenotypic traits of the leaf were closely correlated with several SSR sites

2255-2262 Download
24

Candidate gene association research on flavones content in hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.)


Zhao Yuhui, Su Kia, Zhang Liping, Li Junpeng and Guo Yinshan

Candidate gene association research on flavones content in hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, 87 hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) accessions were obtained from National Hawthorn Germplasm Nursery in Shenyang Agricultural University of China and flavones contents including vitexin-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperin and quercetin were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 2014 and 2015. Chalcone Synthase genes (CpCHS) of 87 hawthorn accessions were cloned and sequenced, and then SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) among the result of sequencing were screened out, based on thees SNPs, we conducted the association analysis between the SNPs and phenotypic traits of hawthorn flavones content, the significant associated SNPs wre then discovered. The result showed that, in total of 71SNPs were discovered and three putative causal SNPs were associated with vitexin content both in 2014 and 2015, some SNPs were associated with vitexin-rhamnoside, rutin, hyperin and quercetin. This result can be used for molecular assisted breeding of hawthorn flavone content and also provide the reference for woody plants in association analysis filed. 

2263-2272 Download
25

Genotype by environment and GGE-biplot analyses for seed cotton yield in upland cotton


Imtiaz Ali, Naqib Ullah Khan, Fida Mohammad, Muhammad Atif Iqbal, Ammad Abbas, Farhatullah, Zarina Bibi, Sardar Ali, Ibni Amin Khalil, Sheraz Ahmad and Mehboob-Ur-Rahman

Genotype by environment and GGE-biplot analyses for seed cotton yield in upland cotton


ABSTRACT:

Field testing in multiple environments can help in identifying relatively stable genotypes. A total of 28 upland cotton genotypes were tested in the normal cotton growing season during 2012 and 2013 at three locations (Peshawar, D.I.Khan and Faisalabad) of Pakistan. Genotypes (G) across environments (Y-Years, L-Locations) revealed significant (p˂0.01) differences for seed cotton yield. Genotypes varied significantly (p˂0.01) for their average mean performance over different years and locations. Moreover, the interaction effects due to G × Y × L were also significant (p˂0.01). In total sum of squares, the involvement of genotypes, environments (years, locations) and their interactions ranged from 3.01 to 37.90%. Overall, the variation was mainly attributed to environments (years) (37.90%) followed by the G × Y × L (17.94%) and genotypes (15.33%). Analysis of locations revealed that the cotton genotypes showed maximum mean values for seed cotton yield in Peshawar region, Pakistan. Comparative performance of genotypes through genotype by environment interaction (GEI) revealed that genotypes produced maximum seed cotton yield during 2013 at Peshawar followed by NIBGE - Faisalabad, Pakistan. The seed cotton yield was found significantly (p˂0.01) positively associated with earliness, morphological and yield traits, while the said association was negative with majority of the fiber quality traits. Stability in performance of the 28 genotypes was tested using GGE-biplot approach across six environments. Based on GEI and GG-biplot analysis, genotypes NIBGE-4 and IR-NIBGE-2620 were identified as vertex and ideal cultivars with more stability and seed cotton yield

2273-2283 Download
26

Metabolomic differentiation of Rhodiola crenulata from different geographical origins of Sichuan province and Tibet, China


Tao Li, Xuan He and Qiaoqi Luo

Metabolomic differentiation of Rhodiola crenulata from different geographical origins of Sichuan province and Tibet, China


ABSTRACT:

Rhodiola crenulata (HK.f. et Thoms.) H.Ohba is a popularly used ethnodrug from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China and a range of biological activities have been attributed to it. The chemical composition of R. crenulata is highly variable and its quality is often controlled on the basis of one or two marker compounds. In order to find out a suitable method for the quality control of this material, the metabolomic comparative analysis of the methanol extract of the twelve geographical origins of R. crenulata was carried out by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) methods were applied to discriminate the samples of twelve geographical origins. The chemical compositions of the cohort are diverse and mostly mapped and well classified according to geographical origins and the month of collection. A broad range of metabolites were detected by 1H NMR spectroscopy without any chromatographic separation. The principal component analysis and partial least squares methods used to reduce the huge data set obtained from the 1H NMR spectra of the plant extract clearly discriminated various geographical regions of R. crenulata. The major differences in various geographical regions of R. crenulata were found to be due to phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenes, and carbohydrates.The approach provides useful information and gives an overview of the difference between crude drugs of R. crenulata originating from different production environments. This method will be a useful tool for quality evaluation of R. crenulata so as to ensure batch-to-batch uniformity for crude drugs, and lay the foundation for the selection of optimal samples of geographical origins and cultivation locality of R. crenulata with excellent quality and consequently curative effects according to clinic application

2285-2293 Download
27

Dynamics of endogenous hormones, anatomical structure during the cutting propagation of wild Rhododendron sacbrifolium Franch


Chaochan Li, Wenxuan Quan and Xuejuan Chen

Dynamics of endogenous hormones, anatomical structure during the cutting propagation of wild Rhododendron sacbrifolium Franch


ABSTRACT:

To establish a feasible commercial cutting propagation system of mountain Rhododendron, the physiological changes during cutting propagation of Rhododendron scabrifolium Franch were investigated. The semi-hardwood stems of Rhododendron scabrifolium were collected and treated with KNAA and Hormodin. Contents of endogenous hormones indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA), zeatin riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured during the rooting period, the structural and number changes of starch grains and crystal in the middle scales were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the treatments of hormone significantly affected the growth rate of the root and its number. Higher IAA levels in cuttings induced formations of root better; GA levels showed a positive correlation with the cuttings’ root formation, but ABA levels showed a negative correlation with the rooting rates; Cuttings needed ZR in early-stage of rooting process, but ZR levels decreased in late-stage of rooting process. At the early-stage of rooting, there is no starch grain and crystal in the cell chamber of xylem and myeloid cells. Along with adventitious root formation and differentiation, starch grains and crystals were also formed. Starch grains are mainly round and the type of crystal cluster-like calcium oxalate crystals.

2295-2299 Download
28

Heavy metals induced lipid peroxidation in spinach mediated with microbes


Ijaz Malook, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Daud Khan, Salah E. El-Hendawy, Nasser A. Al-Suhaibani, Muhammad Mudasar Aslam and Muhammad Jamil

Heavy metals induced lipid peroxidation in spinach mediated with microbes


ABSTRACT:

Rapid growth of industrial sector and lack of proper disposal of industrial wastes heavily loaded our soil reservoirs with toxic metals which is a serious threat to all form of life. Among other mechanisms, lipid per-oxidation is a major threat to biological matrix. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the lipid peroxidation induced by heavy metals in spinach that is mediated by microbes (Bacillus spp. and Coryne bacterium spp.) isolated from contaminated soils irrigated with industrial effluents of Gadoon Industrial Estate, Swabi (GIES) and Hyatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar (HIEP). The severity of the lipid peroxidation induced by heavy metals was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, glycine betaine (GB), proline (Pro), hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) contents, photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll “a”, Chlorophyll “b” and “Carotenoids), total soluble sugar (TSS), total soluble proteins (TP), and cell viability (EC) estimation. Heavy metals contaminated soil significantly affected the photosynthetic system of the plant by lowering the content of Chlorophyll “a”, Chlorophyll “b”, carotenoids, total soluble sugar and total soluble proteins, while electrolyte contents, glycine betaine, proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde  contents in terms of lipid peroxidation were increased. Whereas the seeds inoculated with microbes showed significant increase in photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugar and proteins contents with low cell leakage, glycine betaine, proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents showing decrease in oxidative stress produced by heavy metals. Present results revealed that microbes inoculated plants showed low degree of lipid peroxidation which also confirmed the key role of microbes in bioremediation. Interestingly, Coryne bacterium spp., shows improved resistance to heavy metals contamination than Bacillus spp. 

2301-2308 Download
29

Agro-morphological studies revealed broad genetic structure of spatially distributed Brassica rapa populations


Sohail Ahmad Jan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Haris Khurshid and Nazir Ahmad

Agro-morphological studies revealed broad genetic structure of spatially distributed Brassica rapa populations


ABSTRACT:

Brassica rapa sub-species presents rich diversity all over the world. The three different B. rapa sub-species (brown sarson, yellow sarson and toria) have distinct qualitative and quantitative characters. In present study we have described some major characteristics of three important sub-species of B. rapa (brown sarson, yellow sarson and toria). The brown sarson, yellow sarson and toria sub-species have rich diversity in leaf shapes (vegetable and non-vegetable types), early flowering, number of pods, pod shattering, yield per plant, etc. The brown sarson showed excellent yield and other morphological performances as compared to other two sub-species. The development of early flowering in brown sarson/toria and high yielding brown/yellow sarson offers unique opportunities for the improvement of the species.

2309-2312 Download
30

Genetic fidelity testing in regenerated plantlets of cryopreserved and non- cryopreserved   cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera L


Saleh Alansi, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Salim Khan, Mohammad Nadeem, Mohamed Tarroum, Aref Alshameri and Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar

Genetic fidelity testing in regenerated plantlets of cryopreserved and non- cryopreserved   cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera L


ABSTRACT:

The genetic fidelity of date palm plantlets (Phoenix dactylifera L. ‘Sagai and Khalas’) derived from somatic embryogenesis was tested before and after cryopreservation with (+LN) and without (-LN) liquid nitrogen. Fifteen randomly selected In vitro subcultures were assessed for genetic fidelity using twenty inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers. The maximum similarity recorded between mother plants and plantlets derived from embryogenic calli of date palm cultivar Sagai and Khalas after cryopreservation (+LN) was 100%, whereas the minimum similarity was found to be 97.8 and 97.0%, respectively. The average percent similarity was found to be 98.9 and 98.5 for both cultivars, respectively. The maximum similarity recorded between mother plant and plantlets derived from embryogenic calli of Sagai or Khalas without cryopreservation (-LN) was 100%. However, the minimum similarity was 98.9 and 98.0% with an average of 99.4 and 99% for both cultivars, respectively. Our results indicate that plantlets of these cultivars derived from embryogenic calli after cryopreservation (+LN) and non-cryopreservation showed similarity to their mother plants at the genetic level.

2313-2320 Download
31

Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of purified pectinases produced from nitrous acid mutant derivative of Aspergillus niger (H-97)


Nauman Jamil Khan, Ikram-Ul-Haq, Ali Nawaz, Asad Ur Rehman and Hamid Mukhtar

Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of purified pectinases produced from nitrous acid mutant derivative of Aspergillus niger (H-97)


ABSTRACT:

The Aspergillus niger mutant strain H-97 was used for pectinase production (40.31±0.07 U/ml/min) having specific activity of 12.12 ± 0.01 U/mg. Fermentation was carried out using 5 liters of fermentation medium in 7.5 liter stirred fermenter under controlled condition of temperature (30°C), pH (07), agitation (200 rpm), aeration (1vvm) for an incubation time of 48 h using 1% vegetative inoculum. Purification of enzyme resulted in 44.20% yield with enhancement of specific activity (75.18±0.04 U/mg) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Kinetic characterization of enzyme revealed pectin as highly specific substrate for enzyme with Km value of 2.30 mg/ml. Thermodynamic evaluation of enzyme resulted in  activation energy (Ea) as -28.95 KJ/mol and enthalpy of activation (ΔH) as -26.73 KJ/mol.  

2321-2324 Download
32

Relationship between the carbon isotope composition of grassland plant communities and altitude in Barkol, Xinjiang province, China


Liu Quanjun and Chen Yn

Relationship between the carbon isotope composition of grassland plant communities and altitude in Barkol, Xinjiang province, China


ABSTRACT:

Several environmental factors potentially influence the stable isotope composition of plants. Identifying the relationship between the stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of plants and soils along altitudinal gradients is important in the context of reconstructing past climates. In this study, we investigated the patterns of δ13C variation among plant leaves and along an altitudinal gradient (1597~2137 m a.s.l.) in the Barkol area of Xinjiang Province, China. At the community level, leaf δ13C values decreased with increasing altitude while root δ13C values had no significant relationship with altitude. We infer that the lower leaf δ13C values at high altitudes were related to variations in humidity conditions and atmospheric pressure.

2325-2332 Download
33

A proper concentration of carbon black nanoparticles enhances growth of the regenerated vetiver grass


Chonnikarn Khunchuay and Kanokporn Sompornpailin

A proper concentration of carbon black nanoparticles enhances growth of the regenerated vetiver grass


ABSTRACT:

Carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were used in enhancing efficiency of the plant regeneration process under tissue culture condition. The calli of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) were induced by using axillary bud as the explant. These calli were subjected onto plant regeneration medium, Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mgL-1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2 mgL-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2 mgL-1 kinetin, adding 0-70 mgL-1 concentrations of carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. After six week incubation, vetiver calli developed on the medium supplemented with 40 mgL-1 CB nanoparticles showed the rather high frequencies of plant regeneration  (93.75%), nevertheless no statistically different with other treatment did. Media containing CB nanoparticles in the range 40-60 mgL-1 significantly affected on enhancing the average of shoot number per callus more than other CB concentration did. Especially, the average shoot lengths of plantlets derived from 40 and 50 mgL-1 CB media (1.73 and 2.19 cm) are longer than those from non CB or other CB concentration media (0.88-1.05 cm) at the significant level. Adding CB nanoparticles in regeneration medium effects on enhancing electrical conductivity and decreasing the pH value. The concentration of CB nanoparticle effected the ratio of colloidal sizes which was found in the medium. The proper concentration of CB generates the optimum property of the regeneration medium which can promote the average of shoot number per callus, and enhanced shoot elongation of vetiver grass in the regeneration process.

2333-2338 Download
34

Determination of direct and indirect relations between some yield characters of red lentil cultivars


Omer Sozen and Ufuk Karadavut

Determination of direct and indirect relations between some yield characters of red lentil cultivars


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 by using 10 red lentil cultivars registered by the research institutes, universities and private sector in the ecological conditions of Central Anatolia Region to determine the agronomic characters having direct and indirect impacts on yield. For this aim; the differences were determined by applying variance analysis on the attained data and the groups were compared with Duncan Multiple Range Test. In addition; path analysis in which the direct and indirect impacts were determined with correlation analysis between the examined characters. Results showed that Evirgen and Cagil lentil cultivars were distinguished amoung the studied cultivars in terms of the characters affecting yield. As results; plant height, first pod plant height, number of pods and yield per plant had direct positive impact on yield

2339-2346 Download
35

Impact of irrigation frequencies and picking timings on fiber quality and seed germination of cotton varieties


Zaheer Ahmed Deho, Sawan Laghari and Saifullah Abro

Impact of irrigation frequencies and picking timings on fiber quality and seed germination of cotton varieties


ABSTRACT:

Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of irrigation frequencies and picking timings on seed cotton yield and yield contributing parameters of three promising cotton varieties (Sadori, Chandi-95 and Malmal). The cotton varieties were evaluated under four irrigation frequencies (five, six, seven and eight irrigations) and four cotton pickings timings based on the percent boll openings (30%, 50%, 70% and 90% boll opening). Most of the traits like  sympodial branches plant -1 (14.41), seed cotton yield (2686 kgha-1), ginning out turn (36%), seed index (7.21g) and seed germination (63.47%) remained higher in variety Sadori compared to Chandi-95 and Malmal varieties. Results with respect to irrigation frequencies indicated the highest values for boll weight (3.23g), seed cotton yield (2843.8 kg ha-1), seed index (7.68g), staple length (27.61 mm) and seed oil content (20.72%) under six irrigation frequencies. The best time of picking was observed, when 50% bolls were opened, having higher boll weight (3.30 g), ginning out turn (35.32%), seed index (7.42g), staple length (27.77 mm), seed oil content (20.91%) and seed germination (74.66 %). It is concluded from the studies that the cotton picking at 50% boll opening is best and suggested to get more viable and healthy cottonseed with higher seed germination percentage. Similarly six irrigations frequencies proved better for highest seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits.

2347-2352 Download
36

Epidermal structure of stomata and trichomes of Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso and Banfi


Shalom Pabalelo Mashile and Milingoni Peter Tshisikhawe

Epidermal structure of stomata and trichomes of Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso and Banfi


ABSTRACT:

Leaves of Vachellia tortilis were collected along the national road (N1) in Limpopo province, South Africa. Variations in the epidermal structure of stomata and presence of trichomes amongst V. tortilis in nine different stations selected along the study site were investigated.  In this study leaves of V. tortilis were found to be hypostomatic. The epidermal cell revealed a polygonal structure only. Anticlinal walls were either straight or curved. Trichomes recorded showed a non-glandular unicellular conical shape. Stomata types observed were paracytic and anisocytic with single subsidiary cell. In comparison the frequency of epidermal cells was higher than that of guard cells. Stomatal index and frequencies of stomata and epidermal cells were also recorded and compared.

2353-2355 Download
37

Influence of environmental variables on the distribution of woody species in Muslim graveyards of Malakand Division, Hindukush range mountains of Pakistan


Fayaz Ali, Nasrullah Khan, Kishwar Ali and Imran Khan

Influence of environmental variables on the distribution of woody species in Muslim graveyards of Malakand Division, Hindukush range mountains of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Muslim graveyards are believed to be the most protected microecosystems and were regarded the most ideal habitats for natural vegetation due to special cultural roles and religious privileges. In the foothills of Malakand division, located in the Hindukush range mountains, these microecosystems have been substantially disturbed by the recent army incursion but still offer an opportunity for studying comparatively less disturbed vegetation where vegetation-environment relationships have hardly been explored. Therefore, we investigated the effect of environmental variables on the composition and structure of woody vegetation, crucial to understand for the conservation of these graveyards. An investigation of the vegetation and its associated environmental variables in thirty different graveyards was performed by using 10 × 10 m2 plots resulted to encounter 2592 trees (DBH ≤ 5 cm) of twenty different woody species belonging to 16 families in the entire landscape. The cluster analysis identified five major community types with density and basal area ranging from 150 to 1620 trees ha-1 and 20 to 2523 m2ha-1 respectively. The analysis revealed that family Moraceae contributed maximum number of species followed by Rosaceae, Meliaceae and Fabaceae to the overall floristic composition. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to assess the relative explanatory power of different physiographic and soil’s physical and chemical properties for the vegetation structure and composition. Significant interactions with elevation, soil clay, silt, sand, phosphorus and potassium suggest that several factors explained the spatial pattern but effect of physiographic factors were comparatively higher than soil factors on the vegetation composition. Thus, we predict that elevation coupled with soil physical and chemical properties are more influential and could be considered in vegetation restoration and conservation in these graveyards. Our results suggest that both local and regional scale analyses are warranted to disentangle the vegetation-environment relationships, if the ultimate goal is to conserve these less disturbed, self-sustainable ecosystems.

2357-2366 Download
38

A new species of Psychrogeton (Astereae ˗ Asteraceae) from Pakistan


Anjum Perveen, Muhammad Qaiser and Syeda Asma Omer

A new species of Psychrogeton (Astereae ˗ Asteraceae) from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

A new species Psychrogeton alii Anjum Perveen, M. Qaiser & S. Asma Omer is described and illustrated from Pakistan. The new species is related to Psychrogeton aucheri (DC) Grierson and P. nigromontanus (Boiss. & Buhse) Grierson, from these it can be distinguished by shape and size of female and bisexual florets, style length and cypsela morphology including carpopodium. This new species is known from type locality Swat, Khyber Pakhtun-Khwah, Pakistan. 

2367-2370 Download
39

Distribution pattern and species richness of natural weeds of wheat in varying habitat conditions of district Malakand, Pakistan


Muhammad Iqbal, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Muhammad Azim Khan, Zeeshan Ahmad, Zaheer Abbas, Shah Masaud Khan and Muhammad Saleem Khan

Distribution pattern and species richness of natural weeds of wheat in varying habitat conditions of district Malakand, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Quantitative ecological techniques in winter wheat fields were used to assess weed species richness, distribution pattern and abundance under the influence of varying environmental conditions in the District of Malakand KP, Pakistan. A total of 1200 quadrats (1x1 m2 size) were established in 120 randomly selected wheat fields. Using quadrat data phytosociological attributes i.e., density, frequency, cover, relative density, relative cover, relative frequency and importance values were calculated for each weed species. Preliminary 132 weed species were recorded from 1200 quadrats. Cluster and Two Cluster Analyses using PCORD Version 5 gave rise to five major weed communities via Sorenson distance measurements. These weed communities were: (1) Emex-Vicia-Lathyrus weeds community (2) Alysum-Cannabis-Lithospermum weeds community (3) Oxalis- Lathyrus-Chenopodium weeds community (4) Euphorbia-Cerastium-Capsella-bursa weeds community and (5) Alopecuris-Mazus-Persicaria weeds community. Over all top five abundant weed species were Anagallis arvensis, Poa annua, Medicago denticulata L, Veronica polita and Fumaria indica with Importance Values Index (IVI) of 1101.45, 1050.30, 916.23, 782.57 and 664.76 respectively in the region. Among the less abundant weed species with minimum IVI in the region Lamium amplexicaule (94.6435), Papaver rhoeas L. (94.1686), Lathyrus aphaca (94.0310), Medicago polymorpha (93.2877) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon (90.8317) were noteworthy. The weed species Boerhavia procumbens (1.2350), Saussurea heteromalla (1.2055), Verbascum Thapsus (1.1217), Mentha longifolia (1.0738) and Juncus biflorus (1.0605) having IVI less than 2 were considered as rare weeds of wheat in the study area. While Acanthophyllum grandiflora, Boerhavia procumbens, Carex fedia, Dicliptera roxburghiana and Eryngium caeruleum were among the least common species (LCS) showing their presence in one field only. It was concluded that electrical conductivity, soil texture, pH, organic matter, CaCO3, phosphorous and high nitrogen concentration were the strong environmental variables that gives rise to diverse weed species composition, richness and distribution pattern.

 

2371-2382 Download
40

Competitive interactions between a perennial legume shrub Indigofera oblongifolia and two annuals Tephrosia strigosa and Corchorus triloccularis


Shahid Shaukat, Moazzam Ali Khan, Hina Zafar, Noreen Noor and Aamir Alamgir

Competitive interactions between a perennial legume shrub Indigofera oblongifolia and two annuals Tephrosia strigosa and Corchorus triloccularis


ABSTRACT:

The investigation focuses on competitive interactions between a perennial shrub Indigofera oblongifolia and two annuals Tephrosia strigosa and Corchorus triloccularis as well as the intraspecific competition of the three mentioned species. Both intraspecific and interspecific competitions were inferred using the nearest neighbour distances between pairs of plants. Intraspecific competitive intensity was found to be greater for the annuals than that of the perennial shrub. Interspecific competition between the perennial shrub species and the two annuals was assessed by the reproductive potential of the annuals. The accumulation of phenolics in the roots of annuals was tested in response to competitive stress. The number of flowers (and fruits) in the two annuals were depressed as the distance between annual plant and the shrub (I. oblongifolia) declined. By contrast, there was greater accumulation of total soluble phenols in the annuals as the distance of the shrub became closer to the annual. The implications of competitive interactions in structuring the communities are discussed

2383-2394 Download
41

Pakistani anti-mastitis medicinal plants and their scientific validation against multidrug resistance mastinogen Staphylococcus aureus


Akash Tariq, Muhammad Adnan, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shehla Shinwari, Rahila Amber, Sehrish Sadia and Sakina Mussarat

Pakistani anti-mastitis medicinal plants and their scientific validation against multidrug resistance mastinogen Staphylococcus aureus


ABSTRACT:

Mastitis is an infectious disease of livestock affecting agricultural economy especially in developing countries. Present review was designed to gather literature about the traditional uses of Pakistani anti-mastitis plants and their In vitro background against a common multidrug resistant mastitis causing bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Different online search engines were used use to collect data such as Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and Pub Med.Traditional healers of Pakistan used 38 plants for the treatment of mastitis in buffaloes and cows. Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae (3 plants each) were the most preferred plant families while the roots, fruits and seeds were the most commonly used parts for the treatment of mastitis in Pakistan. Thirteen plants were reported to be evaluated for their antibacterial activities. Different extracts had shown good activities against S. aureus, however, ethanolic, aqueous and methanolic extracts shown greater inhibition zone (10-25mm). Variety of phytochemical classes was identified from in-vitro tested plants such as saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates flavonoids and terpenoids. Literature review showed that S. aureus is resistant (60-100%) to commonly used antibiotics against mastitis. In Pakistan large number of plants are being used against mastitis but most of the regions are yet to explore. Moreover, many reported plants were found to be active against S. aureus while large number of plants is still unexplored. There is a dire need to expedite detailed ethnopharmacological studies on unexplored anti-mastitis plants for the replacement of current drugs with new plant based drugs.

 

2395-2404 Download
42

Analyzing the variability and genotype × season interaction to assess the biological homeostasis in yellow maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm using advanced biometrical inferences


Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Muhammad Aslam, Abdurahman Beshir and Muhammad Sarwar Khan

Analyzing the variability and genotype × season interaction to assess the biological homeostasis in yellow maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm using advanced biometrical inferences


ABSTRACT:

Yellow maize is grown in autumn and spring seasons and prevailing in both dent and flint types. High yield with stable performance of yellow maize genotypes across these seasons is desire of local farmers. Total 150 yellow maize accessions including both dent and flint types were subjected to field trial under augmented design in both autumn and spring seasons. Data for different morphological and yield related traits were collected and subsequently subjected to analysis of variance, principal component biplot analysis, stability indices and GGE biplot analysis. Significant differences were observed in yellow maize accessions across autumn and spring seasons. Yellow maize accessions were high yielding in spring season relative to autumn season. Among total 150 yellow accessions, 90 were of flint type and 60 were of dent type. Yellow Dent and flint accessions were also significantly different for morphological and yield related traits; yellow dent accessions were better performing and high yielding relative to flint. During autumn season, accessions 14965, 19205, 14982, 15019, 15173, 15172, 15171, 15194, 15205, 24687, 15163, 15169, 15190) and 906 were better performing whereas, in spring season, accessions 15353, 19175, 15076, 15328, 15077, 15189, 15207, 15061 and 15071 were better performing for studied traits. Accessions 19175, 15353, 15207, 15187, 19205, 15185, 15172, 15205, 15227, 15167, 15190, 14970, 14971 and 15019 among dent and accessions14965, 15102, 15101, 15109, 15131, 15011, 15218, 14919, 15192 and 15011 among flint were superior performers. GGE biplot analysis, cultivar superiority index, static stability and wricke's ecovalence were used for estimation of biological homeostasis in grain yield. Accessions were given different ranks by these three stability indices when indices were considered individually. Mean ranks based on static stability, cultivar superiority index and wricke's ecovalence were proved effective and their results were comparable with results of GGE biplot analysis. Accessions 15328, 19175, 15069, 15077, 15189, 15258, 24688, 15186, 15100 and 15105 were unanimously declared stable with higher grain yield across autumn and spring seasons. Conclusively these genotypes could be exploited for higher yield with stable performance. Mean ranks based on static stability, cultivar superiority index and wricke's ecovalence could also be used as alternative to GGE biplot analysis and vice versa

2405-2418 Download
43

Dynamic distribution of calcium in the stigma and style of lily after pollination


Nan Tang, Jinyan Yan, Yi Li and Daocheng Tang

Dynamic distribution of calcium in the stigma and style of lily after pollination


ABSTRACT:

Lilies are ornamental plants of global importance, yet cross incompatibility remains a major problem in breeding programmes. Calcium plays an essential role in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. However, the regulatory mechanisms of calcium distribution during the fertilization process are unclear at present. An accurate assessment of calcium ions in pollinated styles can help to substantiate the role of calcium in pollination. In the current study, Lilium pumilum DC. and two Asiatic Lilium cultivars (‘Pollyanna’ and ‘Prato’) were used for crossing. Three cross combinations with different compatibilities were selected. The style of the female parent was collected before and after pollination at different stages. The amount of exudate in the stylar canal was estimated at the same time points. The style was cut into four different segments using an ultramicrotome and calcium ions were localized using potassium pyroantimonate. Calcium precipitates were examined and photographed using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the amount of exudate in the style increased prominently following pollination in compatible crosses (‘Prato’ × ‘Pollyanna’). The amount of calcium in the stigma increased after pollination, particularly significantly so in incompatible crosses (‘Prato’ × L. pumilum). The amount of calcium in the canal cells and vascular bundles of the style was greater than in the adjacent parenchyma cells. In the style of compatible crosses, calcium was obviously transferred from the top to the base in the canal cells and vascular bundles, and a rising calcium gradient was ultimately formed. It is speculated that a rapid increase and high concentration of calcium in the stigma of the female parent could negatively impact pollen tube growth. Instead, abundant calcium in the style appears to promote the growth of the pollen tube towards the ovary.

 

2419-2427 Download
44

Characterization of somaclonal variants of sugarcane on the basis of quantitative, qualitative, and genetic attributes


Muhammad Tahir Khan, Nighat Seema, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan and Shafquat Yasmine

Characterization of somaclonal variants of sugarcane on the basis of quantitative, qualitative, and genetic attributes


ABSTRACT:

Somaclonal variation is an important tool for creating genetic diversity in sugarcane. Somaclones of NIA-1198 were developed through callus culture and subjected to field trials under randomized complete block design with three replications over two consecutive years (2013-14 and 2014-15). Crop was harvested after 12 months of planting each year and the quantitative and qualitative parameters were determined at harvesting stage. Quantitative traits included plant height, girth, tillers, internode length, number of internodes, stool weight, and cane yield, whereas qualitative parameters included CCS%, brix %, sucrose %, fiber %, purity, sugar recovery, and sugar yield. The data of both cropping seasons were pooled and subjected to statistical analysis and other tests. Statistically significant differences were observed for all the characteristics among somaclonal population. Somaclone SC8 was observed to have highest cane yield of 77.87 t/ha against the 64.87 t/ha of the parent. While, somaclone SC30 exhibited highest sugar yield of 11.58 t/ha as compared to the parent’s 7.86 t/ha. Sugar recovery was also observed to be maximum for the SC30 (14.42%). SC12 somaclone presented highest cane height of 372 cm whereas maximum number of tillers were harvested in SC13, and SC30 (9.0). On comparing the somaclones for percent variation, highest range of variation was recorded for sugar yield which increased as much as 47.5 % in some of the somaclones whereas it decreased up to -55.7 % in others. Cluster analysis of the parameters classified the genotypes into five major clusters. Only 4 somaclones were observed to appear with the parent (NIA-1198) in the same cluster. Cluster 1 was distinguished by highest quantitative traits, cluster 2 was characterized by maximum qualitative parameters, and cluster 5 recorded highest fiber contents. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed strong correlation of cane yield with the cane girth (0.536), and tillers per plant (0.607). Whereas, sugar yield was observed to have highest correlation with cane yield (0.814), CCS % (0.604) and sugar recovery (0.596). On principal component analysis (PCA) of the pooled data, parameters under study were observed to divide into five principal components (PCs) which contributed for up to 93.18% variability. Many of the somaclones were observed to be placed on high distances from each other on the score plot of PCA. Genetic parameters of the somaclonal population showed that the characteristics under study were highly heritable, and possessed low environmental variance. The heritability values for all the characters were estimated to be more than 93% at least. It can be concluded from the study that somaclonal variations can create highly diverse populations of sugarcane for evaluation in cane breeding programs. 

2429-2443 Download
45

Multivariate statistical analysis for yield and yield components in bread wheat planted under rainfed conditions


Mirza Faisal Qaseem, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Noshin Illyas, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam Shabbir

Multivariate statistical analysis for yield and yield components in bread wheat planted under rainfed conditions


ABSTRACT:

Crop yields of major cereals including wheat are not increasing at the targeted growth rates to feed the rising demands stemming from increase in the human population. Variability in germplasm is always the key to improvement and to assess the extent of variation is never ending process in a plant breeding program. Out of several methods available for assessing the variability, multivariate analysis is one of the most important and widely used methods. Present study was designed to find diversity patterns among 30 wheat lines of hexaploid wheat from CIMMYT nursery planted for two years (i.e. 2013-14 and 2014-15) in two replicates to seek genetic variability amongst genotype in rainfed conditions. Thirteen quantitative traits were determined phenotypically. Three genotypes viz., 27, 28 and 29 performed well with higher values of yield and yield components that may be considered as tolerant to rainfed conditions. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) grouped all germplasm into four major components explaining over 75% of genetic variation. Cluster analysis classified studied traits into seven groups. Days to heading (DH) and days to maturity (DM) had highest positive loading in first component, while most of yield components had positive loading in second component. It can be concluded that wheat yield can be improved in Pakistan by employing breading programme in terms of crosses and heterosis in determined different parent clusters

2445-2450 Download
46

Assessment of Pakistani and Iranian bread wheat landraces using multivariate analysis for grain yield


Sumaira Salah-Ud-Din Lodhi, Peter John, Hadi Ali Pour, Mohammad Reza Bihamta, Seyed Ali Peyghambari, Abdul Mujeeb Kazi and Alvina Gul

Assessment of Pakistani and Iranian bread wheat landraces using multivariate analysis for grain yield


ABSTRACT:

The cereal crops depend, in their production sustainability, on germplasm improvement and genetic diversity. The role of multivariate techniques is vital in classification of germplasm as well as studying the interrelationship between grain yield and its various components. Germplasm consisting of 192 Iranian and 202 Pakistani wheat landraces from different regions of Pakistan and Iran were evaluated for six quantitative traits, through simple correlation, stepwise regression, path coefficient analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis. The results showed that grain yield in Pakistani wheat landraces has most commonly been affected by two traits, i.e., spike weight and 1000-grain weight. Similarly, for Iranian wheat landraces, spike weight, 1000-grain weight and number of grains/spike are the prominently influencing morpho-physiological traits affecting the yield. These variables will be helpful in the selection of suitable genotypes for wheat improvement programs to get high yielding genotypes. Cluster analysis divided the Pakistani and Iranian wheat landraces into four and three groups respectively. Principal component analysis confirmed the results of the cluster analysis. Iranian landraces were clearly separated into three groups. High genetic diversity among landraces is eligible to be used in future crosses to produce segregating populations.

2451-2458 Download
47

Efficiency of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus columbinus - P 8) using date palm leaves with combination of wheat straw and cotton waste for its yield improvement


Nasir Ahmed Khan, Waqar Ahmed, Abdul Rehman, Muzamil Jahangir and Babar Khan

Efficiency of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus columbinus - P 8) using date palm leaves with combination of wheat straw and cotton waste for its yield improvement


ABSTRACT:

The prospects of cultivating Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus columbinus−P8) on date palm leaves with a combination of different agricultural waste, the supplementary material wheat bran, corn meal and gypsum were used at the rate of 5% of substrate dry weight in all treatments. Data were recorded from spawn running, pinhead formation, and growth of fruiting body, total number of fruiting bodies, yield and biological efficiency. Results revealed that treatment T4 (date palm leaves 25% + wheat straw and cotton waste 75%) took minimum days for spawn running, pinhead formation, comparative growth of fruiting bodies and produce a maximum number of fruiting bodies. While treatment T1 (date palm leaves 100%) gave maximum days for spawn running, pinhead formation, comparative growth of fruiting bodies and produce a minimum number of fruiting bodies. The yield production and biological efficiency of Oyster mushroom was found to be higher in treatment T4, (date palm leaves 25% + 75% (wheat straw + cotton waste) gave 403 g and 80.6% respectively. While yield production and biological efficiency oyster mushroom was found lowest in treatment T1 (date palm leaves=100% gave (185.75) g and (37.15) % respectively.  Therefore, the technology of mushroom agriculture enables us to acquire substrate materials at very low cost and further led to conserve our environment through efficient bioconversion of wastes with sustainable food security.

2459-2464 Download
48

Climate signal in tree-ring width chronologies of Pinus wallichiana from the Karakoram mountains in Northern Pakistan


Fayaz Asad, Haifeng Zhu, Eryuan Liang, Munawar Ali, Muhammad Hamayun, Shalik Ram Sigdel, Muhammad Khalid and Iqtidar Hussain

Climate signal in tree-ring width chronologies of Pinus wallichiana from the Karakoram mountains in Northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In the study area, Pinus wallichiana one of the most dominant species at upper timberline, reaching age up to 700-years old was selected for the dendroclimatological study in the Karakoram region, northern Pakistan. In this paper, we demonstrated the relationship between its radial growth and climatic factors using two standard chronologies of Pinus wallichiana. Tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strong positive response to temperature (p<0.05) and weak response to precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). We found a significant positive correlation with March-May, June-August, April-September of the current growth season, and previous year October to current year September (annual) temperature. These findings confirm that the Pinus wallichiana growth is mainly limited to temperature rather than precipitation and PDSI, and suggest that this species (Pinus wallichiana) is potential for the climate reconstruction in the study area.

 

2465-2473 Download
49

Some new records of lichens from Hunza valley, Pakistan


Kamran Habib, Amna Imran, Abdul Nasir Khalid and Muhammad Fiaz

Some new records of lichens from Hunza valley, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

There is a vast diversity of lichens in forests of Pakistan due to rich vegetation and suitable environmental conditions for their growth. During exploration of lichens of Hunza valley in Gilgit Baltistan, we found four species viz., Punctelia subrudecta, Punctelia borreri, Peltigera elisabethae and Xanthoria sogdiana, which are new records for Pakistan. Their molecular characterization is based on internal transcribed region of nuclear ribosome. Complete morphological descriptions along with phylogenetic analyses are also discussed in this work.

 

2475-2482 Download
50

The effects of Allium tuncelianum extract on some important pathogens and total phenolic compounds in tomato and pepper


Hulya Ozgonen Ozkaya and Tugce Ergun

The effects of Allium tuncelianum extract on some important pathogens and total phenolic compounds in tomato and pepper


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Allium tuncelianum ethanol extract on nine important plant pathogens and the amount of total phenolic compounds in tomato and pepper. Three extract doses (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) were applied in the form of irrigation water against soil-borne pathogens while the spraying method was applied for the bacterial speck disease in tomato and disease severity was determined. According to the pot trial results, higher doses of extract reduced the disease severity of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Pythium deliense, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and the 1.5% dose reduced disease severity by 76.8%, 56.6%, 47.4%, 85.8%, and 53.1%, respectively. Total phenolic compounds were determined spectrophotometrically. The extract applications have increased the amount of phenolic compounds in a certain level compared to the control in tomato. However, it was also observed that this level was much higher when the different doses of extract and pathogen combinations were applied. Conclusively, ethanol extract of the garlic used in our study reduced the development of some important pathogens, and promising results were obtained.

2483-2490 Download
51

Removal of phenolic inhibitors from pretreated sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic recovery of fermentable sugars


Ali Nawaz, Ikram ul Haq and Hamid Mukhtar

Removal of phenolic inhibitors from pretreated sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic recovery of fermentable sugars


ABSTRACT:

Phenolic inhibitory compounds are produced during an essential pre-treatment process carried out for removal of lignin from biomass for making the cellulose and hemicelluloses accessible to cellulases. Phenolic compounds produced, acts as cellulase inhibitors, make the process of biomass conversion in to biofuels less efficient and economical. Keeping in mind this challenge, a strategy was designed to remove the phenolic compounds from pre-treated sugarcane bagasse to evaluate its effect on saccharification rate. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse sample having phenolic compounds, considered as control, showed 19±0.04% of saccharification and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) as 254.71±0.10 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent /gram of Dry Weight of biomass. Removal of phenolic compounds was carried out by treating with organic solvents (Isopropanaol, acetone and methanol) and Alkalis i.e. Sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. It was observed that overliming resulted in the better removal of phenolic compounds (Residual TPC = 154.06±0.02 mg GAE/g DW) as compared to Na(OH) and organic solvents  employing 30 min incubation time at 60°C. Overliming using Ca(OH)2 solution of pH 12, for 120mins at 75°C showed significant removal of phenolic compounds (119.43±0.09 mg GAE/g DW) and enhanced saccharification by almost 2.21 folds (42.06±0.07%). This removal of toxic phenolic componds will enhance the saccharification yield and substrate efficient recovery of fermentable saccahrides for economical and feasible biofuel production

2491-2494 Download
52

Isolation and identification of charcoal rot disease causing agent in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and their growth inhibition by Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2


Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Ramaraj Sathasivam, R. L. Rengarajan, Abeer Hashem and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

Isolation and identification of charcoal rot disease causing agent in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and their growth inhibition by Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2


ABSTRACT:

Seedling emergence and plant growth of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) are severely affected by charcoal rot disease. The aim of present study was to identify the disease causing agent of charcoal rot in sesame and prevent their growth by bacterial biocontrol agent. The infected stems of sesame plants were collected from the agricultural field and the disease causing agent, Macrophomina phaseolina NICS01 was identified in infected parts of plants by 18 rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The biocontrol agent was isolated from Kimchi, a fermented Korean food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2. The antagonism activity of B. methylotrophicus KE2 against M. phaseolina NICS01 was determined by In vitro study. The results of current study showed that the growth of M. phaseolina NICS01 was significantly inhibited by the effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 and suggested that the application of bacterium, B. methylotrophicus KE2 could be a biocontrol agent to prevent the damage of charcoal rot disease.

2495-2497 Download
53

Antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolics compound analysis of Abrus precatorius seed coat extract and its different fractions


Lubna Mobin, Syed Asad Saeed, Rashida Ali Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed and Rahil Ahmed

Antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolics compound analysis of Abrus precatorius seed coat extract and its different fractions


ABSTRACT:

Chromatographic (DAD-HPLC) analysis of purified fractions from Abrus precatorius seed coat extract has been performed; the predominant phenolic compounds found were delphinidin, epicatechin, syringic acid, caeffic & vanillic acid. The purification was done by solid phase extraction (SPE) through using C18 silica bonded sorbent; two main fractions (non-anthocyanin I & anthocyanin II) were elucidated from extract and three sub fractions (neutral Ia, neutral Ib, acidic Ic) were separated from non-anthocyanin fraction. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by an agar well diffusion method against three Gram-negative & two Gram-positive bacteria. Result showed that A. precatorius seed coat extract were active against a panel of bacteria. Moreover fractionation of seed coat extract increased the antibacterial effect. Among sub-fractions, fraction Ic was found more active against gram positive bacteria whereas gram negative bacteria was found more sensitive towards fraction Ia. Antioxidant screening was done by four different methods; diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy, reducing power, phenanthroline and lipoxygenase assay. Result showed that A. precatorius seed coat extract have excellent free radical scavenging activity and reduction potential.  The order of antioxidant activity of the fractions was equivalent to their sequence of total phenolic and flavonoid contents i.e. fraction I>fraction Ic >fraction Ib>fraction Ia (except fraction II). The antioxidant activities of crude extract were highly correlated with the total phenolic content (p<0.01). Current finding suggest that along with the total phenolic content, the structure of polyphenols direct its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. This study highlighted the medicinal importance of the seed coat of A. precatorius and its potent phenolic constituent. It suggested that the seed coat of A. precatorius could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antibacterial and antioxidant compounds. 

2499-2506 Download