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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2019 , Volume  51, Issue 1
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1

Effects of calcium on germination and seedling growth in Melilotus officinalis L. (Fabaceae) under salt stress


Da Wei Zhang, Thi Soan Vu, Jun Huang, Chun Yu Chi, Yi Xing, Dong Dong Fu and Ze Ning Yuan

Effects of calcium on germination and seedling growth in Melilotus officinalis L. (Fabaceae) under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Melilotus officinalis L. (Fabaceae) is an important forage plant that has high contents of both protein and digestible fiber. In the present study, the effects of calcium chloride (0, 10 and 20 mM Ca2+) on M. officinalis germination and seedling growth under various levels of NaCl stress (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Na+) were investigated. The percentage germination was 66.67 % at salt levels ≤ 150 mM. Moreover, salt tolerance was greater in the seedlings than at germination level. An optimal Ca2+ concentration of 10 mM protected M. officinalis against salt stress, particularly in terms of germination and recovery germination under high salt conditions. In addition, 10 mM Ca2+ significantly enhanced the water content of early seedlings, as well as having a beneficial visual effect. The relative growth rate, biomass, and water content of underground parts and resource allocation of aboveground parts also increased significantly with addition of 10mM Ca2+. Moreover, 10mM Ca2+ had a stronger effect on seedling growth than 20mM Ca2+, suggesting that excessive Ca2+ combined with high salt concentrations imposes additional stress. Overall, these findings suggest that an optimal Ca2+ concentration of 10 mM contributes to seedling establishment during germination and growth. Appropriate application of exogenous Ca2+ could therefore help to improve salt tolerance in forage plants such as M. officinalis and those growing in saline-alkaline soil, so long as the optimal calcium level is applied

1-9 Download
2

Evaluation of sugar beet breeding populations based morpho-physiological characters under salinity stress


Mehdi Taghizadegan, Mahmoud Toorchi, Mohammad Moghadam Vahed and Samar Khayamim

Evaluation of sugar beet breeding populations based morpho-physiological characters under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Soil salinity is an important factor limiting crop productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid countries like Iran. Therefore, improving salt-tolerant varieties of crops such as sugar beet that could grow and produce acceptable yield in this stress condition is one of the most important objectives of plant breeding in Sugar Beet Seed Instutue (SBSI) of Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the different sugar beet genotypes in terms of salinity tolerance based on physiological and morphological traits in greenhouse conditions and comparing its results with field experiments. In this study, quantity and quality characters of 12 sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) advanced breeding populations were investigated under stress(EC = 16 ds/m) ­and non-stress conditions in a factorial experiment in the greenhouse and split plot experiment in the field at the experimental station of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) in Mian-Doab, Iran. Several characteristics such as, root yield (RY), white sugar yield (WSY), sugar content (SC), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), petiole length (PL), root impurities (Na, K and N), relative water content (RWC), relative water loss (RWL), and proline content were determined. The analysis of variation showed significant differences among the breeding populations for most traits ­such as root and shoot fresh and dry weights, sugar yield, impurities, petiole length and proline. In general, salinity stress conditions increased proline, specific leaf weight, leaf sodium, root length and total dry weight in comparison with non-stress condition but other traits decreased in salinity stress condition in greenhouse. In meanwhile, salinity stress conditions increased sugar content and decreased other traits in the field as compared with the non-stress condition. Genotypes SC C2*S7, SC C2*S10 and SC C2*S11 were found to be superior to the other genotypes for root and white sugar yields and sugar content. Genotypes SC 261*S7 ­and 191 were had the least root yield in the stress condition.

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3

GLYCINEBETAINE APPLICATION ALLEVIATES SALINITY DAMAGE TO ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN ALFALFA 


YANHONG LOU, XIN SUN, YING CHAO, FEI HAN, MINGJIE SUN, TINGTING WANG HUI WANG, FUPENG SONG AND YUPING ZHUGE

GLYCINEBETAINE APPLICATION ALLEVIATES SALINITY DAMAGE TO ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN ALFALFA 


ABSTRACT:

We  investigated  whether  glycinebetaine  (GB)  application  could  alleviate  salinity-induced  damage  in  alfalfa  (Medicago sativa L.). A hydroponic culture experiment was employed, and thirty-day-old alfalfa seedlings were subjected to 0, 5, 10, and 20  mM  GB  and  exposed  to  a  1%  salt  regime,  with  a  nutrient  solution  as  the  control.  Marked  decrease  was  detected  in  the vertical  shoot  growth  rate  (VSGR),  vertical  root  growth  rate  (VRGR),  plant  biomass,  and  normalized  relative  transpiration (NRT)  due to the salinity stress, and significant increase was also detected in MDA, soluble protein content, and SOD, CAT, and POD activities. The application of GB increased VSGR, VRGR, SOD activity, and decreased the MDA, soluble protein content, and Na+/K+ ratio compared to the treatment without GB application. Alfalfa treated with 5 mM GB exhibited higher VSGR, VRGR, plant biomass, NRT, SOD, POD, and lower CAT activity when compared to other levels of GB application. Moreover, lower MDA and soluble protein contents were also observed in the 5 mM GB application treatment relative to the non-GB treatment. These results indicated that the GB-enhanced salinity tolerance in alfalfa was attributed to the elevation in SOD and POD activities, and the decrements in the MDA and soluble protein contents. It could be concluded that the 5 mM GB application was the proper concentration to ameliorate the damage of salt on alfalfa. 

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4

Role of PGPR in the reclamation and revegetation of saline land


Asad Ullah and Asghari Bano

Role of PGPR in the reclamation and revegetation of saline land


ABSTRACT:

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of PGPR inoculation on growth and yield of maize as well as on reclamation of saline sodic soil of Soil Salinity Research Institute Pindi Bhattian Pakistan, during 2015-16. Seed of maize genotype “Islamabad Gold” were soaked (2-3 h) prior to sowing in the broth culture of 4 bacterial strains i.e. Pseudomonas putida (accession no. KX580766), Pseudomonas fluorescens (accession no. KX644132), Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (accession no. KX580769), Bacillus pumilus (accession no. KX580768) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (accession no. KX580767). In vitro analysis of bacteria confirmed that they metabolize ACC deaminase, solubilize insoluble phosphate and produce significant quantity of auxin in the presence of L-tryptophan. Inoculation of maize with bacteria along with application of 1L inocula / treatment in the field gave a significant (P = 0.05) increase in germination (76%), leaf chlorophyll (24%), proline (65%), anthocyanin (38%) and soluble sugar content (56%). P. putida inoculation resulted in maximum increase in plant height, leaf area, no of grains cob-1 (459.8), 1000 grain weight (330.9 g) and grain yield (3.25 tha-1). P. fluorescens was least effective. The rhizosphere soil analysed after harvesting exhibited significant decrease in electrical conductivity (49%), sodium absorption ratio (98%), and cation exchange capacity (94%) concomitant with a significant increase in organic matter (52%), NO3-N (37%), available P (48%) and K (31%). The highest efficiency of P. putida may be attributed to the maximum ACC deaminase activity, higher production of indole acetic acid and greater potential for Phosphate solubilization. The favorable effects of PGPR were more pronounced in the successive year 2016.

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5

ACQUISITION OF DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA)  AS AFFECTED BY MATURITY STAGES, HARVESTED  ORGAN TYPE, AND DRYING METHOD 


ALI MORADI AND EZATOLLAH KARIMI ARPANAHI

ACQUISITION OF DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA)  AS AFFECTED BY MATURITY STAGES, HARVESTED  ORGAN TYPE, AND DRYING METHOD 


ABSTRACT:

A  field  experiment  was  carried  out  to  investigate  the  effects  of  harvesting  organ  type  and  drying  method  on  the acquisition  of  desiccation  tolerance  during  different  development  stages  of  faba  bean  (cv.  Shami)  seed.  The  plants  were harvested  in  three  pod  developmental  stages  including  Mid-Full  Sized  Seeds  (MS),  Full-Sized  Seed  (FS),  and  Greenish- Yellow  pod  (GY)  were  divided  into  three  organ  forms  (depodded,  podded  detached,  and  podded  attached  to  the  plants). Finally, they were dried using two methods including shade-drying and sun-drying. An extra harvesting was also done at yellowish-brown (YB) stage according to the conventional harvest of local farmers as a control. The results showed that as the seeds become more mature, from MS stage to GY stage, germination percentage (GP), natural seedling percentage (NS), content of soluble sugars (SS), and activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GR) enzymes was increased while the mean germination time (MGT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was decreased. From GY stage to YB stage, MGT and soluble protein (SP) were increased while other were traits decreased. In MS, FS, and GY stages, the highest and lowest GP, NS, SS, CAT, and GR enzymes activity were observed in the podded attached shade-dried seed and depodded sun-dried seed treatments,  respectively.  We  found that among all  treatments, MGT had an opposite behavior. Overall, the seeds showed desiccation  tolerant  behavior,  a  higher  amount  of  SS,  CAT,  and  GR,  and  lower  APX  activities  compared  to  those  of sensitive  seeds.  Therefore,  it  was  concluded  that  harvesting,  organ  type,  and  drying  method  play  important  roles  in  the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and promoting seed quality, especially in the early stages of maturity of faba bean seeds. 

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6

ASIAN CULTIVATED RICE DOMESTICATION SUPPRESSES THE EXPRESSION OF ABIOTIC STRESS- AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES  SCAVENGING-RELATED GENES IN ROOTS 


FAHAD NASIR, LEI TIAN, SHAOHUA SHI, ALI BAHADUR, ASFA BATOOL

ASIAN CULTIVATED RICE DOMESTICATION SUPPRESSES THE EXPRESSION OF ABIOTIC STRESS- AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES  SCAVENGING-RELATED GENES IN ROOTS 


ABSTRACT:

Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L), the important cereal crop, has low resistance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses compared to its ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Although genetic studies have shown that the susceptibility of cultivated rice towards various environmental stresses is due to its narrow genetic diversity caused by domestication, whereas wild rice possesses tremendous gene pools; yet very little is known about the domestication-induced transcriptional changes in abiotic stress-related genes and/or pathways in cultivated rice. Thus, to investigate these changes, we retrieved the root transcriptome data sets of cultivated and wild rice from the GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology information. Next, we performed MapMan-based  analysis  of  the  root  transcriptome  data  sets  of  cultivated  and  wild  rice.  Cellular  response  overview  from MapMan  analysis  showed  that  key  genes  related  to  abiotic  stress  categories;  heat  stress  and  drought/salt  stress  were significantly suppressed in cultivated rice relative to wild rice. In addition, the expression level of ascorbate- and dismutase- related transcripts, which also function in abiotic stress tolerance through involvement in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), were also down-regulated in cultivated rice compared with wild rice. In conclusion, transcriptomic-based survey of cultivated rice and wild rice reflects that domestication has significantly changed (reduced) the transcriptional level of abiotic stress and ROS-scavenging related transcripts in cultivated rice. These findings further explain the susceptibility of cultivated rice towards abiotic stresses. Thus, re-introduction of the identified desirable genes of wild rice through conventional breeding and genetic engineering may improve the abiotic stress resistance mechanisms of modern rice cultivars. 

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7

Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on expression of cold-regulated genes in winter wheat under lowtemperature stress


Lijie Liu, Dongxiang Zhang, Zhongmin Jin, Zhenzhu Zhang, Shanshan Li, Kun Zhu and Jing Cang

Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on expression of cold-regulated genes in winter wheat under lowtemperature stress


ABSTRACT:

This study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on expression of cold-regulated genes in winter wheats under low-temperature (LT). Vars. Dongnongdongmai 1 (DNDM1) and Jimai22 (JM22) were treated with ABA at 4°C for 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h, and at 4, 0, -10 and -25°C. RNA was extracted by Trizol and the expression levels of genes were assessed by Quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, the levels of ABA, MDA, SOD, soluble glucose and proline were also measured at each time points. After treating with ABA, no significant changed trends were identified in the gene expression levels at 4°C in both DNDM1 and JM22. However, significant increased variation trends were observed in the expression of MYB80, Wrabi5, and Wrab17 after treating with ABA at 4, 0 and -10°C in DNDM. The expression of CBF1VD-22D was also upregulated after treating with ABA before 0°C in DNDM1. But no significant changed trends were identified in the genes expression in JM22 both in the control and ABA treated groups at 4, 0 and -10°C. Wcs120 were significant increased at 4, 0 and -10°C, but no significant difference was identified between the control and ABA treated groups. SOD and soluble glucose were obviously accumulated after treating with ABA outdoor in DNDM1. ABA could promote the adaptation of DNDM under LT condition via increasing the expression of MYB80, Wrabi5, and Wrab17 and accumulations of SOD and soluble glucose.

 

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8

Mesorhizobium ciceri-CR-39 inoculation to wheat for drought tolerance at critical growth stages


Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Ijaz Mehboob, Sajid Mahmood, Niaz Ahmed, Tanveer Ul Haq, Iftikhar Ahmad and Muhammad Imran

Mesorhizobium ciceri-CR-39 inoculation to wheat for drought tolerance at critical growth stages


ABSTRACT:

Sandy soils are known for dry spells due to low rainfall in arid-semiarid climatic regions. A study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of moderately drought tolerant and characteristically plant growth promoting bacterial strain Mesorhizobium ciceri-CR-39 for improving growth, physiology, nutrition and yield of wheat (cultivar: Sahar) under drought at critical growth stages (tillering, flowering, and grain filling) in a sandy loam. Results demonstrated significant decreases due to drought at all critical growth stages. However, inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri-CR-39 significantly reduced the impact of drought at either growth stage of the crop. Grain filling stage drought showed highest decreases in growth, physiology, yield and nutrient concentrations. Inoculation significantly improved the parameters relating to plant photosystem, growth, biomass, yield and nutrient concentrations under normal conditions followed by the plants experiencing drought at tillering stage. Conclusively, Mesorhizobium ciceri-CR-39 significantly demonstrates its potential as a plant growth promoter for wheat under drought due to stress tolerance, more root colonization, nutrient solubilization, and auxin and exopolysaccharides production ability. However, field oriented studies are recommended for gauging its potential.

 

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9

Correlation and path analysis of morphological parameters contributing to yield in rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress


Muhammad Asim Bhutta, Sana Munir, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad, Kashif Aslam, Hamid Manzoor and Ghulam Shabir

Correlation and path analysis of morphological parameters contributing to yield in rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Current experiment is conducted to study correlation and path analysis among morphological traits and their contribution towards yield under normal and drought stress using twenty diverse rice genotypes at Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. Genotypes were significantly varied (p<0.01-0.05) in yield and yield related traits. In addition, growth (Plant height, r2 = 0.17**) and yield attributes such as panicle length (0.49**), grains/ panicle (0.69**), grain weight/ panicle (0.99**), tillers/ plant (0.14) and 1000-grain weight (0.11*) were positively correlated in all genotypes under normal or drought stress conditions. Among genotypes, highest plant height was observed in Basmati-140 (43.13cm) comparatively to lowest was found in Sufaida 20 (26.27cm) under drought condition. Plant height was significantly reduced under drought stress than control condition in Munji 78B-1 from 64.71cm to 35.30cm, respectively. Drought drastically affected the yield/plant in different genotypes. Under drought stress, Harandi-379, Munji-78B-1 and Basmati-242 performed well for yield/plant with values of 7.54g, 7.69g and 9.28g, respectively. Grain weight/panicle showed highest positive effect (0.914 and 0.788) on yield/ plant and followed by spikelet fertility (0.022 and 0.056) under both drought and normal conditions, respectively. Results suggest that grain weight/panicle, 1000 seed weight and plant height can be used as selection indices for drought resistance

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10

Drought affects aquaporins gene expression in important pulse legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)


Farrukh Azeem, Bilal Ahmed, Rana Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Habibullah Nadeem, Sabir Hussain, Sumaira Rasul, Hamid Manzoor, Usama Ahmad and Muhammad Afzal

Drought affects aquaporins gene expression in important pulse legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Aquaporins (AQPs) mediate cross membrane transport of water and other solutes in plants. AQPs also enhance plant performance under environmental stresses including water shortage. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the most important pulse legume for the people of semi-arid tropics. To understand the evolutionary relationships and role of AQPs in drought tolerance in chickpea, the current study involves an evolutionary analysis coupled with expression analysis and promoter analysis of selected AQPs. A total of 503 non-redundant AQP genes have been studied in 11 plant species including mosses (Physcomitrella patens), monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays) and dicots (Solanum lycopersicum, Populus trichocarpa, Gossypium hirsutum, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, Solanum tubrosum and Cicer arietinum). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a clear divergence of AQP subfamilies as paralogous groups and possible evolutionary direction of AQP subfamilies. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis depicted involvement of PIP2; 2 and NIP6; 3 in increasing plant drought stress tolerance and of SIP1; 1 and PIP2; 3 with a contrary role. In silico promoter analysis identified a 49 bp conserved motif among six AQPs and several abiotic stresses related cis-elements. The present study is a very first step in deciphering AQPs role in drought stress tolerance with a special perspective from evolutionary relationships and gene expression regulation.

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11

Ecophysiological responses of leaves and fine roots of Indocalamus barbatus Mcclure seedlings to heat and drought


Wei Cheng Li, Hai Yan Sheng, Xin Li Tian and Yu Fang Bi

Ecophysiological responses of leaves and fine roots of Indocalamus barbatus Mcclure seedlings to heat and drought


ABSTRACT:

This study investigated the impact of global warming and the resulting hot and arid climate on the growth and afforestation of Indocalamus barbatus McClure seedlings. Different naturally occurring conditions of heat and drought were simulated in order to observe the ecophysiological responses to them in 2a I. barbatus seedlings, such as leaf gas exchange, fine root and leaf water potential, and antioxidase activity. The results showed that the following. 1) 2a I. barbatus seedlings responded differently to different heat and drought conditions; elevated temperatures significantly increased the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but non-stomatal limitations caused a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and restricted diurnal fluctuations in photosynthesis under extreme heat conditions. 2) Under moderate drought and its compounded conditions with heat, stomatal limitations caused a decreased photosynthetic rate. 3) Under severe drought and its compounded conditions with heat, the physiological processes of seedlings were severely impacted, and this was further compounded by the effects of high temperature, resulting in significantly decreased rates of transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency. 4) In the control, high temperature, and extreme temperature groups, water potential decreased more dramatically in fine roots than in mature leaves. 5) The effects of heat and drought on three types of antioxidases in the fine roots and mature leaves were consistent; superoxide dismutase activity in fine roots was higher than in mature leaves, while the reverse was observed for catalase and peroxidase activity. Therefore, fine roots are a critical structure in the adaptation of I. barbatus seedlings to heat and drought, as water absorption organs are more sensitive than transpiration organs. This study showed that I. barbatus seedlings are relatively resistant to heat and drought, and are able to increase the ecophysiological adaptability of the leaves and fine roots within certain temperature and humidity ranges. In particular, under compounded conditions, heat and drought have a synergistic effect on growth performance in plants. Extreme drought, however, results in damage to gas exchange mechanisms in leaves, as well as an impaired water intake in leaves and fine roots. Therefore, I. barbatus is not suitable for long-term cultivation under extreme drought condition, as high temperatures will aggravate the aforementioned damage.

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12

Influence of air temperature and soil moisture on growth and chemical composition of geranium plants


El-Sharnouby, M.E, Azab, E, Alotaibi, S.S and Dalia Saleh

Influence of air temperature and soil moisture on growth and chemical composition of geranium plants


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out, to examine the effect of different air temperature (15 and 27 ± 3oC) with three levels of soil moisture (70%, 80%and 90% of field capacity) on production of Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L) plants. The obtained results showed that, plant growth i.e., plant height (cm), branches number, fresh and dry weight of shoots were decreased with geranium plants acclimatized under conditions of low air temperature and high soil moisture. Physiological characters like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents indicated the effect of 27oC temperature with soil moisture70% and increased in geranium plants than in those acclimatized under 15oC temperature and different % of soil moisture.

The extracted essential oils were analyzed using GC/MS. The major compounds in essential oils of geranium were geraniol (36%) and citronellol (18.%) at an air temperature 27 ± 3oC and levels of soil moisture (70%) compared with geraniol (17%) and citronellol (8%) at an air temperature 15 ± 3oC) at a soil moisture level of 70%.

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13

Assessing the effect of phytohormone on growth and germination of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) from cotyledonary node


Lubna Faraz, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui, Saddia Galani and Faisal Mehdi

Assessing the effect of phytohormone on growth and germination of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) from cotyledonary node


ABSTRACT:

Glycine max (L.) Merr. production is affected by a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to overcome these challenges, development of transgenic plants, production of high-quality varieties and secondary metabolites, preservation of rare plants, and protection of germplasms is of prime importance. In this regard, proper regeneration system for plants growth is needed to overcome the dormancy and low germination issues by using appropriate growth hormones. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of various phytohormones 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), 6-benzyladenine (BAP), Kinetin (KIN) and Indole-3-butryic acid (IBA) on Glycine max growth to investigate the influences of explants types. Results revealed that good callus is produced from cotyledonary node on 2, 4-D (4.0 mg L-1). The highest percentage of regenerated shoots (88%) was found on BAP+KIN (2.0+1.0 mg L-1) with maximum shoots number (3.00±0.09) and maximum length of shoot is (4.22±0.08) cm. The IBA (0.5 mg L-1) is excellent for root formation. Here, applied procedure used for further development of regeneration and transformation efficiency of Glycine max.

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14

Genetic differentiation in different endemic Boswellia sacra (Burseraceae) populations from Oman


Fazal Akbar, Abdul Latif Khan, Syed Abdullah Gilani, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Abdullah M. Al-Sadi and Zabta Khan Shinwari

Genetic differentiation in different endemic Boswellia sacra (Burseraceae) populations from Oman


ABSTRACT:

Boswellia sacra is an economically important species of family Burseraceae used for frankincense production, an aromatic bark resin that has been a product of local and global trade since prehistoric times in Oman. To help conservation efforts for Boswellia sacra populations from Oman, we evaluated 13 populations from diverse ecological locations based on RAPD and SDS-PAGE genetic markers. Genetic diversity based information and the pattern of genetic differentiation across the species habitats helps strategies to conserve wild genetic resources. This is the first in Oman on the genetic evaluation of Boswellia sacra populations based on total leaves protein and RAPD analysis. RAPD primers produced a total of 40 RAPD fragments, of which 34 (85%) were polymorphic. Each primer generated 7 to 9 bands with an average of 8 bands per primer. Total leaves protein revealed total 12 polypeptides bands of which 4 (33%) were polymorphic (ranging from 20 to 72 KDa). The levels of expected heterozygosity for RAPD and SDS-PAGE markers were 0.288 and 0.122 respectively. AMOVA analysis showed high level of molecular variance within populations (RAPD - 68% and SDS PAGE - 81%) and low level molecular variance among populations. Isolation by distance model revealed no significant correlation between genetic distances and geographic distances. UPGMA-cluster analysis grouped majority of the populations in the same cluster but some showed high genetic and geographic distances from central and western regions (Thumriat, Dowkha and Mughsil). The results conclude that at present high level of genetic diversity is still preserved in B. sacra populations in Dhofar regions

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15

Growth, sex expression and nutrient composition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as influenced by maleic hydrazide


Md. Dulal Sarkar, M. Moniruzzaman, Md. Saiful Alam, Md. Jahedur Rahman, Md. Quamruzzaman, Rojobi Nahar Rojoni and Sreeramanan Subramanıam

Growth, sex expression and nutrient composition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as influenced by maleic hydrazide


ABSTRACT:

The present experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of maleic hydrazide (MH) with the concentration of (i) Control: 0 ppm (MH0); (ii) 150 ppm (MH150), (iii) 250 ppm (MH250) and (iv) 350 ppm (MH350) at the three stages of (i) Seed soaking (SS), (ii) Vegetative (VS) and (iii) Flowering (FS) on physiological growth, sex expression and nutrient composition of cucumber (cucumis sativus). Sex modification and fruit setting was enhanced by MH. Number of leaves, leaf area and fruit yield were also remarkably increased except plant height after MH application at different stages. MH increased the dry biomass of fruit resulted from higher chlorophyll content in leaves transferred photosynthates to the fruit. Chlorophyll content and mineral nutrient concentration in fruits did not affect significantly by MH. As the effect on sex modification and yield attributes, MH @ 150 ppm at vegetative stage would be a good choice

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16

Construction of expression vectors of the melon resistance gene Fom-2 and genetic transformation


Xiaomei Li, Liu Liu, Xiangyu Liu, Yan Hou, Bingyin Xu, Feishi Luan and Xuezheng Wang

Construction of expression vectors of the melon resistance gene Fom-2 and genetic transformation


ABSTRACT:

In this study, we constructed positive and negative expression vectors using the Melon Wilt Resistance Related Gene Fom-2 and transformed the vectors into melon via the pollen tube pathway. In the field, 52 Kan-resistant M4-45 plants and 84 Kan-resistant MR-1 plants were transformed with the Antisense Vector, and the conversion rates were 3.28% and 4.26%, respectively. The PCR results showed that antisense vectors were integrated into the genome of Cucumis melo. The results of a special inoculation test of Fusarium oxysporum melonis showed that the incidence of Fusarium wilt in transgenic plants was 84% and that in non-transgenic plants was 96%. The contents of chitinase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase increased with the bacterial treatment time in transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants, and the activities of these three enzymes in transgenic plants were higher than those in non-transgenic plants.

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17

Profiling of 21 novel microRNA clusters and their targets in an important grain: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Habibullah Khan Achakzai, Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai, Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai, Muhammad Asghar and Mohammad Din

Profiling of 21 novel microRNA clusters and their targets in an important grain: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-protein coding RNAs made up of 18 to 26 nucleotides and produced in a cell endogenously. Most of them are conserved in nature evolutionally and thus providing a logical basis for the prediction of novel miRNAs and their clusters in many plants. In this research, structural and functional approaches have been combined to make prediction of novel miRNA clusters and their targets in wheat. The total numbers of detected novel miRNA clusters were 21 related to 19 miRNA families in wheat. These families were found as: 160, 396, 399, 414, 530, 2118, 2275, 5049, 5065, 5066, 5067, 5174, 5522, 5568, 6198, 6221, 7742, 7757 and 7778. Various attributes related to these miRNA clusters such as secondary structures, phylogenetic tree and web logo were generated and the minimum free energy (MFE) of the stem-loop structures was also achieved and reported. The mature miRNAs were found in the stem region of the hair-pin structures and, in this regard, 93 targets of the miRNAs were identified as well. The identified targets were various proteins including hypothetical, transporter, metabolism, transcription factor, cell signalling and stress related.

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18

Rht13 dwarfing gene delays foliar senescence in wheat induced by nitrogen deficiency


Ningning Zhang, Jiakun Yan and Suiqi Zhang

Rht13 dwarfing gene delays foliar senescence in wheat induced by nitrogen deficiency


ABSTRACT:

Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient for maintaining plant growth, development and reproduction. Nitrogen deficiency is one of the most serious abiotic stresses affecting grain yiled production around the world. We studied the effect of the Rht13 dwarfing gene on the physiological response of hydroponically grown wheat to nitrogen deficiency. The Rht13 wheat was able to maintain a higher photosynthetic rate than the wild-type rht genotype under conditions of low nitrogen. Foliar senescence was slower for the Rht13 than the rht wheat, so the Rht13 leaves contained more nitrogen and chlorophyll and had a higher actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic rate. These advantages directly led to more accumulation of whole-plant biomass in the Rht13 than the rht wheat under conditions of low nitrogen. The Rht13 gene can thus be potentially used for breeding wheat for cultivation in infertile soil.

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19

Exogenous application of indole acetic acid (IAA) and giberrelic acid (GA3) induces changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolisms that affect tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) production


Cheng Qin, Bensheng Li, Wei Wu, Yunyun Su, Gaili Niu, Fucai Chen, Chenxi Zhang, Chengcai Wei, Shuai Yuan and Lixin Zhang

Exogenous application of indole acetic acid (IAA) and giberrelic acid (GA3) induces changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolisms that affect tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) production


ABSTRACT:

Experiments, both pot and field trial, were conducted to examine the effects of exogenously applied IAA and GA3 (at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after topping) individually or in combination, on growth and C and N metabolisms of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Application of IAA or GA3, at low concentrations had a promising effect in terms of promoting the yield and quality of tobacco. The key enzymes’ activities were also enhanced by low PGRs concentrations, which is known to be involved in the C and N metabolisms. The combined treatment of the two PGRs was more effective than the PGRs applied individually in improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), invertase (INV) and amylase (AMY) finally resulting in improved soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, total C and N, soluble proteins and nicotine content. The optimum levels for improvement of C and N metabolites were found to be GA3 at 50 mg/L and IAA at 30 mg/L.

 

149-155 Download
20

Phylogenetic analysis of Rosa damascena L. from Taif using DNA barcoding approach


Shawkat M. Ahmed

Phylogenetic analysis of Rosa damascena L. from Taif using DNA barcoding approach


ABSTRACT:

Little is known about the genome structure and the genetic origin of Rosa damascene L., widely distributed in Taif, Saudi Arabia for beauty and perfume production. For that, four specific barcodes; ITS2, matK, rbcL and t-rnH were employed to genetically identify three Rosa species; R. damascena, R. hybrida and R. damascenaTrigintipetala cultivated in Taif leading to the discrimination among them from one hand, and reviewing the previous suggestions of R. damascena origin from the other hand. rbcL, t-rnH and matKrevealed more effectiveness in sequence quality and species discrimination capability than ITS2 across the genome of Rosa depending on estimations of transition/transversion bias (R), Tajima relative evolutionary rate tests and the phylogenetic relationships using the Maximum Likelihood Tree method. R. damascena lineage exhibited accelerated evolutionary rates. The phylogenetic analyses proved the heterogeneous origin of Rosa cultivars from Taif doubting the validity of the previous suggestions about the genetic origin of R. damascena.

157-164 Download
21

Chemical and phytochemicals content of barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) fruit genotypes from Sivasli district of Usak province of Western Turkey


Volkan Okatan and Aysen Melda Colak

Chemical and phytochemicals content of barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) fruit genotypes from Sivasli district of Usak province of Western Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Turkey is one of the most outstanding places with the highest potential to grow barberry crop. The barberry possesses nutritional and health supplements and that can be grown naturally in almost all regions of Turkey. The goal of this paper was to determine chemical and phytochemical contents of barberry genotypes collected fromSivaslı district of Uşak province of Western Turkey. We identified 16 different barberry genotypes from the studied sites which were subjected to phytochemical analysis. We analyzed barberry juices in terms of chemical (fruit skin color, soluble solid content, acidity and pH) and phytochemical (antioxidant activity, phenol, flavonoids and ascorbic acids) values. The results indicated that total flavonoids contents were ranged from 261.66 to 965.97 mg CAT/100 g FW and the highest ascorbic acid values were found as 444.35 with the lowest ones as 120.36 mg/100 g. The antioxidant activity between genotypes was varied from 126.27 to 34.20% and total phenol contents were from 1198.53 to 2616.78 mg GAE/100 g FW. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) for all measurements between genotypes handled in this study and that a major correlation occurs between total antioxidant activity and total flavonoids, SSC, pH, L (brightness).

165-170 Download
22

Mineral, vitamin and phenolic contents and sugar profiles of some prominent date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) varieties of Pakistan


Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi, Ilker Ugulu, Mian Nadeem Riaz, Qurat Ul Ain, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Asma Ashfaq, Humayun Bashir and Yunus Dogan

Mineral, vitamin and phenolic contents and sugar profiles of some prominent date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) varieties of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In this study, fruits of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties were analyzed to assess their nutritional characteristics. Mineral profile analysis of twenty-one date varieties grown in Pakistan was performed. The results of mineral profile analysis proved that dates were a good source of minerals like potassium, calcium, iron and magnesium, but were deficient in sodium content and hence are very suitable fruit for hypertensive people. Sugar profile analysis showed that the maximum glucose content was recorded in Zaidy (44.44%) and fructose content in Karblain (33.21%) and the maximum sucrose percentage was found in Hillavi (6.99%). Vitamin (B1, B2, and B3) analyses revealed that vitamin B1 was not present in detectable amount in the date varieties. The highest concentration of vitamin B2 was detected in Khopra (0.031 mg per 100g), while the highest concentration of vitamin B3 was verified in Zaidy (2.73 mg per 100g). The range of the total phenolic contents ranged from 142.52±0.64 to 298.02±0.95 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g on fresh fruit weight basis. All date varieties proved to be a good source of phenolic compounds, therefore, they possess high antioxidant capacity. It was concluded that Dhakki, Hillavi and Aseel Sindh varieties might suit well for diet because of their good nutritional properties.

171-178 Download
23

Effect of auto-exhaust pollution on some physiological parameters of roadside Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare


Shaimaa Abd El-Hameed Abo-Hamad

Effect of auto-exhaust pollution on some physiological parameters of roadside Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare


ABSTRACT:

Air pollution is a worldwide problem which increases day by day by different human activities. The enormous increase in vehicle numbers running on roads is one of the most important causes of air pollution. This study was performed to determine the impact of road side auto-exhaust pollution on the growth of two economically important crops in Egypt (Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare). It was found that yield parameters, carbohydrate, soluble protein of plant seeds grown on road side were significantly decreased compared with plants away from road side by distance of at least 1 meter. Lead concentration was higher in plant seeds grown on road side and this was reflected on the ionic concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Total amino acids content of seeds was highly increased in response to air pollution, so the amino acids profile can be taken as a bioindicator of auto-exhaust air pollution.

179-184 Download
24

The impact of cattle manure on the content of major minerals and nitrogen uptake from 15n isotope-labeled ammonium sulphate fertilizer in maize (Zea mays L.) plants


Nabeel Bani Hani, Ezz Al-Dein Al-Ramamneh, Moawiya Haddad, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha and Yahya Al-Satari

The impact of cattle manure on the content of major minerals and nitrogen uptake from 15n isotope-labeled ammonium sulphate fertilizer in maize (Zea mays L.) plants


ABSTRACT:

Jordan Valley is considered as one of the main intensified irrigated agricultural areas in Jordan with high use of fertilizers especially of nitrogen source which lead to increased ground water pollution with nitrate. A field trial was conducted at the National Agricultural Research Center in Jordan Valley, North West Amman. Six soil treatments with organic cattle manure at the following rates were applied in summer 2014 and 2015: 0 (control), 8, 12, 16 and 20 tons ha−1. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design using four replicates. Nitrogen fertilizer from ammonium sulphate, as source of nitrogen, labeled with 1% 15N isotope was added at a rate of 75 kg ha−1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rates of organic cattle manure on nitrogen uptake from ammonium sulphate fertilizer by grains of maize (Zea mays L.) plants using 15N isotope-tracer technology. It was found that nitrogen use efficiency was decreased as the amount of applied cattle manure increased owing to the high competition of organic versus mineral nitrogen. Whereas cattle manure positively affected the uptake of Zn, Fe and Cu by maize grains, causing increased mineral uptake instances, the uptake of K, P and Ca was not or slightly affected by cattle manure at various levels. The results of the present study could be beneficial for the development of an efficient fertilization schedule that would satisfy maize plant requirement of major elements, in particular N without its accumulation in the soil and the subsequent hazards to environment.

185-189 Download
25

Phylogeographic study of Musella lasiocarpa (Musaceae): providing insight into the historical river capture events


Hong Ma, De-Xin Wang, Tai-Qiang Li and Zheng-Hong Li

Phylogeographic study of Musella lasiocarpa (Musaceae): providing insight into the historical river capture events


ABSTRACT:

In the late Pliocene, the Qinghai-Tibet plateau experienced several rapid uplifts. The resulting Hengduan Mountains have since played an important role in the plant distribution pattern in China. Here, a phylogeographic study on wild populations of Musella lasiocarpa (Musaceae), which is endemic to southwest China, is reported. We have discovered 9 wild populations of M. lasiocarpa throughout its natural distribution in cliff habitats in southwest China since 2004. In order to reveal the factors causing the current distribution pattern of wild M. lasiocarpa populations and its spread pathways, phylogenetic analysis by sequencing 3 chloroplast DNA fragments (psbA-trnH, trnL-F and rpl16) were performed. Based on the results, we deduced that the origin of wild M. lasiocarpa populations was in the region of the Lijiang aera of the Jinsha River, which was close to Yanbian, Panzhihua. The differentiation was probably caused by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Hengduan Mountain orogeny, and the westward retreat of the ancient Mediterranean Sea. The main factors that contributed to the fragmentation of wild M. lasiocarpa population habitat include diversion of the ancient Red River and stream capture of its tributaries.

191-199 Download
26

In-vitro antifungal, antibacterial, phytotoxic, brine shrimp, insecticidal activities and composition of essential oil of Tagetes minuta from Dir-Kohistan, Pakistan


Abdul Khaliq Jan, Ali Hazrat, Shujaat Ahmad, Tour Jan and Gul Jan

In-vitro antifungal, antibacterial, phytotoxic, brine shrimp, insecticidal activities and composition of essential oil of Tagetes minuta from Dir-Kohistan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The essential oil of the flowering shoot of Tagetes minuta L., collected from Dir Kohistan of Pakistan, was investigated for biological activities and chemical composition. The GC and GC/MS analysis data showed that among twenty two compounds, verbenone (25%), Unknown(11.6%),4-(5-methyl-2-furanyl)-2-butanone (8.8%) and D-limonene (8.4%) were the major constituents. The biological activity results showed that out of six bacteria stains, the oil possessed inhibitory activities against S. flexenari and S. aureus with a zone of inhibition 22mm and 20mm respectively. Among five fungal strains, only Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were susceptible to oil, with 60% and 30% inhibition respectively. In insecticidal tests, the oil was noted for its effectiveness toward Sitophilus oryzae, with 50% mortality. Although the oil showed no cytotoxicity against Artemia Salina, while moderate phytotoxic activity was observed for Lemna minor

201-204 Download
27

Spatial patterns and diversity of the alpine flora of Deosai Plateau, Western Himalayas


Hamayun Shaheen, Muhammad Ibrahim and Zahid Ullah

Spatial patterns and diversity of the alpine flora of Deosai Plateau, Western Himalayas


ABSTRACT:

The Western Himalayan alpines are among the most diverse ecological locations having diverse vegetation and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The complex and dynamic Deosai Plateau is the World’s 2nd highest plateau with an average elevation of 4500m. Current study was designed to investigate floristic diversity, phytosociological attributes, endemism and conservation status of flora of Deosai National Park, North Pakistan. Vegetation sampling was carried out by using random sampling through quadrat method at selected sites. A total of 8 plant communities were recorded from the area. The Floristic composition of present study consisted of 132 species belonging to 101 Genera and 41 families. Hemicryptophytes were recorded as the dominant life form followed by geophytes and Therophytes whereas Leptophylls and Nanophylls were dominant leaf spectra. The average value of Shannon diversity was calculated as 1.383 whereas Simpson diversity was 0.447. The calculated values of Evenness and richness were 0.882 and 1.185 respectively whereas the average maturity index was 30.27. A total of 63 plants species were found to be threatened having very low (<1%) importance values with 4 species recorded as critically endangered and endangered. Phytogeographic investigations revealed that 41 plant species (33%) were endemic to the Whole Himalayas, 18 species (14%) Endemic to Western Himalayas, 27 plants (22%) as tropical Asian and 34 plant species (27%) recorded as cosmopolitan. Principal component analyses (PCA) revealed Moisture and altitude as the key factors governing the species composition and community structure in the study area. Grazing pressure was observed as a major threat to the palatable species. It is recommended to extensively explore the population dynamics of endemic species as well as the spread of invasive species in DNP with the focus to conserve the precious threatened flora.

205-212 Download
28

Comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of Saussurea amara (L.) DC. and S. salsa Pall. Spreng


AIDOSOVA S.S., AKHTAEVA N.Z., TULEUOVA G.K.H., AHMETOVA A.B., TAZHIBAY А.М., SHAUSHEKOV Z.K., SHURUPOVA M.N. AND ADEKENOV S.M.

Comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of Saussurea amara (L.) DC. and S. salsa Pall. Spreng


ABSTRACT:

In this paper, the authors conducted research of the comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of two species of Saussurea, which grow in the steppes of Central Kazakhstan - S. amara L. (S. bitter) and S. salsa Pall. Spreng. (S. solonchak). Researchers revealed a number of clear distinctive morphological and anatomical signs of the over ground organs of S. amara and S. salsa, which make it possible to distinguish these species both as at the stage of collection of plants and also in the process of laboratory examination of the raw materials. The distinctive features of the anatomical stems of S. amara and S. salsa are the degree of furrows, strongly marked sclerenchyma of the conducting beams, and the size of parenchymatous cells of the primary cortex and the core. S. amara compared with S. salsa is characterized by more furrowed stems, less sclerenchyma in the conducting vascular bundles and smaller parenchymatous cells.

213-219 Download
29

Agronomic characteristics of common kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria Ssp. Vitellina (Velen.) Kuzm. in artificial grasslands in the central northern Bulgaria


Mohammad Athar, Galina Naydenova, Tsvetoslav Mihovsky, Anna Ilieva and Viliana Vasileva

Agronomic characteristics of common kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria Ssp. Vitellina (Velen.) Kuzm. in artificial grasslands in the central northern Bulgaria


ABSTRACT:

Biological and morphological features, productivity and qualitative composition of feed of common kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. vitellina (Velen.) Kuzm., sown as monoculture in the conditions of Central Northern Bulgaria were determined.  It was found that common kidney vetch manifests as high-yielded and fast-growing forage legume crops in this environment. The species was highly productive in spring, but the regrowth was slow and weak, therefore it was suitable for creating grassland with combined field of use. According to the results of biochemical analysis, feed quality of dry biomass of the culture can be described as very good. The average crude protein content was relatively low (12.63%), but it was balanced in terms of established fiber content (27.28%). The feed mass of that species was rich in soluble sugars (3.90%) and contains condensed tannins in low concentration (1.17%), suggesting high levels of voluntary consumption of animals. The high content of Ca is a cause of high critical ratios of Ca: P and Ca: Mg, as well.

221-223 Download
30

Ex-Situ conservation of Haplophyllum Gilesii: a critically endangered and narrow endemic species of the Karakoram range


Robina Kausar, Azhar Hussain Shah, Tabinda Jabeen, Jan Alam, Niaz Ali, Abdul Majid and Uzma Khan

Ex-Situ conservation of Haplophyllum Gilesii: a critically endangered and narrow endemic species of the Karakoram range


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to develop effective In vitro methods by means of callus and axillary buds for ex-situ conservation and rapid micro-propagation of a critically endangered, narrow endemic species Haplophyllum gilesii (Hemsel) C.C. Townsend, present in Pakistan confined to Gilgit Baltistan region. Media used was MS basal with various combinations of growth regulators (kinetin, GA3, BAP, IBA and NAA) for shoot multiplication, callus induction, regeneration and root induction. Supplementation of 2.5mgL-1 BAP for 35 days of culture subsequently resulted in maximum number (6.8) of shoots. Healthy roots were induced effectively with addition of GA3 (1.5mgL-1) and (0.4mgL-1) kinetin in half strength MS media. 2.5mgL-1 NAA, 0.25mgL-1 kinetin and 2.5mgL-1BAP exhibited effective initiation and proliferation of callus while best regeneration was obtained at the medium having 1mgL-1 IBA. Acclimatized plantlets exhibited 100% survival rate for one week, after one month 60%, while survival rate after 5 months in pots was 45%. The protocol developed here can be used effectively for in-situ and ex-situ conservation as well as mass multiplication for production of H. gilesii plantlets and callus to assess its advantages without disturbing wild populations of this plant. There is still need to investigate secondary metabolic and molecular composition of this plant

225-233 Download
31

The genus Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae) in Lao PDR part 1: two new species from central Lao PDR


Bounleuane Douangdeuane, Boonmee Phokham, Pornpimon Wongsuwan and Chayan Picheansoonthon

The genus Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae) in Lao PDR part 1: two new species from central Lao PDR


ABSTRACT:

Two new taxa, Caulokaempferia phokhamii Picheans. & Douangde. and C. wongsuwaniae Picheans. & Douangde., from central Lao PDR are described. With C. bracteata K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen and C. bolavenensis Picheans. & Koonterm, a total of four species are currently recognized for Lao PDR. Both new species possess yellow flowers and characteristic labellum with distal median lobe. The hairy pseudostem with reddish–green stripes, hairy ligule, lanceolate leaf blade with reddish brown margin, and the hairy peduncle and bract are characteristic of C. phokhamii. The overall tiny habit, glandular lower leaf surface, and 1(–2) bract(s) subtended (1–)2–3 flowers are unique for C. wongsuwaniae. Full descriptions, together with line–drawings with water–color and photographic illustrations, of the new species are given.

 

235-240 Download
32

Anatomical study of seed and fruit morphology of an invasive weed buffalobur (Solanum Rostratum Dunal)


Long Yang, Hongjuan Huang, Muhammad Saeed, Zhaofeng Huang, Cuilan Jiang, Chaoxian Zhang, Muhammad Ishfaq Khan, Imtiaz Khan and Shouhui Wei

Anatomical study of seed and fruit morphology of an invasive weed buffalobur (Solanum Rostratum Dunal)


ABSTRACT:

Solanum rostratum Dunal, commonly known as buffalobur, is an invasive species in China. It caused significant damage to natural ecosystem, agricultural production and human health in many countries. Seed and fruit morphology of S. rostratum were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and stereomicroscope. The seed surface of S. rostratum was characterized by palisading hair-like structures which surrounded each depressed cellular reticula. Two types of ultrastructure were firstly observed on the surface of reticula, differing in arrangements of fingerlike projections and the number of tilted holes. A visible cavity was found between endosperm and micropyle region. Knowledge obtained in this study would provide useful information in identification of Solanum species in plant quarantine and understanding its wide adaption to the environments.

241-246 Download
33

Morphological and anatomical characters features of three medicinal Scandix species (Apiaceae) from Turkey


Azize Demirpolat, Gulden Dogan and Eyup Bagci

Morphological and anatomical characters features of three medicinal Scandix species (Apiaceae) from Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Genus Scandix is represented by 9 taxa in Turkey. They are the medicinal and aromatic plants because of their utility for various medicinal purposes. In this study, morphological, morphometrical and anatomical features of the some Scandix species (Scandix stellata, Scandix iberica and Scandix aucheri) from Turkey were investigated to compare and determine the taxonomic importance of these characters in the genus. The description, synonyms, Turkish names, flowering times, habitat characteristics of each taxon were presented. Anatomical investigations, including cross sections taken from stems, root and fruit of each species, were examined using light microscope. For the first time, anatomical as well as morphological studies of S. stellata and S. aucheri were conducted. The anatomical features of stem, root and fruit structures of these species were quite similar.

247-254 Download
34

New records of Russula species from Pakistan


Abdul Razaq, Abdul Qayoom Rajput and Saleem Shahzad

New records of Russula species from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Species of Russula is characterized by a very variable colored cap that is first convex then flattened and slightly depressed and eventually cracks into small fragments. Stem is usually fairly stout; gills narrow and adnexed; Spores broadly ellipsoid, sub-spherical to spherical and spiny. The present report describes new records of fourspecies of Russula viz., R. cyanoxantha, R. grata, R. nitidaand R. olivacea from Gilgit-Baltistan. Of these, R. olivacea, R. grata and R. nitidaare reported for the first time from Pakistan

255-258 Download
35

Nutritional composition of wild-non-traditional vegetables of Sindh, under different postharvest processing methods


Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Benish Nawaz Mirani, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani, Aasia Akbar Panhwar and Mehrunisa Memon

Nutritional composition of wild-non-traditional vegetables of Sindh, under different postharvest processing methods


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional quality of nontraditional (i.e. amaranthus, horse radish tree flowers, lambs quarter and gram leaves) and traditional (Spinach) vegetables in district Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. The moisture content (92.66%) was highest in boiled spinach, followed by fresh samples (88.76%) of the same vegetable. The fat and ash content was highest (2.85 and 16.14 %) in thermally dehydrated amaranthus and similarly the carbohydrate content (69.06%) was higher in lambs quarter. The fiber content was higher (13.35%) in shade dried samples of horse radish tree flowers. The interactive effect of processing methods and vegetables revealed the highest mineral content in almost all the vegetables under thermal dehydration treatment over other treatments. There were also significant amounts of vitamins present in selected nontraditional vegetables. The fresh samples of spinach had the highest amount of β-carotene. Among water soluble vitamins, gram leaves had the highest amount of vitamin C and B1 and lambs quarter contained greater amount of Vitamin B2 and B3 in fresh samples. The present study, thus revealed that the nontraditional vegetables are rich source of nutrients and have great potential in providing balanced diet for rural dwellers as well as urban communities in Sindh, Pakistan

259-267 Download
36

Evaluation of dominant allelopathic weed through examining the allelopathic effects of four weeds on germination and seedling growth of six crops


Ghulam Mustafa, Abid Ali, Samraiz Ali, Lorenzo Barbanti and Mansoor Ahmad

Evaluation of dominant allelopathic weed through examining the allelopathic effects of four weeds on germination and seedling growth of six crops


ABSTRACT:

Leaf aqueous extracts were used to examine the allelopathic effects of Melilotus indica, Medicago polymorpha, Elusine indica and Fumaria indica at four concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40% W/V) on germination percentage, radicle and hypocotyl growth of six crops, namely Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa, Trifolium spp., Raphanus sativus and Trigonella foenum-graecum. All weed extracts showed pronounced inhibitory effect on germination and seedling growth of tested crops, however inhibition was not consistent over studied parameters. Weeds exerted different allelopathic effects on test crops. Fumaria indica exhibited a significant negative effect on germination of all tested species at 20, 30 and 40% aqueous extracts, followed by Elusine indica and Medicago polymorpha, and Melilotus indica at 10% concentration level. Melilotus indica halted the hypocotyl growth of tested crops at 10 and 20% aqueous extracts, followed by F. indica at 30 and 40% dosage. Radicle growth of all recipient species was also stunted under the aqueous extract of M. indica at 20, 30 and 40%, followed by Medicago polymorpha except 10% concentration. Elusine indica showed negative effects on hypocotyl growth at higher concentrations as compared to Medicago polymorpha, whereas radicle growth was not affected under different aqueous extracts of E. indica. Leaf debris method was used in greenhouse to further authenticate the allelopathic effects of dominant allelopathic weed viz., Melilotus indica at four concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 75 g per 300 g of soil) on germination percentage, shoot and root length of four crops, namely Medicago sativa, Trifolium spp., Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum. Powdered leaf debris of M. indica mixed with clay loam soil appeared to have strong allelopathic inhibition under higher concentrations on germination and shoot growth of Medicago sativa and Trifolium spp. as compared to Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum, whereas inhibitory effects were more pronounced on Trifolium spp. and Triticum aestivum, in terms of their root length. Hence, M. indica proved a strong allelopathic weed that should be removed from field to avoid harmful effects during early growth stages of tested crops. Moreover, it is recommended that all these species be phytochemically examined for their allelopathic potential and possible development of environmental safe bio-herbicides to control weeds.

269-278 Download
37

Allelopathic potential of Carica papaya against selected weeds of wheat crop


Tauseef Anwar, Noshin Ilyas, Rahmatullah Qureshi and Muhammad Azeem Malik

Allelopathic potential of Carica papaya against selected weeds of wheat crop


ABSTRACT:

The present study was aimed at screening allelopathic potential of papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaf solvent extracts and by using sandwich method (dried powder) against some major weeds of wheat viz. Phalaris minor, Avena fatua, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia helioscopia and Rumex dentatus on filter paper and soil. Amongst them, methanolic extracts showed highest seed germination inhibition of E. helioscopia (50%), followed by P. minor (45%) and A. fatua (41%). Similarly, radical length of R. dentatus was inhibited by 50%, followed by 49% in P. minor, while the plumule length of C. album and P. minor was inhibited by 49% and 48%, respectively. Sandwich bioassay also exhibited inhibitory effects on soil medium having germination inhibition of 57% for E. helioscopia, followed by 49% for P. minor and 39% for A. fatua. The radical length was inhibited best for R. dentatus and P. minor with 41% and 35%, respectively. On the other hand, plumule length was inhibited by 45% in C. album and 33% in P. minor. Based on the results, it is concluded that C. papaya showed good allelopathic activity that can be used in herbicide screening program for weed control.

279-287 Download
38

A novel native bio-control agent Trichoderma Brevicompactum promotes growth and resistance to the powdery mildew in Impatiens Balsamina


Abdul Majeed Baloch, Tongtong Zhai, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Zhihua Liu, Xingtang Yang, Chuanying Jiang, Zhaoying Liu, and Rongshu Zhang

A novel native bio-control agent Trichoderma Brevicompactum promotes growth and resistance to the powdery mildew in Impatiens Balsamina


ABSTRACT:

Ornamental plants are very important to control environmental pollution and ultimately contribute in beautification of urban areas. Native Trichoderma brevicompactum Tb-50 isolated from rhizosphere soil of ornamental plant, Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler was identified via combination of morphological and molecular methods based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer region gene sequences. The antagonist action of Tb-50 against five soil-borne plant pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria alternate and Cytospora chrysosperma, was respectively investigated on dual culture in petri dishes. Moreover, the present study focuses to promote flower production, improvement of vegetative parts, diseases resistance and early blossoming flowers of Impatiens balsamina by the applications of Tb-50. The presented results showed positive effects on leaves, stem height, seeds setting and plant height when compared with control group (CK). Besides, it is also found that the applications of Tb-50 controlled powdery mildew on I. balsamina.

289-295 Download
39

Management of Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi wilt in tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) with dried powder of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal


Raja Asad Ali Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Musharaf Ahmad, Asad Ali, Ishrat Naz and Muhammad Fahim

Management of Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi wilt in tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) with dried powder of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal


ABSTRACT:

The potential of dried powders of leaves, stems and succulent shoots of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal (applied at different rates and at different application timings), was investigated for the control of bacterial wilt (BW) of tomato. In In vitro studies, 15% (w/v) dried powder of leaves produced the maximum (23 mm) zone of inhibition (ZI) followed by the same concentration of dried powder of succulent shoots (i.e., tender shoots plus leaves). The lowest (15 mm) ZI was produced by 5% (w/v) dose of dried powder of stems. The in-planta dose of 30g kg-1 potted soil (succulent shoot powder) applied 20 days before transplanting (20 DBT) was found to be the best treatment combination. It reduced area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), lowered cfu g-1 dry soil, and enhanced plant growth parameters more than the other treatments. The same treatment combination of 30g kg-1 potted soil but applied 10 DBT was the second best combination in terms of disease control or yield-contributing plant growth parameters. The poorest plant growth characters were observed in the treatment combination of 15g/kg soil applied 0 DBT. The AUDPC, and cfu g-1 dry soil were decreased significantly by the treatment combination of 45g (succulent shoot powder) kg-1 soil applied 20 DBT. The plant growth parameters of this treatment combination, however, were lower than those of 30g kg-1 soil applied 20 DBT. This suggested that this dose was probably phytotoxic to tomato plants. As compared to the dried powders of other plant parts, leaf-powder (30g kg-1 soil) enhanced plant growth characters the most, followed by succulent shoot powder. Although the higher dose of 45 g kg-1 soil of leaf powder, like that of succulent shoot powder, declined AUDPC  and decreased the cfu g-1 dry soil, it failed to enhance plant growth characters as much as those by other treatments suggesting dose-dependent phytotoxic effect. It is concluded from our data that 30g kg-1 soil of leaf or succulent shoot powder applied 20 DBT can be an effective component of the integrated disease management (IDM) against BW.

297-306 Download
40

Investigation of bacterial leaf blight of rice through various detection tools and its impact on crop yield in Punjab, Pakistan


Rozina Shaheen, Muhammad Zahid Sharif, Luqman Amrao, Aiping Zheng, Mujahid Manzoor, Dilawar Majeed, Hina Kiran, Muhammad Jafir and Ameer Ali

Investigation of bacterial leaf blight of rice through various detection tools and its impact on crop yield in Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is an important bacterial disease in rice leading to heavy yield and economic losses. In current investigation, the rice leaf samples from infested regions were screened for Xoo strains linked to incidence of this disease. Subsequently, 17 different isolates were identified based on Gram staining, KOH assay and PCR analysis. Moreover, the percentage diseases incidence and weight loss of 1000-grains of each sample from four zones of rice production were recorded. Both biochemical test exhibited red stained and rod like Gram-ve bacteria. In addition, the molecular recognition by means of a 16S rRNA universal primer revealed DNA amplification in 15 out of 17 isolates which confirmed the pathogen as “Xoo”. The data assessed for disease incidence in all investigated districts ranged between 70.12%- 49.23%. While, the maximum and minimum weight losses of 17.84% and 11.17% from Sialkot and Narowal were recorded respectively. The application of such tools for Xoo detection and its impact on crop yield are contested in this investigation.

 

 

307-312 Download
41

Effect of sun-drying on anti-fungal, anti-yeast and antioxidant potency of Acorus calamus, an indigenous medicinal plant


Bilal Muhammad Khan and Jehan Bakht

Effect of sun-drying on anti-fungal, anti-yeast and antioxidant potency of Acorus calamus, an indigenous medicinal plant


ABSTRACT:

This study evaluates the antifungal, anti-yeast and antioxidant potency of various extracts from the commercially available rhizome of Acorus calamus. Sun-drying, due to its cost-effectiveness and associated simplicity, is the most usual form of drying for herbal practitioners. This choice of drying regime, however, does not guarantee retention of desired medicinal value in the dried plant material due to volatile and/or light-sensitive nature of many active compounds. Extremely low antifungal activities (25.0% inhibition at 2 mg.well-1 against Rhizopus oryzae) indicated the unsuitability of sun-drying with regards to this activity. The various extracts were, though, moderately effective in controlling the growth of the yeast Candida albicans (59.7% inhibition at 2 mg.disc-1).This suggested that the active ingredients responsible for these activities are highly volatile and/or light sensitive and hence sun-drying should be avoided if the end-product is intended to have antifungal and anti-yeast potency. Conversely, the extracts were highly efficient vis-à-vis DPPH radical scavenging ability (97.8% activity at 250 ppm) suggesting that sun-drying can be employed in such case particularly taking into consideration the lowered energy consumption and swiftness associated with this drying regime. Furthermore, loss of methanol and hexane soluble compounds as a result of sun-drying is suggested by the results of this study.

313-317 Download
42

Characterization of circular DNA molecules from cotton plants with leaf curl disease


Sohail Akhtar, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Imran Amin, Rana Binyamin and Shahid Mansoor

Characterization of circular DNA molecules from cotton plants with leaf curl disease


ABSTRACT:

Leaf curl disease of cotton is the most devastating disease of cotton in Pakistan. Phi29 DNA polymerase that amplifies circular DNA molecules was used to characterize circular DNA molecules found in infected plants. Phi29 DNA polymerase amplified product was digested with different restriction enzymes and was randomly cloned. Clones were sequenced and their homology to DNA sequences available in NCBI database was estimated. The usual components consisting of begomoviruses and their associated satellites reported previously from cotton were found associated with the disease. The comparison also identified clones of non-viral origin. The most prominent among them were plasmid-like molecules of chloroplast origin. These molecules were only amplified in infected plants and were not at detectable levels in healthy plants. Other circular molecules included transposon sequences of cotton origin, their recombinants and derivatives of varying sizes. Other circular molecules showed homology to sequences related to host defense such as resistance genes, Argonaute etc. There were other circular molecules that showed no homology to any DNA sequence in the database. Some molecules were recombinant of known and unknown DNA sequences. We propose that these circular molecules are amplified due to suppression of RNA silencing based host defense by begomovirus infection

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43

Management of root rot diseases of eight wheat varieties using resistance and biological control agents techniques


Muhammad Ishtiaq, Tanveer Hussain, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Tony Adesemoye, Mehwish Maqbool, Shehzad Azam and Abdul Ghani

Management of root rot diseases of eight wheat varieties using resistance and biological control agents techniques


ABSTRACT:

This study is focused on the screening of eight wheat varieties against Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia solani root rot fungal diseases and their management through biological control agets (BCA) treatments under greenhouse conditions in Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA). These two soil-borne pathogens contributing to significant yield reduction and enhanced growth and yield of Wheat varieties (WVs) after BCA treatments. Experimental trails were set up by applying agar plug inoculation and BCA culture suspension techniques. Highest rating against R. solani was observed in WV Seher-2006 (5.0A) while lowest shown by Galaxy-2013 (1.5FG). On the other hand, maximum rating was observed in Seher-2006 (6.25A) while minimum in Punjab-2011 (3.0B-E) against F. graminearum. It was observed that T3 and T4 reduced maximum DS of V1 as indicated 1.5B and 1.75B. Treatment T4 also showed maximum fresh weight (FW) (0.11g) and dry weight (DW) (0.28g) of root after BCA treatments against R. solani. Maximum FW and DW (0.49g, 0.35g) of V1 roots were also measured against T3 treatment while minimum mass (0.05g and 0.04g) was calculated against T7 (check). However, maximum fresh and dry weight of V7 and V8 roots were observed against T4 treatment. It was noted that all varieties treated with BCA showed more FW and DW of roots as comparison to control (-ve control). However, BCA treatments against all analyzed WVs did not show significant difference. So, all treatments were reduced DS of WVs and increased biomass and yield of wheat plants. Galaxy-2013 variety (V8) was declared as resistance against R. solani for year 2016-17 and three varieties (Faisalabad- 2008, Millat-2011 and Punjab-2011) were announced as moderately resistant to R. solani root rot. Comparatively, it was estimated that F. graminearum was more vulnerable as comparison to R. solani. The biological control activity of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis secreted enzymes and secondary metabolites in wheat plants and induced systemic disease resistance against Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it is concluded that BCA treatments are very effective techniques for the management of fungal pathogens without climatic pollution as in chemical spray form.

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44

First report of dye yielding potential and compounds of lichens; a cultural heritage of Himalayan communities, Pakistan


Summaira Shaheen, Zafar Iqbal and Manzoor Hussain

First report of dye yielding potential and compounds of lichens; a cultural heritage of Himalayan communities, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Lichens are well-known dye yielding organisms since ancient times. The present study investigates the dye yielding potential of nineteen lichen species belonging to eleven genera (Flavopunctelia, Flavoparmelia, Cladonia, Parmelia, Umbilicaria, Xanthoria, Ochrolechia, Hyperphyscia, Hypogymnia, Dermatocarpon and Parmotrema) of Himalayan region (Abbottabad) Pakistan. Wool and silk were dyed using the 3 different methods i.e. dimethyl sulphoxide (DEM), ammonia fermentation (AFM) and boiling water (BWM). Over 57 different dye tests were made on silk. Predominant color was cerise but yellow, brown, purple, green, pink and olive were produced. COSMIN software was used to detect HEX Colour codes with RBG and HSL values. These dye colors were further altered by modifying: exposure to light, temperature and subsequent additional extractions using the different method or the same one. After dying samples were tested for stability in sunlight and the action of soap, some samples were faded to some degree and some of them changed color. Most dyes obtained through the AFM and DEM method were stable while dyes from boiling water method were light stable. A correlation of dye color with lichen secondary metabolites was also attempted. Spot test results showed the presence of different lichen substances (gyrophoric, lecanoric acid, umbilicaric acids, usnic acid, atranorin, chloroatranorin, salazinic acid and parietin).

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45

Diversity of brown algae (Ochrophyta, phaeophyceae) of Sian Ka´an reserve biosphere, Mexican Caribbean


Luz Elena Mateo-Cid, Angela Catalina Mendoza-Gonzalez and Cynthia Mariana Hernandez Casas

Diversity of brown algae (Ochrophyta, phaeophyceae) of Sian Ka´an reserve biosphere, Mexican Caribbean


ABSTRACT:

The Biosphere Reserve of Sian Ka'an located in the Mexican Caribbean, where greatest diversity of seaweeds has been recorded. Despite of diversity and species richness there are limited phycological studies in the study area, suggesting that species diversity is not completely known. We reported species that complement previous reports of brown algae collected from the study area.  In addition, brown algae recorded in the literature and the species present in the herbaria for the Biosphere Reserve of Sian Ka'an were also included, and data obtained from sampling at eleven localities during 2009 to 2012 were added. In all 50 infrageneric taxa are reported. Families Dictyotaceae and Sargassaceae comprised the most species richness. The presence of 11 species of Phaeophyceae is reported for the first time for the study area. Of them, Symphyocarpus strangulans is a new record for the Mexican Atlantic; eight species are new records for study area and two for Quintana Roo. The highest number of species was recorded for Punta Xoquem and Pulticub, while the lowest number of taxa was in Cayo Valencia. The highest number of species was found in summer rains, the lowest in winter rains.  The obtained data highlights the high specific richness of Phaeophyceae indicating that the Sian Ka'an Reserve should be considered a priority area due to its great biodiversity. Moreover, these results will be a basis for future ecological, utilization and conservation studies.

361-366 Download
46

Effect of homeopathic nematicide pellets on plant-nematode interaction under controlled conditions


Asma Hanif and Shahnaz Dawar

Effect of homeopathic nematicide pellets on plant-nematode interaction under controlled conditions


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted at Department of Botany, University of Karachi to explore the efficacy of homeopathic drug pellets for the control of root knot nematode and improved plant growth of crops. Homeopathic drug pellets of Santonine-43 and Kent-20 used at 75% concentration, respectively, showed excellent results in the control of M. javanica infection but also improved the plant height, weight and yield of all tested crops such as mung bean, mash bean, okra and sunflower followed by 50% concentration in contrast to control. However, 75% concentration of Kent-20 pellets were found best in reducing the galls formation produced by root knot nematodes, while Santonine-43 pellets were best in the improvement of growth of tested crop plants.

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47

Spatio-temporal assessment of agriculture & mangroves and its impact on socioeconomy of people in Indus Delta


G.A. Mahar and N.A. Zaighiam

Spatio-temporal assessment of agriculture & mangroves and its impact on socioeconomy of people in Indus Delta


ABSTRACT:

Landuse situation of agriculture and land cover situation of mangroves forests in the delta are traditionally old. Spatial expansion of agriculture and mangroves forestsis has not remain same in current situation. Results detected from the satellite images shows that cultivated lands are decreasing and the mangroves forests are increasing. In active part of the Delta, cultivated land was covered by 116928 acres in 1998 and 88172 acres in 2008 and 48787 acres in 2018. On the other hand, estimated spatial coverage of mangroves forests in 1998 was 21991 acres and in 2018 is 70850 acres. Agriculture in the Indus Delta is severely affected since the last two decades. Out of a total 2 million hectare land, about 0.3 million hectare is cultivated each year in the delta. Almost major part of the delta comes under district thatta. It has total nine administrative subdivisions. Data of cultivated/uncultivated land between the period 1998 and 2008 shows that more than 80% land of these subdivisions are not used for cultivation during this period. Under the present conditions average farmer's family cultivates three acres of land. Average income per family estimated from the survey is 2.0 $ per day that indicates the prevalence of extreme poverty in the area

377-383 Download
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