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Year 2019 , Volume  51, Issue 4
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Effect of inoculation of strains with ACC deaminase isolated from vermicompost on seed germination and some physiological attributes in maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to salt stress


Jie Zhou, Nadeem Ahmed, Yaqian Cheng, Cheng Qin, Peize Chen, Chenxi Zhang and Lixin Zhang

Effect of inoculation of strains with ACC deaminase isolated from vermicompost on seed germination and some physiological attributes in maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Bacterial inoculation containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity can induce stress tolerance in maize. Vermicompost is a rich source of growth promoting microbes, probably with a unique source for bacteria having ACC deaminase activity. The present investigation aimed to isolate strains with ACC deaminase activity from vermicompost and quantify their effects on seed germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. The ACC deaminase-producing strains were isolated from the vermicompost by the directional enrichment screening method. The 16S rDNA gene sequence homology analysis combined with physio-biochemical characteristics were used to identify the taxonomic status of. SB was identified as Stenotropho monas sp., RC and RF were Raoultella sp., and KE was Klebsiellas sp. Maize seeds were germinated under varying level of  salinity stress (level of salt stress in 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl solution). Salinity stress reduced seed germination rate, embryo length and root lengths of seedlings of maize. The results showed that inoculation with four isolated bacterial strains improved seed germination and the growth of maize seedlings under the level of salinity stress in 150 mM NaCl solution. Growth improvement in maize seedlings was associated with increase in proline, chlorophyll content. Therefore, strains with ACC deaminase activity can effectively alleviate the damage to corn seeds and seedlings under salt stress

1169-1177 Download
2

Differential response to water  deficit  stress  and  shade in two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars: growth, water relations, osmolyte accumulation and photosynthetic pigments


Fatma Gharbi, Asma Guizani, Lobna Zribi, Hela Ben Ahmed and Florent Mouillot

Differential response to water  deficit  stress  and  shade in two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars: growth, water relations, osmolyte accumulation and photosynthetic pigments


ABSTRACT:

This  study  was  conducted  to  investigate  the  effects  of water deficit stress and shading on two wheat cultivars (Triticum durum Desf. cv Om Rabiaa and cv Maali). Comparison was based on growth, leaf water relations, photosynthetic pigments and the accumulation of organic solute. In both cultivars, water stress deficit significantly decreased total dry mass (TDM), leaf area (LA), water potential (Ψw), osmotic potential (Ψπ) and relative water content (RWC). Photosynthetic pigments, i.e. chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and total chlorophyll (Tot Chl), decreased while carotenoids (car) increased. Proline concentration increased significantly in water stressed plants under full light conditions while sugar accumulated more under shade conditions. In addition, shade improved leaf area, leaf water potential, and osmotic potential as well as alleviated the negative drought impact on photosynthesis performance. For the Maali cultivar, the reduction in RWC and its inability to achieve osmotic adjustment (OA) emphasize this cultivar’s sensitivity to water deficit stress. For the Om Rabiaa cultivar, the ability to avoid relative tissue dehydration and preserve a higher RWC with a significant increase in OA in shade-treated plants were tolerance mechanisms enabling this cultivar to absorb water effectively and sustain normal growth and productivity under water stress conditions

1179-1184 Download
3

Development of high yielding types of Brassica napus L. under salinity stress


Shamsa Kanwal, M. Hammad Nadeem Tahir, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat and Bushra Sadia

Development of high yielding types of Brassica napus L. under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Six sensitive and ten salinity tolerant lines along with their resultant crosses obtained after crossing in Line × Tester mating design were evaluated at maturity stage in a pot experiment. Data were recorded on various seed yield (days to 50% flowering, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of primary branches, number of silique per plant, seeds per silique, oil content, thousand seed weight, seed yield per plant) and salinity tolerance related traits (proline content, Na+/K+ ratio, osmotic potential). Data were recorded on yield and salinity tolerance related traits, were analyzed to assess the variability in germplasm under studies and general and specific combining ability effects. Results showed that breeding material being studied had genetic variability that can be used in development of high yielding salinity tolerant types of Brassica napus L. Combining ability analysis revealed that lines R-3 and 23627 and tester Faisal were best  general combiners under control conditions and on exposure to higher levels of salinity also. Crosses R-3×Laclone, RBJ-8007×Laclone and ZMR-1×ZMR-3 were observed to have positive significant specific combining ability effects for most of the traits under control and salinity stress conditions that can be further evaluated for growing under saline conditions. Proline content, Na+/K+ ratio and osmotic potential might be used as salinity tolerance indicators.

1185-1190 Download
4

Salinity-induced antioxidant enzyme system in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cv.) genotypes


Hesham F. Alharby, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Reiaz Ul Rehman and Muhammad Iqbal

Salinity-induced antioxidant enzyme system in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cv.) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress poses a serious challenge to plant growth and development and hence influences the yield and crop productivity. This study investigates the impact of exogenous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the seedlings of six genotypes of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] with reference to the status of a stress indicator (hydrogen peroxide: H2O2) and some antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Ten-day-old seedlings were subjected to salt stress (0-250 mM) given in split application along with the half strength Hoaglands. The salt stress increased the H2O2 production in a concentration-dependent manner up to 250mM NaCl in all genotypes. NaCl levels were positively correlated with the production of hydrogen peroxide in leaves as evidenced by the 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-mediated tissue fingerprinting. The activity of SOD, CAT, APX, GR, GPX and GST increased significantly upon the NaCl treatments and attained its maximum at 150mM for SOD and CAT, at 200mM for APX, GR and GST and at 250mM for GPX. The pattern of increase in the activity was similar in all the genotypes studied, though the quantitative levels were markedly different. The oxidative stress due to H2O2 generationand the antioxidant enzymes activity to combat it may serve as the screening markers for selecting the stress-tolerant genotypes of mungbean. 

1191-1198 Download
5

Growth and anatomy of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) cultivars Marmande and Oria under salinity stress


Sarah Abdulrahman Alsafari, Hanaa Kamal Galal and Sameera Omar Bafeel

Growth and anatomy of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) cultivars Marmande and Oria under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

This research investigates how irrigation with various salinity levels affects the anatomy and growth of two different tomato cultivars, namely Marmande and Oria. The two cultivars were planted in an outdoor greenhouse under natural conditions in King Abdul-Aziz University from April to May 2014. Compared to the controls the experiments with higher salinity showed significantly reduced fresh weight, dry weight, water content, shoot length, and root length. Salinity had various negative effects on the anatomy of the tomato cultivar Marmande on its xylem parenchyma and surrounding cells’ profiles, on its lignification, on its vessels diameter, and on the thickness of its wall in its roots and shoots sections. Salinity had minimal to no effect on tomato cultivar Oria. The tomato cultivar Oria thus showed a higher tolerance to salinity. The highest level of salinity produced greater deleterious effects. The results indicate that the Oria cultivar is tolerant to salinity. This study accordingly the Oria cultivar is recommended for high salinity conditions.

1199-1207 Download
6

Metal accumulation behavior of the weed species growing under soil cadmium stress


Md. Dulal Sarkar, Md. Jahedur Rahman, Jasim Uddain, Md. Quamruzzaman, Rojobi Nahar Rojoni and Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Metal accumulation behavior of the weed species growing under soil cadmium stress


ABSTRACT:

Three weeds, Enhydra flactuans, Amaranthus viridis and Chenopodium album were considered as Cd accumulating plants. Accumulated Cd in C. album reached to 0.32 mg for each plant under soil Cd stress of 15 mg. Thus, Cd accumulation capability of weeds was decreased with the increased using rate of Cd and it was between 1.64% and 4.96%. After 45 days? of Cd stress, the redistribution of Cd content in the root and shoot was studied from underground parts to above ground parts. The outcome confirmed that weed species had sophisticated acceptance to Cd and could accumulate affectively. They did not show any abnormal growth appearance even in soils having 15 mg kg−1 Cd, and for C. album, the Cd content in the roots was up to 264.32 mg kg−1 dry biomass while in the shoots it was about 126.55 mg kg−1. This signified that three weeds behaved as decent accumulating plant although they showed infirm ability in transporting Cd from below ground biomass to above ground biomass. Afterwards, shoot:soil and root:soil further proved that, studied weed species were likely to uptake more Cd as a way of diminution of the mobility of Cd. So, this research predicts that using green technology as a process of phyto-mitigation of trace elements from the defiled soils would be a good choice.

 

1209-1214 Download
7

Physiological and biochemical responses of Rhus tripartita (Ucria) grande under water stress


Refka Zouaoui, Youssef Ammari, Mejda Abassi, Hela Ben Ahmed, Ameni Smaoui and Khouloud Hilali

Physiological and biochemical responses of Rhus tripartita (Ucria) grande under water stress


ABSTRACT:

The present study belongs to the program of biodiversity conservation inside BouHedma national Park. Among the plant species in this park, Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande, Anacardiaceae, has several interests. Drought tolerance of R. tripartita seedlings subject to different levels of water stress: T (100% FC; 50% FC (S1); 25% FC (S2) and severe (S3) (No watering) based on photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biochemical analysis (soluble sugars and proline) was examined. A highly significant decrease was recorded in photosynthetic gas exchanges, in particular the stomatal conductance which has been diminished to zero with the intensity of water stress (S3). Similarly, leaf transpiration and photosynthetic assimilation are highly affected. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in chlorophyll pigment content (Cha and total chlorophyll content) and stabilization of Chb content. In contrary to that, the water stress induced an accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline) in leaves and roots of young plants.

1215-1221 Download
8

Changes in Conyza canadensis (L.) cronquist leaf anatomy under caprylic acid stress


Zuren Li, Wenhua Shen, Xiaomao Zhou, Qingcai Zhan, Qiong Peng, Lifeng Wang, Lamei Wu, Haona Yang and Lianyang Bai

Changes in Conyza canadensis (L.) cronquist leaf anatomy under caprylic acid stress


ABSTRACT:

The deleterious influence of caprylic aicd stress on several weeds have been reported, mainly in the context of the biochemical, physiological and growth parameters of weeds. However, few studies have examined the anatomical and ultrastructural changes in response to caprylic acid. Anatomical injures were observed in Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist leaves at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after 625 μM caprylic acid application in the present study. The initial damage was observed in the mesophyll percentage area and then marginal leaf regions, mid-leaf areas, and the midvein. The accumulation of caprylic acid in the cells, resulted in palisade parenchyma collapse and reduce, cell wall deform, and veins punctual necrosis, was evident in the leaf sprayed with caprylic acid. Chloroplasts and mitochondria in mesophyll cells were disturbed, and followed by markedly reduced photosynthetic activity during caprylic acid application. The leaf anatomy of leaves of C. canadensis treated with caprylic acid displayed time-dependent depletion and disintegration. The degree of changes in the anatomical and ultrastructural leaves of the C. canadensis were studied, suggesting the mechanisms by which caprylic acid act as an effective herbicidal substance.

1223-1229 Download
9

Response of different plant species to pollution emitted from oil and gas plant with special reference to heavy metals accumulation


Iram Noreen, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Alsubeie M.S., Zeeshan Ahmad, Inayat-Ur-Rahman, Majid Iqbal, Alqarawi A.A. , Baby Tabassum and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

Response of different plant species to pollution emitted from oil and gas plant with special reference to heavy metals accumulation


ABSTRACT:

It was hypothesized that different plant species vary in response to the oil and gas pollution in terms of composition and distribution pattern as well. Some of the plants have more tolerance to heavy metals accumulation in polluted ecosystem than others. Quantitative ecological techniques using quadrat methods were applied in a stratified random design around the Nashpa Oil and Gas Plant District Karak to check specific plant indicators that can grow, survive and show more tolerance against Oil and Gas pollution. In four directions from Gas Plant 10 stations were established at a distance of one Km from each other. Different size of quadrats i.e. 1×1 m2, 5×5 m2 and 10×10 m2 for herbs, shrubs and trees were used respectively. The phyto-sociological attributes of each species (density, relative density, frequency, relative frequency, cover, relative cover and Importance Values Index) were measured at each station. Furthermore, Calotropis procera was investigated for Pb, Cr and Cu heavy metals accumulation uisng atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All the collected data matrices were analyzed via Cluster analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) using PC-ORD version 5 and CANOCO software. A total of 113 plant species were recorded belonging to 44 families from the Nashpa Oil and Gas Plant. Dominant and rare plants of heavy, moderate and less-polluted regions were identified and assessed. Result showed that Calotropis procera has more tolerant against pollution. It was concluded that the Oil & Gas Plant has significant effect on surrounding habitat plants for heavy metal accumulation. Higher concentration of K, pH and organic matter has significant effects (p≤0.002) on plant species diversity and its distribution pattern. Result of Pb and Cu accumulation in C. procera showed heavy metals accumulation increased from less polluted sites towards moderate and more polluted regions gradually. It is recommended that further study needed to examine other dominant species as well

1231-1240 Download
10

Assessment of physio-biochemical indicators for drought tolerance in different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.)


Sidra Shafiq, Nudrat Aisha Akram and Muhammad Ashraf

Assessment of physio-biochemical indicators for drought tolerance in different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

Maize is an important cereal crop all-over the world and has been recently ranked at first among all cereal crops. However, growth of maize plants is negatively affected in arid and semi-arid areas of the globe due to scarcity of water, but genetically variable cultivars/lines differ considerably to respond to water limited conditions. To evaluate the response of some commercial cultivars of maize to water deficit conditions, a pot experiment was carried out. Eight maize cultivars (Sultan, Akbar, Pearl, MMRI, Maki Pak, Sahiwal 2002, Sadaf and Neelum) were subjected to varying [100%, 75% and 60% of field capacity (FC)] levels of water deficit conditions. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll pigments (a and b) in all maize cultivars. However, free proline, glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, activities of enzymatic antioxidants (CAT, POD and SOD) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents increased significantly under water deficit conditions. Of all maize cultivars, cv. Sadaf was superior in terms of plant growth, while, cv. Sultan proved to be inferior to the other cultivars examined in this study. It was concluded that osmoprotectants such as proline and GB can be used as stress tolerance indicators under drought stress conditions.

1241-1247 Download
11

DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity of tomato genotypes against PEG simulated drought stress


Rizwan Taj Khan, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmed Gerdezi, Tariq Habib and Syed Rizwan Abbas

DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity of tomato genotypes against PEG simulated drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Antioxidants are important substances of plants which are used to save their bodies from injuries by free reactive oxygen species. The experiment was performed to check the effect of polyethylene glycol on 26 tomato genotypes at ESMA (Extension Services and Management Academy) at Garri Dopatta, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl  was used as an oxidant to produce the free radicals. The antioxidant behavior was found to be increased by increasing the sample concentration ranging from 25 µl to 500 µl extract concentration and decreased by increasing the Polyethylene glycol concentration. The genotype G-21-006234 showed highest antioxidant activity 53.03% at 25 µl sample extract concentration and radical scavenging activity has enhanced up to 71.54% as sample concentration was increased up to 500 µl. The activity of antioxidants was declined with an increase in polyethylene glycol concentration. Genotype G-21-00643 showed 21.189% antioxidant activity at 12.5% of polyethylene glycol. Which showed G- 31- 19289 genotypes had 52 % at 25ul sample amount at control and 39% at maximum of polyethylene glycol concentration. The results indicate that genotype G- 31- 19289 is good among the studied genotypes in antioxidant behaviour

1249-1253 Download
12

Biochar: an eco-friendly approach to improve wheat yield and associated soil properties on sustainable basis


Kawsar Ali, Xuechun Wang, Muhammad Riaz, Badsha Islam, Zafar Hayat Khan, Farooq Shah, Fazal Munsif and Syed Ijaz Ul Haq

Biochar: an eco-friendly approach to improve wheat yield and associated soil properties on sustainable basis


ABSTRACT:

Despite making great progress in agriculture since after green revolution, Pakistan still needs to increase agricultural production to feed its growing population with its increasing expectations while overcoming the considerable environmental and soil related problems that industrial and agricultural development has brought with it such as air and water pollution and soil acidification. Incorporation of biochar in agriculture field has the potential to be a major factor in maintaining soil fertility and productivity. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of varied organic (biochar and FYM) and inorganic amendments (nitrogen, urea) on the growth and yield of wheat and associated soil properties. Incorporation of biochar in agriculture field has the potential to be a major factor in maintaining soil fertility and productivity. The experiments consisted of three factors namely: (1) Biochar (0, 25 and 50 ton ha-1), (2) FYM (5 and 10 ton ha-1) and (3) nitrogen (60 and 120 kg ha-1). A controlled treatment was included in the experiments. All the treatments were replicated three times in RCB design at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan during winter 2012-13 and 2013-14. It was found that the use of BC increased wheat grain yield and biological yield by 23% and 17% respectively over non BC plots, while 49% and 31% increase in wheat leaf chlorophyll content and relative water content was measured as a result of BC application in integration with 60 kg N ha-1 as compared to control and sole application of biochar at the rate of 25 ton ha-1. Moreover, application of FYM resulted 16% and 33% increase in wheat grain yield and biological yield over control. Likewise, wheat relative water content, leaf chlorophyll content, thousand grain weight , soil N and soil P content was increase by 17%, 11%, 15%, 8%, 13 and 24% as a result of 10 ton FYM ha-1 over 5 ton FYM ha-1. Similarly, N application at the rate of 120 ton ha-1 improved wheat yield and yield components over control. Soil total N was increased by 8% and 4% over controlled by use of N at the rate of 60 and 120 kg ha-1 in combination with 25 ton BC ha-1 respectively. On the whole, the use of biochar in cereal crop production had shown positive effects on crop growth, yield and soil properties. However, more research is needed to evaluate the effect of lower biochar application rate on soil and crop performance. 

1255-1261 Download
13

DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Phlomis aurea (Lamiaceae) endemic to Sinai peninsula, Egypt


Ahmed El-Banhawy and Widad Al-Juhani

DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Phlomis aurea (Lamiaceae) endemic to Sinai peninsula, Egypt


ABSTRACT:

Taxonomy represents the baseline for biological characterization and naming for endangered plant species. Phlomis aurea has never been a subject of comprehensive biosystematics assessment. Phlomis aurea is an endangered species suffering from global changes which lead to population decline. It is important to rediscover critical biological traits related to endemic species to help set up conservation plan(s). The current study represents a comprehensive morphological and anatomical characterization of the endangered Phlomis aurea endemic to Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Phylogenetic placement and DNA barcoding were done using two molecular markers (rbcL and psb-A/trn-H).

1263-1271 Download
14

Diversity and DNA fingerprinting of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes using microsatellite markers


Muhammad Khalid, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Ahmad Zubair, Humaira and Malik Ashiq Rabbani

Diversity and DNA fingerprinting of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes using microsatellite markers


ABSTRACT:

Large genome size and deficiency of adequate informative molecular markers bottlenecked genetic improvement in sugarcane. DNA fingerprinting and diversity analysis of sugarcane genotypes provide essential genetic evidences that breeders could utilize in crop improvement program. To investigate the genetic diversity based on 46 microsatellite markers, 16 promising exotic sugarcane genotypes were utilized. Twenty (20) out of 46 microsatellite markers were examined at Germplasm Evaluation Lab of BCI, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, whereas the remaining 26 were tested at the genomics lab of SIU-Carbondale, USA. The genotypes portrayed substantial level of genetic polymorphism. Ratio of monomorphic loci was 28.66% out of 164, whereas polymorphic loci were 71.34% with an average 3.57 alleles/locus. Out of 46 microsatellite markers, 10 (21.74%) produced monomorphic, 13 (28.26%) produced polymorphic bands and 23 (50%) produced both monomorphic and polymorphic bands. SSR markers SCM16 and UGSM574 produced maximum number of bands (10), whereas markers SMC7CUQ, SMC1604SA, MCSA053C10, SOMS118, UGSM154, UGSM312, mSSCIR3, SMC851MS, SOMS156, SMC336BS and SMC1751CLproduced the least number of band i.e., 1. In all 16 sugarcane genotypes, the PIC value of the polymorphic loci ranged between 0.009 and 0.947 with the mean value of 0.490/locus. Mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus was 3.30, whereas mean number of alleles/locus was calculated as 3.57. Through similarity matrix extent of genetic relatedness among the sugarcane genotypes was determined. Genetic similarity as pair-wise ranged between 71 to 93%. Minimum genetic similarity was noted 71% between genotypes CP89831 and MS94CP15, while the maximum between genotypes S97CP288 and MS99HO391. The phenogram categorized the 16 cultivars into main four (4) clusters/groups. Cluster-1/group-1 consisted two (2) genotypes only, 2nd cluster consisted of five (5) genotypes, whereas 3rd cluster consisted only one genotype (MS92CP979) which was branched solitary. The 4th cluster was comparatively a large one and consisted of eight genotypes. This was suggested that the genotypes showed maximum level of genetic polymorphism might be further utilized in sugarcane varietal development and breeding plans.

1273-1282 Download
15

Investigating hybridization and variability between Ficus species in Saudi Arabia through DNA barcoding approach and morphological characters


Shawkat M. Ahmed and Mohamed A. Fadl

Investigating hybridization and variability between Ficus species in Saudi Arabia through DNA barcoding approach and morphological characters


ABSTRACT:

Recently, research interest has spread through the DNA barcoding for economically important species of plants. In this work, the morphological characterization and DNA barcoding were investigated to discriminate between Ficus carica, Ficus cordata and Ficuspalmata inhabiting Taif highlands to show the possibility of hybridization between them. F. carica L. (cultivated tree) and F. palmata Forssk. (wild tree) showed great morphological similarities that reflected a probable interspecific hybridization between them. The observed hybrids were of low commercial importance. The obtained results of DNA barcodes (ITS, matK, rbcL and trnH) exposed different evolutionary events between the four regions, allowing each other to complement the discrimination between Ficusspecies. The phylogenetic trees revealed excess genetic diversity and distinguished Ficus species inhabiting Taif from other species retrieved from the GenBank proving their endemism to flora of Saudi Arabia. Transition/transversion bias (R) and rate of Tajima evolution for rbcL, trnH-psbA and ITS showed that the rate of evolution of Ficus species relatively accelerates and enhances hybridization between them. Entomorphology seemed to play an important role in hybridization and causing notable genetic diversity between F. carica and F. palmata in Taif. ITS was suggested as a plant barcode for its discriminatory power at low taxonomic levels than plastid barcodes

1283-1290 Download
16

Analysis of the transcriptome of normal and mutant willow-shaped leaves of Ricinus communis using high-throughput RNA sequencing


Wei Zhou, Yaxing Zhou, Zhensheng Shi, Yun Wang, Guoli Zhu, Zhibiao He and Yongsheng Chen

Analysis of the transcriptome of normal and mutant willow-shaped leaves of Ricinus communis using high-throughput RNA sequencing


ABSTRACT:

Ricinus communis is the source of castor oil and widely used. Lm type female strains of castor were mutants of castor which showed some phenotypes including typical willow-shaped leaves morphological characteristics, while leaves on the normal bisexual strain in Ricinus communis are palmar. To date, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the growth of the typical willow-shaped leaves have not yet been clarified. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis to explore differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal palm-shaped leaves and mutant willow-shaped ones. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing, a total of 155,862 unigenes were finally annotated after assembly, and 1,530 DEGs in the mutants were identified, in which 1,205 DEGs were up-regulated and 325 DEGs were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) Classification divided the unigenes and DEGs into 3 main categories, i.e. molecular function, biological process and cell component. According to the COG analysis, most of the unigenes were classified into the ‘general function prediction only’. Some interesting candidate genes that may contribute to the formation of willow-shaped leaves such as C179712, C271005, C99773 and C241332 were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, and the results were in agreement with that in the RNA-Seq which confirmed the reliability of the RNA-seq data. These results laid the foundation for studying the mechanism responsible for the formation of the willow-shaped leaves.

 

1291-1296 Download
17

Identification and analysis of DNA binding specific transcription factor binding sites in sucrose synthase promoter


Hira Mubeen, Ammara Masood, Javaid Iqbal Wattoo, Ammara Nasim and Shahid Raza

Identification and analysis of DNA binding specific transcription factor binding sites in sucrose synthase promoter


ABSTRACT:

Sucrose synthase (SUS) is one of the abundantly expressed genes in plants. In this study, the promoter sequence of SUS gene was identified, analyzed and retrieved from high throughput genomic sequence (HTGS) database. The transcription factor binding sites (TFBs) of subject promoter were identified through different bioinformatics tools. The analysis revealed several crucial motifs and TFBs within the entire promoter region. The most common site found within promoter region was AGL3, which binded with DNA-region specific binding site and involved in process of transcriptional regulation. AGL3 is also a key factor for studying protein dimerization activity. Furthermore, AGL3 encodes a protein, which encodes a conserved domain, MADS protein domain. The analysis of AGL3 through (Plant PAN 2.0) showed three associated TF: AT5G23260, AT2G03710, U81369, which were used for further analysis of conserved protein domains through Pfam and InterPro. We found that these TF could help in developmental regulation and validation of candidate genes. Moreover, the binding of AGL3 with serum response factor (SRF), a nuclear protein also indicates the transcriptional regulations of several growth factors. This core domain belongs to MADS protein family, which interacts with certain accessory factors and varies up to 90 amino acids. Analysis of such promoter sequences and their predicted TF can be useful to understand the transcriptional regulatory networks in plant genetic engineering.

1297-1302 Download
18

Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from roots cDNA library of cotton (Gossypium arboreum)


Adil Jamal, Muhammad Naveed Shahid, Beenish Aftab, Muzna Zahur, Bushra Rashid, Ayman Khalid Johargy and Tayyab Husnain

Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from roots cDNA library of cotton (Gossypium arboreum)


ABSTRACT:

Cotton is major fiber crop among agricultural commodities grown worldwide. Prolonged osmotic stress and seasonal water shortage effect plant growth and yields. To explore the drought responsive molecular mechanism in cotton roots, we constructed cDNA library for the identification, functional annotation and expression analysis of potential drought responsive transcripts. mRNA extracted from cotton roots under drought stress was used to construct cDNA library. A total of 711 expressed sequence tags were generated from cDNA library. NCBI BLAST analysis of reported expressed sequence tags showed homology of 27% sequences with Gossypium species while 24% sequences showed no sequence similarity in non-redundant nucleotide database. Remaining 49% sequences revealed sequence similarity results with other plant species. Functional annotation was performed for sequenced EST’s using Arabidopsis Gene ontology database (TAIR). We examined the expression pattern of 08 differentially expressed ESTs using RT- qPCR and validated that all these were up-regulated in roots under osmotic stress, but to different folds. The candidate EST sequences identified in this study will be valuable resource to elucidate stress responsive molecular mechanism and genetic breeding of cotton in future

1303-1310 Download
19

Metabolic pathways analysis and identification of heat response genes of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit affected by elevated postharvest temperature


Chuan-He Liu, Yan Liu, Shi-Zi Kuang and Wei-Qiang Xiao

Metabolic pathways analysis and identification of heat response genes of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit affected by elevated postharvest temperature


ABSTRACT:

Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is an important tropical fruit. The pineapple fruits that are ripened in the high-temperature season have better quality, whereas those ripened in low-temperature season are acidic in taste. Elevated postharvest temperature (EPT) could enhance the quality of winter-harvested pineapple fruit. Based on transcriptome and differentially expressed genes analysis, we explored the GO (Gene Ontology) terms and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathways associated with the EPT treatment and the differentially expressed heat response genes of pineapple fruit after EPT treatment. GO classifications suggested that DEGs (differentially expressed genes) were predominantly annotated to “response to stimulus”, “response to external stimulus” and “aromatic compound biosynthetic process” in the biological process ontology, “hydrolase activity” and “glucosidase activity” in the molecular function ontology, as well as “intrinsic to membrane” and “cell wall” in the cellular component ontology. KEGG metabolic pathways analysis revealed that the DEGs were dominantly enriched to “starch and sucrose metabolism”, “biosynthesis of secondary metabolites”, “pentose and glucuronate interconversions”, “carotenoid biosynthesis”, “metabolic pathways” “galactose metabolism” and “plant hormone signal transduction”. Nineteen HSP (heat shock protein) and sHSP (small HSP) DEGs were screened, and most of them were up-regulated by EPT. Most of the transcription factor genes, including HSF, bHLH, WRKY, MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP and NAC, were down-regulated by EPT. The SOD (Superoxide dismutase) genes were induced by EPT, while most of the POD (Peroxidase) and CAT (Catalase) genes were repressed. This work would help to understand the molecular mechanisms for EPT process to improve the quality of pineapple fruits

1311-1316 Download
20

Shoot multiplication and growth rates of Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. shoot cultures in temporary immersion system (TIS)-RITA® and bubble column bioreactors


Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti, Mochammad Fadholi, Rifki Muhammad Rizki and Ahmad Faizal

Shoot multiplication and growth rates of Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. shoot cultures in temporary immersion system (TIS)-RITA® and bubble column bioreactors


ABSTRACT:

Agarwood is the resinous product of several tree species of family Thymelaeaceae such as Aquilaria spp. Unsustainable harvesting has threatened the existence of agarwood producing species in their natural habitat. Therefore, the present study was developed to facilitate an effective and efficient method to produce Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings by In vitro culture. Here, we optimized the aeration rate in the bubble column reactor and the immersion time on the temporary immersion system (TIS)-RITA® bioreactor and compare the growth rate of A. malaccensis with both systems. A. malaccensis shoot cultures were propagated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) semisolid medium and then pre-conditioned in thin layer culture before bioreactor cultivation. A. malaccensis shoots in the bubble column reactor were subjected to variable aeration rates of 0.05 and 0.1 vvm, while the immersion variation within the TIS-RITA® bioreactor was 5 and 15 min for every 4 h. The results showed that 15 min immersion for every 4 h increased the number of A. malaccensis shoot regeneration. Nonetheless, no significance difference was observed on biomass acquisition in both bubble column bioreactor and TIS-RITA® bioreactor. Therefore, our findings indicate that immersion period was more critical than aeration rate for A. malaccensis shoot cultivation

1317-1321 Download
21

Suppressive effect of Populus nigra L. leaves on germination and growth competence of Triticum aestivum L.


Naila Inayat, Zahir Muhammad, Rasool Khan, Rehmanullah and Abdul Majeed

Suppressive effect of Populus nigra L. leaves on germination and growth competence of Triticum aestivum L.


ABSTRACT:

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Populus nigra leaves in different guided bioassay on the germination and growth of four different wheat varieties i.e. Ghaznavi, Siran, Atta Habib, and Janbaz. All the extract had differential toxicity against all the four wheat varieties. Hot water extract was observed to be inhibitory than methanolic and rain leachate extract obtained. Furthermore, litter and mulching experiments had also inhibitory effects on the studied parameters. Suppressive effects were linearly correlated with extract concentration. Growth-suppressive effects of the guided-assay were recorded in the order hot water extracts ˃ methanolic extracts ˃ rain leachate extracts. It is suggested that P. nigra leaves possess phytotoxic activities, and further investigations are therefore required against challenging weeds. Filed experiments may be carried out to further expand the perceived allelopathic activities of P. nigra on other crops.

1323-1330 Download
22

Genetic structure of Pakistani oilseed Brassica cultivars revealed by morphometric and microsatellite markers


Haris Khurshid, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Naushad Ali, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Malik Ashiq Rabbani

Genetic structure of Pakistani oilseed Brassica cultivars revealed by morphometric and microsatellite markers


ABSTRACT:

 

Brassicaceae is a diverse family of economically important crop plants grown worldwide. The rapeseed and mustard are traditional oilseed crops and are being cultivated in Pakistan for centuries. The present study reports genetic divergence among Pakistani oilseeds Brassica cultivars using morphometric and microsatellite markers. Plant material comprised of 31 cultivars of four different Brassica species i.e. Brassica carinata, B. juncea, B. napus and B. rapa including two exotic cultivars. All the cultivars were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. Significant morphological variation was observed for quantitative traits e.g. days to flowering initiation & completion, days to maturity, leaf size, plant height, 1000-seed weight, leaves per plant, primary branches per plant, main raceme length, silique length and seeds per silique etc. A significant positive association was found between 1000-seed weight, days to flowering initiation and plant height. Seed yield was positively correlated to period of flowering and positively, but non-significant correlation was observed with plant height and number of primary branches per plant. Cultivars, DGL, Pakola, NARC-22, Takwara, Shiralee, Con-III, Dure-NIFA, Abasin-95, Dunkeld, Con-I, Con-II, Chakwal-Sarson and PakCheen-89 were characterized as cultivars having the highest number of siliquae on main raceme with the largest and highly productive siliquae. The PCR-based DNA polymorphism among 30 cultivars revealed significant genetic variation and depicted dissimilarity among cultivars except Dacca-raya and Sultan-raya. Cultivars were classified into 2 major groups and 4 small sub-groups according to their morphological characteristics, origin of cultivars (institute/ research station) and related species. Cultivars like Khanpur-raya, Bahawalpur-raya and Toria-sathi formed no association with other cultivars and positioned independently in the dendrogram.

1331-1340 Download
23

Relationship of path coefficient analysis and different genetic components in diverse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) germplasm


Syed M. Waqas Gillani, M. Yussouf Saleem and Amjad Hameed

Relationship of path coefficient analysis and different genetic components in diverse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) germplasm


ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted to estimate heritability, genetic advance correlation between yield and yield components and fruit quality parameters in 50 tomato genotypes to establish the selection criteria in 2015-16 at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB). Analysis of variance showed significant mean square for all that traits indicating scope of improvement in tested genotypes. High heritability and high genetic advance was observed in cluster per plant, plant height, fruit weight, vitamin C and protein contents proposed additive the gene action and early improvement of those traits via selection. Yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, fruit weight, fruit width and fruit length suggesting improvement in yield via those traits. Flowers per cluster had highest direct positive effect on yield followed by fruit width, fruit length, plant height, fruit firmness and total carotenoids. So, keeping in view the results of heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path analysis yield can be increased by number of flowers, plant height, fruit width and length, fruit firmness, total carotenoids and vitamin C. 

1341-1347 Download
24

Leaf ionome to predict the physiological status of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in Camellia oleifera


Yongqing Cao, Sicheng Ye and Xiaohua Yao

Leaf ionome to predict the physiological status of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in Camellia oleifera


ABSTRACT:

The mineral nutrient and trace element composition of a tissue or organism is known as its ionome. In the present study, a statistical method to predict the physiological status of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) using the leaf ionome in Camellia oleifera was explored. The latter is an important non-wood forest shrub for edible oil production in China. The elements N, P, K, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) in the leaves of the sand-cultured seedlings with N, P, or K deficiency were investigated using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant relationships among the ions were found, and the leaf N, K, B, and Cu ions under N deficiency, the N, P, Fe, and Cu ions under P deficiency, and the N, K, B, Cu, Fe, and Mg ions under K deficiency showed obvious variations. Additionally, the principal component analysis (PCA) was introduced to reduce the dimensions of the multivariables based on the leaf ion concentrations. The PCA established that the leaf ionome contained information that could discriminate between the seedlings based on their N, P, or K status. Thus, statistical models were developed that could be used to classify the C. oleifera seedlings by their response to the N, P, and K deficiency or sufficiency, based on logistic regression. The area under the receiver-operator curves (AUC) showed that the P and K status prediction models built using the leaf ionome performed far better than those using single ions. Additionally, a >85% accuracy was obtained in discriminating between the seedlings under nutrient deficiency. The P prediction model also exhibited excellent specificity in the tests under N, K, Mg, or Mn deficiency

1349-1355 Download
25

The effects of different combination of combined fertilizer doses on some turfgrass performances of turf mixture


Mustafa Yilmaz

The effects of different combination of combined fertilizer doses on some turfgrass performances of turf mixture


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of different combinations of combined fertilizer dose applications on the turfgrass characteristics of a turf mixture in the ecological conditions of Sakarya/Pamukova in Turkey, between the years of 2013-2015. The research was conducted in the randomized block design with four replications. A cool season turf mixture consisting of 40% Lolium perenne L., cv. Integra, 25% Festuca rubra rubra L., cv. Eugene, 20% Festuca rubra commutata Gaud., cv. Survivor and 15% Poa pratensis L., cv. Evora was used as the material of the study. Such is a widely used mixture in the region. Nine different combination of NPK fertilizer doses (0-0-0, 5-2.5-2.5, 10-5-5, 15-7.5-7.5, 20-10-10, 25-12.5-12.5, 30-15-15, 35-17.5-17.5 and 40-20-20 g m-2 respectively) were tested. In this research; turf cover, weed invasion, uniformity, turf texture, color and turf quality were determined. At the end of the study, the most promising data were taken from the 30-15-15 g m-2 fertilizer dose compared to control

1357-1364 Download
26

Photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity of black locust in rapid response to plantation thinning on the semiarid loess plateau in China


Yuan Zheng, Jingjing Zhou, Hui Zhou and Zhong Zhao

Photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity of black locust in rapid response to plantation thinning on the semiarid loess plateau in China


ABSTRACT:

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been widely planted throughout the semiarid Loess Plateau in China. However, black locust plantations likely induce stand degradation and soil desiccation because of high water consumption, high stand density, and insufficient stand management. In this study, five kinds of density types in 19-year-old black locust plantations, including three intact non-thinned control plantation types with different stand densities (1800, 2700, and 3600 trees ha−1) and two thinned-treatment plantation types with the same stand densities (1800 trees ha−1) were selected to calculate the responses to thinning intensity in the Maliantan catchment within the central Loess Plateau. Gas exchange, leaf area index, associated changes in the photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity (PCFC), and environmental variables (light radiation, air temperature, and soil moisture) were determined throughout the growing season in 2009. The growth, daily leaf-level net CO2 assimilation rate (An), and tree-level PCFC were significantly different among the three intact black locust plantations in their annual growth period. An and PCFC increased as the stand density decreased because of enhanced environmental resource availabilities per individual tree, including the increased exposure to light radiation, canopy air temperature, and soil moisture level. Comparing thinned and non-thinned black locust plantations, we provided ecophysiological evidence that black locust trees could actively adjust their photosynthetic functions from the beginning of the first growing season after thinning to enhance their height, diameter, and canopy diameter during growth and development. This mechanism indicated that the rapid adaptability of black locust in response to plantation thinning on the semiarid Loess Plateau. Based on the same stand density (1800 trees ha−1), the low thinning intensity of 33% was more suitable for the sustainable management and increased of photosynthetic carbon fixation capacities of black locust trees on the Loess Plateau in China. These findings can enrich our knowledge of forest plantation dynamics and provide valuable information regarding sustainable plantation management in this ecological fragile region

1365-1374 Download
27

Influence of selected soil physical and chemical variables on distribution of perennial plant species in different plant communities of Aawdhat Al Masodi, Saudi Arabia


Fahad Saleh Al-Shamlani Al-Anazi and Salem Mesfir Al-Qahtani

Influence of selected soil physical and chemical variables on distribution of perennial plant species in different plant communities of Aawdhat Al Masodi, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to investigate the dominance of perennial plant communities in Rawdhat Al Masodi in Saudi Arabia and the effect of soil physical and chemical variables on the species distribution. A total of 51 plant species representing 25 families were reported from the study site in which 19 perennial species were reported that composite 7 plant communities. The soil physical and chemical variables showed significant differences among plant communities (ANOVA, p<0.05) except for pH. The identified plant communities (C1-C7) were dominated by Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, Acacia gerrardii, Acacia ehrenbergiana, Pulicaria undulate, Zilla spinosa and Teucrium oliverianum, respectively. The CCA model between species composition and soil physical and chemical variables was significant (Monte-Carlo test, 499 permutations, p<0.05) and explained 51.15 % of the total variation in species composition. The CCA identified strong factors structuring the perennial plant species in Rawdhat Al Masodisuch as organic matter (OM), total dissolved salts (TDS), phosphate (PO4), carbonate (CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3) contents. In conclusion, there was remarkable diversity in plant communities in Rawdhat Al Masodi with remarkable variation in their physical and chemical properties of soil. The floristic diversity in this area is threatened by several factors including occasional recreational activities, woodcutting and development. Further ecological studies should be conducted to better understanding the factors influencing the plant community in this area. The government should design immediate and effective conservation programs to protect the floristic diversity in this area from future deterioration.

1375-1380 Download
28

Treated residential greywater and its effect on shoot dry matter and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays)


Mehrunisa Memon, Abdul Majid Narejo, Fayyaz Ali Memon, Rasool Bux Mahar and Hidayatullah Kakar

Treated residential greywater and its effect on shoot dry matter and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays)


ABSTRACT:

Shortage of freshwater resources and limited fertilizer usage due to cost related issues in agriculture are the basic limiting factors in food production. This study evaluated the effect of greywater application on shoot dry mater and uptake of maize crop. The experiment included five treatments canal water, untreated greywater and treated greywater through reed bed technology using Cyperus iria, Phragmites karka and Typha elephantina, arranged in a randomized complete block design. All the treatments received a basal doze of NPK fertilizer. The soil used in the experiment was silty clay in texture with 55% clay, pH - 7.70, EC - 1.07 dS m-1, CaCO3 - 12.50% organic matter - 0.17%, NO3-N – 4.60 mg kg-1, NH4-N – 1.68 mg kg-1, ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable P and K as 0.18 and 270 mg kg-1, respectively. The treated greywater had a highly significant effect on shoot dry matter and N, P and K uptake in maize. The highest contents were found in treatments applied with greywater, treated under reed bed technology using Cyperus iria and the lowest in canal water applied treatments. Part of applied fertilizer was supplemented through greywater application.

1381-1385 Download
29

Structural characterization of 12S seed Cruciferin from Eruca sativa in solution applying small-angle X-ray scattering


Binish Khaliq, Sven Falke, Sadaf Iqbal, Friedrich Buck, Seema Mahmood, Zahid Ali, Maqsood Ahmad, Abdul Wahid Christian Betzel and Ahmed Akrem

Structural characterization of 12S seed Cruciferin from Eruca sativa in solution applying small-angle X-ray scattering


ABSTRACT:

Cruciferin (12S globulin) from seeds of Eruca sativa was isolated, purified and thoroughly characterized. The protein indicated 54 % sequence identity with the cruciferins of Brassica napus (CRU1) and Raphanus sativus (PGCRURSE5) when the obtained amino acid sequence from LC-MS/MS mass spectrometric data was submitted to the UniProtKB. SDS-PAGE exhibited an approx. 50 kDa monomeric cruciferin, which was separated into α-polypeptide with a major band at approx. 30 kDa and a β-polypeptide of approx. 20 kDa under reduced conditions. The secondary structure content of E. sativa Cruciferin (EsC) was analyzed by Circular Dichroism spectroscopy indicating 7% α-helix, 48% β-sheet, 7% β-turn and 38% disordered conformation. The monodispersity and stability of EsC was verified via Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and a hydrodynamic radius of EsC was calculated to be 5.5 ± 0.3 nm indicating a trimer of the protein in solution. A gyration radius (Rg) of 4.3± 0.30 nm and the globular molecular shape was disclosed by Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for EsC. An incredibly analogous globular shape was obtained when the ab-initio dummy model of EsC inferring P3 symmetry was carefully compared with the PDB-ID 3KGL; 11S globulin of Brassica napus. Moreover, the scattering patterns of both proteins showed a minimized χ2-value of 2.0 which further confirms the structural similarities. Protruding loops of the EsC model were considered as hyper variable region-I (HVR-I) of Arabidopsis thaliana Cruciferin C (AtCruC) and variable region II of 3KGL molecular structure and were nominated as the major flexible regions.

 

1387-1394 Download
30

Will global climate change facilitate plant invasions in conservation areas?


Chun-Jing Wang, Ji-Zhong Wan and Zhi-Xiang Zhang

Will global climate change facilitate plant invasions in conservation areas?


ABSTRACT:

Climate change may increase plant invasion risk, but few studies have paid attention to the relationship between climate change and plant invasion in conservation areas at a global scale. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether climate change would allow or even increase the likelihood that invasive alien plant species would invade conservation areas across the world and in particular regions. We modeled current and future potential distributions of invasive alien plant species using bioclimatic variables in the program Maxent. Our study found that global climate change would not lead to plant invasions in every conservation area, but it would provide the conditions for few invasive plant species to impact conservation areas in some regions. Greenhouse gas concentrations could aggravate the regional invasion of invasive plant species and make larger changes of ability of invasive plant species to invade conservation areas in low gas concentration scenario than high gas concentration scenario. Immediate measures must be taken to deal with this problem, such as developing global indicators of biological invasion and designing long-term management plans at different geographical scales.

1395-1403 Download
31

Assessing the impacts of changing climate on forest ecosystem services and livelihood of Balakot mountainous communities


Laila Shahzad, Arifa Tahir, Faiza Sharif, Ikram Ul Haq and Hamid Mukhtar

Assessing the impacts of changing climate on forest ecosystem services and livelihood of Balakot mountainous communities


ABSTRACT:

Mountainous communities are facing some profound climatic changes and environmental degradation due to their higher dependence on natural resources. The current study has estimated vulnerability of mountain forests and the provision of forest services to Balakot local community in context of climate change. The study had mapped three integral ecosystem services as provisionary (fuel wood, timber, fresh water), regulatory (protection from natural hazards) and cultural (recreation) through the local community’s perception. Carbon stock assessment as a regulatory service of the forest was carried out in the standing trees and from the soil of five selected sites in Balakot. Results have shown that these forests provide myriad of services to their surrounding communities in the form of timber, firewood, climate regulation and recreation etc. In terms of change in delivery of ecosystem services, 66% respondents informed that fuel wood has declined, 82% were of the view that forest cover has been reduced and 83% were agreed that their local forest is important for peace and harmony. The total carbon stock assessment was found to be 243.79 t/ha with an average tree biomass of 207.41 t/ha and the soil carbon of 36.38 t/ha. The study concluded that these forests are playing a vital role for the livelihood of the surrounding community as well as contributing in the climate change impacts mitigation. Therefore, these forest needs to be managed sustainably for the continuity of numerous services to mankind

1405-1414 Download
32

Guidelines for habitat management: the influence of slope on population expansion of Euphorbia clivicola R.A. Dyer. a case study


Seloba Ignitius Chuene, Martin Johannes Potgieter and Johannes Wilhelmus Kruger

Guidelines for habitat management: the influence of slope on population expansion of Euphorbia clivicola R.A. Dyer. a case study


ABSTRACT:

Topographical factors such as slope aspect and position play a significant role in plant survival and community arrangement. Euphorbia clivicola is a rare and critically endangered plant species in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This species tend to grow on northern slopes that are usually earmarked for urban development within its distribution area. The aim of this research was to assess the significance of slope on population structure. The occupied habitat was stratified into three positions: top slope, middle slope and bottom slope. Population structure and density of the plants were documented. Euphorbia clivicola plants gradually decreased in canopy size as the slope gradient decrease (from top to bottom). Thus the significance of slope on population structure is that; slope influences propagule dispersal and ultimately population structure through surface water runoff. Density was inversely proportional to canopy size, which suggests that colonisation of sites by E. clivicola is influenced by slope gradient. Conservators should discourage development on the northern aspects of habitats occupied by E. clivicola, as it will negatively affect the relief site of the population.

1415-1419 Download
33

Population structure analysis of habanero chili (capsicum chinense Jacq.) with AFLP


Laura Maryela Perez-Castaneda, Netzahualcoyotl Mayek-Perez, Regulo Ruiz-Salazar and Guillermo Castanon-Najera

Population structure analysis of habanero chili (capsicum chinense Jacq.) with AFLP


ABSTRACT:

The structure of four Habanero Chili pepper populations (C. chinense Jacq.), was estimated with AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphisms) markers. Three of the four evaluated populations were selected in Tabasco and one from Campeche, each population consisted of 15 individual plants. The six oligonucleotides combinations used at this research showed products of 34 to 422 pb, and produced 1722 total bands. Combination E-AAG/M-CAG amplified the largest bands number (329) and E-ACA/M-CTG detected the minor bands number (190). The populations of Mucuychacán, Campeche, presented the largest polimorphism (1371 polimorphic bands), with mean of 228.5 bands polimorphic per oligonucleotide, the polimorphic bands minor number was observed at Cucuyulapa, Tabasco with 1216. The AMOVA (Variance Molecular Analysis) showed a genetic differentiation index of FST= 0.13, the variability explained among populations were minor (14.14%), that within populations (85.86%). The populations structure was determined with a value of deltaK=3. The cluster analysis grouped the plants of Santa Cruz Tlacotalpa as an independent population, and some plants of Mucuychacán, Cucuyulapa and Ranchería El Habanero populations were grouped at the cluster I.

1421-1427 Download
34

Notes on Asteraceae-Cardueae from Pakistan and Kashmir: Some additions and corrections


Muhammad Qaiser, Abdul Ghafoor and Roohi Abid

Notes on Asteraceae-Cardueae from Pakistan and Kashmir: Some additions and corrections


ABSTRACT:

During the preparation of an account of the tribe Cardueae (Family Asteraceae) for the Flora of Pakistan two new species viz., Lipschitziella congesta Qaiser, A. Ghafoor & R. Abid and Dolomiaea megacephala Qaiser, A. Ghafoor & R. Abid and two varieties Lipschitziella ceratocarpa (Decne.) Kamelin var. astorii R. Abid & Qaiser and Lipschitziella congesta Qaiser, A. Ghafoor & R. Abid var. pinnatisecta R. Abid & Qaiser are described. A new combination Himalaiella diffusa (Lipschitz) A. Ghafoor, R. Abid & Qaiser and two status nova are also proposed in Saussurea DC. and Tricholepis DC. Moreover, eleven taxa representing the genera Carduus L., Cousinia Cass., Echinops L., Jurinea Cass. and Ticholepis DC., are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. For the new species line drawings, photographs of types and SEM micrographs of cypselas and pappus are also provided.

1429-1440 Download
35

Camellia velutina (Theaceae, Sect. Chrysantha), a new species from northern Vietnam


Van The Pham, Van Dung Luong, Leonid V. Averyanov, Ngoc Bon Trinh, Thi Lieu Nguyen and Thi Lien Thuong Nguyen

Camellia velutina (Theaceae, Sect. Chrysantha), a new species from northern Vietnam


ABSTRACT:

Camellia velutina V.T. Pham, V.D. Luong & Aver. found in Phu Tho province, northeastern Vietnam is described and illustrated. The comparison between the new species and closely related species is provided.

1441-1446 Download
36

Comparative analysis of taxonomic characters of Sindhri and Langra mango varieties of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) found in Sindh


Feroza Shar Baloch, Nabila Shah Jilani, Syeda Saleha Tahir and Muhammad Tahir Rajput

Comparative analysis of taxonomic characters of Sindhri and Langra mango varieties of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) found in Sindh


ABSTRACT:

Present study was carried out to analyze the taxonomic characters of Sindhri and Langra mango Mangifera indica L. varieties found in Sindh. Varieties were collected from Mirpurkhas district of Sindh for investigations. Both varieties revealed various differences in floral and fruit characteristics. Sizes of inflorescence were 28-30 cm. 25-28 cm. with conical, pyramidal shape in Sindhri and Langra respectively. Sindhri Mango flower was found 4-6 mm. and Langra Mango was 6-8 mm. Fruit was 15-17x7-9 cm. in Sindhri Mango with weight of 400-500 g and 9-11x6-8 cm. with weight 220-250 g in Langra Mango variety. Sindhri Mango flavour was pleasant aromatic, significantly different from Langra’sflavour which was turpentine.The findings revealed that both varieties most recommended for human consumption and could be used in variety developing programmes.

 

1447-1452 Download
37

Phylogenetic position of west African species of the genus Crotalaria L. (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae) based on the current infrageneric classification


Samaila Samaila Yaradua, Dhafer Ahmed Alzahrani and Abubakar Bello

Phylogenetic position of west African species of the genus Crotalaria L. (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae) based on the current infrageneric classification


ABSTRACT:

Crotalaria L. (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae) is among the largest legume genera consisting of ca. 702 species with the majority of the species (ca. 400) distributed in tropical and sub-tropical Africa. The current existing global sectional classification of Crotalaria does not include the majority of the West African species. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region of seven species of Crotalaria from West Africa was sampled with the aim of determining their phylogenetic relationships and position based on the current sectional classification. Dataset was analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian MCMC (MrBayes) approaches. The result showed that C. macrocalyx, C. senegalensisand C. pallidawere closely related and belonged to Hediriocarpae clade while C. retusa and C. goreensis, C. atrurubens, C. barkaefell within the Calycinae, Stipulosae, Longirostres and Incanae clades respectively. Our results also showed that C. retusawas resolved as sister to southern African C. papilosain Calycinae clade. The result of this is study supports the sectional classification in Crotalaria and helps in revealing the phylogenetic position of the poorly studied West African species.

1453-1458 Download
38

The characteristics of reproductive allocation of Prunella vulgaris L. populations in heterogeneous environments


Yuhang Chen, Wei Yang, Qiaosheng Guo, Li Liu, Xiaoming Zhang and Deqian Wan

The characteristics of reproductive allocation of Prunella vulgaris L. populations in heterogeneous environments


ABSTRACT:

To provide a basis for the reasonable utilization and protection of natural Prunella vulgaris L. resources, the current study was conducted to analyze the characteristics of reproductive allocation between sexual and asexual reproduction in P. vulgaris populations from heterogeneous environments. Multiple comparison and correlation analyses were carried out to understand the proportions of sexual and asexual reproduction of P. vulgaris in heterogeneous environments. The results showed that total biomass reached its maximum in the ripening period in heterogeneous environments. Each mode of biomass allocation among the different populations was sharp; the biomass allocation to spica and cloning changed dramatically, showing gradient differences with environment changes. The volume-weight, organic matter, water content and species diversity in heterogeneous environments played very important roles in the clonal growth process of P. vulgaris. The intensity of P. vulgaris reproductive allocation was different in different heterogeneous environments, which supports a trade-off relationship between sexual and asexual reproduction. 

1459-1464 Download
39

Allelopathic assessment for the environmental biosafety of the transgenic oilseed rape lines harboring the antifungal synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene


Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Hilal Ahmad, Mazhar Ullah, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmad and Iqbal Munir

Allelopathic assessment for the environmental biosafety of the transgenic oilseed rape lines harboring the antifungal synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene


ABSTRACT:

Brassica is famous for its contribution to fulfil the edible oil demand. Allelopathic tests were conducted on two varieties of Brassica napus i.e., Durr-e-NIFA (DN) and Abasyn-95 (AB-95) and their corresponding six transformed lines (DN-13, DN-120, DN-127, AB-11, AB-18, AB-31).The transgenic lines harbor synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) that confers resistance against Alterneria brassicicola. Allelopathic assessments were conducted on plant parts and the below ground soil samples of corresponding transgenic and non-transgenic lines using sandwich bioassay method. No difference was found in the effect of transgenic and non-transgenic lines (when using either fresh or dry leaf sample) on seed germination and seedling length of lettuce. Similar non-significant differences were found between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines for lettuce seeds germination in soil. The impact of root secreta from lines of both varieties was determined on fungi, actenomycetes and bacteria (microbes of the rhizosphere). Non-significant variation was found between transgenic and their corresponding non-transgenic lines for all the three tested microbes. In comparison to DN variety and the transgenic DN lines, the AB-95 variety and its transgenic lines showed slightly higher CFU (colony forming units) values. However, these differences were non-significant and considered to inherent differences between the two varieties. On overall basis, a substantial equivalence was considered on transgenic and non-transgenic lines for all the tested bioassays

1465-1472 Download
40

Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type five (MGFP-5)


Ya Wei Lv, Yu Jing Zhang, Wen Ying Gao and Ying Juan Wang

Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type five (MGFP-5)


ABSTRACT:

Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5) can be used as medical adhesive or in underwater environments due to its significant adhesive ability and biodegradable properties. To obtain sufficient Mgfp-5 for further study, genetic engineering has been abundantly used, while plant genetic engineering was rarely applied. This study reports an efficient protocol for the direct regeneration of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), with a regeneration frequency of 79.18% in the case of inoculation on MS+1.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA medium. The plant expression vector pRI101-Mgfp of the Mgfp-5 gene was transformed into chicory via Agrobacterium mediation. After plant selection and regeneration, regenerated plants with resistance were successfully obtained. The efficient transformation system of the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation consists of leaf explants immersed in Agrobacterium at O.D.(600) of 0.6 for 10 min after being pre-cultured for 3 d, followed by co-culture for 3 d. Then, these explants were transferred to medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin1 selection power. As proved via PCR, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis, the Mgfp-5 gene was integrated into the chicory genome, accompanied by normal transcript and expression, as well as stable genetic transformation and inheritance. These results underpin future research toward providing a feasible method for the production of Mgfp-5 protein.

1473-1480 Download
41

Arbuscular mycorrhizal spores distribution across different ecosystems of Qinghai Tibetan plateau


Ali Bahadur, Zhongcai Jin, Shengjin Jiang, Yuxing Chai1, Qi Zhang, Jianbin Pan, Yongjun Liu and Huyuan Feng

Arbuscular mycorrhizal spores distribution across different ecosystems of Qinghai Tibetan plateau


ABSTRACT:

Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spores diversity is well studied in several ecosystems, very little is known about AMF spore diversity in cold-dominated ecosystems of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Overall 60 soil samples were collected from 15 sites, with 5 replicates of each including agriculture, forest, meadow, and shrub ecosystems. Both morphological and molecular methods were adapted for spore identification. At the generic level, differences among the four ecosystems were distinct. The agriculture ecosystem was particularly unique due to its greater uneven distribution of AMF genera. Four of the 11 genera, Diversispora, Funneliformis, Claroideoglomus, and Acaulospora, accounted for more than 90% of the total relative abundance. Acaulospora koskei, Funneliformis sp. and Dentiscutata erythropa were the key indicator species in agriculture, shrub and meadow ecosystems, respectively. Spore densities in the agriculture ecosystem were higher than in the other ecosystems while species richness were lower. Compared to other ecosystems Shannon index of diversity indicated the highest diversity of AMF in forest. Morphological and single spore identification provides the better differentiation in community distributions and occurrence as well as the diversity of AMF spores in various ecosystems.

1481-1492 Download
42

An appraisal of ethnobotanical investigation of indigenous flora from a high temperature affected area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan


Nadeem Ahmed, Muhmmad Anees and Lixin Zhang

An appraisal of ethnobotanical investigation of indigenous flora from a high temperature affected area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Traditional herbal medicine uses cultural knowledge and practices for maintenance of human health. In economically poor regions of Pakistan such as Distric Rajanpur, the majority of people rely on traditional medicines. Since such practices have not been rigorously and systematically studied or reported, a quantitative ethnobotanical study was conducted to document the medicinal plants and their uses in traditional herbal therapies which will help in developing socio-economic reforms in health-care systems. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA), Used value (UV), and Informant census factor (ICF) were used to analyze the data which was collected during spring-summer (March to June) and monsoon season to winter (August to December, 2014). A total of 64 medicinal plants belonging to 56 genera and 34 families were reported to be effective for 08 major ailments in the local healthcare system of Rajanpur, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Among medicinal plants, Acacia nilotica used in the treatment to purifier blood, laxative and anticonvulsant had the highest used value (UV=0.88). Poaceae, the predominant family contributed 08 species. Leaves (31.3%) were the major parts of the plant used in herbal therapies. Eleven medicinal plants were used for the treatment of skin diseases and rheumatism. The highest informant census factor (0.80) was reported for the respiratory systems problems. Quantitative analyses made of collected data indicated that medicinal plants were an integral part of the life of district Rajanpur. The vegetation of the study area comprises valuable to its natural resources are used for the treatment of various ailments.

1493-1506 Download
43

Management of root rotting fungi and root knot nematode with endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with Salvadora species


Farzana Korejo, Syed Abid Ali, Fozia Humayun, Afshan Rahman, Viqar Sultana, Jehan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Management of root rotting fungi and root knot nematode with endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with Salvadora species


ABSTRACT:

Root diseases caused by soilborne plant pathogens are responsible for the losses of billions of dollars in agricultural crops annually. The biological control of soilborne pathogens with microbial antagonists is gaining popularity in the crop protection system, due to the adverse effects of chemicals. In this study 40 isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were isolated from roots, shoots and leaves of Salvadora persica L. and S. oleoides Decne. Most of them showed strong suppressive effect on root rotting fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum In vitro. Significant nematicidal activity against root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) was also observed by the cell-free culture filtrates of these isolates. Identification of six potential isolates was confirmed by using molecular biology tools. Out of which 3 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one each as P. putida and P. monteilii, while one appeared as uncultured Pseudomonas. Experiments conducted on sunflower both in clay pots and field plots, test isolates of endophytic Pseudomonas were found effective in suppressing the root rot disease with improved plant growth as compared to untreated control. Efficacy of some isolates was found comparable with commercial fungicide carbendazim. Some isolates were also found effective in reducing the infestation of root knot nematode under field condition with improved flower weight

1507-1516 Download
44

Organic and mineral fertilizers sway the nitrogen availability to plants via microbial diversity – long-term impact


Zarina Bibi, Weixin Ding, Ghulam Jilani, Naqib Ullah Khan and Hafsa Saleem

Organic and mineral fertilizers sway the nitrogen availability to plants via microbial diversity – long-term impact


ABSTRACT:

Continued application of organic matter and inorganic synthetic fertilizers to soil influences the nutrient dynamics and diversity of microbial communities. A single site field study (plot size of 9.5 m × 5 m used in each treatment) encompassing 23 years compared the impact of organic and NPK fertilizers for exploring amino acids as indicators of nitrogen fate, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) as biomarkers of microbial diversity in North China Plain field. Treatments in quadruplicated RCBD experiment were: whole N from organic manure (OM); half N from OM + half N from chemical fertilizer (HOM); chemical NPK fertilizers (NPK), NP, NK, PK, and no fertilizer control or check (CK) applied to raise wheat and maize crops continuously. To each crop, N was applied at the rate of 150 kg N ha–1 through organic manure and/or chemical fertilizer urea in two splits (90 + 60 kg N ha–1). Calcium superphosphate (150 kg P2O5 ha–1) and potassium sulfate (150 kg K2O ha–1) were applied basally in respective treatments. Soil samples were drawn from each treatment after 23 years of experimentation. These fertilization amendments exhibited that contents of total nitrogen and amino acids were significantly (p≤0.05) higher under OM and HOM compared to NPK and CK treatments. Total amino acids determination revealed that N and P included treatments among mineral fertilizers mainly contributed to amino acids residues in soil. The PLFA profiling exhibited that increased amino acids under OM and HOM correlated significantly (p≤0.05) and positively with an increase of Gram-positive (G+ve) bacteria and fungi, negatively with actinomycetes, and non-significantly with Gram-negative (G‒ve) bacteria. These results suggest that accrual of organic and microbial residues (G+ve bacterial and fungal) enhance the N stabilization in surface soil, which ultimately could increase the plant growth and yield of crops

1517-1522 Download
45

Fungal contamination in dried fruits and nuts: a possible source of mycoses and mycotoxicoses


Mustansir Abbas, Sehar Afshan Naz, Maryam Shafique, Nusrat Jabeen and Shaheen Abbas

Fungal contamination in dried fruits and nuts: a possible source of mycoses and mycotoxicoses


ABSTRACT:

Fungi, being an integral constituent of this earth, cause contamination in many food stuffs including dried fruits and nuts. This fungal contamination not only leads to spoilage of these nutritive substances but also responsible for mycoses and mycotoxicoses among consumers especially immune compromised individuals. Keeping in view this aspect, this study was designed to investigate the fungal contamination in dried fruits and nuts sold in local markets of Karachi city. For this purpose, a total of eighty-four samples of dried fruits and nuts were collected from different local vendors in Karachi. These samples were crushed and screened for the presence of fungal contamination by streaking on Sabouraud`s dextrose agar. The fungal colonies appeared were identified by macroscopic and microscopic study. The isolated strains were further tested for their susceptibility to antifungal agents by using disc diffusion method. The aflatoxigenic strains among isolated Aspergillus species were also detected by using cultural methods (Ammonium hydroxide technique and Ultra Violet Photography technique).The overall results exhibited presence of high fungal load in dried fruits and nuts particularly in raisins and apricots. The samples collected from local markets (Karachi) were found more contaminated as compared to those obtained from their sites of origin (Gilgit). Aspergillus niger was isolated as the most predominant species (25.8%) followed by A. flavus (19.35%) among all isolated fungal strains. Among all A. flavus strains, 18% were found aflatoxigenic as detected by cultural method. Furthermore, the isolated fungal strains exhibited 100% resistance against fluconazole, while high resistance against Amphotericin B was also recorded by many fungal strains. High burden of drug resistant and aflatoxigenic fungi in edible items such as dried fruits and nuts pose an upcoming threat for human population therefore needs prompt management. 

1523-1529 Download
46

Mapping of plant science research productivity in Pakistan


Saima Nasir, Jamila Ahmed, Javeria Qadir and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani

Mapping of plant science research productivity in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this study was to carry out a bibliometric analysis of the articles published from Pakistan during 1975-2017 that were categorized into the Plant Science discipline by ISI. The data were extracted from the Science Citation Index online database of the Web of Science, obtaining a total of 14,504 articles for analysis. The 10 most-cited articles and 10 most frequently used journals were identified. The analysis showed a rising trend in research output within the discipline of plant sciences and the number increased from just 16 publications in 1975 to 1276 in 2017.When compared with other categories of subjects, the plant scientists are the 6thmost active researchers in Pakistan, chemists being on top, but being an agricultural country, more research is needed to be carried out in this field and scientists should be encouraged to publish their research in peer-reviewed and indexed journals to make it available to the scientific community

1531-1538 Download
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