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Year 2019 , Volume  51, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Salinity adaptability responses of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) under high saline soil stress over whole growth period


Xin-Hui Xiao, Xiang-Hua Li and Ke-Jing Wang

Salinity adaptability responses of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) under high saline soil stress over whole growth period


ABSTRACT:

Wild soybean is expected to improve stress tolerance of soybeans. However, few salt-tolerance identifications are done through whole growth period in this plant. We identified 895 wild soybean samples in a high-salinity soil during the whole growth period. The results showed that there were five types in salinity adaptability response (A, non-germinable; B, seedling death; C, before-flowering death; D, before-maturity death and E, lived to seed maturity). Under high-salinity conditions, the most severe loss was above-ground dry weight (lost 87.25%) followed by yield per plant (82.58%), the number of seeds per plant (73.71%). However, 100-seed weight had a relatively low reduction (40%). The number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, above-ground dry weight, harvesting index, growth period, and plant height were significantly positively correlated with yield mainly indirectly via the number of seeds, with higher indirect path coefficients. The highly salinity-tolerant lines (E type) possessed more rapid growth and lesser growth inhibition, however, they were evolved into different levels of adaptability to salinity according the comprehensive assessment D values. Our present study suggested that early or short-term or staged-identification would have the hazard of misjudgement of salinity tolerance and whole growth period identification should be adopted for soybean breeding program

1917-1928 Download
2

The effects of ethyl methanesulfonate applications on macro and micro elements content in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivated in vitro under saline conditions


Nuket Altindal

The effects of ethyl methanesulfonate applications on macro and micro elements content in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivated in vitro under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Salt tolerant cultivars of sunflower can be obtained from induced mutation. The objective of the present study was to induce mutation for salt tolerance using ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) in sunflower, followed by plant regeneration in In vitro under saline conditions and determine the effect of salinity stress on macro and micro plant nutritions of the leaves of two sunflower cultivars (Çetin Bey and Palanc? I). Kernel of seed of “Çetin Bey” and “Palanc? I” cultivars were kept in EMS solution at different doses (0, 0-1, 0-1, 5% and 2,0%) and taken into In vitro culture containing NaCl at different doses (0,0-1,25-2,50 and 5,00 g/L). The response of the cultivars used in the research on minerals showed differences. Although the effect of increasing NaCl doses on mineral content varied, mineral content, in general, was found to be high at 2,5 g/L NaCl dose. The effect of applied EMS doses on N, P and Zn contents was insignificant, and 1,0% EMS applications had a positive effect on the amount of other mineral substances, causing an increase. The study concluded that EMS applications could have a positive effect on the development of sunflower under saline conditions

1929-1938 Download
3

Impact of salicylic acid foliar application on two wheat cultivars grown under saline conditions


Adel Badr El-Nasharty, Sona Salem El-Nwehy, El-Zanaty Abd El-Motaleb Aly Abou El-Nour and Abdelhalim Ibrahim Rezk

Impact of salicylic acid foliar application on two wheat cultivars grown under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the limiting factors in agricultural production of all crops in the world specifically in cereals crops. There are different ways to decrease the effect of salinity on growth and production of all plants. One of these ways is using salicylic acid which is plant growth regulator; it is able to increase the salt tolerance in crops. The aim of this work was to study salicylic acid effects on alleviation salinity stress and enhance plant growth parameters, physical characteristics, biochemical constituents, element contents, and production of two wheat varieties grown under salinity stress conditions in the North West area of Egypt. The experiment was designed in split plot with using four replicates. The two wheat varieties; Giza 168 a salt sensitive variety and Sakha 93 a salt tolerant variety were used with salicylic acid (SA) foliar application treatments: control, SA100 (100 mg salicylic acid/ L), SA200 (200 mg salicylic acid/ L) and SA400 (400 mg salicylic acid/ L) were applied during tillering and booting initiation stages. Results cleared that salicylic acid foliar application decreased the damage effects of salinity stress in both wheat cultivars especially, in Giza168 which was more sensitive to salinity by increasing growth and production of antioxidant such as ascorbic acid and protect both protein and chlorophyll from breakdown by free radicals. Foliar application of salicylic acid increased grain and straw yield of studied wheat cultivars and also increased potassium content and decreased Na: K ratio in straw. Overall, it can be suggested that foliar application of Salicylic acid is effective strategy to improve wheat productivity under salinity stress especially, for salt sensitive cultivars

1939-1944 Download
4

Genotypic variations in salinity tolerance amoung BT cotton


Muhammad Awais Farooq, A. Shakeel, R.M. Atif And M.F. Saleem

Genotypic variations in salinity tolerance amoung BT cotton


ABSTRACT:

Salinity stress is one of the most serious environmental problem that negatively affects the growth of plants, especially in arid and semi arid regions. Scientists have been struggling to address this problem through land reclamation methods and by adding various organic manures into the soil. However, the most cost effective method is to develop salt tolerant varieties. Keeping this in view, fifty cotton genotypes were collected from different areas and were subjected to evaluation. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity of 10dSm-1 and 15dSm-1 from 10th day seedlings stage to 40th day. Plants were harvested when they were 40 days old and the data was compared at absolute value and relative values from the seedlings. Analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences among genotypes at control and both salinity levels. Results showed that salinity adversely affected the root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight, dry root weight in comparison to chlorophyll contents. Magnitude of Sodium under NaCl stress increased many folds and reduction in potassium was also witnessed in the leaves. Broad sense heritability was high whereas phenotypic variance is equal or less than genotypic variances. The genotypes that perform better for the trait that had high broad sense heritability were selected as salt tolerant genotypes such as KEHKSHAN, S 3, NIAB 824 and MNH 988 whereas C 26, FH 114 and FH 173 were conceived as salt sensitive genotypes. The results indicate that selection for cotton will be problematic due to masking effects of environment, and imply rigorous and careful selection of salt tolerant genotypes

1945-1953 Download
5

Leaf proteome analysis signified that photosynthesis and antioxidants are key indicators of salinity tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.)


Muhammad Iqbal, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Javed, Zafar Ullah Zafar and Muhammad Ashraf

Leaf proteome analysis signified that photosynthesis and antioxidants are key indicators of salinity tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.)


ABSTRACT:

Growth and yield reduction in different crops including canola is predicted to rise due to salinity stress in coming years. Understanding responses to salt stress will help in selecting and breeding salt tolerant canola cultivars. Physiological and leaf proteomic responses of 13 cultivars of canola were investigated under salt stress. In a pot experiment, three-week-old plants were grown under normal or salt stress (150 mM NaCl) for further two weeks. Out of 13 canola cultivars, cvs DGL, Dunkled, Faisal Canola and Punjab Canola were categorized as salinity stress tolerant cultivars, while cvs Bulbul-98, Oscar, Legend and Cyclone considered as salt sensitive. Wide genotypic variations in canola cultivars have been observed in accumulation of potassium and sodium ions in the leaves and roots. Salt tolerant cultivars accumulated lower Na+ in their leaves than in in roots indicating limited uptake of Na+ at root level with subsequent its transport to shoot. Moreover, salt tolerant cultivars had greater Na+ discriminating capacity against K+. Salt tolerant cultivars were higher in leaf relative water content. Although Fv/Fm did not change in canola cultivars due to salt stress, Fv/Fo and PIABS decreased considerably in all cultivars indicating important indicators of salt stress. Salt stress increased Vj, VI, ABS/RC, TRo/RC and DIo/RC but it decreased ETo/RC which indicated that salt stress damaged the donor end of PSII (oxygen evolving complex) and reaction centers. Such adverse effects were maximal in salt sensitive cultivar Legend while minimal effects were observed in salt tolerant canola cultivars Faisal Canola, DGL and Dunkled. From comparative proteome analysis, it is obvious that 18 differentially expressed proteins in canola cultivars are mainly related with antioxidative defense system, photosynthesis and gene regulation. In addition, expression of these proteins was greater in salt tolerant cultivars. Cellular enegetics related proteins were downregulated particularly in salt sensitive cultivars due to salt stress. It is concluded that antioxidative defence system and photosynthesis are major componens of salt tolerance in canola in addition to salt exclusion. In addition, physiological studies complemented with proteomics will help in understanding detailed mechanism of salt tolerance

1955-1968 Download
6

Response of wheat varieties to salinity stresses as ameliorated by seed priming


Attaullah Khan, Muhammad Shafi, Jehan Bakht, Muhammad Owais Khan and Shazma Anwar

Response of wheat varieties to salinity stresses as ameliorated by seed priming


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is the most detrimental stress which severely inhibits development of all cultivated crops. In this experiment salinity tolerance of fourteen wheat varieties were  assessed with seed priming (50 mM CaCl2) and four levels of (NaCl) salinity (0, 45, 90, 135 mM). The results revealed that effects of salinity and seed priming was significant (p≤0.05) on root length, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root Na+ content. Pirsabak-05 variety has produced maximum root length (24.12 cm), shoot dry weight plant-1 (2.08 g), root fresh and dry weight plant-1 (2.36 vs 0.47g). Maximum shoot fresh weight plant-1 (8.61 g) was recorded from Lalma-13. Highest root to shoot ratio was observed in wheat variety Insaf-15. Among all wheat varieties, Uqab-00 variety has accumulated highest shoot and root Na+ content (1.31 vs 2.58 mg g-1 dry weight). The seed priming has enhanced root length, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight except shoot and root Na+ content. Wheat varieties Pirsabak-05, Lalma-13 and Insaf-15 were more responsive to seed priming compared with Uqab-00 and Seher-06. It is concluded that wheat varieties Pirsabak-05, Lalma-13 and Insaf-15 were more tolerant to salinity compared with other varieties. 

1969-1978 Download
7

Effect of seed priming with aqueous extracts of carrot roots, garlic cloves or ascorbic acid on the yield of Vicia faba grown under drought stress


Wedad A. Kasim, Afaf A. Nessem and Azza Gaber

Effect of seed priming with aqueous extracts of carrot roots, garlic cloves or ascorbic acid on the yield of Vicia faba grown under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Two drought stress treatments were applied on Vicia faba (cv. Giza 716) seedlings (14-days-old). Watering was not done for 14 days (D1) or 22 days (D2) and left to grow on clay-sandy soil (2:1 w/w) till yield stage. The impact of seed priming by presoaking in the extract of carrot root (Cr), garlic cloves (G), or ascorbic acid (AA) on the alleviation of the hurtful influence of drought stress was studied. Results showed that drought stress (D1 and D2) caused reduction in glucose, sucrose and starch contents of the increased seeds and in the yield also, while the total soluble protein content was increased. Seed priming with G, Cr or AA reduced the deleterious effects of drought on yield attributes and metabolites of Vicia faba, with some enhancements over their corresponding control values. SDS-PAGE of the yielded seeds showed that D1 and D2 led to the appearance of some newly synthesized protein bands and disappearance of others. Priming with G, Cr or AA resulted in the re-appearance of the disappearing bands and the synthesis of new ones. ISSR-analysis of the D2-stressed-yielded seeds showed that priming with G or Cr extracts resulted in the formation of one and two unique bands, respectively. Priming with AA caused the disappearance of one unique band (466 bp) which was restored under priming with G, Cr or AA. Seven newly synthesized bands appeared on priming.

1979-1985 Download
8

Influence of melatonin on antioxidant defense system and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under saline condition


Sara Zafar, Zuhair Hasnain, Sumera Anwar, Shagufta Perveen, Naeem Iqbal, Ali Noman and Mohsan Ali

Influence of melatonin on antioxidant defense system and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under saline condition


ABSTRACT:

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has emerged as a new growth regulator in plants due to its positive role in alleviation of abiotic stresses. The regulation effect of melatonin in mediation of salinity stress on antioxidative activities, growth and yield of wheat plants was investigated using genotypes Sarsabz and S-24, grown under 10 dSm-1 NaCl salinity stress. Different concentrations of melatonin (50, 100, 300 and 500 µM) were applied foliarly after 45 days of sowing (DAS). Results revealed that melatonin under salinity stress significantly improved the growth and yield of both wheat genotypes as compared to non-treated ones. The yield was enhanced to 5 and 11% by 50 µM melatonin in both wheat cultivars respectively, which increased further 44 and 48% at 500 µM melatonin level in Sarsabz and S-24 respectively, as compared to salinity alone treatment. Furthermore, foliar spray of melatonin was effective in improving the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase under stress conditions in wheat genotypes. The application of 500 μM melatonin was more effective in reducing the oxidative damage under salinity stress in terms of activities of antioxidant enzymes with an alternate decrease in malondialdehyde content. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes are positively related with an enhanced biomass production and yield showing the ameliorative effect of melatonin under salt stress condition by up regulating the antioxidative defense mechanism. Results suggested that the foliar application of melatonin can be a useful strategy to help plant combat adverse conditions for enhancing yield of wheat plants.

1987-1994 Download
9

Promoting salt tolerance in wheat seedlings by application of nitrogen fertilizer


Muhi Eldeen Hussien Ibrahim, Xinkai Zhu, Guisheng Zhou, Adam Yousif Adam Ali, Irshad Ahmad, Aboagla Mohammed Ibrahim Elsiddig, Guanglong Zhu and Nimir Eltyb Ahmed Nimir

Promoting salt tolerance in wheat seedlings by application of nitrogen fertilizer


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the primary abiotic stresses limiting crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study was conducted to examine if nitrogen fertilizer could alleviate the adverse impacts of salinity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling emergence, seedling growth characteristic and physiological responses. Two wheat varieties (Xumai30 and Elnilein) were sown into soil treated with NaCl at levels of 1.4, 2.5, 4.2, and 7.6 dS m−1. The saline soil was fertilized with three nitrogen levels as urea fertilizer (0, 86, and 210 kg N ha-1). The emergence percentage, root and shoot length, and total dry weight were significantly affected by the interaction among the varieties, nitrogen, and salinity. The interaction between nitrogen and salinity was impacted the seedling vigor index (SVI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and protein were increased with increasing nitrogen level and decreased in salt-stressed plants. The antioxidant enzymes of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), were increased with increasing salinity level. This study revealed that nitrogen was successful for alleviating the adverse effects of NaCl. Furthermore, 86 and 210 kg Nha-1 had similar effects on wheat seedling emergence, seedling growth and physiological responses. Moreover, results revealed that nitrogen fertilizer at moderate salinity exerted a positive affect on wheat plants while at high salt concentration had negative affect or remained ineffective. Therefore, fertilizers management is required in the salt-affected areas to sustain yield and to decrease the degradation of soil.

 

1995-2002 Download
10

Physiological markers mitigate drought stress in Panicum turgidum Forssk. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi


Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Baby Tabassum, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Thobayet Safar Alshahrani, Jahangir Ahmad Malik and Abeer Hashem

Physiological markers mitigate drought stress in Panicum turgidum Forssk. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that inhibits the rehabilitation of degraded rangelands in Saudi Arabia, however, studies on the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to improve stress tolerance are lacking. Panicum turgidum, (Poaceae) is widely distributed in the Sahara of Saudi Arabia and represents a relatively good source for crude protein as fodder. An experiment was conducted in pots to evaluate the ability of AMF to improve drought-stress tolerance in P. turgidum. Results indicated that drought stress reduced the growth of P. turgidum and affected AMF colonization by reducing the number of spores, arbuscules, vesicles, and mycelia. Inoculation of the soil with AMF significantly enhanced root growth and ameliorated the negative effects of drought stress. AMF upregulated the antioxidant system in P. turgidum which prevented the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and thus reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation. In addition, AMF also enhanced the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA); thereby promoting growth under both normal and drought-stress conditions. In summary, soil inoculation with AMF improved drought stress tolerance in P. turgidum by enhancing the antioxidant system in host tissues

2003-2011 Download
11

Effects of PEG induced water stress on growth and physiological responses of rice genotypes at seedling stage


A. Shereen, M.A. Khanzada, M.A. Wahid Baloch, Asma, M.U. Shirazi, M.A.Khan and M. Arif

Effects of PEG induced water stress on growth and physiological responses of rice genotypes at seedling stage


ABSTRACT:

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of water deficit imposed by three different concentrations of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000; w/v - 10, 15 & 20% equivalent to osmotic potential -0.19, -0.36 and -0.58 MPa along with non treated control) on plant growth and physiological traits of eight rice genotypes at seedling stage. The results showed that all growth and physiological responses of rice genotypes were affected with varying intensities under water stress conditions. These effects were comparatively low at 0.19and 0.36 MPa, PEG-6000. The concentration of 0.58 MPa, PEG-6000 drastically affected germination (up to 50%) and growth (more than 80%) in some genotypes. The results of physiological attributes revealed that relative water contents (RWC) and chlorophyll were significantly reduced in leaves with increased concentration of PEG-6000. On the contrary to this electrolyte leakage, proline, and potassium contents increased with varying intensities among rice genotypes. Genotypic comparison has shown that genotypes IR-50, IR-72, DR-92 and IR-6 exhibited tolerance potential against water stress. Tolerant genotypes exhibited differential osmo-regulatory responses in term of solute production. Correlation studies among growth and physiological traits have revealed significant positive correlation of shoot growth with relative water contents and chlorophyll. The parameters of proline, electrolyte leakage and sugars were negatively related with growth attributes. Thus, these attributes can be used as screening tool for drought tolerance in rice.

2013-2021 Download
12

A test of the carbon starvation hypothesis in shrubs during drought-induced mortality


Quan Qiu, Junhui Wang, Yan Su, Jianwei Ma, Jiyue Li and Qian He

A test of the carbon starvation hypothesis in shrubs during drought-induced mortality


ABSTRACT:

The carbon starvation hypothesis is one of the current leading hypotheses in the mechanism of plant mortality, although it has not been verified due to lack of evidence. To provide a basis for the verification of carbon starvation hypothesis in plant mortality, we tested the role of the non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves of three shrub species (Sarcozygium xanthoxylon, Berberis diaphana and Sophora moorcroftiana) during drought-induced mortality. NSC concentration ([NSC]) and content in the seedlings of three shrub species were determined during the cessation of photosynthesis and death and in well-watered controls. Our results show that drought induces NSC loss in three shrub species at death, and carbon starvation appears to occur after the cessation of photosynthesis. Differences among species exist during water stress regarding [NSC] dynamics in roots, stems and leaves, which appear to be caused by differences in drought resistance and NSC allocation strategy (root, stem, or leaf). Our data also show that survival time correlates with the size (biomass yield) and priority of NSC supply (growth or metabolism and defence), specifically, the shrub which had the biggest size and prioritized growth during drought was observed to have shortest survival time. Overall, our findings demonstrate that drought may cause a loss of NSC reserves leading to carbon starvation, and eventually death.

2023-2030 Download
13

Application of Moringa oleifera plant extracts for enhancing the concentration of photosynthetic pigments leading to stable photosynthesis under heat stress in maize (Zea mays L.)


Asima Batool, Abdul Wahid, Ghulam Abbas, Sabir Hussain Shah, Muhammad Naeem Akhtar, Nasira Perveen and Zuhair Hassnain

Application of Moringa oleifera plant extracts for enhancing the concentration of photosynthetic pigments leading to stable photosynthesis under heat stress in maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

The research experiment was conducted to know the photosynthetic parameters in maize plants exposed to high temperature after applying different methods and types of extracts of Moringa oleifera for mitigating heat stress. Two maize hybrid varieties namely SB-11 (heat tolerant) and ICI-984 (heat sensitive) raised under control (ambient temperature 25°C) and high temperature (35°C) conditions. To lessen the effect of thermal stress, these hybrid maize plants were exposed to exogenously application of aqueous leaf (fresh and shade dried) and flower extracts of M. oleifera using 3 methods such as seed priming, foliar spray and medium supplementation. The data regarding various photosynthetic pigment parameters like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and their ratios were recorded. The results depicted that foliar application of M. oleifera extracts was the most effective in increasing the amount of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents and soil application of moringa extract was more favorable towards enhancing total chlorophyll pigments. Moringa oleifera dry leaves extract (MDLE) applied through foliar application and medium supplementation modes was the most effective in improving the photosynthetic pigments in heat tolerant hybrid under heat stress. Thus increased accumulation of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and reduced chlorophyll-to-carotenoids ratio shown by SB-11 (a heat tolerant maize hybrid) resulted in enhancing photosynthetic pigments leading directly to more photosynthesis and indirectly to the heat tolerance. This study would be helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of heat on photosynthetic machinery and thus increasing the yield of maize under heat stress

2031-2036 Download
14

NAC VS: abiotic stresses, current understanding and perspective, with special reference to the crops of Poaceae family


Naseem Samo, Xuechun Wang, Muhammad Imran, Hadi Bux, Shabeer Ahmed and Yungao Hu

NAC VS: abiotic stresses, current understanding and perspective, with special reference to the crops of Poaceae family


ABSTRACT:

Abiotic stresses are one of the major challenges for crop growth and productivity, and climate change has the potential to further worsen the scenario. The identification and characterization of unique genes, and the understanding their molecular mechanisms, are critical for the development of abiotic-stress-resistant crops with improved yield. NAC is one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) unique to plants and is a key player in the defense against harsh environmental conditions. NAC TFs also play a crucial role in the physiological processes of plants, including the formation of secondary walls and roots, leaf senescence, phytohormone homeostasis, the formation of embryos, and flowers. The Poaceae family encompasses many primary sources of food, including rice, wheat, maize, and barley. Being a model plant several NAC TFs characterized from rice, however, a large number remain unidentified or functionally analyzed yet. Far fewer NAC TFs have been identified in other crops than in rice. The exploration and in-depth analyses on NAC TFs from crops will help to identify novel NAC members, which can be used to induce tolerance in crops. In this review, we have summarized the functionally analyzed NAC TFs specific to rice, wheat, maize, and barley. Through this review, we demonstrate that NAC TFs have a crucial role in abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. We believe further investigation and in-depth studies on NAC TFs are necessary to engineer stress tolerance in crops and provide food security to a growing population

2037-2045 Download
15

Effect of the gibberellic acid (GA3) application on male-sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)


Demet Altindal

Effect of the gibberellic acid (GA3) application on male-sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, the effects of various GA3 doses on male-sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is important in breeding were investigated during the determined periods. Anther length (mm), pollen number, pollen length (mm), sterile pollen ratio (%) and seed set ratio (%) were investigated. The research was established in a factorial design with 3 replications. Five different doses of the GA3 (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm GA3) and application periods in barley growth stages (A: tillering, B: bolting and C: booting) were handled as different factors. Factorial experiment with a single control group was used to determine the difference between the mean of control groups and subgroups.

In the study, the applications during the booting period led to the positive results in terms of all the features. Generally, 600 ppm application was more effective for most studied properties except for anther length and pollen length.

2047-2052 Download
16

Effects of macronutrient supplementation on physiological, qualitative and quantitative traits of Salvia leriifolia Benth


Masoud Amini, Mohammad Kafi and Mahdi Parsa

Effects of macronutrient supplementation on physiological, qualitative and quantitative traits of Salvia leriifolia Benth


ABSTRACT:

In order to study the effects of macronutrient fertilizers on physiological, qualitative and quantitative attributes of Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Salvia), an experiment was conducted, using a randomized complete block design with three replications at a research farm owned by the Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch during 2013–2015. Experimental factors included nitrogen (N) fertilizer in three levels (zero, 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 based on pure N), phosphorus (P) in three levels (zero, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 based on P2O5) and potassium (K) fertilizer in two levels (zero and 50 kg.ha-1 based on K2O). Results showed that three-way interactions of N, P and K application were significant on all variables examined. A marked decline in chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, stomatal diameter, biological yield, and seed characteristics was observed under low doses of fertilizers. However, the highest stomatal number (167.88 mm-2 of leaf blade) and essential oil content was observed under no application of NPK fertilizer. The highest and the lowest seed oil content (38.68 and 17.61%, respectively) was recorded in the treatment of 100 kg.ha-1 N, 100 kg.ha-1 P, and 50 kg.ha-1 K, and control treatment (no fertilizer), respectively. Based on the results recorded, although salvia was a wild plant, its response to fertilizer application was similar to any other domesticated plant. The best fertilizer application levels were found to be 200 kg.ha-1 of N, 100 kg.ha-1 P, and 50 kg.ha-1 K fertilizer, at which all growth and physiological attributes expressed maximally. Of course, more investigation is needed regarding nutritional demands of salvia in different soils and climates.

2053-2058 Download
17

Improving phosphorus efficiency and productivity of wheat by application of manure amended phosphate fertilizer

 


Wasiq Ikram, Muhammad Akhtar and M. Yasin Ashraf

Improving phosphorus efficiency and productivity of wheat by application of manure amended phosphate fertilizer

 


ABSTRACT:

Phosphorus (P) efficiency from inorganic fertilizers is very low and major cause of lower crop productivity, thus proper remedy is required for maintaining optimum P supply from soil to ensure higher wheat productivity. Two-years (2015-16 & 2016-17) field trials have shown that application of phosphoric acid (PA) at 54 kg P ha-1 along with farm-yard manure (FYM) produced maximum wheat grain (5159 kg ha-1), 23% higher over its sole application. Phosphorus uptake was increased with the increase in P rates (18, 36, 54 kg P ha-1) which was usually associated to higher grain yield than P concentration in grain. The manure amended inorganic P fertilizers were found more effective in P uptake and grain yield than their sole application. In greenhouse, a similar trend as occurred in field condition was observed for P recovery and biomass production. The manure amended PA (followed by diammonium phosphate) exhibited maximum P derived from applied fertilizer (Pdff = 40.03%) by a 45-day old wheat plant, as determined by 32P labeling technique. Phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE) and phosphorus agronomic efficiency (PAE) were found lowest at highest P rate (54 kg P ha-1). However, co-amended phosphate fertilizers showed higher PRE and PAE as compared to their sole application. Therefore, manure amended phosphate fertilizers application seemed appropriate to attain higher P availability from soil, improve efficiency of inorganic fertilizers and enhance wheat productivity grown in alkaline calcareous soils

2059-2066 Download
18

Identification of polyphenols in homogenetic and heterogenetic combination of cherry grafting


Sultan Filiz Guclu

Identification of polyphenols in homogenetic and heterogenetic combination of cherry grafting


ABSTRACT:

The aim of the study is to determine the role of phenolic compounds in different cherry grafting combinations. For this purpose, 5 graft combinations of the Regina cultivar (Regina/Prunus avium, Regina/Prunus mahaleb, Regina/Gisela 5, Regina/Tabel Edabriz and Regina/MaxMa 14) were used. The phenolic substances found in the bark samples collected above and below the graft union were investigated one year after the graft’s application. The bark samples were extracted and then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of phenolic compounds, such as prunin, procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid, are thought to play an active role in the graft fusion process. The accumulation of phenolic substances in the homogenetic combination (Regina/Prunus avium) was found to be lower than that in the heterogenetic combinations (Regina/Gisela 5, Regina/Tabel Edabriz and Regina/MaxMa14). The Regina/Gisela 5 combination posed more risk in terms of graft healing, while the Regina/MaxMa 14 combination yields similar results to that of rootstocks of the same origin. 

2067-2072 Download
19

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of betaine transporter gene in maize (Zea mays L.)


Yunyun Su, Cheng Qin, Zheng Li, Yaqian Cheng, Nadeem Ahmed, Chenxi Zhang and Lixin Zhang

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of betaine transporter gene in maize (Zea mays L.)


ABSTRACT:

During exposure to stress, betaine content was reported to increase in maize (Zea mays L.), but the exact mechanism of this increase is not clearly understood. In the current study, we attempted to identify a novel betaine transporter gene and investigated the expression patterns under salt and drought stresses. The betaine transporter gene, ZmBetProt, was cloned by RACE technique from Maize, which covered 1538 bp with a 1299 bp open reading frame encoding 432 amino acids, protein molecular weight was 46.986 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.90.The Bet/ProT homologous genes were obtained from various plant species. The highest similarity was observed with proline transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtProT3). Under salt stress, betaine gene expression was not induced significantly, but induced significantly under mannitol stress. Full-length sequence data for cDNA of the betaine transporter gene was submitted to the GenBank with accession number: KX013323.1. This study is designed to provide in-depth understanding of the roles of ZmBetProt in regulation of betaine transporter under abiotic stress.

2073-2079 Download
20

Identification, analysis and evaluation of starch branching enzyme gene promoter from Oryza sativa


Pakeeza Rubab, Hira Mubeen, Ammara Masood, Javaid Iqbal Wattoo and Mushtaq A. Saleem

Identification, analysis and evaluation of starch branching enzyme gene promoter from Oryza sativa


ABSTRACT:

Promoters are regulatory elements that control’s transcription and overall expression profile of genes. Plants consists of several enzymes, which are important for controlling metabolic activities. Starch branching enzyme (SBE), is one of an important enzyme involved in biosynthesis of starch in plants. It also plays a crucial role in determining the structure and physical properties of starch granules. SBE has two types, SBEl and SBEll. SBEll further divided in SBElla and SBEllb. Both of these have different effects and size in different crops. Starch branching enzyme from Oryza sativa was selected for the current research. Rice is a staple food of 70% population of the world. The present research was focused on identification of SBE gene orthologues, analysis of SBE promoter sequence through High throughput genome sequencing (HTGS) database, screening of cis regulatory elements through Plant CARE database and further detection of putative protein domains through Conserved protein domain family (CDD) database within the promoter region. Several bioinformatics software’s were used for this purpose. The study provides a deep insight on importance of designing constitutive novel promoters, which can be effectively substituted to get enhanced transgene expression in agricultural crops

2081-2088 Download
21

Molecular breeding of fragrant early-season hybrid rice using the BADH2 gene


Zhonghua Sheng, Sajid Fiaz, Qianlong Li, Wei Chen, Xiangjin Wei, Lihong Xie, Guiai Jiao, Gaoneng Shao, Shaoqing Tang, Jianlong Wang and Peisong Hu

Molecular breeding of fragrant early-season hybrid rice using the BADH2 gene


ABSTRACT:

Fragrance is an important index of rice quality. Consumers value high-quality fragrant rice. In this study, Badh2-1, a new functional molecular marker of Badh2, was designed for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of fragrant rice containing high levels of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Badh2-1 MAS was then used to breed fragrant early-season two-line male sterile rice lines YuS-1 and YuS-5, restorer lines R66-1, R66-7, R66-15 and fragrant early-season hybrid rice varieties Yuliangyou 120, Yuliangyou 125 and Yuliangyou 130. Each of these contains 2AP in the range 414-734 ppb (ug/kg) and the hybrids exhibit increased yield and relatively good rice quality. The breeding of fragrant early-season rice will improve the crop’s organoleptic qualities, which will increase the price and thus the economic motivation for planting early-season rice, helping to improve the food security of China and other nations.

2089-2095 Download
22

Estimation of genetic diversity and selection of high yielding genotypes in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) germplasm


Nazim Hassan, Deli Wang, Muhammad Nisar, Zhiwei Zhong, Yu Zhu, Ajmal Iqbal, Saeed Ur Rehman Kakar, Syed Fazal Wadood and Abdul Ghafoor

Estimation of genetic diversity and selection of high yielding genotypes in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) germplasm


ABSTRACT:

In present study 45 exotic Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) genotypes were assessed for assessment of genetic diversity through morphological & biochemical (SDS-PAGE) traits and selection of high yielding genotypes. One ways cluster dendrogram analysis of morphological traits segregated total genotypes to 2- lineages, lineages-1 and -2, separated at 80% similarity level. The lineages-1 further sub divided into 2 clusters i.e. cluster (C-I) and cluster (C-II), whereas lineage-2 consisted of one cluster (C-III). The high yielding genotypes were G3185 G (410g/plant) and G2785 (410g/plant) followed by G2613 (169g/plant) and G3185 (149g/plant). Biochemical characterization revealed that 11 reproducible polypeptide bands were observed in which 18.18% protein bands (band 2, 5) were monomorphic and 81.82% were polymorphic. Among polymorphic bands, band six showed outmost genetic diversity (17.7%) followed by band four and band eight showed 15.5% genetic diversity. Two way cluster dendrogram of biochemical characterization separated genotypes into two lineages L-1 and L-2. L-1 comprises of 20% genotypes with 50% genetic diversity, while L-2 comprisesed of 80% genotypes with 16.5% genetic diversity. Additional selection, multi locational trials for yield, and resistant to abiotic stress is significantly needed while, genotypes having similar banding pattern need additional characterization through morphological and 2-D electrophoresis in conjunctions with DNA based analysis

2097-2104 Download
23

Genetic studies for improving seed yield and quality traits including carotenoids, chlorophyll and protein contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.)


Noshi Parveen, Amir Shakeel, Tanwir Ahmad Malik and Faisal Saeed Awan

Genetic studies for improving seed yield and quality traits including carotenoids, chlorophyll and protein contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Among pulses, pea crop has gained a great interest as a protein source, which is essential for human nutrition and for animal feed. It contains carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin B complex. In Pakistan, pea production is low as compared to other countries which can be attributed to lack of high yielding genotypes, besides other factors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of pea crop for enhanced yield and quality. For this purpose eight accessions namely 19605, 20202, 26710, 20300, 19716, 20126, 26701 and 20153 were (selected from 99 accessions) crossed in half diallel fashion. Parents, F1 and F2 population were field planted and data were collected for yield and quality related traits i.e. carotenoids, chlorophyll and protein contents. Significant genotypic differences were observed for all the traits. Specific combining ability variance was found higher as compared to general combining ability variance in both F1 and F2 generations, which indicated the importance of non additive type of gene action in the inheritance of these traits. Accession 20126 was found good general combiner for seed yield per plant and carotenoids contents in F1 generation, while accession 20153 was observed as good general combiner for seed yield per plant in F2 generation. Accession 26710 was recorded as a good general combiner for total proteins in F1 generation, while accession 20126 was found good general combiner for total proteins in F2 generation. Cross combination 20202×26710 was good specific combination for seed yield per plant in F1 generation while cross combination 19605×20202 was found best combination for seed yield per plant in F2 generation due to maximum significant positive specific combining ability effects. Cross combination 20300×20153 was found best combination for total proteins in F1 generation while in F2 generation 19605×19716 was best cross combination for total proteins. In conclusion, the tested parental genotypes possessed favorable genes for most of the studied traits that can be utilized in breeding programs to improve garden pea.

2105-2110 Download
24

Genome wide analysis of recurrent parent genome recovery in different backcross populations for blast resistance through SSR markers in rice


Tanweer Fatah Abro, Mohd Rafiiyusop, Zahoor Ahmed Soomro, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Piar Ali Shar, Arfanahmed Gilal, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Naeem Ahmed Qureshi and Sohail Ahmed Otho

Genome wide analysis of recurrent parent genome recovery in different backcross populations for blast resistance through SSR markers in rice


ABSTRACT:

Marker-assisted backcross breeding technique has been widely applied for incorporation of blast resistance genes into rice varieties. The monitoring of resistance genes along with recovery of recurrent parent is an essential aspect for reducing the donor genome content in backcross population. Current research was conducted to determine the recovery of recurrent parent in each backcross population of rice. Malaysian high yielding but blast susceptible rice variety MR219 was taken as recurrent parent while PongsuSeribu 2 was donor parent.  Microsatellite markers commonly called as Simple sequence repeat markers were used to estimate recovery of recurrent parent genome i.e. MR219 in early generation of backcross population. A total of 300 microsatellite markerswere randomly applied on 12 rice chromosomes. 72 SSR markers found distinct and clear polymorphic between the parent PongsuSeribu 2 and MR219. These 72 polymorphic markers were utilized to analyze the recovery of plants in further subsequent generations. The background recovery ranged from 73-93.9% and 79-96.3% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generation. The proportion of recurrent parent genome increased and donor genome content decreases after every backcross generation. The recovery of recurrent parent genome content ranged from 94-97.1% in the selected improved advance lines of BC2F2 generation. In the advance lines, the average percent for the proportion of recurrent parent genome was 96.16%. Marker-assisted backcrossing efficiently accelerated the recurrent parent genome recovery within few backcrosses, reduced the backcross generation and saved plenty of time to intogress the genes against blast disease. The present results will be helpful for rice breeders for selecting true blast resistant lines along with maximum resemblance with recurrent parent.

2111-2120 Download
25

Identification of transcription factor ZmZAT8 involved in abscisic acid regulation pathway of starch synthesis in maize endosperm


Tinglan Jiang, Miao Xia, Huanhuan Huang, Jianlu Xiao, Jiao Long, Xiao Li and Junjie Zhang

Identification of transcription factor ZmZAT8 involved in abscisic acid regulation pathway of starch synthesis in maize endosperm


ABSTRACT:

Maize starch, which is closely related with the yield and the quality of the produced maize, has wide applications. Even though the main pathway of starch biosynthesis has been identified, the full array of genes involved and the mechanisms regulating their expression are still unclear. In this study, a new gene, named ZmZAT8, was chosen and cloned as a candidate gene based on our previously published transcriptome data of maize endosperm treated with ABA. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that ZmZAT8 encodes 21.6kD protein comprising 184 amino acids and two QALGGH domains, which is a conserved feature of plant C2H2-type Zinc-finger proteins. ABA could strongly stimulate the expression of ZmZAT8, as confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, a series of evaluations regarding the ZmZAT8 were performed, including analyses of subcellular localization, transcription activation, protein-DNA interactions, and transient expression in maize endosperm. The results showed that the ZmZAT8 protein was capable of regulating the expression of Sh2, Bt1, and Wx, which were all key genes involved in starch synthesis. In conclusion, our data suggests that ZmZAT8, a novel ABA-induced C2H2-type zinc-finger transcription factor, may play a positive role in regulating starch synthesis in maize endosperm

2121-2128 Download
26

Heterotic response and combining ability analysis in F1 diallel populations of Brassica napus L.


Samrin Gul, Razi Uddin, Naqib Ullah Khan, Shahid Ullah Khan, Sardar Ali, Naushad Ali, Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Rabia Goher, Muhammad Saeed and Dildar Hussain

Heterotic response and combining ability analysis in F1 diallel populations of Brassica napus L.


ABSTRACT:

Eight Brassica napus L. genotypes including Rainbow, Rustam Canola, Dunkled, Abasin-95, NIFA Gold, Durr-e-NIFA, Punjab Sarsoon and Faisal Canola, varied by genetic makeup and yield traits were crossed during 2014-15 in a 8 × 8 complete diallel fashion at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Parental genotypes and their 56 F1 hybrids were sown during 2015-16 in a randomized complete block design to evaluate through mean performance, heterosis and combining ability effects. Significant (p≤0.01) differences were observed among the parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids for all the studied traits. The F1 hybrids NIFA Gold × Rustam Canola, Rustam Canola × Punjab Sarsoon and Punjab Sarsoon × Abasin-95 exhibited best mean performance and maximum mid- and better-parent heterosis for plant height, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant. Combining ability analysis revealed significant (p≤0.01) mean squares due to general (GCA), specific (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) for all the traits indicating the importance of additive, non-additive and maternal effects. For plant height and main raceme length, the mean squares due to GCA were greater in magnitude than SCA and RCA. However, for 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant, the mean squares due to RCA were found greater followed by SCA and GCA. Results further enunciated that due to the preponderance of GCA and RCA effects, the contribution of additive and maternal effects was more important in the expression of these traits. Parental genotypes Abasin-95 and Punjab Sarsoon were found as best general combiners and performed better in combination with other genotypes for the majority of the traits. The F1 hybrids NIFA Gold × Rustam Canola, Rustam Canola × Punjab Sarsoon, Punjab Sarsoon × Abasin-95 and Dunkled × Rainbow exhibited best mean performance and renowned SCA for yield traits. The variances due to σ2SCA were higher than σ2GCA and σ2RCA. The ratios of σ2GCA/σ2SCA were noted to be less than unity which revealed that all the traits were controlled non-additively and hence, the delayed selection in later segregating generations might be more effective. Based on the GCA and SCA effects and mean performance, the promising parental genotypes and F1 hybrids could be further utilized in future breeding programs to develop the rapeseed genotypes with good yield potential and oil quality traits.

2129-2141 Download
27

Phytochemical profiling and pharmacological evaluation of Ifloga spicata (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. in leishmaniasis, lungs cancer and oxidative stress


Syed Majid Shah, Farhat Ullah, Muhammad Ayaz, Abdul Wahab and Zabta Khan Shinwari

Phytochemical profiling and pharmacological evaluation of Ifloga spicata (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. in leishmaniasis, lungs cancer and oxidative stress


ABSTRACT:

Ifloga spicata (I. spicata), is an ethno-medicinally important plant. Its crude extract (Is.Cr) and subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Is.Hex), chloroform (Is. Chf), ethyl acetate (Is.EtAc) and aqueous (Is.Aq) were evaluated for potential applications in leishmaniasis, lungs cancer and oxidative stress. Total phenolic content (TPC), Total flavonoid contents (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were determined colorimetrically. Samples were screened for antileishmanial effect using Leishmania tropica promastigotes, for cytotoxicity using NCI-H460 cell lines, and for antioxidant potentials via DPPH, ABTS assays. In the phytochemical analysis Is.EtAc exhibited highest amount of TPCs (141.01±0.12µg GAE/mg DW) and TFC of (52.75±1.22µg QE/mg DW). Is.Cr, Is.Hex, Is.Chf, Is.EtAc and Is.Aq demonstrated antileishmanial effect with IC50 values of 184, 573, 212, 52, 483 µg/ml respectively. Is.Chf showed prominent cytotoxic effect (IC50 79± 2.9µg/mL) against lung cancer cell line. In DPPH and ABTS assays, Is.EtAc was most potent with IC50 of 30.44 and 31.79 µg/ml respectively. These findings indicate that I. spicata crude extract and its derived fractions are safe sources of natural antioxidant, cytotoxic and antileishmanial compounds and thus need further studies.

2143-2152 Download
28

Phytosociological and heavy metal profile of Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta (Boiss.) Anderb. subsp. Glabra qaiser


Shahida Naveed, Muhammad Ibrar, Inayatullah Khattak and Khan Bahadar Marwat

Phytosociological and heavy metal profile of Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta (Boiss.) Anderb. subsp. Glabra qaiser


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study was to investigate the phytosociological, ethnobotanical and heavy metal profile of Iphiona grantioides (Boiss.) Anderb. and Pluchea arguta (Boiss.) subsp. glabra Qaiser of family Asteraceae, from saline localities of District Karak, Khyber Pukhtunkhwah, Pakistan. The resluts showed that the two plants are haloxerophytes in nature found widely growing in close association with other 80 plant species, in areas with highest salinity values, at an elevation, ranging from 450 m to 900 m. Iphiona grantioides was found dominant with maximum importance value (IV) of 49.9 and maximum importance value index (IVI) 16.6. Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra mostly growing in close association with Iphiona grantioides, having the maximum IV of 28.3 and IVI of 9.4. Soil analysis revealed that soil samples of the studied sites were alkaline in reaction and strongly calcareous in nature and deficient in organic matter, N and P. Results obtained for heavy and toxic metals revealed that various parts of Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra contain heavy metals within safer and permissible limits.

2153-2158 Download
29

Allelopathic effects of different weed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat


Qingqin Shao, Wenyang Li, Suhui Yan, Congyu Zhang, Shoucheng Huang and Lantian Ren

Allelopathic effects of different weed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat


ABSTRACT:

The present study identified wheat varieties with strong grass resistance, clarified the physiological mechanism of their anti-grassing effect, and provided a scientific basis for the application of grass-resistant wheat varieties for producing high and stable yield of wheat. Ten wheat varieties commonly used in production were selected to study the effects of Descurainia sophia, Galium tricorne, Wild oat, and sativa extracts on seed germination and seedling growth. Results showed that the Descurainia sophia, Galium tricorne, Wild oat, and Vicia sativa extracts exhibited allelopathic inhibition on wheat seed germination and seedling growth. The allelopathic indices of wheat seed germination rate, seedling height, and root length were −0.12 to −0.19, −0.70 to −0.87, and −0.70 to −0.91, respectively. The weed extract had certain differences in allelopathic inhibition on wheat. The Wild oat extract had the strongest inhibitory effect on seed germination, whereas the Descurainia sophia extract showed the weakest inhibitory effect. The Vicia sativa extract had the strongest inhibitory effect on seedling growth, whereas the Galium tricorne extract showed the weakest inhibitory effect. According to the absolute value of allelopathic index, the effects of the four kinds of weed extracts on seedling growth index were systematically clustered. Results showed that the allelopathic inhibition rate of weed extracts on Wanmai 19 was weak, and the weed resistance was strong. The weed extracts had an allelopathic effect on the root activity and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in the leaves and could promote the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves. However, they had minimal allelopathic effect on Wanmai 19. The seedling height and root length of wheat seedlings were significantly correlated with root activity, activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in the leaves and MDA content. Thus, the effect of allelochemicals on the cell membrane in weed extracts could be the cause of inhibited wheat growth

2159-2167 Download
30

Screening of 196 medicinal plant species leaf litter for allelopathic potential


Khawaja Waqar Ali, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari and Sadiqullah Khan

Screening of 196 medicinal plant species leaf litter for allelopathic potential


ABSTRACT:

The taxonomic richness of medicinal plants in Pakistan can foster reasonable economic contributions through medicinal, industrial and environmental applications. The current study aims to explore allelopathic effect of medicinal plants on the germination and seedling growth of lettuce using sandwich method. In total 196 plant species had been tested using sandwich method to assess allelopathic effect of leaves leachates of different plants on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) seeds. The results of this study identified 4 plants having strong inhibitory effect, 14 plants with medium inhibitory and 13 plants of low inhibitory effect on the lettuce seeds. Boerhavia procumbens exhibited the strongest inhibitory allelopathic effect and Viburnum grandiflorum showed strong stimulatory effect on the growth of lettuce seeds. The diversified allelopathic effects of plants have the potential to improve weed management, sustainable agriculture, food production as well as medicinal, industrial and environmental applications

2169-2177 Download
31

Hybridization in Sida ovata complex: evidences from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile studies


Rubina Abid, Syeda Qamarunnisa, Ishrat Jamil, Afsheen Ather and Abid Ali

Hybridization in Sida ovata complex: evidences from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile studies


ABSTRACT:

In the present studies seed molecular analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA profile is proved more supportive method to determine the hybridization between Sida ovata Forssk. and S. taigii Bhandari. Hybrids display both additive and specific profiles and degree of polymorphism varies from 42-100% with different primers.

2179-2184 Download
32

Tree distribution pattern, growing stock characteristics and carbon mitigation potential of different forests ecosystems in Kumrat, Hindukush region of northern Pakistan


Adnan Ahmad, Qi-Jing Liu, Khan Bahadar Marwat, Sher Shah, Muhammad Amir and Abdul Mannan

Tree distribution pattern, growing stock characteristics and carbon mitigation potential of different forests ecosystems in Kumrat, Hindukush region of northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Using ground inventory and remotely sensed data, this study explored the tree distribution pattern, growing stock characteristics and carbon mitigation potential of different forests of the Hindukush region in Kumrat valley, of northern Pakistan. The results showed that forestland covered an area of 51.13% of the valley. Stem density varied between 243±55 to 585±221 ha-1. Tree height was found in the range of 3 m and 49.85 m among the different forests. The regression analysis between stem density and diameter showed a week correlation in Cedrus deodara (CD) and Abies pindrow forest (AP), but showed positive correlation in Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), and open forest (OF). Tree basal area and stem volume ranged from 343.45±210.68 to 159.64±58.41 m2 ha-1 and 343.45±210.68 to 2160.4±974.91 m3 ha-1 respectively. The range of calculated tree biomass was between 244.06±153.25 and 1499.5±627.74 Mg C ha-1. The carbon values varied between 122.03±76.62 and 749.69±313.85 Mg C ha-1. The results showed that among the different forests, CD had the highest carbon mitigation potential and OF had the lowest carbon mitigation potential. Furthermore, our results showed that the values of stem volume, total tree biomass and carbon in each forest were highly correlated with the basal area. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that basal area is the best predictor of biomass carbon estimation in each forest that suggests the use of the basal area for biomass carbon estimation. This approach could considerably reduce both, financial and physical efforts in carbon inventory regarding the field data collection particularly over the extensive tract of underrepresented carbon forests in Pakistan.

2185-2194 Download
33

Environmental factors can affect the germination and growth of Parthenium hysterophorus and Rumex crispus


Muhammad Azim Khan, Shaheen Kashmir, Hafiz Haider Ali, Bakhtiar Gul, Ali Raza, Umm-E-Kulsoom, Omer Suha Uslu and Hasnain Waheed

Environmental factors can affect the germination and growth of Parthenium hysterophorus and Rumex crispus


ABSTRACT:

Germination is the key feature for the establishment of weeds in agro-ecosystem. To confirm this, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the impact of temperature and salinity on germination and seedlings attributes of two foremost weeds i.e. Parthenium hysterophorus and Rumex crispus. The sterilized seeds of both tested weeds were grown on Petri-dishes inside a growth chamber. The temperatures (15, 25 and 40°C) and NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM) were applied. The statistically prominent effect of salinity and temperature was observed on germination and growth-related variables of both the weeds. The optimum temperature for growth and germination related variables of P. hysterophorus and R. crispus was found to be 25°C. By increasing (40°C) or decreasing (15°C) the temperature, reduction in germination and growth traits of both tested weeds was noted. In case of NaCl concentrations, R. crispus proved slightly more susceptible to salinity compared to P. hysterophorus. Both the species (P. hysterophorus and R. crispus) showed fair tolerance against salinity up to 100 mM of NaCl, however, above this concentration a significant reduction in germination were observed and was completely inhibited at 500 and 600 mM NaCl, respectively. A significant decline in growth was perceived with an increase in NaCl concentration. Conclusively, it was revealed that the establishment of both tested weeds was influenced significantly by temperature and NaCl concentrations. Thus the growth pattern, competitive ability, infestation and spread of these weeds can be correlated with the temperature and salinity for their control in agro-ecosystems.

2195-2202 Download
34

Descriptive study of the flora of the "relic oaks" landscape reserve (eastern Siberia) in the context of the protected area importance for maintaining biodiversity


Olga D. Chernova, Alexey S. Prokopyev and Olga A. Popova

Descriptive study of the flora of the "relic oaks" landscape reserve (eastern Siberia) in the context of the protected area importance for maintaining biodiversity


ABSTRACT:

The article shows the importance of specially protected areas for preserving the gene pool of rare and useful plants in Siberia on the example of the "Relic oaks" state landscape reserve. The landscape reserve is located on the territory of Eastern Siberia (Russia), on the two large floristic areas of Holarctic: Circumboreal and East-Asian. During the study, 696 species of higher vascular plants have been identified in the territory of the landscape reserve. The prevailing families are following: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. In the territory of landscape reserve, 4 floral complexes were identified: alpine, forest, steppe and meadow-alluvial, as well as 10 chorological groups. The feature of the flora was prevalence of forest and steppe plant species with the East Asian type of habitat. By the number of species, herbaceous plants in the landscape reserve dominate over arboreal plants, and shrubs have the largest share among arboreal plants. The spectrum of life forms of plants shows the climatic conditions of the territory at the border of large floral areas and zones of vegetation. On the studied territory, there are 171 species of higher vascular plants (24.5% of the total flora composition in the landscape reserve), are rare and protected in various regions of Siberia.

2203-2208 Download
35

Light factor dynamics respond to plant ecological re-vegetation process in large-scale mining areas


Zeyu Shi, Donggang Guo, Rutian Bi and Hongbo Shao

Light factor dynamics respond to plant ecological re-vegetation process in large-scale mining areas


ABSTRACT:

This study deals with 2 planting large open-air coal mine recovery mode by taking the fixed monitoring sample areas as the investigation platform, having studied the monitoring number of all the natural regeneration seedlings and young trees and spatial distribution of the dynamic characteristics and the related correlation. On the basis of this, research focuses on exploring the different modes of sapling seedlings survival and the correlation between light factors. The results showed that the height and biological factors of seedling trees are more important to the survival of seedling trees than light factors, and there are obvious density restriction effects, but there is no obvious niche differentiation, that is, seedlings height and density restriction jointly affect the survival of seedling trees

2209-2213 Download
36

Species divergence and diversity in buckwheat landraces collected from the western Himalayan region of Pakistan


Zakir H. Facho, Farhatullah, Wang Tao and Sajid Ali

Species divergence and diversity in buckwheat landraces collected from the western Himalayan region of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Attaining food security in subsistence farming system of Himalayan region require novel and original approaches, including improvement of traditional crops, like buckwheat. Little is known about the diversity in local landraces of buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum (common type) and F. tataricum (Tatary type). The present study was thus designed to assess the diversity and divergence in buckwheat germplasm from western Himalayan region of Pakistan. A set of 36 buckwheat landraces collected from the Himalayan ranges of Pakistan were characterized using 20 microsatellite markers, along with the two reference Chinese genotypes. The microsatellite data was analyzed to infer on the divergence between species and diversity in geographically spaced buckwheat landraces. A clear divergence was found between the two buckwheat species (FST value = 0.331), suggesting their cross incompatibility. The overall diversity was very high, with a genotypic diversity of 1.00 in common type and that of 0.983 in the Tatary type. Buckwheat germplasm showed variable number of alleles per locus, while the dissimilarity in the detected and predicted heterozygosity exposed nonexistence of some inbreeding or clonality in the two species. The higher diversity and information on divergence between species must enable a better crop breeding strategy to select buckwheat genotypes with more production in a subsistence farming system along with further conservation strategy.

2215-2224 Download
37

Pollen morphology of the genus Arenaria L. (subgenus arenaria) (Caryophyllaceae) in Turkey


Cahit Dogan and Nihan Cakir

Pollen morphology of the genus Arenaria L. (subgenus arenaria) (Caryophyllaceae) in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

In this study, the palynological characters of 16 perennial taxa belonging to subgenus Arenaria L. (Caryophyllaceae) from Turkey were examined. We studied the morphological features of the pollen grains by using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microphotographs of the pollen grains were taken. As a result of the morphological observation of pollen grains using LM, that pollen size and numbers of pores on the pollen grain differ between taxa. In conclusion, the pollen type of the taxa belonging to subgen. Arenaria are pantoporate (periporate), the pollen shape is prolate spheroidal, the exine structure is subtectate, and the ornamentation is microechinate perforate. The pores are covered with an operculum and the surface of the operculum is microechinate. The pollen properties of each taxon in the genus are given in detail.

2225-2235 Download
38

Pollen morphology and systematic significance of some Onosma L. species (Boraginaceae) distributed in pan Himalayan regions


Paras Mazari and Quan-Ru Liu

Pollen morphology and systematic significance of some Onosma L. species (Boraginaceae) distributed in pan Himalayan regions


ABSTRACT:

The pollen morphology of 15 Onosma L. species has been examined by SEM for the first time from Pan Himalayan regions of Pakistan and China.

Generally, the pollen grains are single, isocolpate, radially symmetrical, isopolar or heteropolar, 3-colporate or 3-syncolporate, small to medium in size. The mean polar axis ranged from 10.00-25.43 µm long while the equatorial diameter ranged from 8.68-16.93 µm. The mean P/E ratio generally ranged from 1.04-1.56 µm. On the basis of P/E ratio, three pollen shapes have been recognized (prolate spheroidal, subprolate and prolate). Ornamented aperture membrane and lolongate ora uniformly observed among all studied taxa. However, the results show great diversity within species in regard of polarity, apertures and exine ornamentation (spinulose, rugulate, rugulate-echinate, rugulate to granulate). On the basis of aperture type, two basic pollen types have been recognized. Type-I 3-syncolporate observed in five species (O. confertum, O. dicroanthum, O. hispida, O. limitaneum and O. paniculatum) and Type-II 3-colporate in 10 species (O. exertum, O. fistulosum, O. glomeratum, O. hookeri var. hirsutum, O. hookeri var. longiflorum, O. maaikangense, O. multiramosum, O. sinicum, O. waddellii, and O. waltonii).

On the basis of 10 different pollen characters (seven qualitative and three quantitative) and 24 characters states two types of numerical analyses (PCA and CA) have been carried out in order to determine the potential of the pollen morphological characteristics for determination of the species relationships. The present palynological data therefore provides new information about pollen morphology of all Onosma L. species especially O. glomeratum and O. multiramosum, O. hookeri var. hirsutum, O. hookeri var. longiflorum. The current study can be helpful to analyze the pollen variation within Onosma L. species. It also highlights the significance of pollen characters used to determine intraspecific relationships as well as correlation of pollen characters with the taxonomy of the genus.

 

2237-2250 Download
39

Mitreola liui Sp. Nov. (Loganiaceae, Loganioideae), a new species from Chongqing, China


Zhangjian Shan, Xiaolang Du, Tao Ding, Zejing Mu and Xiaoyun Wang

Mitreola liui Sp. Nov. (Loganiaceae, Loganioideae), a new species from Chongqing, China


ABSTRACT:

Mitreola liui sp. nov., a new species from Chongqing, China, is described and illustrated. This species is close to M. petiolatoides in morphological characters. Both of them have terete stem, lateral veins 4–6 pairs, stamens 5, inserted at corolla tube base but are distinguished by perennial, leaves blade long elliptic to oblanceolate, apex acute, the flower with narrow-triangular bracts. The key to the species of Mitreola in China is provided

2251-2254 Download
40

Nutritional composition of maize husk silage generated from solid state fermentation by Trichoderma viride UP01


Thana Somchart, Anorach Tosawat, Sorachakula Choke And Danmek Khanchai

Nutritional composition of maize husk silage generated from solid state fermentation by Trichoderma viride UP01


ABSTRACT:

Maize husk is an agricultural residue and may be an available substrate for nutrition improvement by cellulolytic fungi. To improve the nutrition values of maize husk for cattle and dairy feeding, cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride UP01 was isolated from maize husk dump and characterized through Solid State Fermentation (SSF). When T. viride UP01 was incubated in SS medium contained maize husk as the sole carbon source at 30°C for 7 days, the values of total cellulase, exoglucanase, endoglucanase, b-glucosidase, and xylanase were achieved at 0.37±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.16±0.01, and 1.42±0.07 U/mL, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature (°C) for the enzymatic activities were 50-60°C and pH 5.0-6.0. Maize husk supplementary with 1.0% (w/w) rice bran, 1.0% (w/w) molass, and 0.1% (w/w) of T. viride UP01 starter was fermented for 15 days at room temperature. The nutrition values of fermented maize husk silage resulted in increased protein (38.6 g/kg DM) fat (23.5 g/kg DM) and acetic acid (protein 21.1%, fat 16.4%, and acetic acid 13 g/kg DM) which was higher than the control without mold starter (protein fat and acetic acid). The isolates T. viride UP01 was the strain found to be the optimal starter at improving the nutrition values of maize husk silage for cattle and dairy feeding.

 

2255-2260 Download
41

Microbial control of Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris


Ahmed Maitlo, N. Ahmed Rajput, R. Naz Syed, M. Ali Khanzada, A. Qayoom Rajput and A. Mubeen Lodhi

Microbial control of Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris


ABSTRACT:

Use of biocontrol agent not only provide effective disease control, but it is safe and environmental friendly and being widely used against plant pathogens including Fusarium spp. Antagonistic fungi inhibit plant pathogens either directly through mycoparasitism, or indirectly through antibiosis, promoting plant growth and enhanced plant defensive mechanism. In present study, different antagonistic fungi viz., Trichoderma pseudokoningii, T. polysporum, T. harzianum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii and Gliocladium virens were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In dual assay, all the antagonistic fungi inhibited the growth of test pathogen. However, P. lilacinus produced the least inhibition of test pathogen while, G. virens produced maximum inhibition. Variations observed in the interaction between the used antagonists and F. oxysporum. The use of antagonistic fungi remains highly effective to enhance seed germination and plant growth, to reduce plant mortality and root infection as well as application of antagonists remarkably enhanced the grain yield in treated chickpea plants.

2261-2268 Download
42

AFLP analysis of resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Camellia oleifera (Theaceae)


Zhihua Cao, Cuiping Cao, Juanjuan Hu, Qinglong Shu and Reiner Finkeldey

AFLP analysis of resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Camellia oleifera (Theaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Anthracnose is a highly destructive fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that results in severe economic losses to Camellia oleifera production. Herein, we investigated whether genotypes identified as resistant or susceptible to anthracnose in China could be distinguished using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 30 unrelated C. oleifera genotypes were selected from three ecotype regions (Huangshan, Shucheng and Fengyang) in Anhui Province. Resistance was assessed by disease severity in plants following inoculation of detached fruit. AFLP selective primer combinations were used to identify C. oleifera genotypes. We amplified 147 bands, of which 129 (87.76%) were polymorphic and used to analyse genetic diversity. Among resistant C. oleifera, genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.85, indicating high genetic diversity. The 30 genotypes grouped into two major clusters based on polymorphic bands. This study provides knowledge of genetic diversity that will be useful for future breeding of C. oleifera for anthracnose resistance.

2269-2273 Download
43

Cenchrus ciliaris root powder; a source of organic matter and plant growth promoting bacteria for wheat


Tamoor Ul Hassan, Asghari Bano and Irum Naz

Cenchrus ciliaris root powder; a source of organic matter and plant growth promoting bacteria for wheat


ABSTRACT:

The potential of Cenchrus ciliaris L. root powder in sterilized form (as organic matter source) and un-sterilized form with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB); Pseudomonas moraviensis, Bacillus cereus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was evaluated for improving soil health, physiology and yield of wheat. Cenchrus ciliaris roots were shade dried and ground in powder form. Root powder was applied to wheat in the field, as well as in pots containing sterilized soil at Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad, for two consecutive years. Pot grown plants comprising 20 g root powder/ pot, while 150 g root powder was added in plot of 1 square meter in field. PGPB existing in applied un-sterilized root powder were re-isolated from rhizosphere soil of pots grown plants after 57d and 122d of sowing. Application of root powder in sterilized form improved organic matter (45%), P and Mg contents of rhizosphere soil and leaves, and positively affected growth, protein content and antioxidant enzymes activities. The application of root powder in un-sterilized form further improved nutrient contents in rhizosphere soil and leaves. Protein, proline, sugar contents, antioxidant activities, Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA) and yield components were also improved. The cost benefit ratio analysis for per hectare wheat production reveals that root powder application may increase the farmer’s benefit by 19% in field. Root powder may be a rich source of organic matter as well as Phytostimulant for better crop growth and development

2275-2282 Download
44

Evaluation of biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of endophytic yeasts isolated from healthy plants


Ayesha Fareed, Syed Abid Ali, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Viqar Sultana and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Evaluation of biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of endophytic yeasts isolated from healthy plants


ABSTRACT:

Yeasts have been used as an industrial microorganism from thousands of years. Little attention was given to yeasts as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens as compared to other microorganisms in the past. In this study, endophytic yeasts (n=22) isolated from healthy plants and biocontrol efficiency of selected yeasts isolates was investigated. They inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, F.oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina, but they were ineffective against the Rhizoctonia solani. Yeast isolates KUAY-1, KUAY-9, KUAY-34, and KUAY-62, used in screen-house experiment in soil amended with neem cake, significantly suppressed the root rot of sunflower and enhanced plant growth. Endophytic yeast were found more effective in soil amended with neem cake in improving  plant growth and suppression of fungal infection as compared to each treatment alone.

2283-2289 Download
45

Growth-inhibition of 12 fungicides against Botrytis cinerea in tomato and their preventive effects in field


Xiaomei Wang, Xiaofeng Du, Yuan Nong and Hongbo Shao

Growth-inhibition of 12 fungicides against Botrytis cinerea in tomato and their preventive effects in field


ABSTRACT:

Grey mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. is a severe threat to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) yield in field and greenhouse in many countries worldwide. In this study, 12 fungicides agents were selected to determine their inhibiting effects on mycelium growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers ex.Fr. and 4 of them with better effects were used to further test the disease control in field. Our results showed that 70% thiophonate-methyl (WP), 50% methyl sulfur bacteria-spirit shine (WP), 50% iprodione (WP) and 99% wichol (TC) exhibited stronger inhibition of the mycelial growth at EC50 value<100 mg/L. In addition, 50% cycloamines (WG) and 40% iminoctadine (WP) provided partial inhibition at EC50>10000 mg/L. But 80% carbendazim (WP) and 80% Phenyl ether Jiahuan azole (WG) provided minimal inhibition at EC50>10000 mg/L. Furthermore, the field test showed that 70% thiophonate-methyl (WP), 50% methyl sulfur fungal spirit shine (WP), 50% iprodione (WP) and 99% wichol (TC) provided stronger control effects than those of the boscalid, and these agents could be used in grey mound disease control in practical tomato production

2291-2294 Download
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