Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 03/01/2024 Uploaded: 18/07/2023
Uploaded: 23/05/2023 Uploaded: 13/04/2023
Uploaded: 15/03/2023

Latest News
Monday, February 05, 2024
Upcoming conference 2023 Details
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 1.1

Details
Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 6
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Comparison of physio-biochemical and antioxidant enzymes in maize during early growth stage in response to salt stress


Muhammad U. Chattha, Muhammad A. Khan, Imran Khan, Athar Mahmood, Muhammad B. Chattha, Muhammad U. Hassan, Walid Soufan, Mohammad Okla, Arpna Kumari, Disna Ratnasekera, Basharat Ali, Mostafa Shehata and Ayman Elsabagh

Comparison of physio-biochemical and antioxidant enzymes in maize during early growth stage in response to salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Salinity stress is a major threat to crops that is considerably limiting agricultural productivity across the globe. Salt stress affects the growth, physiological, biochemical, and metabolic processes of maize and thus leads to a serious reduction in final productivity. However, the maize genotypes differ significantly in terms of salinity tolerance. Therefore, this study wsa conducted to assess the impact of different levels (control, 6 dS m-1, 12 dS m-1) of salt stress on growth, and physio-biochemical traits of different maize hybrids (P-1543, FS-131, SB-9663, YH-1898, FH-1096, SB-794). The results delineated that salt stress (12 dS m-1) considerably increased the time to start germination (TSG), reduced germina-tion index (GI), and final germination percentage (FGP). Moreover, salt stress (12 dS m-1) also reduced root and shoot growth, biomass production, chlorophyll contents, relative water contents (RWC). Further, current results depicted that salt stress induced an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) and activities of antioxidants (APX, CAT and POD). Similarly, the maize hybrids also had significant differences in the germination, growth and physio-biochemical traits. In comparison, hybrids FH-1096 and YH-1898 re-quired less TSG and had the highest GI and FGP, whereas hybrids P-1543 and FS-131 needed more TSG and had the lowest GI and FGP.. Likewise, the maximum chlorophyll, RWC, carotenoid and antioxidant enzymes activities were recorded in hybrid FH-1096. However, minimum chlorophyll, RWC, carotenoid and antioxidant enzymes activities and maximum EL was noticed in hybrids P-1543, FS-131 and SB-9663. Thus, on the basis of these findings it can be suggested that maize hybrids FH-1096 and YH-1898 can perform well under salt stress conditions.Salinity stress is a major hazard to crops, severely restricting agricultural productivity around the world. Salt stress has a negative impact on the growth, physiological, biochemical, and metabolic processes of maize, resulting in a significant loss in final crop productivity. However, the maize genotypes differ significantly in terms of salinity tolerance. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the impact of different salinity levels (control, 6 dS m-1, 12 dS m-1) on growth, and physio-biochemical traits of different maize hybrids (P-1543, FS-131, SB-9663, YH-1898, FH-1096, SB-794). The results delineated that salt stress (12 dS m-1) considerably increased the time to start germination (TSG), reduced germination index (GI), and final germination percentage (FGP). Moreover, salt stress (12 dS m-1) also reduced root and shoot growth, biomass production, chlorophyll contents, and relative water contents (RWC). Further, current results depicted that salt stress induced an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) and activities of antioxidants (APX, CAT and POD). Similarly, the maize hybrids also had significant differences in germination, growth and physio-biochemical traits. In comparison, hybrids FH-1096 and YH-1898 required less TSG and had the highest GI and FGP, whereas hybrids P-1543 and FS-131 needed more TSG and had the lowest GI and FGP. Likewise, the maximum chlorophyll, RWC, carotenoid and antioxidant enzymes activities were recorded in hybrid FH-1096. However, minimum chlorophyll, RWC, carotenoid and antioxidant enzymes activities and maximum EL was noticed in hybrids P-1543, FS-131 and SB-9663. Thus, on the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that maize hybrids FH-1096 and YH-1898 can show tolerance under salt stress conditions.

1991-1997 Download
2

Interactive effect of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid on gaseous exchange and mineral nutrients of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) under saline conditions


Haleema Sadia, Muhammad Shahbaz, Aysha Kiran and Muhammad Farrukh Saleem

Interactive effect of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid on gaseous exchange and mineral nutrients of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) under saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is used medicinally, nutritionally, and agriculturally. Salinity affects growth and quality. Salinity can be mitigated by shotgun methods such as plant growth regulators. To investigate the physiochemical role of salicylic acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AsA), and their combinations (SA + AsA) under salt stress in chicory genotypes, two chicory genotypes (Hamedan and Shiraz) were exposed to four salinity (0, 100, 150, 200 mM NaCl) levels after 45 days of sowing and on the very next day of salinity four levels of plant growth regulators i.e. water spray, SA (0.5 mM), AsA (0.5 mM) and SA (0.5 mM) + AsA (0.5 mM) were exogenously applied as a foliar spray. Salt stress considerably decreased the shoot dry weight, root length, chlorophyll content index, gas exchange attributes, shoot calcium, phosphorus, sodium and root potassium and root sodium. Exogenous applications of SA and AsA as foliar spray enhanced the growth by increasing the chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters as well as ionic contents. Overall, the application of SA, AsA and their combination increased salt tolerance in chicory. Moreover, the performance of the Chicory genotype Shiraz was significantly better as compared to Hamedan

1999-2012 Download
3

Effect of salinity on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni


Zainab Zahra, Zahoor Ahmad Sajid and Faheem Aftab

Effect of salinity on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni


ABSTRACT:

The current study is focused on the salt tolerance capacity of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and to observe the effect of salt on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. After surface sterilization, nodal segments from In vitro raised plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962; MS) basal medium containing various concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl). After 30 days of salt stress, it was observed that various morphological and biochemical parameters of the plant were strongly affected. Shoot length was gradually decreased by increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 150 mM. Similar trend was found regarding the number of leaves and nodes. Total soluble protein contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased due to the activation of defense system of plant under stress. Total soluble protein content was 4.74, 5.8, 6.2 and 7.25 mg/g at 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM salt level. Peroxidase activity was changed from 0.30 U/mL of enzyme (control) to 2.37 U/mL of enzyme (150 mM) while CAT activity was increased from 2.2 U/mL of enzyme (control) to 4.0 U/mL of enzyme (150 mM). Similarly, there was a gradual increase in superoxide dismutase activity with increasing NaCl concentration from 0-150 mM compared to control. Changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activities indicate their important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species produced during stress episode

2013-2018 Download
4

Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ameliorate biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) by intricating biochemical and mineral profile


Muhammad Ejaz, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Said Akbar Khan, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Asma Hanif, Muhammad Iqbal, Mubashir Hussain, Asad Syed, Rana Khalid Iqbal, Huma Qureshi, Tauseef Anwar and Abdul Rauf

Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ameliorate biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) by intricating biochemical and mineral profile


ABSTRACT:

Due to its cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness, plant-mediated nanomaterial production has been gaining prominence. The current study aimed to determine how biosynthesized AgNPs affected rice under biotic stress in terms of its biochemical characteristics, aflatoxin B1 levels, and mineral profiling. By an extract from Moringa oleifera leaves, AgNPs were biosynthesized and then characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), zeta analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before applying the Aspergillus flavus inoculum, different concentrations of biosynthesized AgNPs (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg) were exogenously administered to rice plants at the heading stage. High activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (2.91 nmol/min/mg), peroxidase (POD) (2.84 nmol/, min/mg), and catalase (CAT) (2.79 nmol/min/mg), and enhanced levels of proline (2.75 µg/ mL FW) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (8.5 µmol/g FW) were observed in rice plants exposed to biotic stress alone. However, the application of biosynthesized AgNPs significantly reduced the production of antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds by inhibiting the intensity of biotic stress. Likewise, the aflatoxin B1 level (25.1 µg/kg FW) was maximum in rice grains of those rice plants which were only subjected to biotic stress; however, the application of biosynthesized AgNP sunder biotic stress significantly reduced the aflatoxin B1 level (10.6 µg/kg) at 50 mg/kg AgNPs. The application of 50 mg/kg biosynthesized AgNPs under the biotic stress proved to be the most suitable concentration for the biochemical response, aflatoxin B1, in rice. The concentrations exceeding 50 mg/kg of biosynthesized AgNPs induced toxic effects, thus increasing the levels of biochemical attributes, aflatoxin B1, and Ag content. Additionally, Ca (0.6%), Fe (0.25%), and P (0.06%) content of rice grains also exhibited improvement at 50 mg/kg biosynthesized AgNPs under biotic stress. In conclusion, applying biosynthesized AgNPs may act as an anti-fungal agent, controlling the aflatoxin B1 level in rice grains and improving mineral profiling

2019-2028 Download
5

Analysis of water stress characteristics in Phaseolus vulgaris


Aniqa Batool, Audil Rashid, Irfan Aziz and Moazzma Ahmed

Analysis of water stress characteristics in Phaseolus vulgaris


ABSTRACT:

Climatic extremes events triggered by global warming are having negative impacts on agricultural systems and economies of countries that are highly susceptible to drought. Some plant species are capable of developing responses to drought through stress tolerance or stress avoidance. The short life cycle and high nutritional value of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris made it an ideal candidate to study the effects water stress. We tested three field capacity (FC) conditions for up to five weeks: 100% FC, 60% FC (moderate water stress), and 40% FC (severe water stress). Plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, biomass, and relative water content all showed a statistically significant decrease under water stress compared to control plants. Proline content accumulation and root length both increased significantly under water stress compared to control conditions. The highest accumulation of proline was observed under severe water stress (40% FC), demonstrating the tolerance level and capacity of Phaseolus vulgaris to survive short periods of drought

2029-2035 Download
6

Assessment of some newly developed wheat lines (Triticum aestivum L.) under natural saline field environments


Muhammad Ubaidullah Shirazi, Muhammad Ali Khan, Muhammad Athar Khan, Asma and Aisha Shereen

Assessment of some newly developed wheat lines (Triticum aestivum L.) under natural saline field environments


ABSTRACT:

To evaluate salt tolerance in some newly developed genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), field trials were conducted under natural saline field for two consecutive years i.e. Rabi 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam. Wheat genotypes were collected from NIFA, Peshawar (20 genotypes), NIAB Faisalabad (1) and ARI Tandojam (1), along with local salt tolerant check i.e. Kiran-95. The soil at control site was non-saline (EC = <4 dS/m) while ECe of saline site ranged from slightly saline (4-8 dS/m) to very highly saline (ECe >16 dS/m). However the genotypes were evaluated on selected uniform patches of medium to high saline i.e. 9-12 dS/m. The genotypes were evaluated on the basis of growth and yield performance. The data illustrated a significant (R2 @ 0.5) reduction in grain yield due to soil salinity. The combine results based on two years growth performance showed that genotype NRL-1683 was tolerant followed by NRL-1677, NRL-1646, NRL-1651, NRL-1685 and NRL-1687. On the contrary poor performance were exhibited by genotypes NRL-1625, NRL-1624, NRL-1680, NRL-1681 and ASYT-1CT-161287, thus categorized as sensitive to high salinity stress. Better performance of tolerant genotypes might be due to less decrease in K+/Na+ ratio and less reduction in chlorophyll (SPAD index), in consequence to lower decrease of leaf area.

2037-2046 Download
7

Antioxidative defense systems in two scenedesmus species exposed to copper and lead


Yasar Aluç

Antioxidative defense systems in two scenedesmus species exposed to copper and lead


ABSTRACT:

Heavy metals, including copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) depending on species, differentially affect algal growth and metabolism. Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obl), and Scenedesmus regularis (S. reg) are known to be affected by these environmental changes. Changes in the growth rates, level of oxidative stress markers, and antioxidants were analyzed following exposure to various concentrations of Cu (32, 44, 272, and 476 µM) and Pb (6, 8.4, 12.1, and 18.1 µM) for 25 days. Compared to the control groups, chlorophyll a amounts were low in the studied species. In addition, a consistent decrease in chlorophyll a level was detected depending on the applied stress doses, but it was not found to be statistically significant. Total antioxidant levels increased significantly in the dosage and concentration-dependent manners in both species when exposed only to Pb. The molecular antioxidant ratios in both species were higher, which was significant for total flavonoids. While the increase in SOD activity of the species against both metal stresses was observed at 18.1 µM Pb concentration (9.5%) in S. regularis, it was detected at 476 µM Cu concentration (13.2%) in S. obliquus. A similar situation was observed in GR activity at a Pb concentration of 12.1 µM (40.5%) in S. regularis, while it was at 476 µM Cu concentration (18.5%) in S. obliquus. Thus, the data indicate that the studied algae species exhibited similar strategies to alleviate long-term metal toxicity. This study also provided new data for Cu and Pb removal efficiency abilities of two microalgae species, where metals uptake and efficient antioxidant defense system protected species against oxidative stress induced by metals stress.

 

2047-2055 Download
8

Impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria biofertilzers on  biochemical attributes, antioxidant activities, nutritional values and productivity of maize


Amjid Khan, Rashid Abbas Khan, Muhammad Ali and Zabta Khan Shinwari

Impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria biofertilzers on  biochemical attributes, antioxidant activities, nutritional values and productivity of maize


ABSTRACT:

The quest for enhancing agricultural yields due to increased pressure on food production has inevitably led to the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and other agrochemicals. The potential role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as a biofertilizer evolved as appropriate substitute to neutralize adverse environmental impacts wielded by manmade agrochemicals. The recent study was conducted to elucidate the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizer. Maize seeds were treated with PGPR (Azotobacter chroococum & Planomicrobium chinense) and in combination to observe the effects on physiology, hormonal activity, antioxidant enzymes, nutritional composition, and productivity. The study revealed that application of PGPRs and biofertilizer significantly (p<0.05) improved the physio-biochemical attributes including root length (222%), shoot length (85.1%), proline (%), phenolics (71%), flavonoids (85%) and protein (94%) as compared to control. The hormonal activity and plant-defense related antioxidant enzymes activities also improved leading to improve the yield, the observed increased in grain yield (81%) with 100 grain weight 25.37%. The application of PGPR resulted in increased soil fertility, maximum increase in soil organic matter (26.74%), total nitrogen (33.10%), available phosphorus (99.17%) and available potassium (48.55%). Similarly maximum increase in nitrogen was 54.4%, phosphorus 54.5%, potassium 34.72%, magnesium 78%, was observed. The present study clearly signifies that the use of biofertilizers and bioinoculants for sustainable yield production of maize is environment friendly and can used as alternative of the chemical fertilizers

2057-2066 Download
9

Defense through foliar anatomical alterations in large spike buffel grass [Cenchrus prieurii (Kunth) Maire] against multiple environmental stresses


Sana Basharat, Farooq Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Shahbaz Naeem

Defense through foliar anatomical alterations in large spike buffel grass [Cenchrus prieurii (Kunth) Maire] against multiple environmental stresses


ABSTRACT:

Salinity, drought, and temperature stresses are major environmental threats that change the plants’ distributional pattern in natural ecosystems. Cenchrus prieurii (Kunth) Maire is a typical desert grass species that can colonize different habitats i.e., cool mountains, arid and semiarid regions. It was hypothesized that wide adaptability potential in Cenchrus prieurii may be linked to plasticity in morpho-anatomical features. Cenchrus prieurii populations were collected from different habitats of the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, which were exposed to multiple environmental stresses, i.e., aridity, salinity, waterlogging and cool temperature and were evaluated for foliar structural modifications. All populations showed morpho-anatomical modifications that were related to water conservation. The Thal Desert populations such as collected from inter-dune flats (DID), marginal area (DMA) and loamy sand (DLS) were superior in midrib, lamina, epidermal and mesophyll thicknesses, and phloem area. The populations facing cold stress like foothill region (CFH) showed thicker lamina, epidermal, thickness, and larger vascular bundles and metaxylem vessels. The population from highest elevation (CHE) collected from the coolest habitats showed the largest parenchymatous cells. The sand dune population (DSD) was collected from the driest area had the thinnest leaves (midrib and lamina), epidermis layer and mesophyll, the smallest parenchymatous cells, bulliform cells, metaxylem vessels and vascular bundles. Another specific feature of SDS population was the formation of large aerenchymatous cavities and numerous microhairs in leaf sheath. Plasticity in anatomical traits was significantly high in all populations, and this might be a strong reason for successful colonization and adaptability of this species to a variety of habitat types, hence contributing significantly to its wide distributional range.

2067-2079 Download
10

Determination of heavy metal content in water, sediment and some macrophyte species, iron reeds, Bitlis-Türkiye case study


Şukru Hayta, Ensar Kaya and Edip Avşar

Determination of heavy metal content in water, sediment and some macrophyte species, iron reeds, Bitlis-Türkiye case study


ABSTRACT:

In the context of study, heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As) content and macronutrients (Mg, Ca) in three aquatic ecosystem plant species (Juncus gerardii Loisel. subsp. gerardii, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steud. and Carex diluta M. Bleb. subsp. diluta and in the surrounding water and sediments were determined in the Iron Reeds, which is one of the most important wetlands in Türkiye within the borders of Bitlis. The concentrations of heavy metals in Juncus gerardii Loisel. subsp. gerardii and Carex diluta M. Bleb. subsp. diluta species were reported for the first time in this article. With the results obtained, the aim was to contribute to studies to investigate the uptake of heavy metal pollutants in wetlands and the self-healing effect of the aquatic environment by applying phytoremediation methods in the field. Uncontrolled livestock activities in the region affect the water quality negatively. The silicon and boron contents in the examined waters were above the limit values, as a result of reeds being fed by water sources coming from volcanic areas. There were no problems in terms of trace metals measured in the plants, soil and sediments

2081-2089 Download
11

Soil intrinsic properties changes and yield loss of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. Unicolor) under continuous cropping in the arid area of western China


Hongyu Yang, Li Hui, Hongqiang Sun, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Mouqiang Li and Guiying Shi

Soil intrinsic properties changes and yield loss of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. Unicolor) under continuous cropping in the arid area of western China


ABSTRACT:

Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) is the only edible lily in China and it is a kind of narrow distribution endemic species and cultivated under monoculture and continuous system, which result in soil degradation and severe consecutive replant problems (CRPs). In this experiment, we investigated the soil physicchemical properties, microbial numbers, soil enzyme activities and yield in 20 sample fields with 0,3,6 and 9 years of replanting. The result showed that Continuous cropping significantly changed soil physiochemical properties and enzyme activities at the harvesting stage. By extending the period for replanting, the soil pH, salt content and organic matter increased significantly (p<0.05), while soil water content decreased significantly. The soil nutrient indexes such as Alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus also increased significantly while available potassium decreased. Moreover, the soil urease activities and phosphatase activities greatly improved, while hydrogen peroxidase and sucrase activities decreased with the continuous cropping. Generally, soil bacteria number decreased significantly, while soil fungi increased significantly, and the highest fungi/bacteria were recorded in the 9-year treatment. However, the highest actinomycetes numbers was recorded in 3-year and 9-year treatments. Continuous cropping also changed bulb yield and the yield components significantly, as well as deteriorated the bulb quality and storability. With prolonged replanting years, mother bulb weight and baby bulb numbers decreased, and the yield in 9-year treatment decreased significantly by 18.03% compared to 0-year treatment. These results demonstrated that soil transformation from a bacterial type to a fungal type, soil water-holding capacity decrease, soil salinization, especially excessive accumulation of available phosphorus played important role in soil degradation and yield decline under long-term continuous cropping. These results also suggest that some management practice such as soil disinfection, beneficial microorganism or bio-organic fertilizers usage, as well as decreasing phosphorus fertilizer input could help in maintain the soil quality and improve the yield and quality of Lanzhou lily in fields with more than 6 years of replanting

2091-2099 Download
12

Evaluation of possible toxicological effects of heavy metal chromium on wheat in soil irrigated with industrial, municipal and ground water: public health implications


Kafeel Ahmad, Abid Ejaz, Asma Ashfaq, Javed Shoukat, Abrar Hussain, Shahzadi Mahpara, Hafsa Memona, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Tasneem Ahmad Naunain Mehmood, Muhammad Ajmal Ali and Muhammad S. Elshikh

Evaluation of possible toxicological effects of heavy metal chromium on wheat in soil irrigated with industrial, municipal and ground water: public health implications


ABSTRACT:

Increased area under organic cultivation is being driven by an improvement in nutritional quality and safety, as well as environmental concerns. Chromium (Cr) is a persistent contaminant that harms all living things including plants. Various manufacturing industries pollute the environment with an excessive quantity of Cr. This study was planned to conduct a practical evaluation of Cr toxicity in our food chain. The research was conducted in city Sargodha, Pakistan which pointed out experimental performance of this heavy metal transfer from nine different sources of fertilizer concentrations (100 g & 200 g) applied on ten wheat varieties under cultivation. The research also highlighted a comparison of pot and field sites under same influencing factors to make it precisely hypothetical. The analysis of soil amended with poultry waste (200 g) showed the maximum (0.439 mg/Kg) concentration of Cr, whereas least value (0.11 mg/Kg) was observed in soil in controlled site. The highest Cr uptake in roots (7.9 mg/Kg) was observed in wheat cultivar MILLAT-11 and the lowest in IHSAN-16 (5.5 mg/Kg) with municipal solid waste application of 200 g (9.14 mg/Kg) as highest and control factor (3.16 mg/Kg) as the lowest one. The highest uptake in shoots was observed in 11CO23 (7.75 mg/Kg) and lowest in JOHAR-16 (5.41 mg/Kg) with press mud (200 g) (9.03 mg/Kg) as highest and poultry waste (100g) (4.65 mg/Kg) as the lowest. The highest uptake in grains was observed in MILLAT-11 (7.70 mg/Kg) and the lowest in DHARABI-11 (5.47 mg /Kg) with farm yard manure (200g) (9.08 mg /Kg) as highest and controlled factor (3.74 mg/Kg) as the least one. In pot and field sites, all indices were below the critical range but exceptional in bio-concentration factor where dose concentration was increased. It was concluded that Cr uptake in wheat increases with application of waste in soil but varies depending on plant genetics. Genetics also seems to be in action as absorption capacity in some varieties varies considerably and clearly draws an attention about the need of further studies on genetic basis. However, an effort was made to reveal certain unknown aspects of phytoremediation and metal toxic absorption in our staple food crops that require ongoing research to maintain safety levels of chromium in an ecosystem

2101-2118 Download
13

Interactive effect of nitrogen and paclobutrazol on annually pruned Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa


Abdul Ghafar Grewal, Muhammad Shahzad Zafar, Maqbool Ahmad, Atif Iqbal, Abid Hameed Khan, Ghulam Mustafa, Samad Raza and Niaz Ahmed

Interactive effect of nitrogen and paclobutrazol on annually pruned Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa


ABSTRACT:

There is evidence that vegetative growth is limited in many cultivars of mango grown under subtropical regions reducing their flowering tendency that ultimately results in low productivity. Prolonged use of certain growth retardants commonly used to manage vegetative and reproductive growth in the mango crop, such as Paclobutrazol (PBZ) has been associated with deleterious effects on plant growth. The present 13-years study was aimed at investigating the effects of integrated use of nitrogen and PBZ on vegetative growth, flowering pattern and fruit yield of annually pruned mango cv. Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa. Twenty five years old trees were used in the study. The experiment was laid out according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with nine treatments and five replications keeping two plants as the experimental unit. Different concentrations of nitrogen and Paclobutrazol (PBZ) alone and in combination were evaluated. Data were collected for consecutive 13 years based on vegetative growth and reproductive behaviour. Optimum postharvest vegetative growth, maximum flowering terminals and the highest fruit yield were obtained from the trees treated with 1 Kg of nitrogen annually. The use of PBZ, alone or in combination with nitrogen, helped boosting up fruit yield during the initial five years of investigation but later on resulted in reduced yield and gradual mortality of mango trees

2119-2129 Download
14

Fruit thinning improves pomegranate fruit quality by activating physical, physiological, biochemical and bioactive attributes


Ghulam Mustafa, Ishtiaq A. Rajwana, Hafiz Nazar Faried, Tanveer Ul Haq and Muhammad Azhar Bashir

Fruit thinning improves pomegranate fruit quality by activating physical, physiological, biochemical and bioactive attributes


ABSTRACT:

The excessive fruit load on various fruit trees is an obstacle in achieving sustainable production. Fruit thinning helps to improve fruit quality attributes by reducing crop load. Therefore, a field study was carried out to evaluate the impact of fruit thinning on pomegranate. The four levels of fruit thinning were applied that including without thinning of a cluster (control), keeping three fruits (T1), two fruits (T2) and one fruit per cluster (T3). The effect of fruit thinning on physical and biochemical quality attributes of three pomegranate cultivars (Sindhuri, Kalehar and Sava) were evaluated during two consecutive growing seasons (2018 and 2019). The results revealed that Sindhuri followed by Kalehar and Sava showed significant improvement in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, A-grade fruit percentage, arils weight percentage, hundred arils weight, juice contents and peel redness (a*) when applied T3 (one fruit per cluster) while plant yield, peel weight percentage, peel thickness, lightness (L), yellowness (b*), fruit firmness, percentage of B grade and C grade fruits were significantellyreduced. The value of total soluble solid (TSS), pH, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, antioxidant activity (AA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also improved in T3 while titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic contents (TPC) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were reduced significantly. These observations indicate that reducing crop load by thinning (one fruit per cluster) could be a viable strategy to improve fruit quality attributes in pomegranate fruit. Conclusively, one fruit per cluster (T3) significantly improved fruit's physical and biochemical attributes in pomegranate cultivars (Sindhuri, Kalehar and Sava).

2131-2141 Download
15

Morpho-physiological, biochemical and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to vermicompost, simple compost and NP fertilizer applications


Zubair Aslam, Ali Ahmad, Rana Nadeem Abbas, Muhammad Sarwar and Safdar Bashir

Morpho-physiological, biochemical and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to vermicompost, simple compost and NP fertilizer applications


ABSTRACT:

An experiment in the field was performed to assess the impacts of simple compost, vermicompost, and NP fertilizer application on the morpho-physiological, biochemical, and yield characteristics of wheat in order to optimize nutrient needs. All the estimation was performed relying on various parameters viz. plant height, leaf area, N, P, K contents of leaf, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, membrane stability index, relative water contents, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, osmotic potential, water potential, canopy temperature, stomatal conductance, total tillers of crop, length of spike, per spike spikelets number, grains numbers per spike, weight of 1000 grains, economic yield, biological yield and harvest index of wheat. The vermicompost application alone increased growth and productivity, but combining vermicompost with chemical fertilizer is highly desirable for wheat production. It was concluded from this study that 50% vermicompost (produced from FYM, rice and wheat straw) mixed with 50% recommended fertilizers showed excellent results. While, 25% vermicompost (produced from rice straw, wheat straw and cow dung) and 25% compost (produced from cow manure, rice straw and wheat straw) mixed with 50% recommended fertilizers showed intermediate results whereas, compost (produced from cow manure, rice straw and wheat straw) and control (recommended fertilizers) showed minimum results in wheat crop and soil fertility decreased in T0 treatment.

2143-2154 Download
16

Grain yield and quality parameters of wheat genotypes as influenced across an elevation gradient


Rabia Goher, Mohammad Akmal, Johar Ali, Gul Roz Khan and Nawab Ali

Grain yield and quality parameters of wheat genotypes as influenced across an elevation gradient


ABSTRACT:

A genotype’s yield performance is a genetic expression in an environment. However, other than soil and fertility levels, the elevation gradients also expressed changes in yield traits affecting grain yield and quality. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of wheat genotypes across elevation gradients in terms of yield and quality traits. In the winter seasons 2017-18 and 2018-19, three field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design having three replications. Four promising wheat genotypes (Pirsabak-2005, Pakhtunkhwa-2015, Pakistan-2013 and DN-84) along with three candidate lines (P-2, P-12 and P-18) were assessed at the Agriculture Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar (AP), Agriculture Research Station at Kashmir (AK) and Agriculture Research Station at Chitral (AC). Two years' average data across genotypes resulted in the highest tillers density (358 m2) in AP, followed by AC (346 m2), and the lowest (256 m2) in AK. Likewise, grain weight per spike also differed with the highest (2.01g) in AC, followed by AP (1.9g), and the lowest (0.74g) in AK. Grain number was observed the highest (36 spike-1) in AP, followed by AC (43 spike-1), and the lowest (29 spike-1) in AK. Changes in yield traits caused variation in grain yield. Moreover, grain quality differed significantly (p<0.05) in the ratio of changes in grain amylose and amylopectin contents. Grain amylose and amylopectin for AP, AK and AC were found to be 22.51% and 77.5%, 25.14% and 74.9%, and 25.83% and 74.2%, respectively. Similarly, the grains gluten and N-content varied by 28.5% and 2.02% in AP, 23.4% and 2.09% in AK, and 25.9% and 2.02% in AC, respectively. Averaged across genotypes, P-18 resulted in maximum tillers numbers and grain number and amylopectin content with relatively a stable amylose and amylopectin ratio for Pakistan-2013. Based on results, it is concluded that elevation gradient is also the governing factor affecting primary traits which expressed different yields with variable grain quality

2155-2169 Download
17

Plant functional classifications based on leaf traits in a subtropical Karst landscape


Jiangming Ma, Yanhua Mo, Li Huang, Xiaomei Pan, Jing Huang and Haimiao Wang

Plant functional classifications based on leaf traits in a subtropical Karst landscape


ABSTRACT:

Plant functional classifications has recently attracted much attention from ecologists. However, assessment on plant functional classifications in the special area of Karst were still absent in the literature. Therefore, in this study, plant functional types were classified into typical evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs according to their leaf traits in the subtropical Karst landscape of south-western China. The aforementioned leaf traits included leaf dry weight (DW), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf area (LA), leaf thickness (LT), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf tissue density (LTD) for 16 kinds of evergreen shrubs and 10 kinds of deciduous shrubs. Results showed that DW and LT were the principle parameters for evergreen shrubs, while DW, LT, and LA were the principle parameters for deciduous shrubs in Karst. Interestingly, it both can be classified into two types either in evergreen shrubs or in deciduous shrubs. They could be termed as shade-tolerant type (with higher DW and LT in evergreen shrubs or higher DW, LT, and LA in deciduous shrubs) and heliophilic type. These results were beneficial to understanding the vegetation formation in Karst and were expected to provide some help for vegetation restoration strategies in this unique degraded ecosystem

2171-2177 Download
18

Comparative antimicrobial analysis of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Berberis lycium root extracts and berberine


Asia Noureen, Farhan Younas, Ikram Ullah and Masoom Yasinzai

Comparative antimicrobial analysis of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Berberis lycium root extracts and berberine


ABSTRACT:

Due to their significant biological potential, nanoparticles have been a focus of recent research. For the synthesis of the silver nanoparticles, pure berberine and aqueous root extracts of Berberis lycium were employed. Analytical methods like UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles' structural and functional properties. The particles were spherical in shape with an average crystal size of Berberine AgNPs 47nm and of B. lycium root extract AgNPs was 16nm. MIC of B. lycium root extract AgNps was 1.5µg/ml with IC50 of 2.463 and MIC of berberine AgNps was 2.5µg/ml and IC50 of 2.599 against E. coli. MIC of B. lycium root extract AgNps was 1.5µg/ml and IC50 of 2. 514 and MIC of berberine AgNps was 1.5µg/ml and IC50 of 2.922 against S. aureus. The nanoparticles synthesized with root extracts were found to be more potent as antibacterial agents.

 

2179-2186 Download
19

Growth and biomass yield of different cotton cultivars in response to macronutrient application


Irshad Ahmad, Guanglong Zhu, Xudong Song, Shahid Hussain, Muhammad Younas Usama, Muhi Eldeen Hussein Ibrahim, Ebtehal Gabralla Ibrahim Salih and Guisheng Zhou

Growth and biomass yield of different cotton cultivars in response to macronutrient application


ABSTRACT:

High or low fertilizer use efficiency has threatened the yield of cotton. In this study, four combined ratios of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) (N1 = 150 N, 0 P2O5, and 0 K2O kg ha−1 (control), N2 = 150 N, 45 P2O5, and 90 K2O kg ha−1, N3 = 150 N, 90 P2O5, and 135 K2O kg ha−1, and N4 = 150 N, 135 P2O5, and 180 K2O kg ha−1) on biomass yield and growth of two cotton cultivars (Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Siza 1 and Sikang 1) were studied in a two-year (2016-2017) field trial in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The ratios of N2, N3, and N4 increased biomass production and growth as compared to the control group N1; the flowering period of Sikang 1 cultivar was improved by 20.6%, the boll setting period by 42.8%, and the peak boll setting period by 30.0%. Over the two growing seasons, Siza 1 cultivar increased boll opening by 6.3%, stem fresh and dry weight by 27.6% and 33.3%, leaves fresh and dry weight by 14.5% and 8.7%, and reproductive organ fresh and dry weight by 19.1% and 21.5%. In 2016 and 2017, the higher percentage of N4 reduced the fresh stem weight, fresh leaves, and dry weight of both cultivars compared to N1. The current study showed that the integrated supply of N, P and K at suitable ratios could improve cotton biomass yield and growth during boll development. However, the percentage of N3 ratios was in comparison more effective for cotton growth in the Siza 1 cultivar than in Sikang 1 cultivar

2187-2194 Download
20

Alignment of phenotypic selection with quantitatively recorded data in F6 generations of indeterminate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Taj Naseeb Khan, Waleed Quresh, Shamaila Rasheed, Mohsin Ali, Aasia Ramzan and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

Alignment of phenotypic selection with quantitatively recorded data in F6 generations of indeterminate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Segregation is the way to explore genetic variability in terms of high yield, disease or cold tolerance. Selection of competitive plants is a decisive step for the plant breeders after hybridization. However, year to year selections and evaluations sometimes are effected by varying environmental conditions. There were about 288 single plant selections from 04 (F6) generations of indeterminate tomato. Selection pressure was exerted by keeping in view of the yield assessing traits as well as the consumer acceptable fruit shapes i.e.; round, oblong and oval. About 184 single plant selections were made for round fruit, 174 for oblong, 12 for oval shaped fruit morphologies keeping in view of their yield contributing parameters. Phenotypic selections based upon the plant condition i.e.; poor, good, very good, excellent and satisfactory were made and data on the important quantitative traits were also recorded. Out of 997 plants of 184 round single plant selections; 17 plants fell under excellent category while 35 under very good, 260 under good, 100 under satisfactory and 580 under poor category while in the 746 plants belonging to 174 oblong single plant selections; 25 plants fell under excellent category while 20 under very good, 197 under good, 39 under satisfactory and 462 under poor categories. 12 single plant selections of oval fruit morphology comprised of 83 plants. Out of these 84 plants, only 14 plants fell under good, 06 under satisfactory and 63 under poor categories. The mean values were compared with their respective standard error, standard deviation and range values for each of the traits in each of the categories. A hierarchy was also determined for the mean values in each of the categories described for plant condition in each of the traits justified the alignment of phenotypic selection with the quantitative data

2195-2201 Download
21

New insights for exploring the bioactive nature and biomedical activities of Allium cepa


Muhammad Naeem, Hira Iqbal, Muhammad Nadeem, Faiza Marrium, Hafiz Muhammad Khubaib, Safia Gul, Afroz Rais, Amer Jamil, Rana Khalid Iqbal and Tahani Awad Alahmadi

New insights for exploring the bioactive nature and biomedical activities of Allium cepa


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds and have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Allium cepa exhibited several pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hemolytic, cytotoxic, and thrombolytic effects. However, a comprehensive understanding of its therapeutic properties is still lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the medicinal significance and biological activities of Allium cepa. The extraction was carried out through fractions of methanol, ethanol, and distilled water. The antimicrobial activity was assessed through disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity of extract was determined through DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Hemolytic activity was evaluated to assess the toxicity of onion extract, and thrombolytic activity was performed to examine its clot lysis potential. Our results revealed that methanolic extract of A. cepa showed high zone of inhibition (23.3 mm) than n-hexane (9.2 mm) against E. coli. Methanolic extract revealed high potential of DPPH free radical scavenging (40.6%) than n-hexane (23.3%). While on the other hand, methanolic extract showed high (10.1%) thrombolytic activity than distilled water (8.3%). N-hexane fraction showed higher hemolytic activity(45.4%) than distilled water (8.2%). The results demonstrated that the extract of Allium cepa exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and thrombolytic potentials due to the presence of several antioxidants and flavonoids. This study could be used for discovering the novel bioactive compounds and also helpful for exploring the therapeutic applications of medicinal plants that could be used for biological target of emerging diseases

2203-2209 Download
22

DNA barcode for phylogenetic analysis of genus Morus species from Azad Jammu and Kashmir


Shoukat Hussain, Rehana Asghar, Muhammad Ajaib, Imran Ali, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui, Samma Ain and Muhammad Sufian

DNA barcode for phylogenetic analysis of genus Morus species from Azad Jammu and Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

The identity and interrelationship of Morus species were confirmed and authenticated in the current research effort using DNA barcode analysis as a molecular technique. Chloroplast DNA of Specimens were evaluated through PCR, Sequence homology and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) clustering. Sequence recoveries of the rbcL and matK were 91.66 & 88.88% respectively. All the samples with matK depict BLAST similarity more than 96% with sequence cover higher than 75%, whereas in case of rbcL BLAST similarity was greater than 97% along with more than 74% sequence coverage. The matK phylogenetic tree diagram; revealed five main divergent groupings and a few subgroups. The first three groups comprised M. alba varieties. Group four consists of one M. alba and two M. macroura variants. M. alba V1 is present on a separate node. Varieties of M. macroura resemble one another more than sibling taxa. Group five is the largest group comprising four subgroups and five varieties of two species. Variants of M. nigra belong to various subgroups and are spread across various intra-species evolutionary nodes. Variants of M. serrata are connected. The hierarchical clustering of rbcL observed to consist of five main groups and several smaller ones. M. macroura and M. serrata varieties are included in group one. M. serrata species were closely resembling, whereas M. macroura species were located on distinct nodes, indicating small differences. 2nd and 3rd groups represent variants of M. alba. The fourth and 5th group includes M. nigra varieties, with V1 and V2 showed close relationship. The barcoding method divided our subject strains into different groups, which strengthened the identification process. rbcL genes had a maximum rate of conservation than matK. According to the rbcL alignment all 12 sequences had at least 91.6% identity at the 91.4% of sequence coverage. The results of matK were somewhat diverged sharing a minimum of 69.3% identity and 67% sequence coverage. The findings show that rbcL and matK markers can efficiently distinguish between species. Additionally, our research could be useful for identifying other species of Morus and contribute to the taxonomy of the genus

2211-2220 Download
23

Phytochemical analysis, DNA barcoding and DNA protective activity of Ferulago cassia Boiss.

 


Erkan Yilmaz, Miray Ege, Duygu Misirli, Gorkem Deniz Sonmez, Omer Kilic and Mahfuz Elmastas

Phytochemical analysis, DNA barcoding and DNA protective activity of Ferulago cassia Boiss.

 


ABSTRACT:

Chemical composition of the methanol extracts of Ferulago cassia Boiss. were identified by HPLC PDA and their DNA protective activity pattern determined. Regarding the chemotaxonomic evaluation, genetic analysis (barcoding) of species was carried out to contribute to differentiation of Ferulago species or phylogenetically close to other taxa. Chicoric acid and chlorogenic acid were found to be major compounds in both flowers and leaves extracts of F. cassia. Both methanol extracts were tested for DNA protective activity. Both of the extracts completely protected the pBluescript II SK (+) plasmid DNA from oxidative stress induced by UV and H2O2 in a DNA damage inhibition assay in which flower extract showed slightly more protection. The extract showed a great potential for DNA protection. ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence of F. cassia was obtained for the first time for DNA barcoding. The phylogenetic tree showed that F. cassia is closely related to F. macrocarpa

2221-2229 Download
24

Envisaging natural vegetation in contrasting environments (piedmont and alluvial) of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan


Ayaz Ahmad, Asma Saeed, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Waqas Yousaf and Imran Zafar

Envisaging natural vegetation in contrasting environments (piedmont and alluvial) of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Climate change and anthropogenic activities have an impact on vegetation patterns and spatial arrangement. Dera Ghazi Khan Rangelands and its environs are home to a diverse array of plant species that flourish in a variety of habitats. There are two types of habitats in the research area: piedmont and alluvial. The present study predicted the interaction between surrounds and vegetation at the land use and land cover (LULC), Broad vegetation groups (BVGs), vegetation type, formation and sub-formation levels redundancy analysis (RDA). We've identified 76 species, 62 genera, and 28 families, most of which were Solanaceae (20 species) and Asteraceae (20 species). The Qualitative data were also used to analyse the variety & floral species richness of every random selection in which Shannon diversity (H) values varied from 2.93 to 2.49, and the estimated species richness (S.R.) range was 19.70 to 9.30, with high values indicating high variety in the unit area. The normal cluster analysis was applied on the Mesic zone found at a low elevation of 114.3 m, Sandy alluvial plains located at a height of 147.21 m and the Piedmont environment at an altitude of 809.85 metres above sea level. The DCA is being used to analyse the entire data set, and the Eigenvalues of the recoded first four DCA axes, are 0.785, 0.377, 0.137, and 0.088. DCA-Ordination revealed the major curve to an amalgam of elevation (p<0.05) and slope (p<0.01) as elevation considerations associated with species distribution. Soil factors were key ecosystem elements along the DCA axis. Mg2+, K+, and N2+ contributed no more than 0.054%, 0.20%, and 0.073% of variation along each ordination axis, respectively. We observed that lower elevations (riparian) have more plant species richness and variety than higher elevations (piedmont). Furthermore, there was a substantial positive link between length and vegetation pattern, demonstrating that numerous environmental conditions impact the overall vegetation pattern in the study area

2231-2241 Download
25

Evaluation of morpho-anatomical changes in culinary herbs in response to cadmium and lead to explore their role in phytoremediation


Rimsha Anwar, Farhan Ahmad Khan Suri, Saba Butt and Aisha Saleem Khan

Evaluation of morpho-anatomical changes in culinary herbs in response to cadmium and lead to explore their role in phytoremediation


ABSTRACT:

Main purpose of this research work was to check whether coriander and mint leaves available in various vegetable markets and nurseries of Lahore are safe to consume and free of heavy metals traces. A field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the potential of the selected plants in accumulating Cd and Pb in their different parts in order to further explore their role in phytoremediation through various morpho-anatomical parameters and spectroscopic techniques. Treated plants were analyzed for fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll estimation, stomatal count, changes in cortical and vascular tissues caused in response to Cd and Pb. Metals uptake in plant tissues was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).  In coriander, less uptake of both metals was reported in aerial parts. However, mint accumulated relatively higher amount of both metals in aerial parts which was evident through reduction in length of plants, leaf area and through inhibition of vascular tissues. AAS further revealed that metals were also translocated to leaves of mint, suggesting that plant can be used for phytoremediation of Cd and Pb.

2243-2251 Download
26

Investigation of the effect of social distance on frequency and voltage fluctuations on identical Ocimum basilicum L. plants indoors and outdoors for 24 hours using a mixed model


Selahattin Bardak, Yasin Altinisik and Ertugrul Osman Bursalioglu

Investigation of the effect of social distance on frequency and voltage fluctuations on identical Ocimum basilicum L. plants indoors and outdoors for 24 hours using a mixed model


ABSTRACT:

Plants play a vital role in environmental cleanliness by reducing harmful gases in the atmosphere. Genus Ocimum has a separate prescription due to its ability to clean air toxins in the interior. Ocimum has spread commercially all over the world due to its economic importance. Frequency and electrical voltage were measured on the leaves of two identical Ocimum basilicum L., plants using an oscilloscope for two consecutive days. Interaction between plants was quantified by standard deviations (SDs) of the average voltage and frequency values. A higher standard deviation for these measures means that the plants interact better with each other for the corresponding position (i.e., adjoining or social distance) and environment (i.e., indoors or outdoors). The most fluctuating average voltage and frequency values were observed outdoors in the social distance position (SD = 5185.44mV) and outdoors in the adjoining position (SD = 3.01Hz). The smallest variations in average voltage values were obtained indoors at the social distance position (SD = 578.78mV). The average frequency values were in line with each other for the adjacent plants indoors (SD = 0.49Hz), the social distance plants indoors (SD = 0.36Hz) and the social distance plants outdoors (SD = 0.40Hz). A mixed-modeling framework was used to investigate the effects of position, temperature, humidity and their interaction on the frequency and voltage values. These variables did not have a significant effect on the frequency and voltage values at the outdoor environment. Social distance had a positive effect on voltage values (  = 0.25, P = 0.033) indoors. Temperature had a negative impact on frequency values (  = -2.09, P = 0.040) and voltage values (  = -2.87, P = 0.005) indoors. Similarly, humidity negatively affected the frequency values (  = -1.26, P = 0.033) and voltage values (  = -1.74, P = 0.003) indoors. The interaction effect between temperature and humidity was positive for both the frequency values (  = 0.04, P = 0.026) and voltage values (  = 0.06, P = 0.003) indoors

2253-2262 Download
27

Identification and association of NBS-LRR encoding disease resistance gene analogs family in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)


Sajjad Haidar, Shahid Mansoor and Iftikhar Ahmad Khan

Identification and association of NBS-LRR encoding disease resistance gene analogs family in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Identification of genes at molecular level and association as linked markers to resistance in diploid cotton with emphasis on major diseases of cotton was studied via a conserved domain strategy by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three rounds of PCR amplifications by using degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the conserved motifs, nucleotide binding sites (NBS) and leucine rich repeats (LRRs) were performed. According to the primer wise expected PCR products size, forty nine required size products amplified were eluted and some were directly precipitated from PCR reactions. The identified eluted products were cloned and sequenced. Through this approach resistance genes analogs (RGA) like sequences were determined that are may be candidates for known disease resistance loci. All of the eluted identified candidate resistance genes loci’s (RGLs) are not RGAs. However some of the common types of equal size RGLs may be used as markers to identify the resistance genes. These results  demonstrates that mapping of RGA sequences can be useful for landing markers linked to known resistance genes analogs and possibly in identifying candidate resistance loci in different species of cotton. Genome characterization for cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) study suggested that 800 and 1200 base pair size (bps) fragments could be used as markers for resistance to CLCuV. We named these markers as MCLCuV-1 and MCLCuV-2.

 

2263-2268 Download
28

Determination of some agricultural and technological properties of soybean genotypes


Serif Kahraman

Determination of some agricultural and technological properties of soybean genotypes


ABSTRACT:

This study aims to determine the yield and quality parameters of soybean genotypes that are cultivable under the main crop conditions. The experiments were conducted in Diyarbakir province according to Randomized Complete Block Design in 2017 and 2019 years. The result of mean of two years showed that the highest grain yield was obtained from KA-08-09-1 (4361 kg ha-1) however, the lowest grain yield was obtained from KA-08-09-2 lines (3023 kg ha-1). Additionally, the lowest oil ratio was obtained from the Blaze cultivar (22.4%), while the highest oil ratio was obtained from KA-08-09-2 line (24.0%). According to GGE biplot analysis of traits and genotypes, the advanced line KA-08-09-1 and Blaze cultivar had the largest values for grain yield, number of pods and thousand grain weight. As conclusion, the result of two years of the study indicated that the candidate line (KA-08-09-1) had good results, therefore application for registration was made to the Seed Registration and Certification Directorate in 2021.

 

2269-2273 Download
29

Mapping nitrogen status in soil and foliage of cotton producing area of southern Punjab, Pakistan


Ejaz Rafique, S.M. Gill, Humair Ahmed, Ghulam Sabir Hussain and M.M. Raza

Mapping nitrogen status in soil and foliage of cotton producing area of southern Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Nitrogen (N) is deficient in more than ninety percent soils of Pakistan. Nitrogen deficiency and poor management causes yield losses in most of the crops in Pakistan therefore its efficient management is vital for ensuring optimum crop production. A field survey was conducted for mapping NO3-N content in soils and total N content in the foliage of cotton producing area using geo-statistics and GIS as diagnostic tools. Seventy geo-referenced soil samples were collected from the surface soil (0-15cm depth) along with associated foliage samples. Our results indicated that bioavailable NO3-N content in soil ranged from 3.43-14.24 µg g−1 with the mean of 8.47 µg g−1. Thirteen out of 16 soil series were categorized as deficient (< 11 µg g-1) in plant available NO3-N. Nitrogen content in the foliage ranged from 2.44–4.55%, with a mean of 3.52%. Forty-three percent of total analyzed plant samples were categorized as N deficient. Moderate to strong spatial dependence of NO3-N in the soil and foliage provided an opportunity to prepare digital maps for classifying the whole area into various zones. Generated maps indicating differential nutrient status of cotton producing area provide regional scale information. This information will be helpful for future studies on site-specific nutrient management

2275-2281 Download
30

Comparative transcriptome analyses revealed photosynthesis- and sucrose metabolism-related responses of endangered e
Xinliang Liu, Yanfang Wu, Liyan Wang, Yueting Zhang, Xinglin Tang and Cong Yan

Comparative transcriptome analyses revealed photosynthesis- and sucrose metabolism-related responses of endangered e
ABSTRACT:

Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang of the family Lauraceae is an endangered evergreen ornamental tree species. Shade stress greatly affects the growth and development of Phoebe species. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the shade response, the photosynthesis and transcriptomic profiles of P. bournei were examined under shade stress (11.7% light) and full light. The results showed that shade led to a decrease in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) of P. bournei plants. The shade treatments resulted in a significant increase in plant height and crown diameter. However, diameter at ground level, leaf mass per area (LMA), and plant biomass were lower for plants grown under shade conditions than under full light. De novo assembly of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data resulted in the generation of 89054 unigenes, and a total of 5404 genes were differentially expressed between the shade treatment and full light. The expression of most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the photosynthesis antenna pathway was upregulated under shade stress. The downregulated expression of most genes associated with photosynthesis was in agreement with the decreased Pn. The expression of many DEGs related to starch and sucrose metabolism was also significantly affected by shade stress. Our findings provide valuable information for understanding the physiological and molecular regulatory pathways of P. bournei in response to shade.

 

2283-2293 Download
31

Seed dormancy and germination mechanism of rare and endangered plants


Mei-Ying Qin, Han Zhao, Shu-Lin Zhang, Xin-Yue Shan, Ying Han, Lu-Ying Feng, Ta-Na Wuyun, Fang-Dong Li, Wei-Yi Liu and Gao-Pu Zhu

Seed dormancy and germination mechanism of rare and endangered plants


ABSTRACT:

Rare and endangered plants not only provide mankind with scarce chemical, pharmaceutical, and living materials but also witness geological changes, plant evolution, and phylogeny. They are also one of the indispensable life-forms for maintaining the biodiversity on the earth. However, difficulties with dormancy and germination are the major reasons for their near extinction. By understanding the causes of seed dormancy for rare and endangered plants, artificial regulation of seed dormancy can achieve the purpose of lifting their endangered status. This paper reviews the external and internal causes of seed dormancy in rare and endangered plants in recent years. By focusing on the key genes, miRNAs, and transcription, the factors causing seed dormancy have been gradually revealed. This provides the foundation for the molecular regulation of seeds. The paper also reviews the methods of dormancy release on both physical and chemical levels. It discusses the critical directions for future research to provide a scientific basis for renewing rare and endangered plant populations and the establishing engineered breeding technology systems for them.

 

2295-2301 Download
32

Threats and traditional approaches to the conservation of selected threatened or protected plants in the Limpopo province, South Africa


Marula Rasethe, Michèle Pfab and Martin Potgieter

Threats and traditional approaches to the conservation of selected threatened or protected plants in the Limpopo province, South Africa


ABSTRACT:

Harvesting wild indigenous plants for traditional medicinal purposes is a common practice in various areas across South Africa, including in Limpopo province. Traditional medicines are derived from various wild plant resources, some of which are protected by legislation. The aim of this study was to assesss the anthropogenic threats and traditional approaches to the conservation of six medicinal plant species protected by the Threatened or Protected Species (TOPS) Regulations, promulgated in terms of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 10 of 2004 (NEMBA). Data were gathered via semi-structured questionnaires and field observations across the five districts of the Limpopo province. Findings indicated that overexploitation and destructive harvesting methods are the main factors threatening the survival of the six study species. Participants suggested the cultivation of these species and various conservation strategies, including the introduction of a permit system and plant reintroduction, as fundamental to the long-term conservation of the species. A biodiversity management plan as provided for by NEMBA would be a useful mechanism to ensure the future sustainability of these valuable plant resources.

2303-2310 Download
33

Plants of the Hunza valley (central Karakorum), northern Pakistan: ecology, diversity, and conservation


Jan Alam, Zaheer Abbas, Shazia Kousar, Gul Jan, Suhail Karim, Said Muhammad, Muhammad Islam, Nidaa Harun, Affiefa Yawer and Zainul Abideen

Plants of the Hunza valley (central Karakorum), northern Pakistan: ecology, diversity, and conservation


ABSTRACT:

The present paper elaborates the results of vegetation and floristic research carried out in the valley of Hunza, Central Karakorum Mountains, northern Pakistan. The field surveys conducted from 2011 – 2012 ended with the collection of 324 species in 183 genera and 48 families. Based on geo-climatic conditions and floristic assemblage the vegetation of the studied area can be categorized into three altitudinal belts i.e. temperate, sub-alpine, and alpine. Altitude exhibits profound impacts on the species richness, composition, and surrogacy. The species diversity declined with elevation and maximum species richness was observed at the temperate belt. Asteraceae was the most presented family with 83 species followed by Poaceae (29 spp.), Fabaceae (16 spp.), and Cyperaceous (16 spp). Perennial herbs (77%) were the leading habit with sub-dominating shrubs (11%) and annuals (9%). In life-form categories, hemicryptophytes presented 249 species followed by therophytes and nanophanerophytes with 29 species each. Similarly, the common habitat of dry mountain slopes support maximum species i.e. 106 species followed by ruderal (90 spp), and moist mountain slopes (84 spp.). The assessment for quantitative thresholds for conservation revealed that habitats of 28 taxa were observed unstable, 255 taxa exhibited habitat specificity, 75 showed small population size, and 65 presented small geographical range. The application of IUCN Red List Criteria 2001 (Version 3.1) disclosed that 38 species fell in critically endangered, 32 vulnerable, and 10 endangered categories. The current ecological and floristic appraisal of the studied area would be effective to devise and strengthen the conservation strategies of climatically fragile mountain ecosystems

2311-2325 Download
34

Analysis of the morphological, phenological and biometrical diversity in several Algerian populations of Trifolium subterraneum L. (Fabaceae)


Zahira Bouziane, Rachida Issolah, Zineb Fedjer and Ali Tahar

Analysis of the morphological, phenological and biometrical diversity in several Algerian populations of Trifolium subterraneum L. (Fabaceae)


ABSTRACT:

As part of the evaluation and the valorization of plant genetic resources of fodder and pastoral interest in Algeria, twenty-six (26) natural populations of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), originating from different ecological habitats, were the subject of a morphological, phenological and biometrical study. In total, fifty (50) characteristics were considered (33 quantitative related to vegetative development, flowering, pods and 17 qualitative related to leaves, flowers and seeds). Two ecological factors (altitude and rainfall), concerning the natural habitats of the populations, were also considered. The analysis of variance highlighted the existence of significant intraspecific and inter-population variation for several traits. The Biometrical and phenological characteristics were more discriminating than qualitative ones (markers). Several significant correlations were observed between the markers and certain traits related to the reproduction and yield. Compared to the rainfall, the effect of the altitude was relatively more pronounced on the variation of certain quantitative and qualitative characteristics (seeds weight/fruiting heads weight ratio, flush intensity, crescent breadth and stem hairiness). The results of the PCA indicate a wide morpho-phenological and biometrical variation, particularly between the populations coming from the region of Guelma. The precocity, the vegetative development, the flower production and the fruiting heads weight permitted to classify the populations into three distinct groups. This study highlighted the importance of certain quantitative and qualitative characteristics in the infraspecific classification of the species T. subterraneum in Algeria and suggests that the populations collected in the Northeast of the country would correspond to the ssp. subterraneum. The diversified performances described in the Algerian populations of T. subterraneum require their preservation and valorization

2327-2340 Download
35

A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae) from Zhob district of northern Balochistan, Pakistan


Nazar Khan, Amir Sultan, Tahir Khan, Shazia Kousar and Amjad Khan

A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae) from Zhob district of northern Balochistan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Astragalus qamardinianus (sect. Pendulina Gontscharov), is described as a new species from northern Balochistan, Pakistan. Astragalus qamardinianus N. Khan, A. Sultan & T. Khan sp. nov. is closely related to A. dieterlei Podlech but differs in morphological characters. Astragalus qamardinianus is a small perennial stemless glabrous herb with white membranous stipules, elliptic, acuminate leaflets, 3-5 flowered pedunculate raceme, minute white membranous linear bracts, slightly gibbous calyx, creamy white flowers with purple nerves, oblong to elliptic fruits and reniform, rugose seeds. Astragalus qamardinianus is compared with A. dieterlei and A. mirabilis Lipsky (the only other species of section Pendulina known from Pakistan). A distribution map, illustrations, ecology and ethnobotany of the new species are provided.

2341-2344 Download
36

Geographic distribution of endangered endemic species Aloe shadensis Lavranos & Collen. (Asphodelaceae) in Saudi Arabia


Abdul Wali Ahmed Al-Khualidi and Fayza Ahmad Alzahrani

Geographic distribution of endangered endemic species Aloe shadensis Lavranos & Collen. (Asphodelaceae) in Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The geographical distribution of the Aloe shadensis Lavranos & Collen. in the Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia was investigated. Areas around Shada Mountain and Qilwa area (Qilwa and Al-Mukhwah governorates) were visited. Number of individual plants and their location were recorded. A. shadensis occupies a very narrow regional and local geographic area, with an Area of Occupancy (AOO) of 20 and Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of 188 square kilometers

2345-2350 Download
37

Seedling structure and surface micromorphology of Sterculia foetida L. (Malvaceae)


D. Khan and Rubina Abid

Seedling structure and surface micromorphology of Sterculia foetida L. (Malvaceae)


ABSTRACT:

The seedling structure and surface micromorphology of Sterculia foetida L. (Malvaceae) is described. Seedling of S. foetida may be Phanerocotylar-epigeal - Reserve type or Cryptocotylar – hypogeal - Reserve type. When aboveground, cotyledons unfolded, expanded and turned green on exposure to sun, developing dense crop of trichomes. The whole seedling surface was trichomatous. Cotyledonary trichomes were conical and multicellular. Some four kinds of trichomes were observed on leaflets. 1) Long, apically pointed non-glandular unicellular (acicular) trichomes – predominantly abundant. 2) Long, apically curved or hooked, unicellular or uniseriate multicellular trichomes. 3) Long apically club- shaped, Bicellular, uniseriate glandular trichomes. 4) Dark globular (ball-like, peltate) glandular trichomes on the midrib. Epidermal cells in cotyledons were polygonal and straight in anticlinal contour. The adaxial epidermis of leaf was with straight to curvy anticlinal walls and abaxially the epidermal cells were sinuous and irregular in shape. A diversity of stomatal complexes was recorded on cotyledons and leaflets. Stomatal density was lesser on cotyledonary sun-exposed surface than that of leaflets.  Leaflets were hypostomatous. Foliar stomatal density varied with the size of leaflets. Stomatal density in the smallest leaflet of 184 mm2 was 249.14 ± 5.54 (varying from 157.26 to 324.36 stomata per mm2, CV: 14.05%) and 125.22 ± 3.449 stomata per mm2 in the largest leaflet (4709 mm2). Stomatal size inclusive of normal and giant stomata averaged to 21.15 ± 14.86 µm x 14.86 ± 0.176 µm (L x W) in 265 observations. It may be concluded that S. foetida is quite rich in trichomal and stomatal diversity

2351-2367 Download
38

Taxonomical knowledge, biological spectra and ethnomedicinal plant inventory of Asteraceae family in various areas of Gaza strip, Palestine


Mohamad Abou Auda

Taxonomical knowledge, biological spectra and ethnomedicinal plant inventory of Asteraceae family in various areas of Gaza strip, Palestine


ABSTRACT:

The current study was designed to provide comprehensive information on the biodiversity, classification, biological spectra, and ethnomedicinal plant inventory of species and genera of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. A total of 32 plant species belonging to 25 genera of the family Asteraceae were collected from different regions of the study area of the Gaza Strip, Palestine, during 2019-2022. The current study included a dichotomous key for the identification of different genera and species of the Asteraceae based on various characteristics. The result showed that about 29 plant species out of the total studied species had medicinal properties with different biological activities and used for treating various diseases. Most of them were used as antimicrobial (19 spp), antioxidant (18 spp), anti-inflammatory (14 spp), and anticancer (11 spp). The genus Centaurea was represented by 3 species (9.4%), followed by Leontodon, Crepis, Carduus, Erigeron and Anthemis genera. Three life forms were recognized and Therophyte life form was the most dominant with 25 plant species (78%), followed by Hemicryptophyte with 4 species (12.5%), and finally, Chamaephyte with 3 species (9.5%). According to the ethnomedicinal survey, whole plant was most widely (10 spp) used followed by an aerial part (9 spp), and leaves (7 spp) for treating different ailments. Asteraceae family is rich in terms of medicinal plant species which are important for their used in traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases, and the most used species were Verbesina encelioides, Calendula arvensis, Erigeron canadensis, and Silybum marianum.

2369-2380 Download
39

Fruit thinning chemical agents improves fruit size and quality in ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) - Rutaceae


Waqar Shafqat, Nergis Fatima, M. Jafar Jaskani, Sufian Ikram, Rabia Amen, Waqas Shafqat Chattha, Muhammad Salman Haider and Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi

Fruit thinning chemical agents improves fruit size and quality in ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) - Rutaceae


ABSTRACT:

‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruit needs to be thinned to increase the availability of photosynthates used to increase fruit size, fruit quality, profitability and can also help to overcome alternate bearing. This study evaluated ‘Kinnow’ fruit thinning using three chemical agents with different levels of concentration i.e. naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) @ 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 gL-1; 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid (3,5,6-TPA) at TPA at 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 gL-1, and ethephon @ at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 gL-1, in Pakistani orchards just after the June fruit drop for two growing seasons 2017-19. Fruit weight was increased due to chemical thinning application when compared with the respective controls. The soluble solid contents were also higher than control in plants that had having chemical thinning treatment. The Application of fruit thinning chemical treatment increased the growth rate of fruit during the development cycle. Compared with the controls, the cost-benefit ratio was higher in 3,5,6-TPA at 0.5 gL-1, ethephon at 0.5 gL-1, and NAA at 0.3 gL-1. It was positively concluded that fruit thinning efficiently improved the fruit quality and fruit crop profitability of ‘Kinnow’ by sustaining the carbohydrate supply and overcoming alternate bearing

2381-2392 Download
40

Evaluation of environmental pollution caused by the Black Sea coastal highway using chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles as bioindicator in Surmene Camburnu Nature Park, Turkey


Ufuk Fatih Kucukali

Evaluation of environmental pollution caused by the Black Sea coastal highway using chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles as bioindicator in Surmene Camburnu Nature Park, Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Black Sea coastal highway is one of the busiest roads in the north of Turkey. With this study, it has been determined that sulfur dioxide (SO2) originating from the Black Sea coastal highway causes multifaceted environmental problems including degradation of habitat and natural landscape on the flora of Sürmene Çamburnu Nature Park. Pollution concentrations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were obtained by chemical analyzes of Scots pine (P. sylvestris L.) needles collected from sampling points in 2019, 2020 and 2021. When P. sylvestris L. needles, which is an important bioindicator in monitoring these environmental degradations and one of the natural plant species of the area, were examined in the laboratory, it was determined that the Pb and Cu values were above the limit values of World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but the Zn value was within the limit values. These results indicate that Pb and Cu values, which are above the limit values, tend to decrease towards the upper limit values, especially in 2019 and 2020, as a result of the decrease in vehicle traffic on the highway due to the Covid 19 pandemic. However, it was determined that Cu, Pb, and Zn values started to increase in 2021 due to the increase in vehicle density due to the post pandemic time

2393-2402 Download
41

First report of Phyllosticta capitalensis causing leaf brown spot of Ligustrum japonicum in China


Hailin Xia, Yunyun Xie, Long Zeng, Chunpeng Wan, Volkan Okatan and Xiaohua Pan

First report of Phyllosticta capitalensis causing leaf brown spot of Ligustrum japonicum in China


ABSTRACT:

In 2021, Leaf brown spot of Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) was observed in Changxi Avenue, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, China. 16 isolates from diseased leaves were obtained and their pathogenicity was confirmed. The pathogen was identified as Phyllosticta capitalensis based on the morphological characteristics, cultural appearance and molecular characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. capitalensis causing leaf brown spot of L. japonicum in China.In 2021, the Leaf brown spot of the Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) was observed in Changxi Avenue, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, China. 16 isolates from diseased leaves were obtained, and their pathogenicity was confirmed. The pathogen was identified as Phyllosticta capitalensis based on morphological characteristics, cultural appearance, and molecular characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. capitalensis causing leaf brown spot of L. japonicum in China.

2403-2408 Download
42

Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, cause of citrus canker disease in Pakistan


Muhammad Nauman, Sidra Mushtaq, Muhammad Fahad Khan, Amjad Ali, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi, Zia Ul Haq, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar, Ateeq Ur Rehman, Mahmoud Moustafa and Ummad Ud Din Umar

Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, cause of citrus canker disease in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Citrus is being cultivated throughout the globe and its production is increasing every year. Pakistan is ranked at 13thnumber for citrus production. Worldwide, Pakistan is largest exporter and producer of Kinnow. Current study includes the survey for collection of citrus canker infected samples from different citrus orchards of Punjab. The pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) was isolated and purified on yeast dextrose calcium carbonate agar medium. Pathogenicity was confirmed by both attached and detached leaf assays. On water agar media, Xcc exhibited canker like symptoms on leaves of Crizo citrange, Duncan pumelo and Mexican lime whereas attached leaf assay was done on rough lemon plant and pathogenicity was confirmed after development of symptoms i.e. lesions surrounded by yellow halo. Hypersensitive response of bacteria was confirmed by application of bacterial inoculum on tobacco plant and Xcc. produced necrotic spots at the point of inoculums application. Isolated pathogen X. citri was characterized on biochemical and molecular basis. For molecular detection, DNA of isolated Xcc. was performed by SDS method and also through commercial Kit. Extracted DNA was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) where six set of primers based on 16S rRNA, pathogenicity and internal transcribed spacer were used for its characterization. Most of isolates showed positive results by all primers while few isolates from Sweet Orange gave no result by primers designed on pathogenicity region. Bacterial isolates produced amplification products by PCR were also subjected to RFLP by EcoR1 and Xbal restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis depicted significant variation in two isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Pakistani isolates are closely related to the isolates from Japan, India, Spain and distantly related to the isolates reported from Brazil and USA

2409-2421 Download
43

Degradation of fruits layers by enzymatic activity of fungi


Gulnaz Parveen, Naila Mukhtar, Irfan Ullah, Amtul Sami, Shamaila Irum, Nain Tarra Bukhari, Aneela Naz and Tahira Batool

Degradation of fruits layers by enzymatic activity of fungi


ABSTRACT:

Fruits losses are the foremost reason for declining the export income of a country. These losses encompass many reasons. Among these, post harvest losses are one of the ample causes discussed in the present study. However, microorganisms are the foremost cause for post harvest losses. This study is based on the isolation and identification of fungi which are responsible for post harvest loss by degrading cell wall of fruits by producing ezymes. Because fruits are the paramount source for colonization of fungi. Total 10 different fruits samples from District Swabi were taken under consideration to identify 13 different species of fungi included (Cladosporium cladosporioides, Alternaria sp., Fusarium solani, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium notatum., P.expansum Botrytis sp., Aspergillus sp., Drechsler sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Phytopythora sp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Mucor sp.,) that were predisposed to produce post harvest losses of different fruits. The most common fungi were isolated was Alternaria species, Penicilium and Fusarium spp. All isolated fungi were cultured on fruits peel and screened the Cell wall degrading enzymes of plants, like cellulase, polygalacturonase, a-amylase and xylanase. Highest level of polygalacturonase and xylanase were recorded compared to the others two. In decision, Penicilium sp., are common and the polygalacturonases and xylanses are the main fungal enzymes that accountable for rotting of fruits

2423-2428 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 1.2
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 1.1
Category Quartile:Q3
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1010330, Today's: 21, Yesterday's: 3478, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org