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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 6
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1
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-II GREWIOIDEAE
AFSHEEN ATHER, RUBINA ABID AND M. QASIER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-II GREWIOIDEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 20 taxa belonging to the subfamily Grewioideae of the extended family Malvaceae, was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seed macro and micro morphological characters were found useful to delimit the taxa both at the generic and specific levels and for designing a Seed atlas of Pakistan.

2647-2656 Download
2
NYPHOIDES INDICA (L.) KUNTZE, A NEW RECORD FOR PAKISTAN
SARFARAZ KHAN MARWAT, MIR AJAB KHAN, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR

NYPHOIDES INDICA (L.) KUNTZE, A NEW RECORD FOR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District, NWFP, Pakistan, during 2005–2007. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze an aquatic plant of family Menyanthaceae is reported for the first time from Pakistan. The specimen was collected from water near D.I. Khan–Darya Khan Bridge. Complete macro and microscopic details and morphological features of this species were discussed. A photograph of the species and its habitat is given.

2657-2660 Download
3
ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PARASITIC PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
MIR AJAB KHAN1, TAHSEEN SHARIF1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR1 AND RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN2

ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PARASITIC PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The gross anatomical characteristics of 5 parasitic plant species, viz., Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae), Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. (Orobanchaceae), Korthalsella opuntia (Thomb.) Merrill, Viscum album L., and Viscum cruciatum Seib. Ex. Spreng. (Viscaceae) were investigated. The vascular bundles of all these parasitic plants were less developed having poorly developed phloem but well developed xylem. The most interesting features were the presence of terminal sclereids in Viscum cruciatum and brachysclereids in Korthalsella opuntia. Terminal sclereids have not been reported previously in the genus. These parasitic species show variation in the invasiveness of endophytic tissue of haustorium into the host vascular tissue. Haustorium of Cuscuta reflexa forms connection to the phloem of the host. The haustorium was consisting of few threads of xylem and phloem which penetrate only to the phloem tissue of the host. In Korthalsella opuntia and Viscum cruciatum haustoria form connection to the xylem of the hosts. The haustorium of Korthalsella opuntia is well developed and surrounds the host xylem in the form of cup.

2661-2669 Download
4
NEW APPROACH FOR THE MORPHOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS FROM TUNISIA
HAMZA HAMMADI, REJELI MOKHTAR, ELBEKKAY MOKHTAR AND FERCHICHI ALI

NEW APPROACH FOR THE MORPHOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS FROM TUNISIA
ABSTRACT:
Thirty vegetative date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) descriptors were screened. This selection was made on three cultivars with variable behaviour towards oasis stress: Deglet nour, Alig and Kintichi. The statistic tests showed an intra-cultivar stability of 6 characters: percentage of spinned midrib part, apical divergence angle, maximal pinnae width at the top leaf, percentage of solitary spine, spine length at the middle and maximal spine angle. These characters are steady; their measures are not affected by the change of cropping conditions. So they can be used for cultivars identification in any oasis and outside the fruiting period. Using these parameters, the genetic variation among 26 Tunisian date palm cultivars was studied. The graphic distribution identified by principal component analysis showed cluster according to fruit characteristics. We have distinguished a grouping of later maturity date palm varieties which opposed to those with earlier maturity. The Pearson coefficient showed significant correlation between the harvesting period and the percentage of spinned midrib part which can be used as an indicator of the cultivar maturity period. In addition, cultivars with the same fruit consistency are grouped together. These results are useful in the selection, collections and genes mapping.

2671-2681 Download
5
VEGETATION STRUCTURE OF OLEA FERRUGINEA ROYLE FORESTS OF LOWER DIR DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED, NASRULLAH KHAN, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, SALMA HAMZA, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI*, KANWAL NAZIM AND MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN

VEGETATION STRUCTURE OF OLEA FERRUGINEA ROYLE FORESTS OF LOWER DIR DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirty stands were sampled in forests dominated by Olea ferruginea during summer in 2008. Phytosociological attributes like relative frequency, density, basal area and absolute values such as density ha-1 and basal area m2 ha-1 of stands and species are presented. Based on importance values and floristic composition following 10 communities were recognized. 1, Olea- Punica community 2, Olea- Ficus community 3, Platanus-Morus communities 4, Olea– Ailanthus community 5, Morus-Celtis community 6, Olea-Acacia community 7, Olea- Morus community 8, Olea- Monotheca community 9, Olea- Quercus community 10, Pure Olea community. Most of these showed similar floristic composition with different quantitative values. Though no significant relation between density/basal area, elevation/density and elevation/basal area was obtained, however trends of these possible relations are described. Structure of Olea ferruginea and associated tree species in each stand is presented. Due to unbalanced forest structure and continuous disturbance, no future trends could be predicted for these forests.

2683-2695 Download
6
EFFECTS OF COLOURS AND FORMS OF TREES ON VISUAL PERCEPTIONS
HALDUN MUDERRİSOGLU1, SUKRAN AYDIN*, OZGUR YERLI* AND ELIF KUTAY*

EFFECTS OF COLOURS AND FORMS OF TREES ON VISUAL PERCEPTIONS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of colour on the perception of tree forms and the effects of personal characteristics of the participants on their preferences. The students of science studies, medical science and social science of Duzce University, Turkey, participated in the study (n=159). The participants were asked to evaluate 5 different tree forms which were drawn by hand and coloured with 8 different colours by semantic differential method. According to the results obtained, pyramid-formed trees were preferred most and colour had a strong effect on the preferences of tree forms. Bright green trees were found to have the highest visual quality while blue-coloured trees the highest strength. Again, the results obtained in this study indicate that personal characteristics are effective on preferences of tree forms and colours.

2697-2710 Download
7
YIELD AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) MUTANTS TO DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES AND SOWING DATES
SYED ANWAR SHAH1* AND K. RAHMAN2

YIELD AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) MUTANTS TO DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES AND SOWING DATES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of various seeding rates and seeding dates on the agronomic performance of four rapeseed genotypes (three advanced mutants and one commercial variety) was studied for two consecutive years. The results showed that seeding rates did not affect plant height but influenced maturity significantly and plots seeded with 4 kg ha-1 matured earlier than rest of the plots. Significant differences in mean values of rapeseed genotypes with respect to physiological maturity were also observed and RM-152-2 matured significantly earlier than rest of the entries. The yield data showed that only RM-182 significantly out yielded the check (Pak Cheen) at different seed rates. Also the yield tended to increase with an increase in seed rate up to 10 kg ha-1, above which a slight decrease was noted. The lowest yields were obtained at the lowest seed rate. The interaction between the seed rates and genotypes was significant at P<0.05. The results of seeding date experiment revealed that plant height was reduced as sowing was delayed (except 15 October). The genotypes, however, did not differ significantly in plant height when averaged over sowing dates. They also did not differ significantly in days taken to maturity, nevertheless, plots sown early (on 15 September) matured earlier than other plots. It was also observed that delayed sowing beyond 25 October resulted in forced maturity, which adversely affected yield. The interaction of seeding dates and genotypes was significant at P<0.05. The yield results revealed that the highest yields were obtained in plots sown on 25 September and 5 October beyond that gradual reduction in yield was noted. The lowest yields were obtained from plots sown on 14 November, the last sowing date. All the mutants produced significantly higher yield than the check. Based on the results of these experiments over two years, it is concluded that seed rates and time of sowing had significant influence on yield and growth of rapeseed. A seed rate of 8 kg ha-1 and sowing between 25 September and 15 October is, therefore, recommended for obtaining higher yields of rapeseed genotypes.

2711-2716 Download
8
LEAF ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS IN SOME EXOTIC SPECIES OF EUCALYPTUS L'HÉR. (MYRTACEAE)
IFTIKHAR ALI1*, SYED QAISER ABBAS1, MANSOOR HAMEED2, NARGIS NAZ2, SARA ZAFAR1 AND SHIASTA KANWAL1

LEAF ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS IN SOME EXOTIC SPECIES OF EUCALYPTUS L'HÉR. (MYRTACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of leaves in the genus Eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae) from the Faisalabad region. Thicker epidermis in E. alba Reinw. ex Blume and E. maculata Hook., are the adaptations to water limited environments like drought and salinity. Large cortical cell in E. microtheca F. Muell., and E. botryoides Sm., are the indication of their wide distribution in a variety of different environmental conditions. Eucalyptus crebra F. Muell., E. maculata Hook., and E. microtheca F. Muell., with significantly larger vascular tissue were the better adaptation to a variety of environment types. There was a great variation in leaf anatomical characteristics among Eucalyptus species collected from the Faisalabad region.

2717-2727 Download
9
A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE MECHANISM IN ADAPTING THE PLANTS TO HEAVY METAL ENVIRONMENT
RAFIA AZMAT1*, SABA HAIDER2, HAJRA NASREEN2, FARHA AZIZ3 AND MARINA RIAZ1

A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE MECHANISM IN ADAPTING THE PLANTS TO HEAVY METAL ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that variations in leaf anatomy and morphology reflect their adaptability to the environmental stress. A self defense mechanism system related with the trichomes on the surface of leaves for the detoxification of Pb was observed in Phaseolus mungo and Lens culinaris through light microscopy in leaves. The presence of trichomes and increase in number of stomata in the adaxial (upper) leaf surface of both species seems to constitute an important morphological mechanism for survival that allows this species to maintain good photosystem II efficiency during the stress. Foliar morphological variability in Phaseolus mungo and Lens culinaris may be considered an adaptive advantage that enables leaves to develop and function in habitats marked by strong variations of Pb toxicity with solar radiation, air temperature and humidity. These hairs may constitute a shield against Pb pollution and act as a physical barrier for the protection of plants and can act as a biomonitor of environmental contamination and biogeochemical indicator of Pb. Enhancement in the hairs on leaves at high dose of Pb may be related with reducing evaporation of water from the surface of leaves in stress condition. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. The importance of the increase in the number of stomata in relation with the absorption of CO2 with increase in CK enzymatic activity, creatine, glucose and reducing sugars (p<.001) for both species under the metal stress were examined.

2729-2738 Download
10
EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME GROUNDNUT VARIETIES GROWN IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ASLAM SHAD1*, HUMAYUN PERVEEZ1, HAQ NAWAZ1, HYDER KHAN1, MUHAMMAD AMAN ULLAH2

EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME GROUNDNUT VARIETIES GROWN IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The biochemical composition and some phytochemicals in the seeds of 4 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties viz., Golden, Barri 2000, Mongphalla and Mongphalli 334 cultivated in arid zones of Pakistan, were determined. The biochemical analysis included ash, crude fat, total nitrogen, proteins and sugar contents. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed among the varieties regarding the ash, crude fat, water soluble proteins, salt soluble proteins and sugar contents. The four groundnut varieties were also found to be significantly different (p<0.05) on the basis of phytochemicals analysed including tannins (822±3.78 to 903±4.45 mg/100g), saponins (438±2.12 to 480±2.30 mg/100g), non-protein nitrogen (1.33±0.03 to 1.56±0.02 mg/100g), hydrogen cyanide (40.80±0.32 to 42.82±0.75 mg/100g), total phenolic acids (218±2.11 to 256±2.02 mg/100g), total phosphorus (700±3.62 to 889±3.84 mg/100g) and phytic acid (572±4.37 to 714±3.74 mg/100g). The results obtained from the present studies could be a source of valuable information and a guideline for the food scientists, researchers and even the nut consumers not only in Pakistan but all over the world.

2739-2749 Download
11
INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION AND AGGREGATION IN A POPULATION OF SOLANUM FORSKALII DUNAL IN A SEMI-ARID HABITAT: IMPACT ON REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT, GROWTH AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS
S. SHAHID SHAUKAT, WAQAR AHMED, MOAZZAM A. KHAN AND ATIF SHAHZAD

INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION AND AGGREGATION IN A POPULATION OF SOLANUM FORSKALII DUNAL IN A SEMI-ARID HABITAT: IMPACT ON REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT, GROWTH AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS
ABSTRACT:
This investigation focuses on intra-specific competition in a virtually pure population of Solanum forskalii Dunal in a semi-arid area. Intra-specific competition was inferred from correlation between nearest-neighbor distances and plant sizes. In addition, the effect of intra-specific competition on number of leaves, biomass, reproductive output and soluble phenol content was also examined. Plant cover, number of leaves, biomass and reproductive output (number of fruits were positively correlated with inter-plant distance indicating that intra-specific competition caused reduction in all these parameters as the distance between nearest neighboring individuals diminished. Soluble phenol content in roots and leaves was found negatively correlated with the nearest neighboring distance between plant pairs. Accumulation of phenols in response to biotic interaction presumably provides a protective mechanism against the biotic stress of intra-specific competition.

2751-2763 Download
12
NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF HERBS AS FODDER SOURCE FOR RUMINANTS
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN 1*, INAM-UR-RAHIM1, MUHAMMAD YAQOOB2, M.I. MUSTAFA2, HAQ NAWAZ1 AND PERVEZ AKHTAR3

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF HERBS AS FODDER SOURCE FOR RUMINANTS
ABSTRACT:
This study augmented the evaluation of herbs as fodder source for ruminants. Eleven herbs species viz., Denothera vosea, Athyrium acrotiochoides, Chenopodium album, Polygonum amplexicaule, Atrimisia maritima, Oriosma lispidum, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Plantago ovata, Hackalia macrophyla, Lespedeza spp., Urtica dioka were selected and analyzed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemi-cellulose, and lignin contents. The average values for DM, OM, ash, CP, NDF, ADF, hemi-cellulose and lignin were 27.5±1.66

2765-2776 Download
13
TRADITIONAL HERBAL REMEDIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES FROM DISTRICT ATTOCK (PAKISTAN)
MUSHTAQ AHMAD1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2, MIR AJAB KHAN1 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR1

TRADITIONAL HERBAL REMEDIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES FROM DISTRICT ATTOCK (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present study was to record the ethnomedicinal uses of indigenous plants to control diabetes mellitus. During the survey, 37 plant species belonging to 33 genera and 23 Angiospermic families were discovered. The most dominant antidiabetic plant bearing family was Fabaceae (5 spp.) followed by Poaceae (4 spp.) and Liliaceae (3 spp.). The inhabitants of the study area used different parts of plants and method of their uses. About 29 phytotherapies were investigated from the rural inhabitants of the area. These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures.

2777-2782 Download
14
GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR DISTORTED SEGREGATION OF EF-1 GENE IN RICE
MUHAMMAD JAMIL1, KUI JAE LEE2 AND EUI SHIK RHA3*

GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR DISTORTED SEGREGATION OF EF-1 GENE IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to assess the genetic mechanism of the distorted segregation of earliness-1 gene (Ef-1) in cross between Indica and Japonica linkage tester. The linkage relationship was investigated in F2 populations between the Ef-1 gene on chromosome 10 and a new gametophyte gene. Distorted segregation of Ef-1 appeared in F2 populations and it was not related to the F1 seed sterility and the F2 seed fertility. The ratios of the distorted segregation did not vary significantly among F2 populations derived from F1 hybrids of the same cross combinations. Ef-1 gene in B1F1 hybrids derived from the reciprocal backcrosses clearly showed that the distorted segregation was caused by a new gametophyte gene. The recombination value was calculated to be 24.2 ± 5.4% between Ef-1 gene and gametophyte gene.

2783-2789 Download
15
POSSIBLE ANXIOLYTIC PROFILE OF AQUEOUS FRUIT EXTRACTS OF A MEDICINAL PLANT SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SPP. TURKESTANICA) IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS
FARHAT BATOOL1, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMED2, ZAFAR SAEID SAIFY3 AND DARAKHSHAN JABEEN HALEEM1

POSSIBLE ANXIOLYTIC PROFILE OF AQUEOUS FRUIT EXTRACTS OF A MEDICINAL PLANT SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SPP. TURKESTANICA) IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was designed to examine possible anxiolytic profile of aqueous fruit extracts of a medicinal plant Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. spp. Turkestanica) in experimental animal models. Sea buckthorn (SBT) is a very potent medicinal and multipurpose plant which has gained global significance due to its biochemical and nutritional utility in folk medicine. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine with CNS depressant properties and a sedative-hypnotic drug traditionally used to treat anxiety. Animal models for anxiety-related behavior are based on the assumption that anxiety in animals is comparable to anxiety in humans. To unravel neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal anxiety as well as its pathological variations, animal models are indispensable tools. In this investigation rats were treated with the aqueous fruit extracts of Sea buckthorn (SBT-FE) (20 and 40 mg/kg P.O.) and diazepam at doses of 3.0mg/kg I.P. 1 hr before introducing the groups of animals to various experimental models of anxiety. Anti anxiety activity was evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark model (LDM) and open field test (OFT). Results revealed that in elevated plus maze, treatment with aqueous extracts of SBT-FE increased the time spent in open arm and total locomotion time in aversive environment. In light-dark model treatment with these extracts showed significant (p<0.01) increases in time spent in lit-box and in open field test treatment with SBT-FE exhibited significant increases in the exploratory activity and latency time as compared to controls. The results indicate that aqueous SBT-FE is an effective anxiolytic agent and could be useful in primary medical care.

2791-2800 Download
16
EFFECT OF AGE OF EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS ON PLANT REGENERATION IN LOCAL CULTIVARS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
NAVEED IQBAL RAJA, ASGHARI BANO, HAMID RASHID1*, M. HAROON KHAN1 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2

EFFECT OF AGE OF EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS ON PLANT REGENERATION IN LOCAL CULTIVARS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
High frequency regeneration system is a prerequisite for production of transgenic plants. The present study was conducted to study the age of callus on high frequency regeneration protocol for seven different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars viz. Chakwal-97, Inqualab-91, Punjnand-2000, Manthar-2002, Kohsar-95, Margalla-99 and C-591. Mature embryos of these cultivars were inoculated on MS (Murashige and Skoog

2801-2806 Download
17
IN VITRO CLONAL MULTIPLICATION AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.)
SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, SAIQA ILYAS1, SUMERA JAVAD1 AND AAMIR ALI2

IN VITRO CLONAL MULTIPLICATION AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.)
ABSTRACT:
A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of three different varieties of turmeric (Faisalabad, Kasur and Bannun) was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds of these varieties were collected and surface sterilized. The excised rhizome bud explants (1.0 cm) were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinin and auxins. The frequency of shoot induction was 70, 60 and 75 in Faisalabad, Kasur and Bannun varieties respectively. The number of shoots per explant increased with increased BAP concentration while shoot length decreased. These regenerated shoots were further multiplied by sub culturing on fresh medium after 30 days. The regenerated plants of all varieties were transferred to different mixtures of compost for acclimatization. Best hardening response was obtained in Sand + Soil + Peat (1:1:1) after three week of transplantation in glass house. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into field.

2807-2816 Download
18
THE EXTENT OF MICRO MINERALS IN HEALTHY AND MALFORMED ORGANS OF MANGO
SYED ABDUL LATIF SHAH1, ZAFAR IQBAL2, KAFEEL AHMAD3, MUHAMMAD DANISH4, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN3, ZAHOOR-UL-HASSAN DOGAR5, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF SHAHEEN4, MUHAMMAD UMAIR ARSHAD6,SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD7 , MUHAMMAD SHER8 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM9*

THE EXTENT OF MICRO MINERALS IN HEALTHY AND MALFORMED ORGANS OF MANGO
ABSTRACT:
The present studies were conducted to explore the relation of micronutrient deficiency with malformation disease in three commercial mango cultivars viz. Dusehri, Langra and Malda. The concentrations of Co, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb and Mg were analyzed in healthy and malformed organs of mango. This comparison indicated that these minerals have slight differences in concentration and their contents did not vary significantly between healthy and malformed variables. Some differences among concentration of magnesium in malformed and healthy parts of three cultivars were detected. The results of the study suggest that nutrients play no role in producing symptoms of mango malformation.

2817-2820 Download
19
SENSORY EVALUATION OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) GROWN IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
SAEED AKHTAR1* SEEMA MAHMOOD2 SAFINA NAZ1, MUHAMMAD NASIR3 AND MUHAMMAD TAUSEEF SAULTAN4

SENSORY EVALUATION OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) GROWN IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Decline in mango production and export in the last few years in Pakistan is a serious concern, therefore, efforts are being made to improve production and boost its exports. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico chemical and sensorial characteristics of four popular mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties (Dusahri, Chaunsa, Ratol and Langra) grown in three major areas of Pakistan; Multan (MUL), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK) and Mir Pur Khas (MPK). Langra variety exhibited higher acidity, lower pH and total soluble solids (TSS) among all the tested varieties. No significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for the site of production for these attributes. Colour characteristics of Langra variety collected from all three regions were found to be superior among the tested varieties. However, this variety was rated inferior for other sensory attributes (flavour, taste and overall acceptability). Furthermore, no correlation could be established for a particular variety to all three regions. Similarly, no parallel could be drawn between a single region and all four varieties for sensory profile except the variety Ratol which was shown to be highly acceptable for flavour, taste and overall acceptability in all three sites of its production.

2821-2829 Download
20
RESPONSE OF JOJOBA (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS) CUTTINGS TO VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF AUXINS
MUHAMMAD AZHAR BASHIR1*, MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM2, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3 AND HAMID RASHID4

RESPONSE OF JOJOBA (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS) CUTTINGS TO VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF AUXINS
ABSTRACT:
Semi-hardwood cuttings of 6 promising strains of jojoba were treated with auxins (IBA, IAA and NAA) solutions each @ 0

2831-2840 Download
21
MORPHO-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EIGHT LOQUAT GENOTYPES CULTIVATED IN CHAKWAL DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
AZHAR HUSSAIN, NADEEM A. ABBASI*, ISHFAQ A. HAFIZ AND ATTIQ AKHTAR

MORPHO-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EIGHT LOQUAT GENOTYPES CULTIVATED IN CHAKWAL DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) originated in china and spread to other countries including Pakistan where it is grown in NWFP and northern parts of the Punjab province. In Punjab, Kalar Kahar and Choa Saiden Shah are two famous loquat growing places in district Chakwal. Present work is a part of the first ever study conducted on loquat in Pakistan. Eight genotypes of loquat were selected and comparison was made on the basis of various morpho-physical characteristics which include fruit length, fruit width, width/length index, fruit weight, flesh seed ratio, number of fruits per bunch, fruit yield per plant, days from full bloom to maturity. Number of seeds per fruit, single seed weight, total seed weight per fruit, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, number of flowers per panicle, panicle size, and days from flowering to full bloom were also observed. Statistical analysis of the data was performed to have a clear picture of comparison among the genotypes. Fruit skin colour ranged from yellowish white to orange yellow. Yellowish white pulp colour was noted in KK4, CS1 and CS3, whereas other five genotypes had orange pulp. Fruit shape of the genotypes was round or obovoid. Tree habit ranged from upright to spreading. Fruit weight ranged from 10.03 g in KK3 to 21.37 g in CS2. Lowest yield per tree (30.75 kg) was recorded in KK5, while KK2 had the highest yield per tree (49.03 kg).

2841-2849 Download
22
DIVERSITY OF LUCERNE (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) POPULATIONS IN SOUTH TUNISIA
MOHAMED ALI BENABDERRAHIM1*, HADDAD MANSOUR1 AND FERCHICHI ALI2

DIVERSITY OF LUCERNE (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) POPULATIONS IN SOUTH TUNISIA
ABSTRACT:
Twenty cultivated populations of lucerne (Medicago sativa L) collected from different oasis of Tunisian south were evaluated for morphology and yield. Important among-accessions variation was observed for all traits by variance analysis (length and width of central leaflet at flowering, length and diameter of stem, growth habit, date of flowering, weight of 1000 seed and total fresh and dry matter) when population effect was highly significant (p<0.05) excepted four i.e., stems number, number of smell by inflorescence, number of inflorescences by cluster and plant colour. The large least significant difference at 5% values indicate that a large proportion of this variability can be attributed to genetic variability between individual plants within an accession. Principal component analysis (on three axes represented 59.85% of the total variation) and cluster analysis, based in significant traits, show the distribution of the populations is not according to their geographic origins. Correlation between yield and morphological trait shows that dry matter is negatively correlated to stem length (-0.61) and positively to stem diameter (0.43). Fresh matter was negatively correlated to seed weight (-0.31) and positively to leaf dimension. This work will be completed by a selection programme in these twenty accessions for the improvement of the alfalfa cultivated in the Tunisian south.

2851-2861 Download
23
PATTERNS OF HETEROCHROMATIN DISTRIBUTION IN HORDEUM DEPRESSUM (SCHRIBN. & SMITH) RYD., CHROMOSOMES
BUSHREEN JAHAN AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY

PATTERNS OF HETEROCHROMATIN DISTRIBUTION IN HORDEUM DEPRESSUM (SCHRIBN. & SMITH) RYD., CHROMOSOMES
ABSTRACT:
The N-band pattern of heterochromatin distribution in tetraploid Hordeum depressum chromosomes was studied to identify general patterns or preferential sites for heterochromatin. An ideogram was developed for the description of individual N-bands. The karyotype of H. depressum had 9 metacentrics, 3 submetacentrics and 2 SAT chromosome pairs with small spherical and elongated satellites. Giemsa N-banding patterns of H. depressum showed 6 bands per chromosome on an average. Mean number of bands indicated that it possessed 0.32 centromeric, 0.5 intercalary and 0.18 telomeric bands.

2863-2867 Download
24
IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
SHAFQUAT YASMIN, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, NIGHAT SEEMA, GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI AND MOHAMMAD AFZAL ARAIN

IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Callus was induced on immature embryos of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cvs. Sarsabz, Khirman and Soghat-90. The application of different phytohormone concentrations yielded differential behaviour of genotypes for callus induction, mainly due to the genotype and media interaction. Variety Khirman produced highest callus on media (M1). Callus proliferation was also influenced by genotype and media interaction. Best callus proliferation was observed in Khirman on media (M4). Data revealed that Soghat-90 showed weakest interaction with present media compositions used in this study. Similarly regeneration potential was also subjective to media and genotype interaction. Data on chlorophyll mutants were also collected to study the frequency of genetic variation produced by each variety due to media effect. Green plantlets were transplanted in the field after weaning for evaluation of genetic variability.

2869-2876 Download
25
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURAL CONDITIONS ON MICROPROPAGATION OF ROSE (ROSA INDICA L.)
ASAD SHABBIR1, NOSHEEN HAMEED1 AMIR ALI2 AND RUKHSANA BAJWA1

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURAL CONDITIONS ON MICROPROPAGATION OF ROSE (ROSA INDICA L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present investigation was to determine a appropriate basal medium and growth regulators for In vitro propagation of Rosa indica from shoot apical meristems. The shoot meristem was cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP ranging from 0.5–2.5 mg/l alone and in combination with 0.5 mg/l of kinetin for shoot formation and multiplication. Medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP proved to be the best medium for In vitro shoot formation from apical meristem. At this concentration, rate of shoot formation was 94% obtained in 6.2 days. Maximum 20 shoots per culture were formed on medium having 1.0 mg/l of BAP + Kinetin. This medium proved to be the best for In vitro shoot multiplication and proliferation of roses.

2877-2882 Download
26
SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF CRESSA CRETICA FROM COASTAL POPULATION ALONG THE ARABIAN SEA
FARHAT AGHA

SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF CRESSA CRETICA FROM COASTAL POPULATION ALONG THE ARABIAN SEA
ABSTRACT:
The productivity of Cressa cretica was studied for two years at monthly intervals in a coastal population located at Gizri Creek, south of Karachi, Pakistan. Cressa cretica showed variation in productivity in response to environmental factors. Net productivity and aboveground biomass were higher during the brief winter in comparison to summer which also varied between the two study years. Belowground biomass was much lower than the aboveground biomass but both followed similar seasonal trends. Increase in standing crop biomass and aboveground dead biomass also varied considerably. The highest net productivity in Cressa cretica was 0.18 g m-2d-1 in January. Electrical conductivity of shoots showed two peaks during the year 1997-1998 and gradually declined after October, while belowground parts showed little variation both within and between the years at around <10 dS m-1 except for high values of 22 dS m-1 in June 1997-98. Sodium was much higher followed by Cl- and K+ while Ca+ and Mg2+ were very low. Similar ion patterns were found in roots. Cressa cretica could be a useful sand dune stabilizer along the coast which has potential for increased productivity under seawater irrigation.

2883-2892 Download
27
EFFECTS OF WASTE CRUMB RUBBER ON MEDIUM CHARACTERS AND GROWTH OF LOLIUM PERENNE L.
SHULAN ZHAO, LILI WANG AND LIAN DUO*

EFFECTS OF WASTE CRUMB RUBBER ON MEDIUM CHARACTERS AND GROWTH OF LOLIUM PERENNE L.
ABSTRACT:
Crumb rubber, a product of waste rubber, may be used in sports turf medium for alleviating soil compaction. Crumb rubbers with diameter of 0.5-1 mm were applied through turfgrass rooting medium at seven scales (0%=control, 6%, 9%

2893-2900 Download
28
ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY TOLERANCE BY FERTILIZATION IN FOUR THORN FOREST SPECIES FOR THE RECLAMATION OF SALT-AFFECTED SITES
FAIZA SHARIF* AND AMIN U. KHAN

ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY TOLERANCE BY FERTILIZATION IN FOUR THORN FOREST SPECIES FOR THE RECLAMATION OF SALT-AFFECTED SITES
ABSTRACT:
Salinity tolerance and the effect of salinity-fertility interaction on growth and dry matter production of four native thorn forest species viz., Salvadora oleoides Decne., Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce., Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. and Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karsten) was assessed by conducting a pot experiment. Treatments included a combination of 5 levels of salinity (0.65, 5.8

2901-2915 Download
29
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA1*, SALIM-UR-REHMAN2, JAWAD RASOOL HAIDRY2, IHSAN KHALIQ3, SABA TABASSUM1 AND GHULAM MUEEN-UD-DIN2

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, seven water stress tolerant wheat genotypes including two exotic viz., Nesser and Dharwar dry and five local verities viz. GA-2002 Bakhar-2002, Chakwal and Inqulab-91 and Kolhistan-97 were crossed with university drought susceptible lines viz. 9244, 9247, 9252, 9258, 9267, 9316 and 9021 by using line x tester mating design. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water stress on physioco-chemical properties of wheat grains. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, gluten, Zeleny, thousand kernel weight and grain yield values showed different response under normal and water stress environments. The quality traits of wheat grain were significantly affected under water stress conditions. The moisture content decreased while other constituents, predominantly protein contents increased in the entire cross breeds under water stress conditions. The protein showed positive correlations with dry gluten and Zeleny values while negative correlation with ash content of grain under normal and stress conditions The protein contents, gluten quality and contents have significantly negative correlations with grain yield and thousand kernel weights under stress condition, so it is imperative for breeders to balance these characters through genetic manipulation.

2917-2924 Download
30
SALT TOLERANCE OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS FROM THE GREAT BASIN DESERT
BILQUEES GUL1, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI1 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1,2*

SALT TOLERANCE OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS FROM THE GREAT BASIN DESERT
ABSTRACT:
Seed germination of Salicornia utahensis (Tiderstorm) Munz (Chenopodiaceae), a stem-succulent halophyte from the playas of Great Basin Desert, Utah, was reduced to 50% at 300 mM NaCl and few seeds germinated at 900 mM NaCl. Plants grown for 60 days at 0 to 1000 mM NaCl, showed better growth at 400-600 mM NaCl and was similar to control at higher salinities up to 1000 mM. Tissue water content (g g–1 dry mass) of shoots in 200 to 400 mM NaCl treatments was higher than in nutrient solution controls and equal to control in 1000 mM NaCl. Water potential was higher than control at 200-600 mM NaCl and there was no significant difference at higher salinity concentrations. With increasing salinity, Na+, Cl-, NO3- generally increased, K+ decreased while Ca+, Mg+ remained almost unchanged. Stem succulent individuals of S. utahensis in this study showed higher degree of salt tolerance through accumulating large quantities of Na+ and Cl- when treated with 200 to1000 mM NaCl.

2925-2932 Download
31
SEED GERMINATION OF KOCHIA SCOPARIA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS: RESPONSES WITH GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS
M. AJMAL KHAN1,3, BILQUEES GUL1, AND DARRELL J. WEBER2

SEED GERMINATION OF KOCHIA SCOPARIA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS: RESPONSES WITH GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Kochia scoparia were germinated at 25-35oC under 0, 300, 600 and 900 mM NaCl with or without some germination regulating chemicals. Most of the seeds germinated in distilled water and at 300 mM NaCl but germination decreased with a further increase in salinity and about 25% of the seeds germinated at 900 mM NaCl. Exogenous application of ethylene, fusicoccin, gibberellic acid, kinetin and thiourea completely alleviated the salinity effect. Betaine was partially effective while proline and nitrate had no effect. Rate of germination did not vary in comparison to the control by the application of all growth regulators up to 600 mM NaCl. However, at 900 mM NaCl the rate of germination was decreased substantially in the seeds treated with proline, betaine and nitrate.

2933-2941 Download
32
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) VARIETIES TO SALINITY STRESS
TANVEER UL HAQ1*, JAVAID AKHTAR2, SHAFQAT NAWAZ1 AND RASHID AHMAD3

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) VARIETIES TO SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Morpho-physiological response of 7 rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties viz., Moroberekan, Co39, Azucena, Bala, IR64, Kalinga-III and Nipponbare was assessed under control and 100 mol m-3 NaCl + 5 mol m-3 CaCl2 stress in a flood bench system in greenhouse. Physiological and growth parameters were recorded after 21 or 42 days of salt stress. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among varieties for various traits associated with salt tolerance under salinity stress. Regarding physiological parameters significant higher accumulation of Na+ was in Moroberekan (52.9 mol m-3), whereas lowest (14.1 mol m-3) in IR64, followed by Co39 (14.6 mol m-3) and Azucena (14.7 mol m-3). There was a significant negative correlation between leaf Na+ and K/Na ratio in varieties under salt stress; however salinity and salinity×variety interaction had non-significant effect on leaf K+ concentration in this study. Growth parameters were also negatively correlated with salinity stress. Among varieties the lowest reduction in shoot fresh (58%) and dry weight (36.5%) was in Co39, indicating its tolerance to salt stress, whereas, the most sensitive genotype was Azucena with highest reductions in shoot fresh (82%) and dry weights (77%). The use of salinity damage scores as assessment criteria in the appraisal of salt tolerance is discussed. A contrasting response of Co39 and Moroberekan to salt stress suggests the use of available recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population from Co39×Moroberekan, for mapping of QTLs associated with salinity tolerance.

2943-2956 Download
33
RELATIONSHIP OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND WATER RELATIONS WITH SALT TOLERANCE OF PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) ACCESSIONS
PAKEEZA SABIR1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1 AND AMER JAMIL2

RELATIONSHIP OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND WATER RELATIONS WITH SALT TOLERANCE OF PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) ACCESSIONS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess whether accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and maintenance of water relation attributes relate to the growth of proso millet accessions differing in salt tolerance. Salt stress significantly decreased leaf chlorophyll a and b contents, RWC, water potential (Ψw), and osmotic potential (Ψs), whereas it did not alter leaf chlorophyll a/b ratio except in accessions 008214 (salt tolerant), 008217, 008221 and 008223 (all three salt sensitive) under saline regimes where it enhanced chlorophyll a/b ratio. Leaf turgor potential also increased in all accessions under saline conditions and accessions 008213 (moderately tolerant), 008214 (tolerant) and 008236 (sensitive) were relatively higher than the others in turgor potential. The salt tolerant accessions (008211, 008214, 008220, and 008226) were higher, while the salt sensitive (008236, 008242 and 008208) were lower in leaf chlorophyll a content under saline conditions. Chlorophyll b was higher in 008213 and lower in 00823 (both moderately tolerant). Accessions 008211 and 008220 (both tolerant) and 008216 (moderately tolerant) were higher in RWC and 008215 (moderately tolerant) and 008242 (sensitive) in leaf osmotic potential than those of the other accessions under salt stress. Of the P. miliaceum tolerant accessions, 008214 was the lowest in leaf water and osmotic potentials. The relatively tolerant accessions 008211, 008214, 008220 and 008226 were higher only in chlorophyll a content under saline conditions. Overall, due to differential response of all the accessions to salt stress in terms of their performance in photosynthetic pigments and water relations none of these attributes except chlorophyll a can be related to the tolerance of P. miliaceum accessions differing in salt tolerance.

2957-2964 Download
34
BIOMASS AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY RICE AND WHEAT: A THREE-WAY INTERACTION OF POTASSIUM, AMMONIUM AND SOIL TYPE
M. SALEEM AKHTAR1* AND MEHRUNISA MEMON2

BIOMASS AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY RICE AND WHEAT: A THREE-WAY INTERACTION OF POTASSIUM, AMMONIUM AND SOIL TYPE
ABSTRACT:
Potassium (K)-ammonium () interaction for biomass production and K uptake determined by nutrient solution may be modified by soil type due to variable clay content and constituent clay minerals. Rice and wheat response to various combinations of K and was investigated in three soils in a replicated three factors factorial pot experiment. Combinations of K 0, 300 and 600 mg kg-1 and 0

2965-2974 Download
35
GENETICS OF INHERITANCE AND CORRELATIONS OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON
MANZOOR HUSSAIN1*, FAQIR MUHAMMAD AZHAR2 AND ASIF ALI KHAN2

GENETICS OF INHERITANCE AND CORRELATIONS OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Present investigations confined to genetic mechanisms controlling inheritance pattern of five morphological and yield-contributing traits and their interrelationships were made, by examining the six generations of cotton, through generation mean analysis during 2002-2004. While fitting the adequacy of five parameter models i.e. m, [d], [i], [j], [l] showed its adequacy for leaf area, m, [d], [h], [i], [j] for number of bolls, seed cotton yield and petiole length, whilst inadequacy of this model for boll weight, indicated the involvement of higher order of gene interaction controlling the boll weight expression. Potence ratio of value greater than unity exhibiting over-dominance was illustrated for four traits i.e., leaf area, number of bolls, boll weight and petiole length but for the trait of seed cotton yield potence ratio value was of 0.75 revealing partial dominance. Higher narrow sense heritability estimates (h2NS) ranging from 0.62 to 1.24 were observed for leaf area, petiole length, boll weight and seed cotton yield while, the moderate estimates of heritability (h2NS = 0.44) was revealed for number of bolls per plant. High heritability and significant positive associations measured among traits studied, suggested the possibility of improving seed cotton yield through indirect selection and conventional breeding techniques.

2975-2986 Download
36
GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR DETERMINING YIELD POTENTIAL AND SELECTION CRITERIA IN PISUM SATIVUM L., GENETIC RESOURCES
SAEED MUHAMMAD, SARTAJ BACHA, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, REHM DIN AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1*

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR DETERMINING YIELD POTENTIAL AND SELECTION CRITERIA IN PISUM SATIVUM L., GENETIC RESOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Two hundred and sixty three genotypes of Pisum sativum were analyzed for numerical taxonomy to investigate inter and intra-cluster distances and superior accessions were identified with broad genetic base. High variance for grain yield per plant, biomass per plant and pods per plant indicated the scope of improvement through simple selection for high mean values for these traits. Based on average mean variance, five clusters with varying degrees on inter cluster distances were observed. Thirty-seven accessions of cluster-IV were early in maturity and high yielding, whereas 66 members of cluster-V were late in maturity and low yielding. Among selected genotypes, some exhibited better performance for more than two characters, hence these are suggested to evaluate under wide range of climatic conditions.

2987-2993 Download
37
USE OF RAPD FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG EXOTIC AND COMMERCIAL BANANA CLONES
ABDULLAH KHATRI*, M.U. DAHOT**, IMTIAZ A. KHAN*, S. RAZA*, S. BIBI* S. YASMIN* AND G.S. NIZAMANI

USE OF RAPD FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG EXOTIC AND COMMERCIAL BANANA CLONES
ABSTRACT:
Banana production in Pakistan is confined to subtropical regions. Most orchards are based on the cultivar Basrai. This monoculture facilitates the diseases spread and causing epidemics resulting in the simultaneous decimation of the crop in the entire region. The aim of this study was to identify different features of exotic banana clones by means of RAPD-based genetic analysis and to compare them with ‘Basrai’. Fourteen different banana clones were assessed

2995-2999 Download
38
IMPROVEMENT OF TRIGONELLA MARITIMA DELILEE X. POIR. GERMINATION BY POLYPLOIDIZATION
RABIAA HAOUALA1*, SALOUA OUERGHEMMI1, AMEL TARCHOUNE1 AND NEZIHA BOUGHANMI2

IMPROVEMENT OF TRIGONELLA MARITIMA DELILEE X. POIR. GERMINATION BY POLYPLOIDIZATION
ABSTRACT:
In this study, we determined the effect of polyploidization induced by colchicine on the germination power of Trigonella maritima seeds. Germinated seeds of diploid plants of T. maritima were immersed in 0.05% colchicine solution for 4 h and then sown in pots in natural conditions. The seedlings from these seeds were compared with those of untreated seeds. The colchicine significantly increased the DNA content in polyploid seeds. Polyploidy increases the size and weight of seeds. The germination % in polyploid seeds was 90.52% compared to only 41.67% in diploid seeds

3001-3008 Download
39
DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, GUL HASSAN2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, FARHATULLAH1, MOULA BUX KUMBHAR3, AISHA PARVEEN1, UMM-E-AIMAN1, MUHAMMAD ZAFARULLAH KHAN4 AND ZAHOOR AHMAD SOOMRO3

DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Genetic analysis was studied in a 6x6 diallel cross following Hayman’s diallel approach and Mather’s concept of D (additive), H (dominance) genetic components of variation in F1 and F2 hybrids in a randomized complete block design in upland cotton during 2003-05 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Additive-dominance model was used for validation of data and design with the intention to decipher the inheritance pattern; gene action and correlation involved in seed cotton yield and yield contributing traits (boll weight and bolls number) and staple length. Genotypes mean values differed significantly (p£0.01) for all the traits. The scaling tests used fully satisfy the pre-requisites of additive-dominance model and the traits i.e., boll weight and staple length in F1 generation showed complete adequacy. All other traits in both generations did not satisfy the assumptions and makes the additive-dominance model partially adequate for the data. Additive component (D) was found significant for boll weight and staple length in both generations and in F1s bolls per plant. Dominance components (H1, H2) were also found significant for all the traits in F1s and non-significant in F2 generation. In F1s the additive gene action was somewhat partial, while in F2s most of traits were controlled by additive gene action with some contradictions between genetic components of variance and Wr/Vr graphs about expression of inheritance. On the basis of transgressive segregation, the selection made in the cv. CIM-1100 F2 population indicated possibilities of prompt and effective improvement in the said traits.

3009-3022 Download
40
CHRONOSEQUENCE AND CROWN STRATA EFFECTS ON FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.f) PLANTATIONS
M. TAHIR SIDDIQUI, A.H. SHAH AND S. YAQOOB

CHRONOSEQUENCE AND CROWN STRATA EFFECTS ON FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.f) PLANTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Foliar nutrient concentrations, fertilizer and variation with crown location and tree age were quantified in 1

3023-3034 Download
41
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BASMATI RICE GERMPLASM
ABID MAHMOOD1*, TAHIR LATIF AND M. ARIF KHAN2

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BASMATI RICE GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance of 4 commercial varieties and 17 breeding lines of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) was assessed at early growth stage and at maturity in field plots artificially salinzed with NaCl and CaCl2 (1:1 by weight). The average electrical conductivity (EC) of soil was 1.2, 5.2 and 10.5 dS m-1. Forty-five days after sowing (20 days in saline or control conditions), shoot dry weights and sodium (Na) and potassium (K) contents of shoot were determined. At maturity, plant height, number of tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle

3035-3045 Download
42
HOST PLANT RESISTANCE RELATIONSHIPHS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AGAINST GRAM POD BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA HUBNER)
MUHAMMAD SARWAR*, NAZIR AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD TOUFIQ

HOST PLANT RESISTANCE RELATIONSHIPHS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AGAINST GRAM POD BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA HUBNER)
ABSTRACT:
Gram Pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner) is the most imperative constraint in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production causing severe losses or there may be complete crop failure inspite of several rounds of insecticidal applications. Most importantly, the alternatives to chemicals comprise the selection and use of tolerant and high yielding varieties against this pest. In the present studies, the response of 10 chickpea genotypes to gram pod borer H. armigera was checked at the farm conditions. Results indicated that C-727 behaved the best for holding the least borer’s population and damage while CM-88 proved sensitive and the least productive. A marked feeding behaviour of Helicoverpa on growing chickpea crop was recorded. Framers can be in the forefront of following host plant resistance and such eco-friendly practices may endow with an absolute foundation of holistic IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Programme.

3047-3052 Download
43
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF NACL INDUCED SALINITY, CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM ON PHYSIOMORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.)
MUHAMMAD HASSAN SHARIAT JAFARI1, MOHAMMAD KAFI1* AND ALIREZA ASTARAIE2

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF NACL INDUCED SALINITY, CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM ON PHYSIOMORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.)
ABSTRACT:
The interactive effects of salinity, calcium and potassium on physiomorphological traits of sorghum (Sorghum biclolor L.) were studied in a green-house experiment. Treatments included 4 levels of NaCl (0, 80

3053-3063 Download
44
EDTA-INDUCED IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND WATER RELATIONS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS GROWN IN LEAD CONTAMINATED MEDIUM
NAZILA AZHAR1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1 AND RASHID AHMED3

EDTA-INDUCED IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND WATER RELATIONS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS GROWN IN LEAD CONTAMINATED MEDIUM
ABSTRACT:
Abstract:

3065-3074 Download
45
GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF VICIA SATIVA L. UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
PARVEEN AKHTAR1 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN2

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF VICIA SATIVA L. UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Vicia sativa L., an annual winter growing leguminous plant, is a valuable source of protein and minerals for cattle. It was tested for salinity tolerance in laboratory and pot experiments using three levels of salinity viz., 5

3075-3080 Download
46
DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE OF SOME TUNISIAN CHICKPEA GENOTYPES (CICER ARIETINUM L.) TO SALINITY
KROUMA ABDELMAJID*

DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE OF SOME TUNISIAN CHICKPEA GENOTYPES (CICER ARIETINUM L.) TO SALINITY
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of salt stress on plant growth and mineral accumulation in three Tunisian chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.). NaCl was added and salinity was maintained at 0

3081-3091 Download
47
VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MULCH AND GYPSUM UNDER SALINE RHIZOSPHERE
RAFAT SAEED1 AND RAFIQ AHMAD2

VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MULCH AND GYPSUM UNDER SALINE RHIZOSPHERE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to observe the effects of organic mulch with and without gypsum on vegetative growth and reproductive yield of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. F1 Avinash) under control (non-saline) and saline rhizosphere. Significant decrease was noticed in vegetative growth and reproductive yield proportionate to increasing salinity levels, while application of mulch treatments revealed significant increase under both the conditions. The salinity hazard reduced upto considerable extent. Data with reference to plant height, fresh and dry vegetative biomass, number and weight of fruit/plant and circumference of fruit showed comparatively higher growth at all the parameters in T4 (mixture of mulch and gypsum) followed by T3 (gypsum alone), T2 (mulch alone) and T1 (control without mulch or gypsum) under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Among the biochemical effects, total soluble carbohydrate was increased, total proteins and chlorophyll were proportionally decreased in all treatments with increasing salinity levels. Water potential significantly increased with increasing salt stress while treatment of above mentioned mulches lowered down this value. Solute potential also shows increase with increasing salinity while mulch and gypsum treatments show significant decline both alone and in combination. Our results suggest that application of organic mulches with or without gypsum to soil being irrigated with saline water increases the yield by reducing salinity hazards which could be quantified on growth of tomato plant.

3093-3105 Download
48
PRODUCTIVITY OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) BY AMENDMENT OF VERMICOMPOST AND BIOGAS SLURRY IN SALINE SOILS
RAFIQ AHMAD, MOHAMMAD AZEEM* AND NAEEM AHMED

PRODUCTIVITY OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) BY AMENDMENT OF VERMICOMPOST AND BIOGAS SLURRY IN SALINE SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Ginger is a crop of economical importance. Though its productivity is generally reduced under saline conditions, it could still be improved by various physiological treatments which offset toxicity of excessive sodium of rooting medium. Amendments of Vermicompost and Biogas slurry have shown some reduction of Sodium induced inhibitory effects. Analyses of leaves chlorophyll, carbohydrate, protein etc., have been undertaken with reference to various above-mentioned treatments. Vermicompost amendments improved net yield, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and rhizome yield of plants. Their chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein contents were increased under Vermicompost amendment both in the saline and non-saline conditions. Keeping in mind economical feasibility, one can still obtain permissible economic returns by this method from moderately saline soil, which was so far considered not suitable for ginger production.

3107-3116 Download
49
EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON NUTRITIONAL CONTENT AND LENGTH OF STEM AND NODE OF A CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L) SEEDLINGS
IŞIN KOCABAŞ1 AND MUSTAFA KAPLAN1*

EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON NUTRITIONAL CONTENT AND LENGTH OF STEM AND NODE OF A CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, sprayed carnation cuttings either stored in a cold storage at 4oC for 55 days or non-stored were used as plant material. During rooting process, 3 different fertilizer solutions were applied through leaves of carnation cuttings at two separate application intervals and its respective effect on some of the morphological characteristics and nutritional contents of the seedlings were investigated. As a result of the study, it was found that the fertilizer solutions increased the K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu contents in seedlings obtained from stored cuttings and that the solutions increased the K, Ca and Cu contents in seedlings formed by rooting of non-stored cuttings while they attenuated the Mn amount. The fertilizer solutions increased the length between the stem and the first node and decreased the length between the stem and the fifth node in seedlings obtained from the stored cuttings. On the other hand, they increased the number of nodes in the seedlings from non-stored cuttings. Frequency of the application was found to affect the N, P, K and Mg amounts in seedlings obtained from stored cuttings and the Mg and Cu contents in seedlings obtained from non-stored cuttings. When their morphological characteristics were investigated, it was identified that the fertilizer solutions proved to affect the fifth node length of seedlings obtained from stored cuttings and the stem diameter of the seedlings obtained from non-stored cuttings.

3117-3124 Download
50
GROWTH OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT IN DIFFERENT SOIL COMPOSITIONS OF KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
SYED ATIQ-UR-REHMAN1 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL2

GROWTH OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT IN DIFFERENT SOIL COMPOSITIONS OF KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de-Wit., were studied in soils collected from four sites viz., Khan Towel, Tanveer Garment, One Tech Rubber and One Tech Ply Board factories in the vicinity of Korangi and Landhi industrial areas under natural environmental conditions. L. leucocephala plants grown in 25, 50 and 75% soils of all of the industries demonstrated reductions in many of the growth parameters as compared to plants grown in Garden soil. Principally, 75% Khan Towel factory soil and 50% other factories soils exhibited great inhibition in most of growth characters than Garden soil. Plant cover, leaves and leaflets numbers, leaf area, leaf, total plant dry weights and root/shoot ratio were noticeably suppressed (p<0.05) in 25, 50 and 75% Khan Towel factory soil than Garden soil. Substantial retardation (p<0.05) in root/shoot and leaf weight ratios were recorded in 25, 50 and 75% Tanveer Garment factory soil. 25, 50 and 75% One Tech Rubber and One Tech Ply Board factories soils literally diminished (p<0.05) plant cover and leaf dry weight as compared to Garden soil.

3125-3138 Download
51
COMPOSTED POSIDONIA, CHICKEN MANURE AND OLIVE MILL RESIDUES, AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEAT AS SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWING MEDIA IN TUNISIAN NURSERY
RAOUDHA KHANFIR BEN JENANA1*, MOHAMED ALI TRIKI2, RABIAA HAOUALA1, CHERIF HANACHI3, MOHAMED BEN KHEDHER4 AND BELGACEM HENCHI5

COMPOSTED POSIDONIA, CHICKEN MANURE AND OLIVE MILL RESIDUES, AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEAT AS SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWING MEDIA IN TUNISIAN NURSERY
ABSTRACT:
In order to reduce the peat use in Tunisian nurseries, new types of composts were tested for seed germination and seedling growth of tomato. These composts were made at three different combinations from Posidonia (Posidonia oceanica), chicken manure and solid fraction of olive mill residues. These wastes are abundant and therefore considered as a pollution source in Tunisia. Tomato seeds were sown in potting media containing mixtures of three composts (C1, C2 and C3) and peat at increasing ratios (10%, 30% and 50% v/v). Control potting media consisted of using 100% peat. Percentage seed germination and the seedling length were studied weekly and during five weeks. At the end of the experiment, shoot and root dry matter weights were measured. Toxicity test of compost extracts was conducted on tomato and radish seeds. The results showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in the media containing the three composts compared to control. Toxicity test showed that compost extracts were not toxic. The tested composts might be used as an alternative to peat and the mixtures compost-peat as a growing media for tomato.

3139-3147 Download
52
RESPONSES OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY TO PHOSPHATE ROCK AND ANNUAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.)
H.C. GUO1

RESPONSES OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY TO PHOSPHATE ROCK AND ANNUAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.)
ABSTRACT:
2, N. DING1, T. MAHMOOD3, Q.C. ZHANG1 AND G.H. WANG1*

3149-3157 Download
53
MORPHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA FROM HALOPHYTES OF KHEWRA SALT RANGE AND ATTOCK
IRUM NAZ, ASGHARI BANO AND TAMOOR-UL-HASSAN

MORPHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA FROM HALOPHYTES OF KHEWRA SALT RANGE AND ATTOCK
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation was aimed to isolate and characterize plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Rhizobia) from rhizosphere (EC: 2300 µS/cm; pH: 8.6) of four halophytes: Sonchus arvensis L., (sow thistle), Solanum surratense Burm. F., (yellow berried night shade), Lactuca dissecta D. Don., (wild lettuce) and Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf (golden beared grass) collected from Khewra Salt Range and compared with Rhizobium isolate from Solanum surratense Burm. F. of arid soil (EC: 210 µS/cm; pH: 7.9) of Attock (treated as control). The isolates were identified and characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits viz gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests and carbon and nitrogen source utilization pattern. The survival efficiency of isolates was measured in culture (colony forming unit / g soil). The genetic diversity among the isolates assessed by RAPD-DNA finger printing and PCR was done for the presence of 16S-rRNA gene. On the basis of carbon / nitrogen source utilization patterns, Rhizobium isolates placed in five different groups and were designated as Rkh1, Rkh2, Rkh3, Rkh4 and Rak5 but RAPD tests categorized the isolates into two clusters. The RAPD results were further analyzed by MVSP software; similarity matrix was measured and converted into dendrogram using UPGMA clustering method.

3159-3168 Download
54
LEAF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MACRONUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN EUROPEAN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) UNDER WESTERN SERBIAN CONDITIONS
TOMO MILOSEVIC1*, NEBOJSA MILOSEVIC2, IVAN GLISIC1 AND GORICA PAUNOVIC1

LEAF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MACRONUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN EUROPEAN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) UNDER WESTERN SERBIAN CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Research was conducted on the leaf content of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the cvs. Tonda Gentile Romana, Nochione and Istarski Duguljasti during the growing season in 2005-2007 under the environmental conditions of Gornji Milanovac (Western Serbia). Highest seasonal changes were observed in the contents of Mg (CV=18.19%) and N (CV=12.95%) and the lowest ones in P content (CV=4.00%). Highest leaf contents of N (1.83±0.07%), P (0.43±0.09%) and K (1.77±0.04%) during the season were produced by cv. Nochione and those of Ca (1.27±0.07%) and Mg (0.44±0.42%) by cvs. Tonda Gentile Romana and Istarski Duguljasti, respectively. The study showed highest effect on the hazelnut leaf content of the above nutrients with the exception of Ca. The effects of the year and the cultivar ´ year interactions being less pronounced.

3169-3178 Download
55
EFFECT OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON MANGO DECLINE PATHOGEN, LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE
MUHAMMAD ALI KHANZADA1, ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI1,2 AND SALEEM SHAHZAD1*

EFFECT OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON MANGO DECLINE PATHOGEN, LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE
ABSTRACT:
Polyethylene mulching significantly enhanced the soil temperatures in mulched soils. Soil temperatures were negatively correlated with soil depths therefore affect of mulching was more profound in upper soil layer. Soil mulching with polyethylene sheet for 2 weeks in hot summer was highly effective in reducing soil population densities of Lasiodipodia theobromae. Significantly less recovery of the fungus was recorded from straw pieces that were mulched at the depth of 5 cm for 2 weeks. Similarly, the polyethylene mulching for 15 days at the depth of 5 cm proved highly effective in reducing the conidial viability of L. theobromae. Reduction in L. theobromae inoculum was positively correlated with the duration of mulching and negatively correlated with soil depth.

3179-3184 Download
56
PREVALENCE OF POST-HARVEST ROT OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
NAUREEN FATIMA1, HUMAIRA BATOOL1, VIQAR SULTANA2, JEHAN ARA3 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1

PREVALENCE OF POST-HARVEST ROT OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Post-harvest diseases caused by bacteria, yeast and fungi develops on fruits and other plant products between harvesting and consumption. The threat of post-harvest disease influences the way most horticultural crops are handled. Therefore the accurate identification of the causal pathogen is essential before appropriate treatment can be made to control the pathogens. In the present study a number of fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, A. citri, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Drechslera australeinsis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium spp., Phytophthora capsici and Rhizopus stolonifer responsible for post-harvest deterioration of fresh fruits and vegetables were isolated and identified.

3185-3190 Download
57
UTILIZATION OF ENDO-ROOT FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS OF CHILLI FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ROOT DISEASES OF CHILLI
SAMRAH TARIQ1, RUQQAYA KHAN2, VIQAR SULTANA2, JEHAN ARA3, AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1

UTILIZATION OF ENDO-ROOT FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS OF CHILLI FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ROOT DISEASES OF CHILLI
ABSTRACT:
Chili (Capsicum annuum) is an important vegetable and spice crop worldwide produced and consumed as fresh or processed. However production is increasingly constrained by chili plant diseases. The four diseases that lead to wilting in chili are Phytophthora root rot, Verticillium wilt, Rhizoctonia root rot, and Fusarium wilt. The association of Fusarium species with Rhizoctonia solani or root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) caused huge losses. In this study, seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from inner roots of healthy chili plants growing under field condition. In vitro test cell free culture filtrate of some strains showed nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode by killing the 2nd stage juveniles and by retarding the egg hatching. In dual culture plate assay, one strain of P. aeruginosa inhibited the radial growth of all the four test root rotting fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum by producing the zone of inhibition. While other strains caused growth inhibition of at least 2 or 3 test fungi. Some bacterial strains also caused lysis of fungal hyphae. In screen house, application of some of these bacterial strains caused significant suppressive effect on root rotting fungi and root knot nematode infecting chili roots. Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains also showed positive impact on plant growth by increasing the plant height and fresh shoot weight and were found to produce indole-acetic acid at varying degree.

3191-3198 Download
58
EFFECT OF SOLAR HEATING BY POLYETHYLENE MULCHING ON SCLEROTIAL VIABILITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ON MUNGBEAN AND SUNFLOWER
FOUZIA YAQUB* AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFECT OF SOLAR HEATING BY POLYETHYLENE MULCHING ON SCLEROTIAL VIABILITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ON MUNGBEAN AND SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Soil solarization by polyethylene mulching significantly enhanced soil temperatures in mulched soils. A difference of 16oC was recorded in mulched and non-mulched soils at 5cm depth. Effect of mulching was more profound on upper soil surface since higher temperatures in mulched soils were recorded at 5 cm depth as compared to 10 cm depth. Sclerotial viability of S. rolfsii and RCI were negatively correlated with depth of mulched soils. Maximum sclerotial mortality occurred at 5cm followed by 10 cm in mulched soils. Similarly, minimum disease infection and better plant growth was recorded in plants grown in soil removed from 5 cm depth in mulched plots. Maximum sclerotial mortality and minimum pathogen infection was noted after 15 days of mulching.

3199-3205 Download
59
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TURKISH CITRUS PEEL OILS
F. GÜLAY KIRBAŞLAR1, AYDIN TAVMAN2*, BAŞARAN DÜLGER3 AND GÜLEN TÜRKER4

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TURKISH CITRUS PEEL OILS
ABSTRACT:
The samples of the Citrus fruits viz., lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit.), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were collected from southern Turkey (Antalya) in November 2006 and their peel oils were obtained by cold-pressing process. The antimicrobial activities of Turkish Citrus peel oils were evaluated using the disk diffusion method toward 9 bacteria and the results compared with those for penicillin-g, ampicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycine, oflaxacin and tetracycline. Antifungal activities were reported for Kluyveromyces fragilis, Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii yeasts, and the results were referenced against nystatin, ketaconazole and clotrimazole antifungal agents. The Citrus peel oils showed strong antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. Lemon and bergamot peel oils have a little higher activity than the other Citrus peel oils.

3207-3212 Download
60
SOME RARELY REPORTED ATHECATE DINOFLAGELLATES FROM NORTH ARABIAN SEA
SADAF GUL* AND S. M. SAIFULLAH

SOME RARELY REPORTED ATHECATE DINOFLAGELLATES FROM NORTH ARABIAN SEA
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports 5 species of the dinoflagellate genera Pyrocystis Murray and Dissodinium Pascher from the North Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan.

3213-3218 Download
61
MANAGEMENT OF ROOT DISEASES BY COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT SOILS WITH FERTILIZERS
ASMA SIKANDER, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, MARIUM TARIQ AND MUHAMMAD JAVED ZAKI

MANAGEMENT OF ROOT DISEASES BY COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT SOILS WITH FERTILIZERS
ABSTRACT:
A combination of fertilizers and different soil was assessed on growth indices and root diseases of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). It was observed that sandy and sandy loam soil when mixed with fertilizers like urea, frutan and DAP at 0.1% w/w increases growth indices on okra and cowpea plant whereas urea and frutan at 0.1% w/w in clay soil completely reduced number of galls produced by Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood in cowpea plant. Infection of Fusarium spp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was completely reduced when all fertilizers were mixed with clay soil on both crop plants.

3219-3225 Download
62
BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARECTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN(S) FROM INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER NA6
NUSRAT JABEEN1,2, HUMA GUL1, SYED ABDUS SUBHAN1, MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN1,2, MUNNAZA AJAZ1,3 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL1*

BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARECTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN(S) FROM INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER NA6
ABSTRACT:
Agrobacterium radiobacter NA6 isolated from local agricultural soil of NIAB, Faislabad was found to produce antibacterial peptide designated as Agrocin NA6. The partial purification of bacteriocin was achieved by 70% Ammonium sulphate precipitation. These agrocin has a narrow spectrum of activity against different gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It remained stable on boiling (100˚C, 30min.) and autoclaving (121oC

3227-3237 Download
63
FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM L.
ABDUL MANNAN1,2, TOOBA NOOR SYED1 AND BUSHRA MIRZA1*

FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The present work was aimed to study various factors affecting Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Artemisia absinthium L. Agrobacterium strain C58C1 harboring binary vector p35SGUSINT having kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII) as selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene was used for transformation. Factors affecting transformation efficiency, such as age and type of explants, presence of ampicillin and kanamycin in Agrobacterium inoculum, concentration of Agrobacterium, infection and co-cultivation time period of Agrobacterium, effects of 2,4-D, pH of co-cultivation medium and effects of cefotaxime in regeneration medium were studied. An amount of 50mg/L each of kanamycin and ampicillin was used to select the pure Agrobacterium cultures and 500mg/L cefotaxime along with 20mg/L kanamycin was used to select transformed cells. Results concluded that one week old leaf and root ex-plants of A. absinthium inoculated with A. tumefaciens for 5 minutes and co-cultivated for 3-4 days in B5 medium with 0.5mg/L of 2, 4-D at media pH 5.8 showed 100% transformation efficiency.

3239-3246 Download
64
DISCOVERY OF A NOVEL CRYSTAL PROTEIN FROM PAKISTANI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS STRAIN TOXIC TO TRIBOLIUM CASTENEUM HERBST (COLEOPTERA:TENEBRIONIDAE)
KAUSAR MALIK AND SHEIKH RIAZUDDIN

DISCOVERY OF A NOVEL CRYSTAL PROTEIN FROM PAKISTANI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS STRAIN TOXIC TO TRIBOLIUM CASTENEUM HERBST (COLEOPTERA:TENEBRIONIDAE)
ABSTRACT:
The biotoxicity analysis of crystal protein of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains has been carried out against the larvae of red flour beetle Tribolium casteneum Hebst. Seven isolates were found highly active against T. casteneum. The most toxic isolate SG31.11 has calculated LC50 value of 0.2 ug/mg of artificial diet. Presently, the active protein of isolate SG31.11 was sequenced and data showed that it resembles with a novel Cry3 protein.

3247-3251 Download
65
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES ON APHIDS AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES IN CAULIFLOWER VARIETIES
SALEHA S. SIDDIQUI, M. NAEEM* AND NADEEM A. ABBASI1

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES ON APHIDS AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES IN CAULIFLOWER VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Aphids are essential pest of cultivated crops in Pakistan. They not only trim down the yield of crops, but also serve as vector of diseases. The experiment was carried out to determine the influence of planting dates on aphid and their natural enemies in cauliflower varieties. There were two target planting dates (late September and late October) and four cauliflower varieties (Snow Crown, Cashmere, Snow Drift and Shehzadi). Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae was the only aphid species present on the cauliflower crop in 2008-2009. Aphid population was significantly lower in early planting cauliflower trial (late September) while in case of late planting cauliflower trial (late October) it was significantly higher. The rate of parasitism and predation on early planting trial were 3.86 % and 0.82%. In late planting trial, the rate of parasitism and predation were 3.3 % and 0.42 %. The variety “Cashmere” performed the best and considered resistant against aphids amongst early planted varieties, however, it was susceptible when planted during late season. The variety “Snow Drift” which was comparatively susceptible to aphid attack when planted during early season (late August) but proved resistant when planted during late season (late September) as minimum population of aphid was estimated on this variety.

3253-3259 Download
66
EVALUATION OF NEMATOCIDAL ACTIVITY IN NATURAL HONEY
M. KAMRAN AZIM* AND M. SAJID

EVALUATION OF NEMATOCIDAL ACTIVITY IN NATURAL HONEY
ABSTRACT:
Nematode parasites cause serious diseases in humans and livestock animals. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of honey on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In vitro immersion tests showed that honey samples exhibited strong paralyzing effects on different developmental stages of C. elegans with LD90 in the range of 0.75-1.5%. Among the honey tested, Plactranthus honey showed most potent activity with LD90 of 0.75% followed by Acacia honey (LD90 0.75-1.5%). This study pointed out the potential of honey as an antinematodal agent.

3261-3264 Download
67
CORRIGENDUM
Reference to the MS entitled “AVOIDANCE OF SODIUM ACCUMULATION IN THE SHOOT CONFERS TOLERANCE TO SALT STRESS IN CULTIVATED BARLEY” by Hee Sun Kook, Tae Il Park, Amana Khatoon, Shafiq Rehman and Song Joong Yun published in 41

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
4

3265- Download
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