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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 2
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1
CO2 ENRICHMENT IMPROVES RECOVERY OF GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS FROM DROUGHT AND NITROGEN STRESS IN MAIZE
YUZHENG ZONG1,2 AND ZHOUPING SHANGGUAN2*

CO2 ENRICHMENT IMPROVES RECOVERY OF GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS FROM DROUGHT AND NITROGEN STRESS IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
In the context of the increasing risk of extreme drought as a result of climate change and increasing CO2 in the future of northwest China, evaluation of crops’ ability to recover and survive droughts requires further attention. To test the effects of re-watering on plants suffering water and nitrogen limitations in the presence of elevated CO2, maize (Zea mays) was planted to experience combined elevated CO2 (380 or 750 µmolmol-1, climate chamber), water stress (15% PEG-6000) and nitrogen limitation (5 or 15mM N in Hoagland solutions) and then re-watered at three levels (300mL, 600mL, 900mL per pot of distilled water). When plants were re-watered, drought stressed and N limited plants with ambient CO2 increased their water content more than that of elevated CO2, while the enhancement of growth rate were negatively related to the increasing plant water content. Elevated CO2 could help re-watered seedlings to have higher photosynthetic capacity (Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Pn,Pn/Tr and Pn/Gs) and new leaf growth under low water content, apart from nitrogen deficiency. The results demonstrated that elevated CO2 could help drought stressed seedlings to maintain higher carbon assimilation rates under low water content, as a result to improve leaf water use efficiency.

407-415 Download
2
DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF KNOTGRASS (POLYGONUM MARITIMUM L.) LEAVES UNDER DIFFERENT DROUGHT TREATMENTS
BURCU SECKIN DINLER* AND MERVE AKSOY

DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF KNOTGRASS (POLYGONUM MARITIMUM L.) LEAVES UNDER DIFFERENT DROUGHT TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is a major environmental stress factor for plants causing significant adverse effects on crop growth and yield. Therefore, plant resistance against drought should be determined for wild plants to alleviate such impacts. Knotgrass (Polygonum maritimum L.) is a wild plant getting rarer every day in sandy coasts. The present study was consulted to determine the responses of knotgrass (Polygonum maritimum L.) to drought stress during vegetative growth stages. Plants were drought-stressed by withholding water for (72 hours) and (10 days). Relative water content did not change under drought stress, but the chlorophyll content decreased in both drought treatments. Although, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity increased more in 10 days drought treatment than 72 hours treatment, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity of the treatments were not significantly different. Moreover, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents did not change under drought treatments. Such findings indicated Polygonum maritimum as a tolerant species to drought stress during vegetative growth stages.

417-421 Download
3
EVALUATION OF RICE GENOTYPES UNDER SALT STRESS AT THE SEEDLING AND REPRODUCTIVE STAGES USING PHENOTYPIC AND MOLECULAR MARKERS
MEHEDE HASSAN RUBEL1, LUTFUL HASSAN1*, MIRZA MOFAZZAL ISLAM2, ARIF HASAN KHAN ROBIN1 AND MD JAHANGIR ALAM1,

EVALUATION OF RICE GENOTYPES UNDER SALT STRESS AT THE SEEDLING AND REPRODUCTIVE STAGES USING PHENOTYPIC AND MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity screening for 27 rice genotypes was performed at the seedling and reproductive stages respectively, in the hydroponic system and in sustained water bath. Three selected SSR markers were used to determine salinity tolerance in rice genotypes. Phenotyping of the germplasm was done at EC 12dS/m and 6dS/m at seedling and reproductive stages, respectively. Based on modified standard evaluation score for visual salt injury at seedling stage, eight genotypes were salt tolerant, four were moderately tolerant and the rest fifteen were susceptible. At the reproductive stage, six genotypes were tolerant to EC 6dS/m whereas eleven of them were susceptible. SSR based marker identified seven genotypes as tolerant but ten of them were susceptible for all three markers compared to two checks. Six genotypes were tolerant in both phenotypic and SSR screening. The indentified salt tolerant genotypes can be potential germplam sources for future breeding program.

423-432 Download
4
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF DIGERA MURICATA, A DESERT SUMMER ANNUAL
SEEMI AZIZ* AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF DIGERA MURICATA, A DESERT SUMMER ANNUAL
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathic potential of Digera muricata was tested on different crops by germinating them in different concentrations of D. muricata extract. It was observed that germination of all test species were highly affected in the higher concentration of D. muricata extract. Bulrush-millet was the most affected species. Decaying plant material of D. muricata was also found to be highly phytotoxic. Maximum reduction in growth of bulrush-millet was observed in the decaying root material. Phenolic compounds (Quercetin, sinapic and ferluic acid), alkaloids (cystine and berbine) and a terpenoid (limonene) were detected from roots and shoots of D. muricata. Greater quantities of all these allelochemicals were present in the roots followed by shoots.

433-439 Download
5
EFFECT OF COLD AND SCARIFICATION ON SEEDS GERMINATION OF PISTACIA ATLANTICA L. FOR RAPID MULTIPLICATION
CHEBOUTI-MEZIOU, N.1*, A. MERABET1, Y. CHEBOUTI2, F.Z. BISSAAD1, N. BEHIDJ-BENYOUNES1 AND S. DOUMANDJI3

EFFECT OF COLD AND SCARIFICATION ON SEEDS GERMINATION OF PISTACIA ATLANTICA L. FOR RAPID MULTIPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to determine the effects of mechanical scarification and cold treatment of seeds at + 4oC before sowing seed of Pistacia atlantica. In these cases, the durations at cold temperature, which have been taken into account, are successively 60, 50, 40, and 30 days. After these periods, the rate of germination and the speed of germination are calculated every 4 days. The rates of germinations concerning the not scarified seeds having undergone a cold treatment lasting 50 days are the most important that is a value of 39% from the 09-05-2010 until the 29-05-2010. The speed germination is maximum that is 89 germinated seeds /4 days. In addition this same rate reaches a maximum of 70%. Concerning the pistachio tree seeds of the atlas treated mechanically with duration of cold treatment at + 4oC during 30 days. For the same category of seed the speed of germination is maximum that is 214 seeds/4 days. Thus the scarification and the 30 days stay are the fastest means which allow to obtain the seedlings of pistachio tree in a rather short time.

441-446 Download
6
FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF POSAVINA’S FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN SERBIA AND THEIR WIDER GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT
B. JURIŠIĆ1*, B. VIDICKI1, N.Č. BOJAT2 AND N. PUVAČA1

FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF POSAVINA’S FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN SERBIA AND THEIR WIDER GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT
ABSTRACT:
In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe.

447-456 Download
7
STUDIES ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION AND SOIL ON MOUNT SEJILA, TIBET
XIAOGE HAN#, ZHIJIAN HU#, GUORONG XIN*, XIANGGANG SHI, DAN HUANG AND GUREN ZHANG

STUDIES ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION AND SOIL ON MOUNT SEJILA, TIBET
ABSTRACT:
In order to better understand the ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied the characteristics of the vegetation and soil on Mount Sejila in Tibet, at altitudes ranging from 3700m to 4700m was studied. Eleven sampling areas were examined, and the vegetation composition, species diversity, plant biomass and soil properties were measured in each one. Representatives of 99 different plant species from 26 families were identified, and the plant communities exhibited a clear degree of altitude dependence: some species were found in all samples while others were only present in a single sampling area. Plant aboveground biomass correlated negatively with altitude, but the species diversity (based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices as well as evenness and species richness measurements) were not altitude dependent. Community similarity decreased as the difference in altitude between sites increased. The measured soil properties had significant effects on plant characteristics, especially the soil nitrogen, soil moisture and temperature. The results presented herein provide a solid foundation for a more comprehensive study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau’s ecosystems and will be useful in drawing up biodiversity and ecosystem preservation schemes.

457-464 Download
8
AUTO TOXICITY OF AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH IN PAKISTAN
KANWAL NAZIM1*, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN1 AND SYED SADRUDDIN HUSSIAN2

AUTO TOXICITY OF AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During field survey it was observed that despite the presence of full sunlight mangrove forests show gaps or small number of stunted seedlings. These observations leaded to consider evaluation of autotoxicity of A.marina, therefore a glasshouse experiment was conducted to observe the possible allelopathic effects of leaf and pneumatophore extracts of Avicennia marina on its own seedling survival and growth. Two different types of soil with a total of five treatments of leaves and pneumatophores were used including control amid five replicates. The results showed that the extracts from Avicennia leaves and pneumatophores had inhibitory effects on it’s own growth. The leaf extracts showed stronger allelopathic effects than pneumatophore extracts on root length and dry weight while pneumatophore extracts had greater allelopathic effects on shoot height. Therefore, it may also be concluded that besides shade, allelopathy may be responsible for lack of Avicennia seedlings under its own mother plant.

465-470 Download
9
EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION WITH LIQUID EXTRACTS OF BIOGAS RESIDUES ON THE GROWTH AND FORAGE YIELD OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) UNDER ARID ZONE CONDITIONS
F.Y. AL-JUHAIMI1*, S.H. HAMAD2, I.S. AL-AHAIDEB3 M.M. AL-OTAIBI2 AND M.M. EL-GARAWANY4

EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION WITH LIQUID EXTRACTS OF BIOGAS RESIDUES ON THE GROWTH AND FORAGE YIELD OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) UNDER ARID ZONE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
In this study liquid extract of biogas residue (LEBR) from date palm waste was used to fertilize soil for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivation. The results revealed that LEBR application significantly increased plant height, number of branches per meter and the contents of crude protein and ash over the control. The largest plant height and number of branches per meter and the highest ash and Phosphorus contents in the plant dry matter were obtained at the application of 3 L/m2 of LEBR solution containing 15% extract, to the soil while a solution containing 10% extract gave the highest fresh and dry biomass yields. Soil treated with LEBR had higher EC and higher contents of NH4, NO3, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu than the untreated soil. The pH of the soil decreased with increased amount of LEBR applied.

471-475 Download
10
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECT CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS FORMATION IN TRADESCANTIA PALLIDA (COMMELINACEAE)
AISHA SALEEM KHAN1* AND REHAN SIDDIQI2

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECT CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS FORMATION IN TRADESCANTIA PALLIDA (COMMELINACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Tradescantia pallida has major types of calcium oxalate crystals i.e., raphide, prismatic, and druse that are widely distributed within collenchmya, cortical and vascular parenchyma in the stem. However, mechanisms involved in crystal formation in response to stress conditions are not properly understood. In order to evaluate formation of these crystals in response to heavy metals i.e., mercury, sections of control (untreated) and mercury treated plants were prepared, stained with toluidine blue and photographed (infinity software). Mercuric chloride at high doses increased all types of crystals as compared with low doses; suggesting that mercury stress increases metabolic activities of Tradescantia that produce crystals may be, in order to defend themselves. So in T. pallida, crystal formation is influenced by mercury stress that increased raphide and prismatic crystals in the treated plants. However, biochemical aspects involved in oxalic acid formation and release of Ca by Hg need to be explored more.

477-482 Download
11
CHANGES IN WATER TRANSLOCATION IN THE VASCULAR TISSUE OF GRAPE DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
XIE ZHAOSEN1*, CHARLES F. FORNEY2, CAO HONGMEI1 AND BO LI3

CHANGES IN WATER TRANSLOCATION IN THE VASCULAR TISSUE OF GRAPE DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT:
The relationship between vascular water translocation in grapes and berry growth was investigated. Berry growth, firmness and turgor were measured, and the structure and function of the vascular bundles for water translocation was observed. During phase I fruit development, the dorsal and central vascular bundles rapidly translocated introduced dye in the pedicle. The speed of dye translocation was highest in the dorsal vascular bundles of phase I fruit with a speed of 0.97cm/h. After phase II, both the distribution of dye and the speed of dye translocation in the fruit vascular tissue decreased, with speeds in the dorsal and central vascular bundles being 0.08 cm/h and 0.72 cm/h, respectively. During phase III, the distribution of dye was still lower than phase I. After phase II, the walls of some xylem vessels were indistinct and broken. After phase III, even though the water translocation efficiency of the xylem decreased, sugar accumulation in the berry as well as osmoregulation increased.

483-488 Download
12
A COMPARATIVE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ECOLLY (VITIS VINIFERA L.) UNDER THE TRADITIONAL INDEPENDENT LONG-STEM PRUNING AND CRAWLED CORDON TRAINING
LIJUN NAN1,3, XIANHUA ZHAO1, LIYUAN LIU1, HUA WANG1,2,3, HUA LI1,2,3* AND JING HUANG4

A COMPARATIVE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ECOLLY (VITIS VINIFERA L.) UNDER THE TRADITIONAL INDEPENDENT LONG-STEM PRUNING AND CRAWLED CORDON TRAINING
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to compare the ecophysiology character of Ecolly grape (Vitis vinifera L.) with the new technology-single crawled cordon training (SCCT) and traditional method-independent long-stem pruning (ILSP). The connections among net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), instantaneous water utilization efficiency (WUEi), stomatal conductance (Cs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were always mutual and inextricable in the trial. The leaves in every stage had the highest Pn respectively when growing under the light irradiance of the different period. The ILSP showed a lower total photosynthetic capacity than the SCCT. There was the total semblable Tr for two pruning plants, but lower Tr in ILSP at the every position of the prior stage and riping stage (PS and RS) excluding the growing stage (GS). The WUEi declined because of the net CO2 assimilation saturated and the transpiration constantly fleetly increased before the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) increased to 600 µmol·m-2·s-1. The increased WUEis from the first to the second stage deduced that stomatal closure at high irradiance reduced more Tr than Pn, while the values decreased again in the last stage indicated that stomatal opening at low irradiance added more Tr than Pn. These results suggested that it may be possible technology to change trellises in order to obtain better ecophysiology character in this study. The growth variability of vine may be affected by a particular training style.

489-496 Download
13
HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF PARTHENIUM WEED IN MAIZE
HAROON KHAN1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1 AND SAIMA HASHIM1

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF PARTHENIUM WEED IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Two years experiments were conducted using randomized complete block (RCB) design, having eight treatments, replicated four times to find their impact on maize, parthenium and associated weeds. The treatments consisted of 6 herbicides, viz., Aatrax (atrazine) @ 1.0, Buctril super (bromoxynil+MCPA) 60 EC@ 0.80, Dual gold (s-metolachlor) 960 EC @ 1.92, Sencor extra (metribuzin) @ 2.0, Primextra gold 720 SC (atrazine+s-metolachlor), @ 1.50 Stomp (pendimethalin) 330 EC @ 1.50 kg. a.i. ha-1, hand weeding and a control. Data showed that weed density was significantly influenced by application of various herbicides in maize. Fresh weed biomass (g m-2) was reduced in plots where Primextra gold and Dual gold were sprayed followed by hand weeding. Weed mortality (%) was significantly influenced by application of different herbicides, whereas year effect remained similar for weed mortality. Higher weed mortality was observed in Primextra gold treated plots, followed by hand weeding and Dual gold which were statistically at par. Long stature maize plants were recorded in hand weeding and Primextra gold treated plots, whereas short stature plants were found in control plots. Number of grains ear-1 was significantly increased by application of herbicides and higher numbers of grains were recorded in Primextra gold and hand weeded plots. Thousand grain weight was significantly increased by herbicides and hand weeding. Application of herbicides significantly influenced biological and grain yields of maize. The effect of year was found non-significant for both grain and biological yields. Control plots resulted in lower grain and biological yield. Overall results indicated that application of Primextra gold as pre-emergence could provide good control of parthenium weed and associated weeds in maize.

497-504 Download
14
EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON GROWTH, PROTEIN AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R.BR.] FODDER
IHSANULLAH DAUR

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON GROWTH, PROTEIN AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R.BR.] FODDER
ABSTRACT:
Based on shortage of organic fertilizers in arid regions, the present study aimed to evaluate alternative sources of organic fertilizers that required in small quantity and that to be easy in shipment, and universally available. After an extensive literature search, we were prompted to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA) on millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br] by using 7 different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 kg ha−1) because HA, which is recognized as an exogenous growth regulator/soil activator, and its effects have been evaluated in its limited quantities only on fruits and vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of soil application of high levels of HA on the field crop. The experiment was conducted following a randomized complete block design. The results of the study indicated that the increasing level of HA to certain level (20-25 kg ha−1) constantly and significantly (p<0.05) increased plant growth (i.e., plant height, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area index (LAI), green and dry matter yield). The increase in growth was further confirmed by the chemical analysis of crude protein and mineral content. Based on the results, this study recommends application of 20 to 25 kg ha−1 of HA to soil for improving millet crop yield and quality in arid and saline conditions.

505-509 Download
15
ACCUMULATION OF METALS AND METALLOIDS IN TURNIP (BRASSICA RAPA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KHUSHAB CITY, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, SUMAIRA YASMIN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3 AND ASMA ISHFAQ1

ACCUMULATION OF METALS AND METALLOIDS IN TURNIP (BRASSICA RAPA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KHUSHAB CITY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Accumulation of different metals and metalloids was assessed in a potential vegetable crop, turnip (Brassica rapa L.) irrigated with domestic wastewater in the peri-urban areas of Khushab City, Pakistan. Two sites at a distance of 15 km radius were selected for this study. The levels of different metals and metalloids such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd and Pb, at site-I were 0.06, 15.8, 34.4, 13.5, 1.95, 3.15, 4.25, 41.5, 1.68, 4.79, 8.76, and 27.5 mg kg-1, whereas those at site-II were 0.07, 23.7,41.9, 20.2, 3.70, 3.63, 9.64, 47.08, 2.73, 5.85, 19.09 and 33.85 mg kg-1, respectively. In general, the metal and metalloid concentrations were higher at site-II than those found at site-I, except Cd. The concentrations (mg kg-1) of metals and metalloids in the vegetable at site-I following the order of arrangement in the case of soil were, 9.07, 33.66, 28.48, 0.49, 7.64, 18.73, 35.79, 2.53, 0.41, 6.8, 0.58 and 7.28 mg/kg, whereas those at site-II were 17.09, 49.23, 42.05,0.77, 9.95, 15.10, 55.5, 5.21, 0.63, 16.1, 0.66 and 12.6 mg/kg, respectively. At both sites the levels of metals in the vegetable were below the permissible level except those of Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo and Pb. At both sites, the transfer factor ranged from 0.03-216.3 mg kg-1 with Cr having the highest transfer factor. The metal pollution index in soil was in the following order: Cd > Ni > Se > Zn > Mn > Co > Cr > Pb > Mo > Fe > Cu > As and in the vegetables as Mo > As > Cr > Pb > Zn > Co > Se > Fe > Mn > Ni > Cd > Cu, respectively.

511-514 Download
16
SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF SALT TOLERANCE IN SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH): BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN METABOLISM
ABIDA KAUSAR1*, M. YASIN ASHRAF2 AND M. NIAZ1

SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF SALT TOLERANCE IN SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH): BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN METABOLISM
ABSTRACT:
Soil salinization is the most important limiting factor in plant productivity all over the world. To fulfill the food, feed, fodder and industrial raw material demands of growing population, development of salt tolerant and high yielding crop genotypes are necessary. The genotypes having efficient N metabolism produce high biomass/plant productivity under saline conditions are tolerant one. This study was conducted to explore the salinity induced changes in nitrogen metabolism of sorghum. A sand culture experiment with four sorghum genotypes was conducted in NIAB wire-house under natural conditions in plastic pots containing 0, 10 dS m-1 NaCl salinity solutions along with 1/5 Hoaglands nutrient solution. Physiological parameters like dry biomasss of shoots and roots, leaf proteins, total nitrogen, total free amino acids, nitrate reductase activity, and NO3 were reduced due to salinity in all sorghum genotypes. Salinity influence was more pronounced in Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 sensitive. On the basis of results obtained for nitrogen metabolism, sorghum lines JS-2002 and Sandalbar can be categorized as tolerant, Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 as sensitive one.

515-519 Download
17
INFLUENCE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ON CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN LENS CULINARIS GERMPLASM UNDER RAIN-FED ECO-AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM
MUHAMMAD ILYAS, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1*

INFLUENCE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ON CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN LENS CULINARIS GERMPLASM UNDER RAIN-FED ECO-AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Due to emerging demands of organic foods, lentil, one of the most primitive legumes was investigated for genetic diversity including cause and effect relationships among various clusters under eco-agricultural system. The 73 lentil genotypes were investigated for qualitative and quantitative traits to identify the potential lines under rain-fed conditions for organic farming using no chemical fertilizers for crop production. Variation existed for all the qualitative traits including orange cotyledon colour in 27 genotypes which is a preferred trait by Asian consumers including Pakistan. Five clusters revealed that average intra-clusters distances were more or less similar, whereas inter-cluster distance indicated higher level of genetic diversity. First three PCs contributed more than ¾ of the variability and the results were in coordination with clustering pattern amongst 73 genotypes. The populations contributing the first PC were late in maturity possessed higher number of branches, pods, better biomass and grain yield. The PC2 was more contributed by seeds pod-1 and seed diameter, whereas pod length and harvest index contributed 13% variability. The cause and effect relationships indicated differential response for selection of lentil genotypes suitable for eco-agricultural system within each cluster.

521-530 Download
18
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SALINITY IN SHALLOW GROUND WATER USED FOR CROP IRRIGATION
AMIR KHATTAK1*, NASIR AHMED1, IJAZ HUSSAIN2, M. AKRAM QAZI3, SALIK ALI KHAN3 ATTIQUE-UR-REHMAN4 AND NAVEED IQBAL3

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SALINITY IN SHALLOW GROUND WATER USED FOR CROP IRRIGATION
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the salinity of ground water of the shallow wells and delineation of maps using spatial statistics approach. The water samples were collected from 833 wells located in the rural areas at shallow depth (<100 ft) of Lahore district and recorded their geographic coordinates. In order to achieve this objective, all samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC). Regarding electrical conductivity (EC) in the shallow ground water, 432 samples (51.9% of the samples) were found fit for irrigation, 160 samples (19.2%) were found marginally fit and 241 samples (28.9%) unfit when compared with the standard values for irrigation purpose. Ordinary Kriging and Bayesian Kriging are used to interpolate and observe the behavior of EC in the entire domain of the study. The performance of ordinary Kriging and Bayesian Kriging were compared by means of cross validation. It is concluded that Bayesian Kriging produced less mean square prediction error as compared with that by Ordinary Kriging. It was observed that the value of electric conductivity was very high between longitude 74o 27′ to 74o 33′ and latitude 31o 3′ to 31o 34′ whereas in North-East of Lahore district the electric conductivity was very low. Overall, electric conductivities of the ground waters examined in the present study were higher with reference to the standard values used for crop irrigation.

531-537 Download
19
SEED GERMINATION BIOASSAY USING MAIZE SEEDS FOR PHYTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT COMPOSTED MATERIALS
TOOBA HAQ1*, TASNEEM ADAM ALI2 AND RAZIA BEGUM1

SEED GERMINATION BIOASSAY USING MAIZE SEEDS FOR PHYTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT COMPOSTED MATERIALS
ABSTRACT:
In this paper we evaluated the phytotoxicity of different composts obtained by two different composting methods using seed germination bioassay. Seeds of Zea mays were sown in 1:5 extract of composts and these were compared with the control (100% distilled water) for each type of material. Composting of herbal pharmaceutical solid waste (HPSW) was carried out using both conventional bin and pit method. HPSW was mixed separately with poultry manure, cow-manure and goat manure in three different ratios. Uncomposted and composted HPSW were tested to study the Phytotoxicity on Zea mays seed germination, after composting increase in percent germination as well as germination index (GI) values were observed in all combinations regardless, composted by pit or bin method. The results clearly showed that composting reduced Phytotoxicity. The results showed that use of completely composted organic waste reduces the phytotoxicity and is better than the use of uncomposted waste. It was found that pit method was more suitable than bin method. Herbal waste with goat manure in 1:1 ratio was found to be the most effective combination as compared to other combinations here. Germination was 100% and the germination index was 1.4 whereas uncomposted HPSW showed the lowest percent germination i.e., 77% and germination index 52.31 respectively.

539-542 Download
20
INTEGRATION OF ROW SPACING, MULCHING AND HERBICIDES ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN TOMATO
TAMANA BAKHT1*, IJAZ AHMAD KHAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2 AND ZAHID HUSSAIN1

INTEGRATION OF ROW SPACING, MULCHING AND HERBICIDES ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during the year 2012 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The local variety ‘Roma’ was sown in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements, having four replications. The main plots were row spacings while subplots of the experiment comprised of ten treatments including five mulches viz., white and black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust, three herbicide treatments (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin and s-metolachlor), hand weeding and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m-2, fresh and dry weed biomass, number of branches plant-1, and fruit yield (kg ha-1). All these parameters were significantly affected by row spacing and weed management treatments. Increase in weed population was observed with increasing in row spacing. The competitiveness of tomato with weeds can be enhanced by using black plastic as mulch. In light of the results, the row spacing of 60 cm is the optimum one for tomato plants, as the fruit yields decreased at 40 cm and 80 cm row spacing.

543-547 Download
21
IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF MAIZE
BAKHTIAR GUL1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1 AND HAROON KHAN1

IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Peshawar, using open pollinated maize variety “Azam” in RCB design having 3 factors viz., tillage, maize populations and mulches with split-split plot arrangements. Tillage levels (zero and conventional) were assigned to the main plots, populations (90000, 60000 and 30000 plants ha-1) to sub-plots and four types of mulches (weeds mulch, black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and mungbean as living mulch), a hand weeding and a weedy check were allotted to sub-sub plots, respectively. Data were recorded on days to tasseling, days to silking, days to maturity, leaf area of maize plant-1 (cm2) and plant height (cm). Tillage affected leaf area of maize, where zero tillage resulted lower leaf area of 4094 cm2 compared to conventional tillage (4722 cm2). Different levels of plant populations affected all the physiological parameters. Days to tasseling, silking and maturity were more in higher plant population as compared to medium and lower plant population. Similarly, minimum leaf area plant-1 was recorded in higher plant population (3894 cm2) than medium and lower plant population of 4398 and 4932 cm2, respectively. Maximum plant height was recorded in hand weeding treatment (173 cm). However, it was statistically at par with black plastic mulch (171 cm), followed by weeds mulch (162 cm) and white plastic mulch (161 cm) as compared to weedy check (152 cm). Based on two years study it is suggested that even if tillage options and plant populations are a part of the weed management program, it should not be used as a sole management tool, as both have a negative impact on the phenological parameters of maize which subsequently affected the final yield and must be integrated and supplemented with other control methods.

549-554 Download
22
TAXONOMICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC SCORZONERA PYGMAEA VAR. PYGMAEA AND VAR. NUTANS STAT. NOV. (ASTERACEAE) FROM TURKEY
ONUR KOYUNCU*1, Ö. KORAY YAYLACI1 AND GÖKHAN KUS2

TAXONOMICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC SCORZONERA PYGMAEA VAR. PYGMAEA AND VAR. NUTANS STAT. NOV. (ASTERACEAE) FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. & Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. & Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu & Yaylacı, stat. nov.

555-563 Download
23
STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY AND ECOLOGY OF OPHRYS LUTEA CAV. SUBSP. MINOR (GUSS.) O. DANESCH & E. DANESCH EX GÖLZ & H.R. REINHARD (ORCHIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
CENK DURMUSKAHYA1, CANAN OZDEMIR2, BAHATTIN BOZDAG2 AND MÜNIR ÖZTÜRK3

STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY AND ECOLOGY OF OPHRYS LUTEA CAV. SUBSP. MINOR (GUSS.) O. DANESCH & E. DANESCH EX GÖLZ & H.R. REINHARD (ORCHIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics of Ophrys lutea subsp. minor in Turkey were investigated. The plant material was collected from 30 different populations during 2010-2013. In all 19 morphological and 20 anatomical features were investigated, and habitat characteristics recorded. The soil samples were also collected from the plant sampling sites and subjected to an analysis for 18 characteristics. The minimum plant length was 69 mm and maximum 323 mm, minimum length of underground part was 29 mm, and maximum 49 mm, and the number of leaves varied between 1-10. The ecological characteristics revealed that O. lutea subsp. minor flourishes well from sea level to 800 m, and the most common habitats of O. lutea subsp. minor are rocky limestones, phrygana, macchie, olive gorves, woodland margins.

565-571 Download
24
THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC CROCUS BIFLORUS MILLER SUBSP. PULCHRICOLOR (HERBERT) MATHEW (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
YURDANUR AKYOL

THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC CROCUS BIFLORUS MILLER SUBSP. PULCHRICOLOR (HERBERT) MATHEW (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae) were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has 4 leaves, 1 mm broad; bracts drying brownish. These properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other Crocus species and Iridaceae family species.

573-578 Download
25
EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES IN LOQUAT cv. MARDAN
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ, ABDUL AHAD QURESHI, IRFAN ALI AND SYED RASHID MAHMOOD

EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES IN LOQUAT cv. MARDAN
ABSTRACT:
Loquat cv. Mardan is a promising variety in loquat growing areas of northern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa. Loquat growers face serious issue of true to type plants availability. An attempt was made to explore different vegetative propagation techniques to find out most successful method for nursery industry. In the study propagation through cutting (during spring) and grafting during different suitable seasons (spring and monsoon) was examined. Cuttings were treated with different growth regulators to promote rooting. PBZ, IBA and their combinations were applied to the cuttings. Highest success percentage (40%) was achieved with PBZ. This limited success in rooting of cuttings was complete failure in getting plant survival at the end of the study. In the second phase of the experiment different grafting techniques i.e. tongue, cleft and side grafting were evaluated during two different seasons i.e., spring and monsoon. Cleft grafting in the months of March/ April proved to be most successful method in terms of success (70%), days taken for shoot growth, no. of leaves, shoots length, no. of branches. While in monsoon season side grafting was significantly better with a success of 85%. Overall, monsoon side grafting proved to be more successful than any other method.

579-584 Download
26
SUBFAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN SOLANACEAE AS INFERRED FROM atpβ-rbcL INTERGENIC SPACER
ISHRAT JAMIL1, SYEDA QAMARUNNISA1, ABID AZHAR1, ZABTA K. SHINWARI2, SYED IRTIFAQ ALI1 AND MUHAMMAD QAISER3

SUBFAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN SOLANACEAE AS INFERRED FROM atpβ-rbcL INTERGENIC SPACER
ABSTRACT:
A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atpβ-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atpβ-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae.

585-590 Download
27
MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF SELECTED GENERA OF SUBFAMILY MIMOSOIDAE-FABACEAE
ZABTA K. SHINWARI, KHANSA JAMIL AND NADIA BATOOL ZAHRA

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF SELECTED GENERA OF SUBFAMILY MIMOSOIDAE-FABACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups.

591-598 Download
28
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BREONADIA SALICINA BASED ON INTRA-SPECIES SEQUENCE VARIATION OF CHLOROPLAST DNA SPACER SEQUENCE
F. AL-QURAINY, ABDEL-RHMAN Z. GAAFAR, S. KHAN*, M. NADEEM, ABDULHAFED A. AL-AMERI AND M. TARROUM

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BREONADIA SALICINA BASED ON INTRA-SPECIES SEQUENCE VARIATION OF CHLOROPLAST DNA SPACER SEQUENCE
ABSTRACT:
Assessment and knowledge of the genetic diversity and variation within and between populations of rare and endangered plants is very important for effective conservation. Intergenic spacer sequences variation of psbA-trnH locus of chloroplast genome was assessed within Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), a critically endangered and endemic plant species to South western part of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The obtained sequence data from 19 individuals in three populations revealed nine haplotypes. The aligned sequences obtained from the overall Saudi accessions extended to 355 bp, revealing nine haplotypes. A high level of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.842) and low level of nucleotide diversity (Pi = 0.0058) were detected. Consistently, both hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and constructed neighbor-joining tree indicated null genetic differentiation among populations. This level of differentiation between populations or between regions in psbA-trnH sequences may be due to effects of the abundance of ancestral haplotype sharing and the presence of private haplotypes fixed for each population. Furthermore, the results revealed almost the same level of genetic diversity in comparison with Yemeni accessions, in which Saudi accessions were sharing three haplotypes from the four haplotypes found in Yemeni accessions.

599-604 Download
29
SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF UBIQUITIN EXTENSION PROTEIN GENES (UBQ) OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM IN COMPARISON WITH ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
TAYYABA SHAHEEN1, 2*, YUSUF ZAFAR2 AND MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN2

SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF UBIQUITIN EXTENSION PROTEIN GENES (UBQ) OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM IN COMPARISON WITH ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:
Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis is an expedient way to study polymorphisms at genomic level. In the present study we have explored Ubiquitin extension protein gene of G. arboreum (A2) and G. herbaceum (A1) of cotton which is a multiple copy gene. We have found SNPs at 16 positions in 200 bp region within A genome of cotton indicating frequency of SNPs 1/13 bp. Both sequences from cotton have shown maximum similarity with UBQ5 and UBQ6 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence obtained from G. arboreum has shown SNPs at 28 positions in comparison with each UBQ5 and UBQ6 of Arabidopsis thaliana while sequence obtained from G. herbaceum has shown SNPs at 31 positions in comparison with each UBQ5 and UBQ6 of Arabidopsis thaliana. In conclusion although during pace of evolution ubiquitin extension protein genes of both A genome species have got some mutations from nature but still most of their sequence is similar. Single nucleotide polymorphism study can prove a vital tool to identify gene type in case of Multicopy genes.

605-608 Download
30
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY STUDIES IN INDIGENOUS BRASSICA RAPA ACCESSIONS
SIDRA IQBAL, FARHATULLAH*, SIKANDAR SHAH, MEHWISH KANWAL, LAILA FAYYAZ AND M. AFZAL

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY STUDIES IN INDIGENOUS BRASSICA RAPA ACCESSIONS
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous lines serves as an ideal germplasm for varietal development because of having broad genetic base. Current study was planned with an aim to check locally collected Brassica rapa (B. campestris, L.) accessions for genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. The experiment was conducted at new development farm of The University of Agiculture, Peshawar during the main crop growing season of 2010-11. The experimental material consisted of ten locally collected B. rapa lines which were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Observations on eight quantitative parameters viz. primary branches, silique main raceme-1, main raceme length, silique length, silique width, plant height, seed silique-1, and 100 seed weight were made. Highly significant differences were observed in all traits except silique width, which showed significant variation. The highest heritability coupled with higher genetic advance was noticed in plant height which provided the evidence that this trait was under the control of additive genetic effects, while rest of the traits exhibited variable trends. Hence, it was observed that indigenous accessions have great proportion of genetic variability, which can be manipulated in future breeding programs to fully utilize their genetic potential.

609-612 Download
31
DETERMINATION OF RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN PAKISTANI BREAD WHEATS
MAQSOOD QAMAR1,2, S. DILNAWAZ AHMAD1, M. ASHIQ RABBANI3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4 AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL5*

DETERMINATION OF RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN PAKISTANI BREAD WHEATS
ABSTRACT:
Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely ‘03FJ26’, ‘NR 337’, ‘NR 339’ ‘NR 347’, ‘NR 350’, ‘Manthar’, ‘Margalla 99’, ‘Iqbal 2000’, ‘Saleem 2000’, ‘Wafaq 2001’, ‘Marwat 2001’, ‘Pirsabak 2004’ and ‘Fareed 2006’ carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance.

613-617 Download
32
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME PAKISTANI DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS BY RAPD MARKERS
AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1,2*, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND1, SAIFULLAH KHAN2 AND ADEL A. ABUL-SOAD1

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME PAKISTANI DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS BY RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted with an aim to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among twenty five date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Pakistan. The leaf samples for DNA isolation were collected from four provinces of Pakistan i.e., Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Balochistan. DNA was isolated by modified CTAB method. The study was carried out by using six universal RAPD primers. The RAPD primers showed polymorphism among all date palm cultivars. The bands obtained were successfully used to differentiate the genotypes. Based on the pair-wise comparison of amplification products, the genetic relationship was estimated. All date palm cultivars showed variation at the DNA level. The average of genetic diversity among the date palm cultivars ranged 79.4%. A dendrogram was constructed using NTSYSpc programme, on the basis of this analysis, the populations were clustered into two main clusters and sub-clusters. Therefore, the high level of polymorphism was detected and its reproducibility suggests that RAPD markers are powerful and reliable tool for genetic diversity analysis of date palm cultivars.

619-625 Download
33
STRESS SELECTION INDICES AN ACCEPTABLE TOOL TO SCREEN SUPERIOR WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER IRRIGATED AND RAIN-FED CONDITIONS
HIDAYAT ULLAH1*, HIZAR SUBTHAIN2, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL2, WASIF ULLAH KHAN2, YOUSAF JAMAL1, AND MUKHTAR ALAM1

STRESS SELECTION INDICES AN ACCEPTABLE TOOL TO SCREEN SUPERIOR WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER IRRIGATED AND RAIN-FED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The climate is changing day by day and water scarcity has developed a milieu for the breeder to think accordingly. Twenty-four advanced wheat lines along with four prominent check cultivars were evaluated independently in irrigated (IRE) and rain-fed environments (RFE) for yield related traits at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2010-11, using randomized complete block design with three replications under each test environment. Analysis of variance across the two environments exhibited highly significant variation (p≤0.01) among the genotypes for yield and associated traits. Differences among the two test environments (E) were significant for tillers m-2, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Genotype × environment interaction (G×E) effects were significant only for 1000-grain weight and grain yield. There was general reduction in 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield of all genotypes under RFE as compared to IRE. Magnitude of heritabilities estimates were greater for tillers m-2, spikelets spike-1 and grains spike-1 under IRE than RFE. Heritabilities were greater in RFE than IRE for spike length (0.31 vs 0.26), biological yield (0.80 vs 0.22), grain yield (0.94 vs 0.20) and harvest index (0.41 and 0.39). Relative high expected selection response was recorded for all characters under IRE except spike length, grains spike-1 and grain yield. In IRE, highest grain yield was produced by genotypes BRF-7 (5123 kg ha-1), B-VI(N)16 (5111 kg ha-1), B-IV(N)1 (5086 kg ha-1) and B-VI(N)5 (5049 kg ha-1), while genotypes B-VI(N)5 (4649 kg ha-1), B-IV(N)1 (4595 kg ha-1), BRF-7 (4486 kg ha-1) and B-IV(N)16 (4462 kg ha-1) were high yielding under RFE. Prominent stress selection indices used in the experiments were mean productivity (MP), tolerance (TOL), stress tolerance index (STI), trait index (TI) and trait stability index (TSI). MP and STI were the efficient and reliable selection indices in both environments (IRE & RFE). MP, TOL and STI had strong positive relationship with tillers m-2, spikelets spike-1, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield under IRE. Mean stress indices showed that the top ranking genotypes for MP and STI were B-VI(N)6, BRF-7, B-VI(N)5 and B-II(N)3, reflected their superior performance across both the conditions.

627-638 Download
34
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ASIATIC DESI COTTON (GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L.) LEAF EPICUTICULAR WAX MUTANTS
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI1,2 AND TAYYAB HUSNAIN2

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ASIATIC DESI COTTON (GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L.) LEAF EPICUTICULAR WAX MUTANTS
ABSTRACT:
Epicuticular wax covers plant aerial organs to protect them from various biotic and abiotic stresses. Wax mutants have fundamental role in understanding the mechanism of production and deposition of these waxes. In the present study three epicuticular wax mutant plants were developed through chemical mutagens; diethyl sulfate (DES) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) in diploid Asiatic desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum) which is known for its tolerance against various biotic and abiotic stresses. The epicuticular wax appears as smooth stripy layers in wild type G. arboreum plant leaf under scanning electron microscopy. The GaWM1 (Gossypium arboreum Wax Mutant1), GaWM2 and GaWM3 showed altered wax morphology from smooth strips to embedded tubules/fibers, irregular patches and non-stripy smooth layers, respectively. The wild type G. arboreum plant has 183.7 ± 8.72 µgcm-2 total wax loads that reduced to 66.79% on GaWM1, 59.50% on GaWM2 and 49.29% on GaWM3. These mutants will be help full to understand the mechanism of epicuticular wax deposition and production at molecular level.

639-643 Download
35
APPRAISAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS OF MEDICINES FOR MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION, PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND HEAVY METALS
FARNAZ MALIK¹, SHAHZAD HUSSAIN*1 AND SIDRA MAHMOOD2

APPRAISAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS OF MEDICINES FOR MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION, PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND HEAVY METALS
ABSTRACT:
The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that “natural” implies “harmless”. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO’s guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task.

645-658 Download
36
LINE × TESTER ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN DIFFERENT SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES
SALEEM-UD-DIN1*, MUHAMMAD AYUB KHAN1, SADIA GULL4, KHALID USMAN2, FAZAL YAZDAN SALEEM1 AND OBAID ULLAH SAYAL3

LINE × TESTER ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN DIFFERENT SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
This paper encompasses the study of line x tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 x RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 x RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained.

659-665 Download
37
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM IN VITRO GROWN PEPEROMIA OBTUSIFOLIA THROUGH GC-MS
SAIQA ILYAS1, SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, FARAH ASLAM1, ZAHIDA PARVEEN2 AND AAMIR ALI3

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM IN VITRO GROWN PEPEROMIA OBTUSIFOLIA THROUGH GC-MS
ABSTRACT:
Apical meristems and nodal plant parts were used for mass propagation of Peperomia obtusifolia. Different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), TDZ (Thidiazuron) and KIN (Kinetin) were used in MS medium. The highest shoot proliferation and multiplication formation occurred in the MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg/mL BAP. Maximum number of shoots and shoot lengths were 9.80 }0.50 and 35.40 } 2.92 cm respectively. Rooting response was the best in MS basal medium fortified with1.0 mg/mL BAP plus 0.5 mg/mL NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid). For acclimatization, the rooted plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse. The volatile oil of this In vitro grown P. obtusifolia was extracted by hydro-distillation and investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 35 constituents of which, 16 volatile compounds contributing 65.0% of the total oil constituents could be identified. The major components identified in this oil were sesquiterpenes such as caryophyllene (17.17%), apiol (16.65%), α-cardinol (2.12%) and α-caryophyllene (1.90%). The monoterpenes such as R-α-Pinene(1.00%), camphene (0.84%), borneal (0.32%) and limonene (0.25%) were also identified. The tau.-muurolol (0.68%), τ- Elemene (0.63%), copaene (0.43%) and tau.-cadinol (0.27%) were present comparatively in minor percentages. The caryophyllene oxide (2.95%) was oxygenated sesquiterpene, 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (0.53%) and asarone (0.41%) were phenyl-propanoids.

667-672 Download
38
INFLUENCES OF EXPLANT TYPE AND ENZYME INCUBATION ON ISOLATED PROTOPLAST DENSITY AND VIABILITY IN TWO GARLIC CULTIVAR S
E.I. METWALLY1, M.E. EL-DENARY2 AND Y.H. DEWIR1*

INFLUENCES OF EXPLANT TYPE AND ENZYME INCUBATION ON ISOLATED PROTOPLAST DENSITY AND VIABILITY IN TWO GARLIC CULTIVAR S
ABSTRACT:
The present study reports on optimizing protoplast isolation and fusion in two garlic cultivars ‘Balady’ and ‘Seds 40’. Protoplast density and viability were investigated in four different explants (etiolated and green parts of the pseudostem and lower and upper parts of the leaves) under enzyme incubation for 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Among different explants, used for protoplast isolation in Balady cultivar, the upper and lower parts of the leaves produced the highest number of total protoplasts (70 and 66 pps/0.1 ml) at 4 and 3 h enzyme incubation, respectively. However, the etiolated part of pseudostem produced the highest number of viable protoplast in which 52.5 pps/0.1 ml were obtained at 3 h enzyme incubation. For protoplast isolation in Seds 40 cultivar, the highest number of total protoplasts (125 and 107.5 pps/0.1 ml) as well as viable protoplasts (105 and 107.5 pps/0.1 ml) was obtained from the etiolated and the green parts of pseudostem, respectively. The cultivar ‘Seds 40’ yielded higher total and viable protoplasts than Balady cultivar. Isolated protoplasts of ‘Seds 40’ and ‘Balady’ were fused successfully at a protoplast density of 1 × 105 using either physical and/or electrical method. Optimization of the source of plant material as well as protoplast isolation conditions for garlic is a crucial step towards a successful protoplast fusion and subsequent colony formation.

673-677 Download
39
IN VITRO AND BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALOE BARBADENSIS MILL.
ZARREEN BADAR, SAIFULLAH KHAN*, SAIFULLAH, KASHIF ALI, SYED GHULAM MUSHARRAF AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL CHOUDHARY

IN VITRO AND BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALOE BARBADENSIS MILL.
ABSTRACT:
Tissue culture technology can play an important role in the yield improvement of active ingredients of medicinal plants. In the present study, the potential of regeneration system of Aloe barbadensis along with biotransformational ability was explored. The maximum calli (5.65±1.90; fresh weight) were induced under the dark condition on MS (Murashige & Skoog) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid), as compared to light. The highest number of shoots (12.725) were proliferated on MS regeneration medium, containing 1.0 mg/L of BAP (6-Benzyl Aminopurine) and 0.1 mg/L of IBA (Indole-3-Butyric Acid) incubated at 22 ± 2ºC and 16/8 hr photoperiod provided by white fluorescent tube lights. These plantlets were then transferred onto root inducing medium and maximum number of roots (8.0 ± 0.70) with longer length (6.38 ± 0.34 cm) acquired at 1.0 mg/L of IBA within 14-20 days. The regenerated plants were shifted to green house for acclimatization. Effect of plant growth regulators and light was also assessed on callus cultures produced from conventionally propagated and in-vitro regenerated A. barbadensis plants. Biotransformation ability of Aloe barbadensis cell suspension culture was studied by incubation with (+)-adrenosterone (1), which afforded three products; D1-2-dehydroadrenosterone (2), 5a-androst-1-ene-3, 11, 17-trione (3) and 17b-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3, 11-dione (4). These metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of spectroscopic techniques.

679-685 Download
40
IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CHROMIUM (VI)-AFFECTED ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. WITH GA3 AND IAA APPLICATION
JAFFAR ALI, NAJMA YAQUB CHAUDHRY AND FAHEEM AFTAB*

IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CHROMIUM (VI)-AFFECTED ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. WITH GA3 AND IAA APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken In vitro to investigate the inhibitory effects of Chromium (Cr) VI by using K2Cr2O7 on the growth of adventitious roots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desiree). Another objective was to determine possible reversal of the detrimental growth effects with suitable combinations of GA3 and IAA. It was observed that the applied Cr VI (100 ppm) alone in MS media inhibited root growth. However, addition of selected combinations of GA3 and IAA in the MS media along with Cr VI improved the root growth. The plants grown on MS medium + 100 ppm K2Cr2O7 resulted in reduction in number of adventitious roots up to 36.26%, number of rootlets (80.64%), diameter (37.27%), fresh and dry weights (72.96 and 84.74%, respectively) in comparison with control (MS medium). MS media containing 100 ppm K2Cr2O7 + 20 ppm GA3 + 16 ppm IAA enhanced the average number of roots from 4.78 to 62.6, number of rootlets from 2.6 to 28.2, diameter from 0.13 mm to 0.68 mm, fresh weight from 34.4 mg to 1234.75 mg and dry weight from 1.8 mg to 80.40 mg compared with cultures grown on MS + 100 ppm Cr (VI). The results thus highlight the fact that the deleterious effects of Cr VI on potato growth In vitro can be reversed with suitable hormonal treatments. Furthermore, this research has possible implications on large scale potato cultivation under heavy metal stress in a broader sense.

687-692 Download
41
IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION AND MICROCORM DEVELOPMENT IN CROCUS VERNUS (L.) HILL
IYYAKKANNU SIVANESAN1, SONALI JANA2 AND BYOUNG RYONG JEONG1,2,3*

IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION AND MICROCORM DEVELOPMENT IN CROCUS VERNUS (L.) HILL
ABSTRACT:
An efficient method has been developed for In vitro regeneration of shoot and microcorm from corm explants of Crocus vernus. Corms were cut into 0.5-1.0 cm long segments and cultured on the SH medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 2-isopentyl adenine (2-iP), N6-benzyladenine (BA), and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin, Kin) alone or combination with 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins tested, BA was found to be the most effective cytokinin for shoot formation. The number of shoots induced per explant was more when BA was combined with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA than with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The greatest percentage of shoot induction (97.2) with the mean number of 11.8 shoots per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. The frequency of microcorm induction was significantly affected by the concentrations of sucrose.The greatest number of 6.1 microcorms per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6.0% sucrose. The microcorms formed In vitro developed daughter corms when they were cultured on this medium. Microcorms were separated from the culture and planted out in acclimatization boxes containing a commercial medium. About 85% of corms developed shoot and root after 30 days. This protocol could be utilized for genetic transformation and mass clonal propagation of C. vernus.

693-697 Download
42
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR EXTRACELLULAR ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCTION
FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR EXTRACELLULAR ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
ZAREENA MUSHTAQ1, AHMAD ADNAN1, ZAHID MEHMOOD2* AND QURATULAIN SYED3

699-704 Download
43
VARIATIONS IN PHENOLICS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES AMONG DIFFERENT PARTS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
REHANA NASEER1, BUSHRA SULTANA, FAROOQ ANWAR2*, ZAHED MEHMOOD1 AND MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ1

VARIATIONS IN PHENOLICS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES AMONG DIFFERENT PARTS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The extracts, produced by 80% methanol, from leaf, bark and seed of three medicinal plants namely neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), kiker (Acacia nilotica L.) and jaman (Eugenia jambolana L.), were assessed for their total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant and antifungal activities. Appreciable quantities of TP and TF, ranging from 24.43-176.16 mg GAE/g DW and 16.33 to 41.92 mg CE/g DW, respectively, were established in different parts of the selected plants. Antiradical potential evaluated in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 34.02 to 71.54%, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, 60.16 to 76.53% while reducing power (2.5 to 10 mg/mL concentration) 0.55 to1.49. Antifungal activity of the extracts was examined against two fungal strains viz. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using disc diffusion method and micro dilution broth susceptible assay. Among the three medicinal plants selected, the crude extract from neem leaves was found to be the most potent against the tested fungal strains as well as exhibited greater antioxidant activity (p<0.05).

705-712 Download
44
EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF FUSARIUM WILT RESISTANCE GENE IN MELON BY REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR
XUEZHENG WANG, BINGYIN XU, LIANG ZHAO, PENG GAO, HONGYAN MA AND FEISHI LUAN1*

EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF FUSARIUM WILT RESISTANCE GENE IN MELON BY REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR
ABSTRACT:
Melon Actin gene was used as a reference gene, to explore the gene expression profiles of the Fom-2 gene in roots, stems, and leaves of melon MR-1 under induction by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Monitoring using real-time quantitative PCR showed similar accumulation patterns of Fom-2 in roots, stems, and leaves over the observation period of 1 to 11 days; the expression level in stems was the highest. The expression of the Fom-2 gene was strengthened by the prolongation of induction time. In stems, the expression of Fom-2 was 5.737 times higher than in the control at three days; in roots, expression of Fom-2 was 5.617 times higher than in the control at five days. Similarly, the expression of Fom-2 in leaves obviously increased. It was 4.441 times higher than in the control at 5 days. The expression of Fom-2 was non-tissue specific, up-regulated under induction by Fusarium, and related to early resistance to Fusarium wilt.

713-717 Download
45
NEW PERSPECTIVE OF DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM ORCHID FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SELECTED PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
UMA MAGESWARY SANDRASAGARAN1, SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM2* AND VIKNESWARAN MURUGAIYAH1

NEW PERSPECTIVE OF DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM ORCHID FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SELECTED PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential anti-microbial activity from different parts of Dendrobium crumenatum (leaf, stem, root and pseudo-bulb) against 8 pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using disc diffusion assay, microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The methanolic extracts of stem, root and pseudo-bulb displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the standard antibiotics. Stem extract of D. crumenatum had the most potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 0.39, 0.195 and 0.195mg/mL, respectively. Root and stem extracts were found to be active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Shigella dysentriae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values of 0.78 mg/ml compared to 0.00312mg/mL, 0.025mg/mL and 0.0125mg/mL of standard antibiotics of amoxcillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Stem and root extracts yield MBC values in the range of 0.78 mg/mL to 6.25 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The present study showed that D. crumenatum exhibited potential antimicrobial activity which could be due to the presence of alkaloid and flavonoid compounds and this is a first report on South East Asia region’s wild orchid.

719-724 Download
46
REPORT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA (FR.) KEISSLER ON AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH FORESTS OF INDUSTRIAL YANB'A CITY, SAUDI ARABIA
HASHEM ABEER1*, E.F. ABD_ALLAH2, ASMA A. AL-HUQAIL1 AND A.A. ALQARAWI2

REPORT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA (FR.) KEISSLER ON AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH FORESTS OF INDUSTRIAL YANB'A CITY, SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, α linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization.

725-734 Download
47
OPTIMIZATION OF AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS
AMMARA AHAD, ASMA MAQBOOL AND KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK*

OPTIMIZATION OF AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining & through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants.

735-740 Download
48
EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ALTERNARIA SOLANI ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HIRTIFOLIUM BOISS.
ASIEH ZARE KHAFARI, SOHBAT BAHRAMINEJAD* AND SAEED ABBASI

EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ALTERNARIA SOLANI ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HIRTIFOLIUM BOISS.
ABSTRACT:
The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm ± 0.48 and 15.58 mm ± 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani.

741-747 Download
49
MANAGEMENT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI BY GROWING PETUNIA HYBRIDA (L.) MILL. AS AN ORNAMENTAL PLANT IN SAUDI ARABIA - A CASE STUDY
A. AL-QARAWI, M.A.U. MRIDHA*, P.P. DHAR AND O.M. ALGHAMDI

MANAGEMENT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI BY GROWING PETUNIA HYBRIDA (L.) MILL. AS AN ORNAMENTAL PLANT IN SAUDI ARABIA - A CASE STUDY
ABSTRACT:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions.

749-752 Download
50
COMPARISON OF THE ANTIOXIDATIVE COMPONENTS OF SOME MARINE MACROALGAE FROM TURKEY
GAMZE YILDIZ*, EGEMEN DERE AND ŞÜKRAN DERE

COMPARISON OF THE ANTIOXIDATIVE COMPONENTS OF SOME MARINE MACROALGAE FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant molecules to replace the synthetic additives currently used in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacities (lipid-soluble and water-soluble), total protein contents, vitamin E contents and vitamin C contents of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine et W.F. Farnham and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse were determined. According to our data, among the algae studied, the highest levels of bioactive components were found in U. rigida, followed by C. tomentosum, G. gracilis and S. coronopifolius. In particular, U. rigida and C. tomentosum showed the highest values for all of the parameters studied. Therefore, U. rigida and C. tomentosum could be considered as species possessing significant natural antioxidant molecules which might be useful for the food industry.

753-757 Download
51
EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT BRASSICA MIXTURES WITH DIFFERENT SEED RATES IN RAINFED AREAS OF POTOHAR-PAKISTAN
SARTAJ KHAN1*, M. AJAB KHAN2, M. AKMAL3, MUSHTAQ AHMAD2, M. ZAFAR2 AND ASMA JABEEN4

EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT BRASSICA MIXTURES WITH DIFFERENT SEED RATES IN RAINFED AREAS OF POTOHAR-PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Mixed over sole cropping is advantageous under the rainfed conditions in Pakistan. This avoids risk of complete crop failure and may returns higher income. The study aimed to investigate appropriate seed-rates combination for wheat-Brassica as mixed- or intercropped in rainfed conditions. Experiments were conducted at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad Pakistan during winter 2004-05 and 2005-06 using 10 treatments for wheat and Brassica as sole and mixed- or intercropped with 100 and 5 kg ha-1 for sole crop and 100 kg ha-1 for wheat with 40, 50, 60, and 70% lower than the recommended for Brassica. Sowing was done in 3rd week of October each year, in lines spaced 30cm. Fertilizer was applied N 48, P2O5 34 and K2O 18 (kg ha-1). Brassica was manually removed for fodder at flowering. Seed rate (SR) significantly (p<0.05) affected wheat grain yield. Cropping system (CS) significantly (p<0.05) affected grain yield of Brassica. Interactions of CS and SR were also significant (p<0.05) for both species. Planned mean comparison for grain yield was found significant (p<0.05) for wheat and brassica. Grain yield for sole wheat was 4.28t ha-1 but reported higher in mixed than intercropped. Grain yield of wheat decreased with increase in seed rate of Brassica as intercropped. Higher grain yield (4.39 t ha-1) of wheat was recorded for seed rates combinations 100:50 (%) as wheat:Brassica intercropped. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for mixed or intercropped system was higher than the sole crop and it increased with increase in the seed rate of Brassica as mixed crop but decreased as intercropped. The high LER was associated to treatment 100:50 (%) seed rates combination for wheat:Brassica as intercropped. Intercropped resulted the greater LER (1.78) than the mixed crop (1.66) and was found most effective for sustainable production in the rainfed areas for a higher net return.

759-766 Download
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