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Year 2015 , Volume  47, Issue 5
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1
OBITUARY
Professor Dr. Abdul Ghaffar

OBITUARY
ABSTRACT:
(23rd August, 1932 - 10th August

1601- Download
2
MECHANISMS OF COMBINED EFFECTS OF SALT AND ALKALINE STRESSES ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS OF MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS (FABACEAE) IN NORTHEAST OF CHINA
THI SOAN VU1†, DAWEI ZHANG1†, WEIHUA XIAO2, CHUNYU CHI1, YI XING1, DONGDONG FU1 AND ZENING YUAN1*

MECHANISMS OF COMBINED EFFECTS OF SALT AND ALKALINE STRESSES ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS OF MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS (FABACEAE) IN NORTHEAST OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
In line with the salt-alkalinized soils found in the northeast of China, the conditions were simulated to investigate the mechanisms associated with this combination of stresses on Melilotus officinalis. The effects of salinity (NaCl: 0-300mM) in combination with alkali (pH: 7.1-9.8) on the seed germination and seedlings of M. officinalis were investigated. The results showed that germination was not inhibited completely by the salt-alkali conditions tested. The recovery germinations were significant higher than the control or had no significant differences with the control under the conditions of NaCl<200mM and pH=9.0, suggesting that non-germinated seeds may have a strategy to get through and resist the stress during germination stage. For the seedling growth, M. officinalis was capable of surviving at high pH (pH≤9.8) and the salinity (NaCl≤200mM) (seedling survival rate: 84.77±8.62%). The characteristic feature for combined salt-alkali stresses is the reciprocal enhancement between salt and alkali stresses. The combined action of salinity and pH should be considered when evaluating the effects of salt-alkali stresses. Correlation and regression analyses showed that salinity was the dominant stress factor, while pH was a secondary factor. From the physiological and ecological parameters, we suggested that M. officinalis is a salt-alkali tolerant species which can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the northeast of China.

1603-1611 Download
3
EFFECT OF HALOPRIMING ON THE INDUCTION OF NACL SALT TOLERANCE IN DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
ZAHIR MUHAMMAD*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN, REHMANULLAH AND ABDUL MAJEED1

EFFECT OF HALOPRIMING ON THE INDUCTION OF NACL SALT TOLERANCE IN DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major environmental stress limiting plant growth and productivity of wide range of crops with impairing effects on germination and yield. The present study was conducted to assess the induction of salt tolerance in seven wheat genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Bhakar-2002, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Khyber-87, Nasir-2000, Pirsabak-2005, and Uqab-2000) at germination and seedling stage through halo-priming with NaCl. Seeds of each wheat genotype were halo-primed separately. Halo-primed seeds of each wheat genotype were subjected to 0.02 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m NaCl salinity under laboratory conditions. Germination % age varied significantly among various wheat genotypes; however, differences between different salt concentrations were non-significant. All the seedling growth characters (germination, plumule growth, fresh and dry weight of seedling and moisture contents) exhibited significant differences among wheat genotypes as well as under the applied salt concentration except for radicle growth which varied non-significantly under salt stress. Interaction between various wheat genotypes and salt concentration was also significant for all the seedling growth characters, while it was non-significant for germination %age. It is concluded that NaCl proved to be effective priming agents in inducing salt tolerance in the tested wheat genotypes.

1613-1620 Download
4
INVESTIGATION OF DROUGHT STRESS IN PEPINO (SOLANUM MURICATUM AIT. CV. MISKI) LEAVES
SEVCAN DUMAN1 AND AYSEL SIVACI2*

INVESTIGATION OF DROUGHT STRESS IN PEPINO (SOLANUM MURICATUM AIT. CV. MISKI) LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the effects of drought stress on pepino seedlings (Solanum muricatum cv. Miski) under natural greenhouse conditions were examined. The control plants were watered at field capacity, and the stress group was not watered. Samples were collected on the 6th, 12th, 24th and 36th days from the leaves of S. muricatum seedlings that, were exposed to drought stress. The relative water content, the total phenolic compounds, and the malondialdehyde, total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and proline contents in these samples were determined. Depending on drought stress, the relative water content, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents, and the total chlorophylls were found to be lower in the stress group compared with the control group. In contrast, the total phenolic compounds (24th and 36th days) and the proline (12th, 24th and 36th days) levels increased significantly compared with the control group. In addition, a significant increase in the malondialdehyde contents was obtained on the 36th day in the stress group compared with the control group. Such studies may be important for evaluation of metabolic changes in pepino under the drought stress.

1621-1627 Download
5
POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM APPLICATION AMELIORATES GROWTH AND OXIDATIVE HOMEOSTASIS IN SALT-STRESSED INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA) PLANTS
PEERZADA YASIR YOUSUF1, ALTAF AHMAD1, HEMANT1, ARSHID HUSSAIN GANIE1, IBRAHIM MOHAMMAD AREF2 AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL1*

POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM APPLICATION AMELIORATES GROWTH AND OXIDATIVE HOMEOSTASIS IN SALT-STRESSED INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland’s growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. T0 served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions.

1629-1639 Download
6
IMPROVING DROUGHT TOLERANCE POTENTIAL IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) THROUGH EXOGENOUS SILICON SUPPLY
MUHAMMAD ADNAN BUKHARI1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2*, RASHID AHMAD1, EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH1 AND MANSOOR HAMEED3

IMPROVING DROUGHT TOLERANCE POTENTIAL IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) THROUGH EXOGENOUS SILICON SUPPLY
ABSTRACT:
Silicon (Si) an essential plant constituent or metabolite is involved in enhancing metabolic, physiological and structural stability in plants. However, its role under biotic and abiotic stress conditions is still unclear and need to be explored. A study was designed to identify the effective methods of Si application for improving the drought tolerance potential of wheat. Various methods (seed priming, fertigation and foliar spray) of applying Si were evaluated in two local spring wheat genotypes grown in plastic pots under normal and water stress conditions. Water stress caused a marked decrease in water relations and uptake of phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and zinc in plants. The Si application significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand water deficit conditions through increased Si uptake and improved activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT). Among Si supply methods, foliar spray was more effective in alleviating the adverse effects of drought. Further to this, results suggested that fertilizer Si should be foliarly applied at tillering than anthesis stage for maintenance of turgor and better accumulation of nutrients in both normal and water stressed wheat plants.

1641-1648 Download
7
EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS SALICYLIC ACID ON CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES AND ALUMINUM TOLERANCE OF TRICHOSANTHES KIRILOWII
GENDI XU1,2, DAN LIU1, YUHUAN WU3, PEI PEI GAO2 , YOUTIE X1AO1, LIN CAO2 AND PENG LIU1,2*

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS SALICYLIC ACID ON CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES AND ALUMINUM TOLERANCE OF TRICHOSANTHES KIRILOWII
ABSTRACT:
A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on root length, relative aluminum content in the apical cell wall, acid phosphatase (APA) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity, root pectin, hemicellulose 1(HC1), and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) contents of Anguo Trichosanthes kirilowii (Al-tolerant genotype) and Pujiang T. kirilowii (Al-sensitive genotype) under 800 μmol/L of aluminum stress. The results showed that the growth of Al-tolerant Anguo T. kirilowii and Al-sensitive Pujiang T. kirilowii was inhibited when exposed to 800 μmol/L of aluminum solution. APA and PME activities were also enhanced for both genotypes. The contents of relative aluminum, pectin, HC1, and HC2, as well as Al accumulation in the root tips were increased under aluminum toxicity. Pujiang T. kirilowii showed higher enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide contents than Anguo T. kirilowii. In addition, the root cell wall pectin, HC1, and HC2 contents of Pujiang T. kirilowii were increased by a large margin, showing its greater sensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Root length is an important indicator of aluminum toxicity, and has an important relationship with cell wall polysaccharide content. Aluminum toxicity led to the accumulation of pectin and high PME activity, and also increased the number of free carboxyl groups, which have more aluminum binding sites. Membrane skim increased extensively with the increase in APA activity, damaging membrane structure and function. Different SA concentrations can decrease enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide content to some extent. With the addition of different SA concentrations, the root relative aluminum content, cell wall polysaccharide content, APA and PME activities decreased. Aluminum toxicity to both genotypes of T. kirilowii was relieved in different degrees as exogenous SA concentration increased. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to examine the genetic distance, genetic identity, and phylogenetic relationships. A certain correlation was found between the differences in Al tolerance, genetic distance, genetic identity, and phylogenetic relationship of T. kirilowii genotypes.

1649-1655 Download
8
RESPONSE OF COTTON GENOTYPES TO BORON UNDER B-DEFICIENT AND B-ADEQUATE CONDITIONS
JAVAID AHMED SHAH1*, ZIA-UL-HASSAN2, INAYATULLAH RAJPAR2 AND MAHBOOB ALI SIAL1

RESPONSE OF COTTON GENOTYPES TO BORON UNDER B-DEFICIENT AND B-ADEQUATE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as “efficient-responsive”, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were “highly-efficient” and remaining all genotypes were “medium-efficient”. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as “low-efficient”. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application.

1657-1663 Download
9
SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHATASE TAPP2Cs MIGHT BE SERVED AS AN EARLY SIGNAL MOLECULE FOR WATER STRESS IN WHEAT
K.H. SONG1Ф, W.L. TIAN1Ф, B.Z. HOU1, X.R. MEI2, Y.Z. LI2*, J.X. GUO1*

SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHATASE TAPP2Cs MIGHT BE SERVED AS AN EARLY SIGNAL MOLECULE FOR WATER STRESS IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Much progress has been made towards understanding the role of serine/threonine phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling transduction. However, how the negative regulator, PP2Cs, responds to plant water loss remains unclear. Here, we used a series of relative soil moisture [RSM: 85% (well watered), 65% (moderate stress), 45% (severe stress)] potted winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the detached leaves to detect ABA levels and transcripts of PP2Cs, including PP2C40, PP2C45, PP2C59 and PP2C6 as well as the core downstream signals of ABA, including ABF, SnRK2.4 and SnRK2.5. The results showed that the continual loss of water led to a consistent increase in ABA levels, and that the mRNA expression levels of PP2Cs were dependent on plant water condition. PP2Cs expression could be induced by a slight loss of water, and inhibited under severe loss of water. These results were further confirmed by the transcripts of ABF, SnRK2.4 and SnRK2.5. Furthermore, in slight loss of water, 100 µM exogenous ABA could promote PP2Cs expression; in severe loss of water, it inhibited PP2Cs expression. In conclusion, ABA accumulation is controlled by water condition and the PP2C expression is dependent on plant water condition, suggesting that PP2Cs might be served as an early signal molecule for water stress in wheat.

1665-1670 Download
10
THE EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF HYBRID TOMATO
SOHAIL AHMAD JAN1, SABIR HUSSAIN SHAH2, SHAUKAT ALI3* AND GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI3*

THE EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF HYBRID TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90% was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87% was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments.

1671-1677 Download
11
EFFECT OF HEAVY METAL AND EDTA APPLICATION ON PLANT GROWTH AND PHYTO-EXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR)
NAFEES BACAHA,*1, RABIA SHAMAS,1 JEHAN BAKHT,2 ABDUR RAFI,3 FARHATULLAH4 AND AFSHEENA GILLANI5

EFFECT OF HEAVY METAL AND EDTA APPLICATION ON PLANT GROWTH AND PHYTO-EXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR)
ABSTRACT:
Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the phyto-extraction capacity of heavy metals by Sorghum. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil artificially contaminated with different concentrations of lead (300, 350 and 400 mg/kg), chromium (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and cadmium (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg). Five mM EDTA was applied, as chelating agent to the plants after 4 weeks of sowing. Plants were grown for a total of two months and fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and heavy metal accumulation were analyzed at six and eight weeks after sowing. The results revealed that application of cadmium, chromium and lead and EDTA adversely affected shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of S. bicolor at both time intervals. Heavy metals uptake increased with the increment of heavy metal by S. bicolor species. Application of 5mM EDTA enhanced the uptake of heavy metal.

1679-1684 Download
12
CHANGES IN PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.) IN RELATION TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SELECTED PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
MISBAH HAMEED1, BUSHRA SULTANA1*, FAROOQ ANWAR2,3*, MARYAM ASLAM1,4 MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ1,5, AND HASSAN MUNIR6

CHANGES IN PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.) IN RELATION TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SELECTED PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of selected plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the proximate composition, biochemical and antioxidants attributes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) leaves. Different concentrations of exogenously applied PGRs such as humic acid (HA), cytokinin (CK), gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA3+CK exhibited variable effect on the tested parameters. The foliar spray with HA (0.6%), GA3+CK (20+20 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and CK (40 ppm) increased the contents of moisture, ash, crude fiber and crude protein in broccoli leaves. With few exceptions, the antioxidant capacity of broccoli leaves, in terms of estimation of total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, was also improved due to foliar spray of PGRs. The results showed that maximum contents of total chlorophyll (1.98 mg/g FW), protein (7.09 mg/g FW), and proline (0.62 µg/g FW) were exhibited by GA3+CK (10+10 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and GA3+CK (20+20 ppm) treated samples, respectively. Meanwhile, GA3+CK (10+10 ppm) was found to be the most effective growth promoter in lowering melondialdehyde (MDA) content (0.89 µM/g FW) of broccoli leaves. In conclusion, it can be revealed that optimized foliar spray of selected PGRs, and especially of HA and mixture of GA3 and CK, is practically applicable towards improving biochemical and antioxidant attributes of broccoli leaves with potential nutritional benefits.

1685-1691 Download
13
EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS ON INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INVASIVE BIDENS PILOSA AND THE PARASITIC CUSCUTA AUSTRALIS
BEIFEN YANG1, 2, JUNMIN LI1, 2*, JING ZHANG1, 2, 3 AND MING YAN3

EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS ON INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INVASIVE BIDENS PILOSA AND THE PARASITIC CUSCUTA AUSTRALIS
ABSTRACT:
Parasitic plants have been identified as potential biological agents to control invasive plants. Understanding the interaction between invasive plants and their novel natural enemies is important for understanding mechanisms underlying plant invasion success and thus taking measures to control invasion. We conducted a factorial experiment to test the interactive effects of nutrient addition (low vs. high) and parasitism (with vs. without Cuscuta australis) on the growth of the invasive Bidens pilosa. Parasitism significantly decreased leaf, stem and root biomass of the host invasive plant, and nutrient addition increased leaf and stem biomass of the host. A synergistic effect of parasitism and nutrient addition was found on stem and leaf biomass of the hosts. Nutrient addition significantly increased vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant and caused a more deleterious effect on the invasive host. Reproductive biomass of the parasitic plant was significantly positively related with net photosynthetic rate, light-utilisation efficiency and apparent carboxylation efficiency. Vegetative biomass and total biomass of the parasitic plants were significantly positively related with specific leaf area and the relative chlorophyll content of the host plant. The deleterious effect of the parasite on the growth of the host plant was significantly positively correlated with vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant. Nutrient addition increased the negative effect of the parasitic plant on the invasive host, indicating that the parasitic plant is potentially a biological control agent for the invasive plant even in the context of changing global resources.

1693-1699 Download
14
STORAGE ON MATERNAL PLANTS AFFECTS LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS DURING GERMINATION IN TWO SMALL SEEDED HALOPHYTES IN THE ARABIAN DESERTS
ALI A. EL-KEBLAWY1,2, ARVIND BHATT*3 AND SANJAY GAIROLA4

STORAGE ON MATERNAL PLANTS AFFECTS LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS DURING GERMINATION IN TWO SMALL SEEDED HALOPHYTES IN THE ARABIAN DESERTS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0% germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0% in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species.

1701-1708 Download
15
COMPARISON OF GREEN AND VARIEGATED FOLIAGE PLANT SPECIES BASED ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES
MD. KHALEKUZZAMAN1,2, KWANG JIN KIM1*, HYEON JU KIM1, HYUN HWAN JUNG1 AND HYE SOOK JANG1

COMPARISON OF GREEN AND VARIEGATED FOLIAGE PLANT SPECIES BASED ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES
ABSTRACT:
To compare green and variegated foliage plants namely; Hedera helix, Ardisia pusilla and Scindapsus aureus were treated under three different light intensities (2, 10 and 20 µmol·m-2·s-1) using florescent lights for three months, and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content were measured. IMAGING-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence system was used to determine photosynthetic characteristics. The results showed that Fv/Fm (maximal PS-II quantum yield) and Y (II) (effective PS-II quantum yield) values were lower in variegated species compared to those in green species at 2 µmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity. Although, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values in variegated S. aureus was lower than variegated H. helix, but variegated S. aureus survived and Hedera helix plants died after low light treatment. In contrast, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values were increased in green and variegated species with increasing the light intensity, except Fv/Fm value for variegated S. aureus which was slightly decreased at 20 µmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity. The ETR (electron transport rate) value was also lower in both green and variegated species at 2 µmol·m-2·s-1 intensity. ETR values saturated in green and variegated plants with increasing the light intensity. Higher level of chlorophyll was obtained in green species compared to variegated species for both low and high light intensity treatments. Chlorophyll content in green species decreased at 20 µmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity, whereas in variegated species, chlorophyll content increased with increasing the light intensities. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that especially low light intensity created stress condition in variegated foliage plants compared to green plants, and affected the normal growth and development.

1709-1715 Download
16
EFFECT OF CONSTANT TEMPERATURES AND NATURAL DAYLENGTH ON FLOWERING TIME AND LEAF NUMBER OF ANTIRRHINUM USING THE PHOTO-THERMAL MODEL
MUHAMMAD MUNIR1,3, PAUL HADLEY1, JAMES CAREW1, STEVEN ADAMS2, SIMON PEARSON1 AND BALAKRISHNAN SUDHAKAR3

EFFECT OF CONSTANT TEMPERATURES AND NATURAL DAYLENGTH ON FLOWERING TIME AND LEAF NUMBER OF ANTIRRHINUM USING THE PHOTO-THERMAL MODEL
ABSTRACT:
After 80% seed germination plants of an early flowering cultivar Chimes White of Antirrhinum were subjected to five set-point temperature regimes (14, 18, 22, 26 and 30°C) for two consecutive years to observe their effects on the flowering time and leaf numbers using photo-thermal model. Findings revealed a curvilinear response of flowering time to temperatures that is plants flowered after 34 (31.8°C), 35 (25.3°C), 37 (23.1°C), 43 (19.5°C) and 68 days (14.6°C) of transplantation in 2002 whereas in 2003 flowering time was recorded as 30 (31.5°C), 29 (27.5°C), 34 (24°C), 39 (22.5°C) and 67 days (15.1°C). Similarly, rate of progress to flower per day was increased linearly up to plateau at 28°C set-point temperature, thereafter, no changes in rate of progress to flower is observed which indicated that 28°C is the ceiling temperature for the flower initiation and development of cultivar Chimes White. A three to six days difference in flowering time was observed below ceiling temperature which might be due to the difference between the light integrals (0.9 MJ.m-2.d-1) in two years. Non-significant difference was observed regarding leaf numbers data in both years i.e. 9-10 leaves in 2002 and 8-9 leaves in 2003. Predicted data estimated from the photo-thermal model plotted against the actual data which showed a best fit, hence, the model application is validated which would assist growers to use it for plant scheduling.

1717-1720 Download
17
SCREENING OF DIVERSE LOCAL GERMPLASM OF GUAR [CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB.] FOR SALT TOLERANCE: A POSSIBLE APPROACH TO UTILIZE SALT-AFFECTED SOILS
MIAN JAHAN ZAIB RASHEED1, KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3*, FAHAD AL-QURAINY3, SALIM KHAN3 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR4

SCREENING OF DIVERSE LOCAL GERMPLASM OF GUAR [CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB.] FOR SALT TOLERANCE: A POSSIBLE APPROACH TO UTILIZE SALT-AFFECTED SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Lack of good quality water and soil salinity reduces crop productivity world-over. The development of salt stress tolerant cultivars/lines by screening and selection is of considerable value to enhance crop growth and yield. Though a number of breeding programs are underway to develop salt tolerant cultivars in wheat, barley, maize, and even grasses, a low amount of work done for improving salt tolerance in a potential leguminous forage crop guar –widely grown in subcontinent due to rapid increase in its demand for its commercial use. Thus, the present study was focused on efforts to develop salt tolerant cultivars of guar. The growth responses of 31 accessions/lines/cultivars of a potential leguminous crop (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) to salt stress were assessed at the vegetative growth stage. A considerable variation in salinity tolerance was found in a set of lines/cultivars of guar using agronomic traits. Under saline conditions, Khanewal Local2, Chiniot White, 27340, 24323, BWP-5589 produced the lowest shoot fresh and dry biomass in relative terms, while genotypes/lines 5597, 24288, Br 99, Khushab white, Sillanwali white and Mardan white had greater fresh and dry biomass. Klorkot white and 24323 had maximum plant height under non-saline conditions, whereas genotypes/line 5597 and 24288 was maximal in plant height under salt stress conditions. Moreover, genotypes/lines Khanewal Local2 followed by Chiniot White and 27340 were the lowest in plant height. Growth attributes and relative salt tolerance of guar genotypes were used to group genotypes/lines as salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and salt sensitive using Hierarchical Cluster method following squared Euclidean distance. It was found that genotypes/lines 41671, Khaushab White, 5597, 24320, 24288, Sillanwali White, 24321, Mardan White were the most salt tolerant, while Chiniot White, BWP-5589, Kalorkot White, Khanewal Local 2, 24323were the most salt sensitive. The availability of considerable amount of genotypic variability in the germplasm suggested that further crop improvement for salt tolerance is possible in this potential leguminous forage crop.

1721-1726 Download
18
GROWTH, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND COMBINED OUTPUT VALUE IN EGGPLANT/GARLIC RELAY INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS
MENGYI WANG, CUINAN WU, FAN YANG, ZHIHUI CHENG AND HUANWEN MENG*

GROWTH, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND COMBINED OUTPUT VALUE IN EGGPLANT/GARLIC RELAY INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
A plastic tunnel experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of eggplant/garlic relay intercropping on the eggplant growth, chlorophyll content and combined output value in 2011 and 2012. The experimental design was randomized block with three replications consisting of eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). It is showed that the eggplant stem in 2011 was first thicker then thinner in CK than NG, and it was always thicker in CK than GG; the plant height and stem diameter were both higher in relay intercropping treatments than CK in 2012. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were lower in NG compared with CK in most cases. In 2011, the eggplant yield and combined output value in GG were lower than CK, but in 2012, they were higher and the difference of combined output value between GG and CK was significant; for NG, they were always promoted both in 2011 and 2012. Different results between 2011 and 2012 may be due to the different time of green garlic uprooted in the spring. It is proved that uprooting green garlic before eggplant transplanting in 2012 was better to eggplant growth than uprooting them after eggplant transplanting in 2011. The conclusions are drawn that relay intercropping with normal or green garlic can improve the eggplant growth, increase the yield and the combined output value. As a result, eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems may contribute to sustainable production of eggplant.

1727-1734 Download
19
IMPACT OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACILLUS SUBTILIS ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF BASSIA INDICA (INDIAN BASSIA) GROWN UDDER SALT STRESS
HASHEM ABEER1,2,5, ABD_ALLAH E. F.*3, ALQARAWI A. A.3, AL-HUQAIL ASMA A. 1, ALSHALAWI S. R. M3, WIRTH S.4 AND EGAMBERDIEVA DILFUZA4

IMPACT OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACILLUS SUBTILIS ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF BASSIA INDICA (INDIAN BASSIA) GROWN UDDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the role of a salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPR), Bacillus subtilis, in the alleviation of salinity stress during the growth of Indian bassia (Bassia indica [Wight] A.J. Scott), was studied under ccontrolled growth chamber conditions following seed inoculation. Physiological parameters such as neutral and phospholipids, fatty acid composition as well as photosynthetic pigments, were investigated. Salinity inhibited shoot and root length by 16 and 42%, dry weight by 37 and 23% respectively and negatively affected physiological parameters. Inoculation of unstressed and salt-stressed Indian bassia with B. subtilis significantly improved root and shoot growth, total lipid content, the phospholipid fraction, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents) and also increased oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids in plant leaves compared to uninoculated plants. The salt-tolerant PGPR, B. subtilis could act synergistically to promote the growth and fitness of Indian bassia plants under salt stress by providing an additional supply of an auxin (IAA) and induce salt stress resistance by reducing stress ethylene levels.

1735-1741 Download
20
VARIATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND MINERALS WITHIN DIFFERENT PARTS OF CAPPARIS DECIDUA (FORSSK.) EDGEW. AS A FUNCTION OF HARVESTING SEASONS
TEHSEEN GULL1, ZAHED MAHMOOD2*, FAROOQ ANWAR3,4, BUSHRA SULTANA1*, WASIF NOUMAN5, SHAUKAT ALI SHAHID6 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL7

VARIATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND MINERALS WITHIN DIFFERENT PARTS OF CAPPARIS DECIDUA (FORSSK.) EDGEW. AS A FUNCTION OF HARVESTING SEASONS
ABSTRACT:
Capparis decidua (C. decidua) is an important medicinal plant from the family Capparaceae. The present study explores the proximate (moisture, protein, crude fiber, dry matter) composition and minerals profile of various parts including stem bark, fruit shoot, root and flower of C. decidua harvested from Cholistan desert, Punjab, Pakistan in two seasons i.e., April and September. C. decidua fruits contained relatively higher amounts of proximate constituents followed by the flowers especially in case of protein while stem bark and roots mainly contained fiber. In comparison with other parts, the content of minerals was higher while traces of heavy metals i.e. Ni, Co and Cd were recorded in C. decidua fruits and flowers. Overall, harvesting seasons exhibited a significant (p<0.05) effect on the distribution of most of the constituents within different parts of Capparis decidua. The samples collected in September were found to be richer in protein and minerals and vice versa. The results of this study support that C. decidua fruits and flowers can be explored as a viable source of minerals and vegetable protein both for human beings and livestock to supplement nutrition.

1743-1748 Download
21
AUXIN EFFECTS ON SOMACLONAL VARIATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYO OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
MURAT AYDIN1, MAHMUT SINAN TASPINAR2*, ESRA ARSLAN3, BURCU SIGMAZ3 AND GULERAY AGAR3

AUXIN EFFECTS ON SOMACLONAL VARIATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYO OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
ABSTRACT:
Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), immature embryos are the most commonly used as explant source for In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation but, mature embryos are alternative to immature embryo due to the fact that they have advantages such as easy storage and ready availability throughout the year. The effects of different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/l) of three auxins (2,4-D, dicamba and picloram) were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Calli, embryogenic calli and regenerated plants were observed in all of the studied auxins. The MS (Murashige & Skoog basal medium) containing 12 mg/l dicamba was found to be the most effective for embryogenic callus, responded embryogenic callus and regeneration efficiency. Plant tissue culture can bring about genetic changes that are known as somaclonal variation. Genetic and epigenetic changes were examined by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and CRED-RA (Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification) techniques, respectively. Increased auxin concentration led to the decrease in the GTS (Genomic Template Stability) value. DNA hypermethylation occurred in higher concentrations of 2,4-D and picloram, while DNA hypomethylation was observed in dicamba.

1749-1757 Download
22
GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN F2 SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF RICE
AZIZ-UR-RAHMAN1, SYED MEHAR ALI SHAH1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1, MUHAMMAD ISMAEEL1, MIAN AHMAD RAZA1AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN2

GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN F2 SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF RICE
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to evaluate genetic variation among four parents and their 12 F2 populations for various morphological attributes at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012 rice crop growing season. Significant variation among the genotypes was manifested for all the traits studied. F2 population Kashmir-Basmati/Kangni-27 manifested minimum days to heading (100) while the F2 population Dilrosh/Kashmir-Basmati took minimum days to maturity (135). F2 population Kashmir-Basmati /Dilrosh had the longest panicles (29.5 cm) while F2 population Dilrosh/ Kashmir-Basmati excelled for number of primary (12.4) and secondary (35.9) branches panicle-1. Maximum broad sense heritability for panicle length (0.85), number of primary branches (0.87) and secondary branches (0.93) panicle-1 was observed for F2 populations Kashmir-Basmati/Dilrosh, Dilrosh/Kangni-27 and Kashmir-Basmati/TN-1, respectively. F2 population Kashmir-Basmati /Dilrosh showed the highest genetic advance for panicle length (22%). F2 population Dilrosh/Kangni-27 manifested maximum genetic advance (34.7%) for primary branches panicle-1 while TN-1/ Kashmir-Basmati revealed the highest value (48.8%) of genetic advance for secondary branches panicle-1. The above mentioned segregating populations on account of better performance for maturity and panicle traits could be advanced further to develop desirable recombinant inbred lines and rice cultivars.

1759-1764 Download
23
GENETIC ANALYSIS AND QTL MAPPING FOR FRUIT SKIN ANTHOCYANIDIN IN GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA)
YINSHAN GUO1, RUIYUAN XUE1, HONG LIN1, KAI SU1, YUHUI ZHAO1*, LIU ZHENDONG1, HAIFENG MA2, GUANGLI SHI1, ZAOZHU NIU1 , KUN LI1 AND XIUWU GUO1*

GENETIC ANALYSIS AND QTL MAPPING FOR FRUIT SKIN ANTHOCYANIDIN IN GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, an F1 population was created by the cross ‘87-1’ב9-22’. The female parent ‘87-1’ was a black purple cultivar and the male parent was an excellent breeding line with green pericarp. the skin color separation of population and distribution, and determined the content of each individual fruit peel pigment. On the basis of the genetic map of Vitis vinifera L., We carried out the grape skin pigment content quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. The results show that the fruit color performance for continuous variation and the inheritance of fruit skin anthocyanidin content was a quantitative inheritance. The color of offspring ranges from green and black-blue and existing distribution. Using SSR and SRAP molecular markers to construct 188 female parent maps,175 male parent maps and 251 consensus maps, and the total map distance is 1047.5 cM,1100.2 cM and 1264.2 cM respectively. The result of QTL showed that there were more QTLs exist in the linkage group of 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14, 16 and 19 and in the linkage group of 3, 4, 13 and 14, we detected QTLs in the similar position with the result of the study in the year of 2011 and 2012, and based on this we will conduct the fine QTL location in the future, this result will lay a good foundation for the grape in the department of molecular assistant breeding in the future.

1765-1771 Download
24
POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY OF THE AA GENOME OF RICE BASED ON SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEATS VARIATION IN ORGANELLE GENOME
SHAHID MASOOD SHAH1,2*, KASHIF ASLAM2,3*, GHULAM SHABIR2, ABDUL REHMAN KHAN1, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI4, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4 AND MUHAMMAD ARIF2

POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY OF THE AA GENOME OF RICE BASED ON SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEATS VARIATION IN ORGANELLE GENOME
ABSTRACT:
Maternally inherited mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes based Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) variations were examined for their contribution to diversity of rice genome. Population structure and diversity analysis based on mitochondria and chloroplast inherited genome has been studied less as compared to nuclear genome inheritance. The present study was designed to evaluate the population structure and diversity of rice grown in Pakistan along with other countries based on maternally inherited mitochondria and chloroplast genome. The mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes were analyzed by using 42 mitochondrial and 20 chloroplast pairs of SSR primers. A slightly higher percentage of polymorphism was observed in chloroplast (30%) than mitochondria (28.57%). The average gene diversity for both mitochondrial and chloroplast was 0.32 oscillating from 0.041 to 0.620. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value ranged from 0.040 to 0.543 with an average of 0.282, while the allelic richness ranged from two to four alleles with an average of 2.779 alleles. Mononucleotide repeats stood first (50% polymorphic) for detecting polymorphism for organelle genomes followed by tri- (25%), tetra- (14.29%) and dinucleotide (12.5%), respectively. Cluster and population structure analysis revealed two groups of accessions. On the basis of our results the AA genome of Asian cultivated rice diverges from the same origin during evolution.

1773-1782 Download
25
RAPID DUPLICATION AND LOSS OF NBS-ENCODING GENES IN EUROSIDS II
SHABANA MEMON1,2¶, WEINA SI1¶, LONGJIANG GU1, SIHAI YANG1*AND XIAOHUI ZHANG1*

RAPID DUPLICATION AND LOSS OF NBS-ENCODING GENES IN EUROSIDS II
ABSTRACT:
Eurosids basically evolved from the core Eudicots ‘Rosids’. The Rosids consist of two large assemblages, Eurosids I (Fabids) and Eurosids II (Malvids), which belong to the largest group of Angiosperms, comprising of >40,000 and ~15,000 species, respectively. Although the evolutionary patterns of the largest class of disease resistance genes consisting of a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) have been studied in many species, systemic research of NBSencoding genes has not been performed in different orders of Eurosids II. Here, five Eurosids II species, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao, Carica papaya, Citrus clementina, and Arabidopsis thaliana, distributing in three orders, were used to gain insights into the evolutionary patterns of the NBS-encoding genes. Our data showed that frequent copy number variations of NBS-encoding genes were found among these species. Phylogenetic tree analysis and the numbers of the NBSencoding genes in the common ancestor of these species showed that species-specific NBS clades, including multi-copy and single copy numbers are dominant among these genes. However, not a single clade was found with only five copies, which come from all of the five species, respectively, suggesting rapid turn-over with birth and death of the NBS-encoding genes among Eurosids II species. In addition, a strong positive correlation was observed between the Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR)) type NBS-encoding genes and species-specific genes, indicating rapid gene loss and duplication. Whereas, non- TIR type NBS-encoding genes in these five species showed two distinct evolutionary patterns.

1783-1792 Download
26
EXPLORING VALID REFERENCE GENES FOR QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME RT-PCR STUDIES OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SIGNALING IN ARABIDOPSIS
HENG ZHOU, BIN HAN, YANJIE XIE, JING ZHANG AND WENBIAO SHEN*

EXPLORING VALID REFERENCE GENES FOR QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME RT-PCR STUDIES OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SIGNALING IN ARABIDOPSIS
ABSTRACT:
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H2O2 signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H2O2. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H2O2, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H2O2-related oxidative stress.

1793-1802 Download
27
GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE ROP GTPase FAMILY IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM)
DINGQUAN HUANG1, SHUILIN HE2* AND MINGYANG LI1*

GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE ROP GTPase FAMILY IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM)
ABSTRACT:
ROP/RAC GTPases is a plant-specific subfamily of Rho GTPases that plays a versatile role in the regulation of plant growth, development, in hormone signal transduction and response to the environment. Prior to the present study, only one Rop gene in pepper has been described. However, with the recent release of the draft genome sequence of pepper allowes us to conduct a genome wide search to identify how many Rop family members existed in pepper genome. We carried out bioinformatics analysis to establish the conserved as well as divergent regions on the protein sequences, phylogenetically analysis and the corresponding result shows that, CaROPs could be distributed into four groups as described in the literature for their homologs in Arabidopsis. To understand the function of nine Rop genes in pepper, we accordingly studied the tissue, fruit development and ripening expression patterns of CaRop genes by obtained RNA-seq data from public database. From our analysis, we realized that the expression of CaRop genes shows no total tissue or developmental specific expression. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of CaRop in response to environment stresses and hormone treatment, such as inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum, by heat stress as well as treated with four phytohormones respectively and evaluated with real time RT-PCR. The potential involvement of specific CaRop genes in growth, fruit development, ripening, environment stresses as well as hormone responses discussed and may lay the foundation for future functional analysis to unravel their biological roles.

1803-1815 Download
28
UV-B IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CYTOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF SAINFOIN (ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA SCOP.) GROWN IN VIVO AND IN VITRO
SADEGH MOHAJER*1, ROSNA MAT TAHA1, MINOO MOHAJER2, AND IMAN YOUSEFI JAVAN3

UV-B IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CYTOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF SAINFOIN (ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA SCOP.) GROWN IN VIVO AND IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
To investigate the feasibility of UV-B irradiation (312 nm), seeds of Onobrychis viciifolia were exposed to five different intensities for determining the effectiveness of cellular behavior, nutritional constituents and biological activities in In vivo and In vitro growth cultures. The atomic spectroscopy analysis confirmed that concentrations of two macronutrients (P and N) improved after UV-B exposure as compared with control plants. Near infrared radiation conducted on both In vivo and In vitro plants showed significant differences on dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude fiber (CF). Flavonoid and phenolic compounds were increased in both growth cultures by 40% intensity of UV-B irradiation, although In vitro plants had the higher compounds than intact plants. Increasing the UV-B irradiation intensity was also found to yield positive effect on anthocyanin. Observations on cellular behavior such as determination of nuclear and cell areas, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations were proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of UV-B irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin.

1817-1824 Download
29
BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING CELL FREE CALLUS EXUDATES OF MEDICAGO SATIVA L.
H. S. HEGAZY1, LAMIS D. SHABAAN1*, G. H. RABIE1 AND DIANA S. RAIE2

BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING CELL FREE CALLUS EXUDATES OF MEDICAGO SATIVA L.
ABSTRACT:
The present study is designed to investigate the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using cell free callus exudates of Medicago sativa L. Explants are surface sterilized and then sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 1 mg/L BA. Cultured tissues are derived from hypocotyls, and then soaked in sterilized deionized water (8 h) on dark. The cell free exudates incubated with aqueous silver nitrate, at room temperature, showed change in the color of the mixture from colorless to yellow indicating the silver nanoparticles synthesis. Silver nanoparticles are formed with different shape and variable size. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles is influenced by the pH variation of silver nitrate solution, at pH 5, the results showed significant and insignificant differences on shape and on size respectively. FT-IR absorption spectra conclude that the stabilizing agent could be a polyphenol with amide group. The reducing agent was supposed to be a member of antioxidants.

1825-1829 Download
30
HETEROSIS AND HETEROBELTIOTIC STUDIES OF F1 HYBRIDS IN BRASSICA CARINATA
NAUSHEEN1, FARHATULLAH1*, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1AND AMANULLAH2

HETEROSIS AND HETEROBELTIOTIC STUDIES OF F1 HYBRIDS IN BRASSICA CARINATA
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012-13 using a set of F1 hybrids of B. carinata for estimating heterosis and heterobeltiosis for important yield and quality parameters. The experimental material comprised of six B. carinata parental genotypes viz. C-88, C-89, C-90, C-93, C-95, C-97 and their 30 F1 hybrids as direct crosses. A randomized complete block design with two replicates was used for field evaluation of 36 B. carinata genotypes (6 parental lines and 30 F1 hybrids). Significant genetic variation was observed for primary branches plant-1, main raceme length, seed yield plant-1, oil and protein content among parents as well as F1 hybrids. The highest heterosis and heterobeltiosis for primary branches (24.25 vs. 12.30%) and main raceme length (37.31 vs. 22.93%) was recorded for F1 hybrids C-88 × C-93 and C-89 × C-97, respectively. Hybrid C-93 × C-90 had the highest positive heterosis for seed yield plant -1 (23.33%). For protein content, the maximum heterosis was recorded for hybrid C-88 × C-89 (11.34%). Similarly, F1 hybrid C-88 × C-97 showed maximum heterosis for oil content (14.41%). The highest heterobeltiosis was exhibited by hybrids C-90 × C-97 for seed yield (9.53%) , C-89 × C-90 for oil content (7.61%) and C-93 × C-97 for protein content (4.11%). Based on high mean performance and heterotic values, aforemntioned hybrids and their corresponding parental lines will be exploited further for commercial hybrid production.

1831-1837 Download
31
EFFECT OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON THE VOLATILE FLAVOR PROFILE OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) FROM PAKISTAN
NAEEM KHAN1,2*, NARGIS JAMILA1, JI YEON CHOI2, EUN YEONG NHO2, IQBAL HUSSAIN3 AND KYONG SU KIM2**

EFFECT OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON THE VOLATILE FLAVOR PROFILE OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The volatile flavor compounds of non-irradiated and 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy γ-irradiated seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Pakistan were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds were identified in the non irradiated fennel, with EAnethole (36.74%), Estragole (26.31%), and β-Limonene (15.99%) as the major compounds. The irradiation doses caused slight variations in the number and contents of the volatile components. Though several volatile compounds showed increase after γ-irradiation, the contents of major compounds such as β-Limonene and estrgole were decreased. The overall number of the volatile compounds showed increase up to the recommended irradiation doses of 10 kGy but their contents decreased. In general no major change was noted in the overall major flavor compounds of the subject spice. Therefore the application of γ-irradiation is feasible without any significant qualitative or quantitative loss of volatile flavor compounds when exposed to 10 kGy γ-irradiation.

1839-1846 Download
32
EVALUATING AND VALIDATING THE PROTOCOL FOR GAMMA (γ) RADIATION INDUCED MUTATIONS IN FLORAL DISTINCT ROSA SPP.
MIRZA MUHAMMAD QADEER BAIG, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ*, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI AND TOUQEER AHMAD

EVALUATING AND VALIDATING THE PROTOCOL FOR GAMMA (γ) RADIATION INDUCED MUTATIONS IN FLORAL DISTINCT ROSA SPP.
ABSTRACT:
Among the highly fragrant Rosa species, Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia have high value in terms of commercial importance and economical trade. However, the absence of floral diversification and diversity in color patterns in these species acts as limiting factors in floriculture trade of these species. In the present study, we aimed to induce mutations using gamma radiations up to 120 Gy to observe the rate and the correlated effects on the several plant traits in micropropagated shoot tips of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia. Irradiated shoot tips were micropropagated for one culture cycle and were acclimatized in a green house after in vitro rooting. Plants of irradiated population at 60 and 30 Gy showed 78.12 and 38.50% less culture rooting % age as well as 23.82 and 7 % less flower size as compared to non irradiated population of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia respectively. Moreover, flower color component a* (+ redness – green, 36.16 and 27.16) and chroma (37.77 and 27.5) depicted minimum while L* (Lightness, 45.12 and 76.64), b* (+ yellow – blue, 10.69 and -4.14) and hue angle (17.1 and -8.58) maximum value. Apart from these variations, mutants of Rosa gruss an teplitz also produced variegated, pink color and different shape flowers. Genetic variations observed among the putative mutants of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia were evaluated using twelve decamer RAPD primers. Phylogenetic inferences showed large genetic diversity in putative mutants as compared to mother plant.

1847-1854 Download
33
IMPACTS OF CWD ON UNDERSTORY BIODIVERSITY IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE QINLING MOUNTAINS, CHINA
JIE YUAN1, XIN WEI1, ZHENGCHUN SHANG1, FEI CHENG1, ZHAOYONG HU1, XIAOFENG ZHENG1 AND SHUOXIN ZHANG1,2*

IMPACTS OF CWD ON UNDERSTORY BIODIVERSITY IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE QINLING MOUNTAINS, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The stocks and characteristics of coarse woody debris (CWD) are expected to reflect forest stand features. However, despite their importance, there have been no reports of CWD stocks and characteristics in the Qinling Mountains. We measured the CWD stocks in different CWD types, decay classes and diameter classes of the five forest types in the Qinling Mountains. The highest biomass of CWD was the Pinus tabulaeformis forest (12.57 t·hm-2), occupied 5.66% in the biomass of this forest, the lowest occupied 1.03% in Betula albo-sinensis forest (1.82 t·hm-2). Our results revealed that there was a strong correlation between CWD and forest biomass. When the CWD biomass were 9.9 t·hm-2 and 11.6 t·hm-2, the biomass of Pinus armandi forest and P. tabulaeformis forest reached maximum, respectively.

1855-1864 Download
34
SHEEP GRAZING STIMULATED PLANT AVAILABLE SOIL NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN A TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
JINCHAO FENG1,5, XU HAN2, NIANPENG HE3, YUNHAI ZHANG1,*,LISHI ZHOU1 AND XINGGUO HAN1,4,*

SHEEP GRAZING STIMULATED PLANT AVAILABLE SOIL NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN A TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
ABSTRACT:
We investigated the effects of increasing grazing I ntensities on N availability (inorganic N, In-N, for plant and microbial growth, e.g., NO3––N, NH4+–N) and variability in soils of 0–10 cm depth during 2009–2010, within a framework of a long-term grazing study. The results showed that the relationship for grazing intensity with respect to soil NO3––N (R2 = 0.988, P = 0.006) was well depicted by curvilinear equations. Moreover, soil NO3––N, NH4+–N and inorganic N varied significantly with sample date, year, and soil water content (SWC, %). There were also significant correlation between date and grazing intensities on soil NO3––N, NH4+–N and In-N. SWC and temperature had more impact on soil available N than grazing, especially with respect to the seasonal dynamics of the soil N pool. Grazing intensity, in combination with SWC (precipitation) and temperature, controlled soil N availability and, therefore, affect the N cycles and plant growth within semiarid grasslands.

1865-1874 Download
35
SPATIOTEMPORAL SEED BANK FLORA OF PERISTROPHE PANICULATA COMMUNITY IN A SEMI ARID DESERT OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
AAMNA RIZVI AND SEEMI AZIZ*

SPATIOTEMPORAL SEED BANK FLORA OF PERISTROPHE PANICULATA COMMUNITY IN A SEMI ARID DESERT OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seed bank studies of Peristrophe paniculata was carried out for two consecutive years at two different sites. Although, both the sites were dominated by P. paniculata, however differ in vegetation pattern. Site ‘A’ possessed populations of annuals fully exposed to sunlight. While, site ‘B’ possessed annuals along with perennials located in somewhat shady area. Input to the seed bank was mainly determined by the seed dispersal. Persistent seed bank was observed in annual plant species with increasing numbers in the third collection (i.e. after seed dispersal). On the other hand, perennial plants mostly exhibited transient nature of seed bank, with no or low numbers in some collections. Significant difference in seed numbers was observed on temporal and spatial scale. Seed densities were higher in the samples collected before rainfall and after dispersal of seeds at both the sites in both the years. High degree of similarity was observed between above and below ground vegetation; however this similarity was more pronounced at site ‘B’ which was located in shady area, thus providing better soil moisture conditions for seed germination. Moreover, above and below ground vegetation was diverse and flourished in 2013, due to high germination rates, followed by heavy summer rains, providing ample amount of moisture along with high temperature. This study can be used to predict the above ground vegetation and vise versa.

1875-1878 Download
36
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI GAERTN TESTED AGAINST PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) LEEKE, SETARIA ITALICA (L.) BEAUV. AND LACTUCA SATIVA L.
BARKATULLAH1*, IMTIAZ AHMAD3*, MUHAMMAD IBRAR2 AND GHULAM JELANI2

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI GAERTN TESTED AGAINST PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) LEEKE, SETARIA ITALICA (L.) BEAUV. AND LACTUCA SATIVA L.
ABSTRACT:
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn, locally named as soap nut tree is a deciduous plant reaching up to the 20 m height. Present study is designed to investigate allelopathic potential of S. mukorusii through its aqueous extracts against Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. and Lactuca sativa L. The effect of aqueous extracts of leaves and fruits in different concentration (5%, 10%), hot water extracts, soil intoxication and litter was observed on germination, fresh and dry weight, moisture content and overall growth of test species. Plant extracts significantly inhibit germination rate and overall growth of all the test species. Activity of extract were found dependent on concentration and soaking duration of extract, thus highest activities were recorded for extracts with 10% concentration with 72 hours soaking duration. L. sativa was found most susceptible in regard of germination. Plumule length of S. italica was most inhibited. The effect of both cold and hot water extracts showed maximum activities against the radicle lengths of S. italiccertaina and P. americanum while L. sativa was found least susceptible. Soil intoxication and letter showed maximum inhibitory activity against the L. sativa. The study thus reveals that the S. mukorusii is significantly allelopathic to towards the test species and inhibits both their germination and overall growth.

1879-1882 Download
37
PROVENANCE VARIATIONS OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF TURKEY
SULEYMAN GULCU AND NEBI BILIR

PROVENANCE VARIATIONS OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich., and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p≤0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05≤p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p≤ 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species.

1883-1893 Download
38
CYTOTOXIC AND ANALGESIC POTENTIALS OF PAPAVER PAVONINUM FISCH & MEY.
MUHAMMAD IBRAR¹, MARYAM EHSAN¹, BARKATULLAH¹, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT² AND SYEDA SARAH MUBARAK¹

CYTOTOXIC AND ANALGESIC POTENTIALS OF PAPAVER PAVONINUM FISCH & MEY.
ABSTRACT:
Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Papaver pavoninum was used to investigate its cytotoxic and analgesic potentials. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxic bioassay showed that 100 and 1000 µg/ml doses produced highly significant cytotoxicities causing 83.3±1.924% and 96.7±1.924% lethalities respectively, with LD50 value of 2.54μg/ml. The analgesic bioassay, using acetic acid induced writhing behavior in mice showed that all the three doses of the extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) were highly effective and even more effective than the standard analgesic drug (Diclofenic Sodium), which reduced the number of writhes by 13.54%, while the three doses of the plant extract reduced the writhing by 36.91%, 57.01% and 68.39% respectively.

1895-1899 Download
39
GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS BASED SELECTION OF SUPERIOR CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) INBRED LINES UNDER VARIABLE WATER ENVIRONMENTS
MUHAMMAD AMIR MAQBOOL1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM1*, HINA ALI2, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH2 AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA2

GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS BASED SELECTION OF SUPERIOR CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) INBRED LINES UNDER VARIABLE WATER ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Chickpea is an important legume crop and grown mainly on the marginal lands in Pakistan. Insufficient and erratic water availability is severe problem for this crop. Hence, breeding chickpea for low moisture stress tolerance is absolutely important in this era of climate change. Research work was started with evaluation of mini core collection of 450 chickpea lines and 42 lines were retained after three years of selection under different water treatments. These 42 lines were used in current study for evaluation and further selection under three water treatments. Detailed study on these lines was conducted under irrigated, rainfed and tunnel conditions (no rainfall and irrigation) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. Data were collected for yield and yield components which were subjected to analysis of variance and GGE biplot analysis. Analysis showed highly significant differences among lines for all traits under study. Mean comparison showed less differences between irrigated and rainfed conditions than tunnel for all traits. GGE biplot ranked chickpea lines as; above average, below average, stable, unstable and ideally performing. Lines present closer to ideal genotype on GGE biplot were worthy for selection because these had higher mean values with stable performances across different water treatments. The ideal lines in these experiments; K008-11, CM1592/08, CM526/05, D089-11, TGDX201, D094-11 and K051-11 were selected with higher yield potential.

1901-1908 Download
40
DYNAMICS OF BIOCHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES IN RAINFED AGAVE ANGUSTIFOLIA HAW. FIELDS IN SEMIARID ZONE
ANGÉLICA BAUTISTA-CRUZ1, TRINIDAD LÓPEZ-CERVANTES2, AURELIO BÁEZ-PÉREZ3, RAFAEL PÉREZ PACHECO1 AND MARÍA DE LOURDES ROBLES-MARTÍNEZ1

DYNAMICS OF BIOCHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES IN RAINFED AGAVE ANGUSTIFOLIA HAW. FIELDS IN SEMIARID ZONE
ABSTRACT:
This study determined (a) the activity of the selected enzymes of C (invertase and cellulase), N (urease), P (acid phosphatase, AcP and alkaline phosphatase, AlkP) cycling, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) in the rhizosphere of Agave angustifolia Haw. (maguey espadín) cultivated in valley, hill and mountain soils in Tlacolula, Oaxaca (Mexico), and (b) changes in selected biochemical soil properties associated with seasonality and plant age. Three maguey espadín plantations with two replicates per topography were selected. Rhizosphere soil sampling was carried out for one year. AcP and urease activities were highest in mountain sites. AlkP and cellulase activities were highest in hill and mountain sites. Invertase activity and SMBC were not different among sites. Phosphatase activity showed no temporal changes. Cellulase and invertase activities were highest in December; maximum urease activity was in October and February. SMBC was highest in August. AcP activity was highest in 0-2 years old plants. AlkP activity and SMBC were highest in 2.1-4 years old plants. Urease, cellulase and invertase activity was not affected by plant age. Significant effects for the site×seasonality×plant age interaction suggest that biochemical soil properties were influenced by site. Mountain soils displayed the highest enzyme activity, which can accelerate soil organic matter turnover and contribute to the longterm sustainability of maguey espadín cropping under rainfed conditions.

1909-1920 Download
41
ESTABLISHMENT OF AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME PAKISTANI CULTIVARS OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) USING NOVEL INFLORESCENCE EXPLANTS
MUSHTAQUE AHMED JATOI1 *, ADEL AHMED ABUL-SOAD2, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND1 AND NAJAMUDDIN SOLANGI1

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME PAKISTANI CULTIVARS OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) USING NOVEL INFLORESCENCE EXPLANTS
ABSTRACT:
An efficient protocol for rapid and large scale In vitro propagation of some Pakistani cultivars of date palm has been established using inflorescence explants at Date Palm Research Institute (DPRI), Shah Abdul Latif University (SALU), Khairpur, Pakistan. Immature inflorescences of desired cultivars of date palm detached from mother palms followed by surface sterilization with low torrent of current tap water and then 30% NaOCl2 solution, the outer cover were removed in order to get spike explants and cut into the 2-3 cm small pieces and cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.1 mg l-1 IAA + 5.0 mg l-1 NAA for initiation and establishment of cultures. The obtained somatic embryos were subjected to multiplication medium involved 0.1 mg l-1 NAA + 0.05 mg l-1BA. Rooting was achieved using quarter strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg l-1NAA without activated charcoal (AC) initially and then with 3 g l-1 AC. Strong rooted plantlets with 2-3 leaves were transferred to pots contained sand and peat moss mixture (1:1 v/v) with more than 95% success in acclimatization. The acclimatized plants with at least one compound leaf were shifted to the open field conditions at SALU campus for further studying morphological and fruit characterization to ensure the true-to-type nature of tissue culture derived plantlets. High multiplication efficiency and survival percentage with no any somaclonal variation ensured the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production of elite cultivars of date palm of Pakistan and can be used to optimize production of other cultivars of date palm worldwide.

1921-1927 Download
42
ULTRASTRUCTURAL MICROMORPHOLOGY OF BULBINE ABYSSINICA A. RICH. GROWING IN THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA
CROMWELL MWITI KIBITI AND ANTHONY JIDE AFOLAYAN*

ULTRASTRUCTURAL MICROMORPHOLOGY OF BULBINE ABYSSINICA A. RICH. GROWING IN THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA
ABSTRACT:
The genus Bulbine (Asphodelaceae) comprises about 40 species in South Africa. Bulbine abyssinica is a succulent member of the genus that occurs from the Eastern Cape, through Swaziland, Lesotho, and further north to Ethiopia. The species is often used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism dysentery, bilharzia and diabetes. Inspite of its ethno medicinal value, not much data concerning the micro-morphological features is available in literature. The present study was undertaken to examine the ultra-morphological features of the leaf, stem and root of the plant using light and scanning electron microscopes and the elemental composition. The elemental compositions of the plant parts were done using energy dispersive x- ray spectroscopy. The mean length and width of the guard cells in the abaxial surface are 0.15 ± 0.002 mm and 0.14 ± 0.002 mm, respectively while those of the adaxial surface are 0.14 ± 0.001 mm and 0.12 ± 0.001 mm, respectively. The electron microscopy revealed the presence of crystals in the leaves, stems and roots. The EDXS microanalysis of the crystals revealed the presence of sodium, silicon, potassium and calcium as the major constituents. The leaf also showed the presence of iron and magnesium, while the stem had aluminium, phosphorous and magnesium. The X-ray analysis of the roots also revealed the presence of sulphur and aluminium. The presence of these elements, which are vital in maintaining good health status, suggests the potential role of B. abyssinica in the treatment of infections and some chronic diseases, especially diabetes mellitus.

1929-1935 Download
43
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF LACTUCA L. AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (CICHOREAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ROOHI ABID1* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER2

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF LACTUCA L. AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (CICHOREAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The systematic significance of the cypsela morphology of more 30 taxa (25 species, 1 subspecies and 4 varieties) belonging to 3 genera viz., Lactuca L., Cicerbita Wallr. and Prenanthes L. from Pakistan and Kashmir has been studied by using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and discussed. The morphological characters of cypsela such as size, number of ribs, number of cypsela per capitula, presence or absence of beak, number of series of pappus, color and size of pappus and carpopodium were quite useful for the delimitation of different taxa both at the generic and species level.

1937-1955 Download
44
FLORISTIC CHECKLIST OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
ARSHAD MAHMOOD KHAN1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, MIRZA FAISAL QASEEM1, MUBASHRAH MUNIR1, MUHAMMAD ILYAS1 AND ZAFEER SAQIB2

FLORISTIC CHECKLIST OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
A comprehensive floristic survey was conducted to record the botanical diversity, ethnotaxonomy and the reproductive phenological response of the vascular flora of the district Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan during 2011-13. A total of 463 plant species belonging to 306 genera and 93 families were recorded. The most dominant families in the study area were Poaceae (54 spp.), Leguminosae (39 spp.), Compositae (33 spp.), Lamiaceae (23 spp.) and Rosaceae (22 spp.), whereas the leading genera were Ficus (8 spp.), Ipomoea, Cyperus, Euphorbia and Solanum (6 spp. each). Use of online taxonomic literature and databases enabled us to document most of the species with their current accepted names, author citations and their placement in the higher taxa. Two different aspects, flowering duration and start of flowering event (or timing) were also recorded. Phenological studies revealed that most of the species found in flowering stage during the August (252 spp.), followed by July (245 spp.), May (239 spp.) and April (237 spp.); while with respect to flowering event, maximum number of species started their flowering in the month of March (111 spp.), followed by April (67 spp.) and July (62 spp.). With respect to floral growth forms, there was higher diversity of trees compared to the shrubs in the study area.This information pertaining to nomenclatural status, current placement of taxa and their phenological responses may provide baseline information to taxonomists, ecologists or phytogeographer, natural resource managers and conservationists for carrying out studies from this part of the western Himalaya.

1957-1968 Download
45
I. MORPHOLOGICAL NUTLET CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME LAMIACEAE TAXA IN SAUDI ARABIA AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
SOAD A. HASSAN1* AND ASHWAG T. AL-THOBAITI2

I. MORPHOLOGICAL NUTLET CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME LAMIACEAE TAXA IN SAUDI ARABIA AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
The nutlet characters in the Lamiaceae are of great taxonomic significance. Macro and micro morphology nutlets of 23 taxa belonging to 12 genera of Lamiaceae from Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia have been studied for the first time by both light and scanning electron microscope. Observations revealed that nutlet color, shape, size, presence of areole are of limited taxonomic value. However the pericarp sculpturing are the most important diagnostic characters for differentiating the species through a constructed key. Three main distinct types of nutlets sculpture can be distinguished; smooth, partly sculptured and sculptured, within these types 12 subtypes are also recognized (reticulate, reticulate-foveate alveolate, granulate, rugose-scalariform, favulariate, protuberance, colliculate, ruminate, ocellate, verrucate and tuberculate). The relationships between the studied taxa were demonstrated as a phenogram.

1969-1977 Download
46
THE TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAF EPIDERMAL MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN DISTINGUISHING 43 SPECIES OF ALLIUM L. (AMARYLLIDACEAE) FROM CENTRAL ASIA
CHEN-YI LIN1,2 AND DUN-YAN TAN1*

THE TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAF EPIDERMAL MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN DISTINGUISHING 43 SPECIES OF ALLIUM L. (AMARYLLIDACEAE) FROM CENTRAL ASIA
ABSTRACT:
The genus Allium is comprised of more than 800 species, and although previous studies have been useful in identifying the species, there is a paucity of easy-to-observe morphological characters with which to distinguish them. Thus, we determined the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of 43 species of Allium from Central Asia using light microscopy and evaluated their taxonomic significance. Our study examined variability in epidermal cell shape and size and the stomatal apparatus. The stomatal apparatus is ellipsoid, anomocytic and amphistomatic. The shape (rectangular or rhomboid) of epidermal cells, pattern (straight or arched) of anticlinal walls, and stomatal index are stable within a species, while there are differences among species that allow for species delimitation. Based on the shape and pattern of anticlinal walls of leaf epidermal cells, the 43 sampled species could be divided into three distinct types of epidermal cells: type 1, rhomboid cell shape and straight anticlinal walls; type 2, rhomboid cell shape and arched anticlinal walls; and type 3, rectangular cell shape and straight anticlinal walls. These leaf epidermal micromorphological characters prove to be the taxonomic significance in distinguishing and delimitating species in Allium.

1979-1988 Download
47
COMPARISON OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF TEN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM, POACEAE) AND TEN BARLEY (HORDEUM, POACEAE) CULTIVARS
MURAT ARDIÇ1 MURAT OLGUN2, OKAN SEZER1, KURTULUS ÖZGĐSĐ1, Ö. KORAY YAYLACI1, ZEKIYE BUDAK BASÇĐFTÇĐ2, N.GÖZDE AYTER2 AND ONUR KOYUNCU1*

COMPARISON OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF TEN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM, POACEAE) AND TEN BARLEY (HORDEUM, POACEAE) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics.

1989-1997 Download
48
SELECTIVE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AGRICULTURALLY BENEFICIAL ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM WILD HEMP USING CANOLA
IMRAN AFZAL1, ZABTA K. SHINWARI2* AND IRUM IQRAR1

SELECTIVE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AGRICULTURALLY BENEFICIAL ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM WILD HEMP USING CANOLA
ABSTRACT:
Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria.

1999-2008 Download
49
ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON DIFFERENT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
FAISAL HUSSAIN1*, MUHAMMAD ABID2, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT3, FARZANA2 AND MUHAMMAD AKBAR4

ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON DIFFERENT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
The antifungal activity of different medicinal and locally available plants extracts (leaves, fruit, seeds) which are usually found in the surrounding of fields or in the fields on some fungi were tested in lab conditions. Six different plants were selected for testing these plants were Acacia nilotica (Lamk.) Willd., Azadirachta indica (A.) Juss., Crotalaria juncea L. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Ocimum basilicum L., and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) Dc. These plants showed antifungal activity against the Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. These plants crude extracts of leaves showed inhibition activity against the fungi and suppressed the myclial growth. Over all selected plants exhibited moderate type of inhibition against these above mentioned pathogens. Among these plants, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea showed the most effective results against the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp. of fungal pathogens. Whereas, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Prosopis juliflora showed least potential of inhibition against all above mentioned fungal pathogens. It is investigated in present studies that Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea can be utilized against the management of fungal diseases particularly Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

2009-2013 Download
50
SEASONAL GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOLOGY OF TWO SPECIES OF PADINA ADANSON: PADINA TETRASTROMATICA AND PADINA PAVONICA FROM THE MANORA COAST, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
WAJID UDDIN, MUBINA BEGUM AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI

SEASONAL GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOLOGY OF TWO SPECIES OF PADINA ADANSON: PADINA TETRASTROMATICA AND PADINA PAVONICA FROM THE MANORA COAST, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was an attempt to investigate some biological aspects dealing with seasonal growth and developmental morphology of two dominant species of brown algae Padina Adanson (Pheaophycota, Dictyotales). Manora Island near Karachi was selected as the area for collection of plants known to have very rich algal flora and Padina is one of the prominent and dominant algae at Manora and found to grow on all types of habitats and on each tide level. It is a perennial alga and shows its presence throughout the year. In order to investigate the seasonal growth and developmental morphology, changes in the plant length, breath, presence of vegetative or reproductive plants, percentage maturity of thallus during the different seasons of a year was observed of the two most common species of genus Padina namely P. tetrastromatica Hauck and P. pavonica (L.) Thivy. The peak season for growth and reproduction is winter, whereas plants found in summer were in small size and mostly in the form of juvenile or early mature stage. There was a slight difference in thallus size and reproductive structures (tetrasporophytes or gametophytes) among the two species and between different areas of the shore, but the pattern of growth and reproduction is same. Environmental factors (Mean air temperature and sea water temperature) show significant negative correlation that influence on the growth and development of Padina species.

2015-2021 Download
51
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS AS A TOOL IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THINNING OF SEGAE DATE PALM CULTIVAR (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
SOLIMAN S.S1,2*, R.S. AL-OBEED1 AND A.M. Al-SAIF1

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS AS A TOOL IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THINNING OF SEGAE DATE PALM CULTIVAR (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Different hand thinning treatments were conducted on Segae date palm cultivar to study their effect on bunch yield and fruit quality. Five thinning treatments; control (no thinning (A)), removing 10 cm of strands length per bunch (B), removing 20 cm of strands length per bunch (C), removing the middle of the bunch (D), removing the middle of the bunch and removing 10 cm of strands length per bunch (E) were investigated at Deirab, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fruit thinning substantially decreased bunch yield and increased fruit weight, flesh weight, flesh weight, fruit size, fruit dimensions in both seasons as compared with the control (no thinning) treatment. Fruit thinning had significant effect on the fruit acidity, total soluble solids and total sugars in both seasons. Thinning treatments had no effect on seed weight, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and moisture content in two seasons. It could be recommended that removing the middle of the bunch and removing 10 cm of strands length per bunch (treatment E) is the most appropriate practice for thinning as it gave the highest bunch yield with best fruit quality as compared with other applied treatments. Principle component analysis determined into three components which explained 82.92% and 82.11% of the total variance in the first and second seasons, respectively. First component (50.98% and 43.20%) strongly influenced by fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, fruit volume, seed weight and flesh weight at first and second seasons, respectively. second component (19.69% and 24.95) was affected strongly by total sugars, non-reducing sugars & bunch weight and total sugars, non-reducing sugars at first and second seasons, respectively. Third component (12.24% and 13.97) was affected strongly by total soluble solids and moisture content at first and second seasons, respectively. This information can be used for future studies and can be used in identifying the best method to hand thinning in Segae date palm cultivar, which can be applied to get the higher the productivity with the high quality of the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits.

2023-2029 Download
52
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FUMARIA INDICA (HAUSSKN.) PUGSLEY AGAINST SELECTED BACTERIAL STRAINS
YASMIN TOOR, KHALID NAWAZ* AND KHALID HUSSAIN

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FUMARIA INDICA (HAUSSKN.) PUGSLEY AGAINST SELECTED BACTERIAL STRAINS
ABSTRACT:
Department of Botany, Institute of Chemical & Biological Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan.

2031-2035 Download
53
AN IMPROVED, SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE AND HIGHLY FLEXIBLE HYDROPONIC SETUP FOR ROOT MITOCHONDRIA ISOLATION FROM ARABIDOPSIS AND NICOTIANA PANTS
MUHAMMAD WAQAR HAMEED1,3* AND AZIZ-UD-DIN2,3

AN IMPROVED, SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE AND HIGHLY FLEXIBLE HYDROPONIC SETUP FOR ROOT MITOCHONDRIA ISOLATION FROM ARABIDOPSIS AND NICOTIANA PANTS
ABSTRACT:
Hydroponic setups are frequently developed and improved as they are convenient platforms for studying whole plant physiology. Mostly, the available systems produce small amounts of plant material and are therefore, unsuitable for studies requiring large quantities of plant material like isolation of mitochondria. To address this issue, we have modified a hydroponic setup that can sustain hundreds of Arabidopsis and tobacco plants until adult plants are established. The setup is very flexible and easy to construct. It is based on the use of recyclable and sterilizable plastic-net-pots and media containers, which are easily available from the local suppliers. The modified seed-pots and styrofoam sheets facilitate the transfer and harvesting of seedlings. We have used the Percoll based two-step density gradient centrifugation method for the isolation of root mitochondria from the hydroponically grown plants.

2037-2043 Download
54
IN SILICO BASED DEVELOPMENT OF dLUTE LENGTH POLYMORPHISM MARKER FOR COMMON FLAX GERMPLASM EVALUATION
JANA ŽIAROVSKÁ*, MILAN BEŽO, VERONIKA LANCÍKOVÁ AND KATARÍNA RAŽNÁ

IN SILICO BASED DEVELOPMENT OF dLUTE LENGTH POLYMORPHISM MARKER FOR COMMON FLAX GERMPLASM EVALUATION
ABSTRACT:
Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,

2277-2282 Download
55
EVALUATION OF MALE PALMS USED IN POLLINATION AND THE EXTENT OF ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CULTIVARS OF DATE-PALMS (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) GROWN IN REGION OF OUED RIGH, ALGERIA
AISSA DJEROUNI1*, ADEL CHALA2, AHMED SIMOZRAG A1, RADHOUANE BENMEHAIA3 AND MEBAREK BAKA1

EVALUATION OF MALE PALMS USED IN POLLINATION AND THE EXTENT OF ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CULTIVARS OF DATE-PALMS (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) GROWN IN REGION OF OUED RIGH, ALGERIA
ABSTRACT:
1Laboratoire de Développement et Valorisation des Ressources Phytogénétiques, Département de biologie et d'écologie, Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine, Algérie

2295-2300 Download
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