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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 3
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1

Silicon improves seedling production of Moringa oleifera Lam. under saline stress


Fernando De Jesus Carballo-Mendez, Emilio Olivares-Saenz, Rigoberto Eustacio Vazquez-Alvarado, Francisco Zavala-Garcia, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza and Manuela Bolivar-Duarte

Silicon improves seedling production of Moringa oleifera Lam. under saline stress


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the most common environmental stresses, particularly in agricultural areas. This condition affects growth and development of crops, since it causes physiological, biochemical and morphological changes. Different techniques have been proposed to mitigate crops salinity damage, including application of silicon (Si). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salinity, Si and its interaction, in emergence, growth, biomass and nutritional concentration of moringa seedlings (Moringa oleifera Lam.). The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement 3*3 and three replications per treatment. Seedlings were developed in nine nutritive solutions derived from combination of three electric conductivities (2.5, 6.0 and 9.5 dS/m by adding sodium chloride) and three Si concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg/L by adding potassium silicate). Results showed that salinity reduced emergence, growth, biomass and concentration of K and Mg, and increased concentration of Zn, Cu and Mn in root, similarly reduced concentration of Mg and increased concentration of Na in stem and leaves. Si increased growth of aerial part, biomass and Ca concentration in root, meanwhile increased Mg concentration and reduced Na concentration in leaves. Salinity-Si interaction was found in root were Si reduced Na concentration and increased Fe concentration, both in high salinity. Similarly, Si increased K, Ca, Cu and Fe leaves concentrations when EC was high. These results suggest that Si should be considered as an alternative to reduce the effects of salinity in plants

751-757 Download
2

Genetic diversity and characterization of salt stress tolerance traits in maize (Zea mays L.) under normal and saline conditions


Khalil Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Muhammad Ijaz, Sami Ul-Allah, Amara Hassan, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, Muhammad Adnan and Shafaqat Ali

Genetic diversity and characterization of salt stress tolerance traits in maize (Zea mays L.) under normal and saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

To study (genotype × environment) interaction (GEI) of available maize germplasm against different saline environments present study was conducted under four saline environments S0.89 dSm-1 (T1; Control), S5.2 dSm-1 (T2), S6.7 dSm-1 (T3) and S11 dsm-1 (T4) in natural saline environments of saline soil research institute, Pindi Bhattian on the basis of standards like grain yield per plant, 100 grain weight, stomata conductance, total soluble sugars, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, relative water con tents, no of grain per cob, water potential, protein contents, transpiration rate, plant height, photosynthetic rate, leaf fresh weight and leaf area. Sowing was performed with split plot arrangement by following randomize complete block design. Based on performance, UAF-0020 and UAC-0036 were selected as a most tolerant even in highly saline environment S11 dsm-1 on the basis of protein contents, grain yield per plant and number of grains per cob, chlorophyll-b, chlorophyll-a, using biplot on the basis of principal component analysis (PCA). Based on photosynthetic rate, 100 grain weight and protein contents the most susceptible genotype recorded were UAF-0028 and UAF-0033 even in low salinity S5.2 dsm-1. Under all the variable saline environments the ramming genotypes performed in same manner either in positive or negative fashion. Protein contents, number of grains per cob, chlorophyll-b, chlorophyll-a, rate of photosynthesis, grain yield per plant, Plant height and 100 grain weight were considered the best standard for selection. To study GEI Principal Component Analysis based biplot is proved as an effective procedure. Reported salinity tolerant genotypes could be used for further salinity tolerance breeding programs

759-769 Download
3

Spermidine as an elevator of salinity induced stress on two varieties of Triticum durum Desf. (Karim and Razzek)


Mabrouka Bouabdallah, Hela Mahmoudi, Tahar Ghnaya, Hédia Hannachi, Ali Taheri, Zeineb Ouerghi and Chiraz Chaffei-Haouari

Spermidine as an elevator of salinity induced stress on two varieties of Triticum durum Desf. (Karim and Razzek)


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the main abiotic constraints affecting crop productivity. Recently, it is reported that exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) could significantly alleviate the effect of salt stress. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of Spd application on salt stress resistance in two durum wheat (Triticum durum) varieties (Karim and Razzek) in Tunisia. Seedlings of both varieties were subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) in the presence and absence of 1 mM of Spd for 10 days. Results showed that Spd significantly increased the weight of both fresh and dry matter of NaCl-stressed plants. Similarly, Spd increased soluble sugars, and chlorophylls a and b contents particularly under 150 and 200 mMNaCl. However, exogenous Spd application decreased the content of proline and the activity of aminating glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme. Our analysis, suggested that the application of Spd could be used as an effective approach in alleviating the NaCl-induced toxic effect in durum wheat

771-779 Download
4

Acclimatization strategy of two common tree species under water stress


Arsalan Arif, Fahad Rasheed, Muhammad Safdar Hussain, Irfan Ashraf, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz and Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir

Acclimatization strategy of two common tree species under water stress


ABSTRACT:

Due to unpredicted climate change and drought spells, changing towards stress-resistant planting material is dire need in the present scenario. The increasing trend of Agroforestry under arid to semi-arid climatic regions can be proved as an important step to mitigate climate change effects and also can reduce pressure on the existing forest resources. Therefore, the present study was planned to evidence the effect of water stress on two introduced and important tree species of central Punjab i.e. Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Conocarpus erectus at their early stages of growth. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions where plants were subjected to two watering (controlled irrigation and high water-deficit) regimes. The biomass production and allocation in different plant organs (leaves, stem and root) along with growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, no of leaves) were measured during the experiment. Drought negatively impacted plant height and the number of leaves. However, the plant height of C. erectus was reduced by (17 %) and the number of leaves by 27% under high water-deficit conditions. Similarly, the minimum reduction was noted in stem fresh biomass (1.7%) and root fresh weight (21.68%) for C. erectus under drought conditions. The root biomass production remained unchanged in Eucalyptus camaldulensis (P = 0.079) but biomass allocation was increased with an increase in soil water deficit (p<0.001). The present study revealed that Conocarpus erectus showed effective tolerance mechanisms under water stress; therefore, may be recommended for agroforestry under semi-arid regions

781-786 Download
5

Physio-biochemical analysis of salinity tolerance in sodium contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


Aisha Shereen, Asma, Mohammad Ubaidullah Shirazi, Mohammad Athar Khan, Mohammad Ali and Mohammad Arif

Physio-biochemical analysis of salinity tolerance in sodium contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

Experiments were carried out in completely randomized design (CRD) at early seedling stage with five contrasting rice genotypes (high and low sodium rice genotypes) including salt tolerant check under different treatments of sodium chloride salinity. Multiple physiological traits were investigated in these sodium contrasting rice genotypes to identify contributory traits in salinity tolerance mechanisms. These studies have revealed variable reduction in growth among genotypes with least reduction in FL-478 (salt tolerant check) followed by IR-6 and IR-72. The genotype GML-498 exhibited highest reduction in fresh weights under salinity. The genotype IR-6 and IR-72 were observed comparatively better in most of the physiological traits studied. Comparatively less sodium (Na) concentrations along with less relative increase were observed in IR-6 and IR-72. Tolerant genotypes maintained less Na in their shoot through balancing Na in their root. On contrary to these, sensitive genotypes accumulated less Na in roots than in their shoots. Study of physiological traits revealed that low sodium accumulating rice genotypes exhibited relatively less electrolyte leakage (EL) and low malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, less increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than high sodium accumulating rice genotypes under salinity. Correlation studies have indicated that trait of sodium was significantly positively correlated with proline, total soluble sugars, MDA & EL. Whereas Na, MDA and EL were found negatively correlated with chlorophyll, while positively correlated with proline and TSS. The traits of chlorophyll, carotenoids and potassium sodium ratios were positively correlated with growth and observed as contributory traits under salinity.

 

787-794 Download
6

Late planting induced heat stress tolerance in wheat


Iqra Tahir, Naqib Ullah Khan, Samrin Gul, Sheraz Ahmed, Yusra Andleeb, Amina Habib, Sardar Ali, Sher Aslam Khan, Naushad Ali and Izhar Hussain

Late planting induced heat stress tolerance in wheat


ABSTRACT:

Wheat crop with late planting is rapidly subjected to stress due to high temperature which severely affects crop growth, grain filling, and eventually grain yield. Present studies aim to recognize the heat stress tolerant wheat genotypes by using stress selection indices, principal components, and biplot analyses. Hence, 24 wheat genotypes (including six advanced lines and 18 commercial wheat cultivars) were evaluated through genotype by environment interactions. Wheat genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement under normal (non-stress) and late (stress) planting environments with three replications. Stress selection indices i.e., tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance index (STI), trait stability index (TSI), trait index (TI), and the principal component (PCA) and biplot analyses were used to assess the response of wheat genotypes. Significant (p<0.01) variations were observed between environments, while genotypes and genotype by environment interactions revealed significant (p<0.01) differences for the majority of the traits. Because of reduced heat stress emphasis and sufficient growth period, genotypes with optimum planting performed better compared to late planting. Under the late planting environment, cultivars Khaista-2017, Shahkar-2013 and Zincol-16 performed better for grain yield and its components. With non-stress and stress (Yn and Ys) conditions, the grain yield was found significantly and positively correlated with stress selection indices i.e., MP, STI, TSI, and TI whereas the yield relationship was negative with TOL. Genotypes Zincol-16, Pakistan-13, and Khaista-2017 were identified as stress-tolerant and high yielding under both environments indicating their potency to tackle late planting and heat stress. Traits with indirect positive effects could be used as selection criteria, and the promising genotypes could be used as a source population in the development of heat stress-tolerant wheat cultivars in the future breeding program

795-808 Download
7

Effects of calcium on physiology and photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla Sm. under high temperature and strong light stress


Peng Yao, Hu Zhao Tun, Zhong Fenge and Li Sheng Hua

Effects of calcium on physiology and photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla Sm. under high temperature and strong light stress


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to explore the feasibility of application of exogenous Ca2+ to alleviate the damage caused by high temperature and strong light stress of Paris polyphylla by analyzing the effects of different Ca2+ concentrations on photosynthesis, stress resistance, and several physiological parameters of P. polyphylla under high temperature and strong light stress. The multi-flowered P. polyphylla plants with shading treatment were used as the experimental material and cultured with a modified Hoagland solution. The Ca2+ concentrations in the culture medium were set as 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 (mmol/L), respectively. The shading shed was removed and the stress treatment was carried out before the approaching of high temperature and strong light stress. After 10 days of stress treatment, the photosynthesis rate and physiological parameters of P. polyphylla were measured. After the death seedling of P. polyphylla, the root and stem/shoot yield and the content of active ingredient were determined. In the study, two normal controls were set, one is shading at normal temperature (25°C) and other is spraying Hoagland solution under high temperature and strong light stress. The results showed that Ca2+ treatment with the appropriate concentration significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves of P. polyphylla, reduce the contents of O2-• and H2O2 in cells, decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the relative conductivity, and effectively alleviated the damage caused by high temperature and strong light stress. At the same time, Ca2+ treatment also increased chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, contents of soluble protein and proline, and accelerated photosynthetic electron transport, reduced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and improved the actual photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching index (qP) of photosystem II (PSII), making P. polyphylla to maintain a high net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under high temperature and strong light stress. However, as the concentration of Ca2+ increased, the capacity of P. polyphylla to resist stress was decreased. We found that 18mmol L-1 Ca2+ treatment could significantly reduce the damage caused by high temperature and strong light stress to P. polyphylla, and increased its root and stem/shoot yield and the content of saponin

809-816 Download
8

Association analysis of fruit yield and other related attributes in four chilli (Capsicum annum L.) genotypes grown in Sindh province, Pakistan


Saima Mir Arain and Mehboob Ali Sial

Association analysis of fruit yield and other related attributes in four chilli (Capsicum annum L.) genotypes grown in Sindh province, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Chilli (Capsicum spp.,) is an important vegetable, spice and medicinal crop, exhibit great genetic diversity. To strengthen chilli breeding programs, a comprehensive characterization of Capsicum through morphological, physiological and molecular approaches is required. The characterization of four (04) chilli (Capsicum annum L.) varieties cultivated in Sindh province, Pakistan based on agronomic and physiological traits was carried out. The material was planted under randomized complete block design in three replications at the NIA (Nuclear Institute of Agriculture) experimental farm, for two consecutive years (2016-2017) during kharif, season. The combined analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the quantitative attributes of four genotypes demonstrating presence of adequate variability. The genotype Laungi-hybrid depicted the greater values for most of the traits. Correlation coefficient exhibited high degree of interrelationship among the desirable plant attributes. Fruit yield per plant exhibited highly significant positive correlation with plant height (r=0.81 canopy width (r=0.68), stem radius (r=0.87), primary branches per plant (r=0.95), leaves per plant (r=0.91), number of fruits per plant (r=0.99), fruit fresh (r=0.96),  and dry weight (r=0.95), single fruit weight (r=0.84 ), and number of seeds per fruit (r=0.76), whereas, significantly negative relationship with days taken to flowering and fruiting, attributing  role of early flowering and fruiting to higher fruit yield per plant. Hence, selection based on these traits may be fruitful to improve fruit yield per plant in chilli pepper

817-822 Download
9

Wheat assessment for heat stress tolerance using stress selection indices under distinct planting regimes


Zeeshan Ahmad, Naqib Ullah Khan, Samrin Gul, Azhar Iqbal, Sardar Ali, Naushad Ali, Sher Aslam Khan, Izhar Hussain, Kiramat Din and Waqar Ali

Wheat assessment for heat stress tolerance using stress selection indices under distinct planting regimes


ABSTRACT:

Heat stress is a widespread problem due to changing climatic conditions which influence wheat productivity and quality. To assess the heat stress tolerance, thirty-six wheat genotypes (including six advance lines and 30 cultivars) were sown under optimum and delayed planting conditions during 2017-18 at Cereal crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak - Nowshera. The experiment was constructed in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Analysis of variance exhibited significant (p≤0.01) variations among the wheat genotypes, environments, and their interactions for all the traits. Generally, a decline was observed in yield trait means under stressed environment than the optimum environment. Over both test environments, wheat genotype Pakistan-2013 (3746 kg ha-1) produced the highest grain yield, followed by Zincol-2016 (3712 kg ha-1) and PR-122 (3671 kg ha-1). With optimum planting conditions, wheat genotype Israr-2017 (4767 kg ha-1) was promising for the grain yield, followed by NIFA-Lalma (4733 kg ha-1) and Paseena-2017 (4725 kg ha-1). However, genotype PR-122 (3158 kg ha-1) was prominent in terms of grain yield, followed by Zincol-2016 (3029 kg ha-1) and Pakistan-2013 (2938 kg ha-1) with late sowing and stress conditions. Stress selection indices tools i.e., tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance index (STI), trait stability index (TSI), and trait index (TI) were used and found more effective for identifying stress tolerant wheat genotypes. Based on the selection indices, wheat genotype Pirsabak-2013, followed by Zincol-2016 and PR-122 were found more tolerant and high yielding and that can be used in future breeding schemes for further improvement.

 

823-834 Download
10

Simulating the growth and yield of peanut cultivars under temporal variation using CROPGRO-peanut (DSSAT) model


Adeel Ahmad, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Memoona Shehzadi, Muhammad Rehan, Muhammad Hussaan, Muhammad Faheem, M. Tariq Javed, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, Huda Alshaya and Shafaqat Ali

Simulating the growth and yield of peanut cultivars under temporal variation using CROPGRO-peanut (DSSAT) model


ABSTRACT:

Crop models are widely used in developing crop management strategies for sustainable production especially under changing climatic conditions. The impact of sub-optimal climatic conditions on peanut production can be explored with the aid of such models. Peanut being the king of oilseeds, enjoys itself a prime position amongst all other cash crops and has the potential to narrow the gap between production and consumption of edible oil. The study was undertaken to simulate the growth and yield of peanut cultivars under temporal variation using CROPGRO-Peanut (DSSAT) model. The model calibration was done with phenology (days to anthesis and days to maturity), growth (leaf area index and total dry matter) and yield data of both cultivars with 15-April planting date. The submodules such as Sensitivity Analysis and Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) were used to adjust the genetic coefficients. Simulations of physiology, phenology and yield were found well with good indices. Model simulated the days to anthesis and maturity accurately with d-index (>0.92 and >0.92), and the indices of biomass and leaf area index were simulated well with lower RMSE (349.34-497.14 and 0.86-0.69), respectively during model evaluation. Pod yield was also predicted well with lower RMSE (266.31-341). Both cultivars performed well with greater yield at 15-April sowing primarily due to optimum growing conditions. The sub-optimal growing period at delayed planting (15-June) resulted in poor growth and development due to temperature stress ultimately, caused 27% pod yield penalty. Model also predicted the genotypes developments at different sowing times and higher yield was observed at 15-April sowing. Peanut sowing at mid-April can be recommended for the farmers to avoid environmental stress and appropriate use of available resources for sustainable yield. Results depicted the potential of model for selection of appropriate genotype, planting dates and other peanut management practices in the region.

 

835-842 Download
11

Triacontanol positively influences growth, yield, biochemical attributes and antioxidant enzymes of two linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions differing in drought tolerance


Shagufta Perveen, Muhammad Parvaiz, Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Saeed and Sara Zafar

Triacontanol positively influences growth, yield, biochemical attributes and antioxidant enzymes of two linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions differing in drought tolerance


ABSTRACT:

Foliar application of three triacontanol (TRIA) levels i.e., 0, 1.0 and 0.1 µM was performed on two linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions (20888 and 22186) at week 6 and 9 from date of sowing under water deficit stress (50% field capacity). Data of growth and physiochemical parameters was determined after two weeks of foliar treatment of TRIA, while yield was obtained at maturity. Results of current study revealed that growth and yield significantly decreased in two linseed accessions under water deficit stress. However, foliar application of TRIA significantly increased shoot and root fresh and dry weight, shoot and root length, seed weight per plant, total number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight and number of capsules per plant, chlorophyll a, and b contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), anthocyanin contents, total soluble proteins, free amino acids and  total phenolics while decreased relative water content (%), carotenoids, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in both linseed accessions. Overall, foliar application of 1.0 µM TRIA proved more effective in increasing growth and yield of two linseed accessions under drought stress. Of the two linseed accessions 20888 exhibited high growth and yield than linseed 22186 under drought stress or non-stress conditions

843-853 Download
12

Influence of pH of co-cultivation medium, claforan® concentration, co-cultivation period, pre-selection duration and selection regime on tomato transformation


Sabir Hussain Shah, Shaukat Ali, Sher Muhammad, Shehla Shoukat, Zahid Hussain, Muhammad Amir Zia, Arshad Iqbal, Siffat Ullah Khan and Muhammad Latif

Influence of pH of co-cultivation medium, claforan® concentration, co-cultivation period, pre-selection duration and selection regime on tomato transformation


ABSTRACT:

Tomato fruit is enriched with lycopene and β-carotene which is an initiator of vitamin A, whereas lycopene has a shielding effect against prostate cancer. The tomato crop is very sensitive to cold stress which is a great threat to the yield of cultivated tomato. Genetic transformation offers the basis of foreign genes integration in the plant for the improvement of crop. Therefore, the present study was carried out to optimize different parameters of gene transformation in three tomato genotypes. These three tomato genotypes were transformed for cold tolerance via DREB1A gene with inducible promoter (Lip9). Optimal conditions to achieve 14.16-16.45% transformation efficiency (TE) was found as pH ranged between 5.6-5.7 for co-cultivation media, 500 mg/l claforan®, 6-d pre-selection period, 48-h co-cultivation duration and 35 mg/l hygromycin. Specific gene primers were used for screening and real time semi quantitative PCR assay that proved the insertion of DREB1A gene and its expression in T0 and T1 transformed lines. During the cold stress period, the increase in expression pattern was confirmed by the results of semi-quantitative PCR. Under normal growth settings, there were no considerable differences among transformants and non transformants based on morphological characteristics. Convincingly, DREB1A gene over expression in transgenic tomato plants increased the protection and delivered cold tolerance

855-863 Download
13

The perennial sweet sorghum cultivar and its recruiting rhizosphere dominant bacterial taxa under field growth


Gui Hua Lu, Zhiye Na, Zijian Zhang, Rui Cao, Aliya Fazal, Shoucheng Huang, Hanyue Zhang, Jialing Chen, Rui Cheng, Yan Li, Yonghua Yang, Hongjun Yang and Zhong Yuan Na

The perennial sweet sorghum cultivar and its recruiting rhizosphere dominant bacterial taxa under field growth


ABSTRACT:

Breeding new perennial sorghum germplasms has been ongoing for decades since perennial crops provide significantly greater environmental benefits in terms of resource utilization, soil erosion, and soil conservation. However, perennial sweet sorghum cultivars or varieties have rarely been reported to date. Additionally, little is known about the potential consequences of perennial sorghum on belowground soil microbial communities. In this study, we reported the perennial sweet sorghum cultivar NaPBS778 (simply N778) with prominent panicle length, plant height, stalk weight, and Brix, which was generated from an annual sweet sorghum cultivar via the Gene Phenotype Induction Technique (GPIT). Further, we designed an experiment to detect the dominant rhizosphere bacterial taxa of the perennial sweet sorghum cultivar N778 and its control sorghum line TP60 at the flowering and maturation stages under natural field growth conditions. The Illumina MiSeq platform was utilized to high-throughput sequence amplicons of the V3–V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). According to our findings, almost all six alpha diversity indices of N778 rhizosphere soil from either aerial roots and primary roots showed no significant difference when compared to those of TP60 at the same growth stage. There were also no significant differences in the beta diversity of rhizosphere soil between N778 and its control TP60 at the flowering stage. at the maturation stage; however, significant differences in taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity of rhizosphere soil were found between N778 and its control TP60. Furthermore, at the maturation stage, the relative abundances of two genera, Pseudarthrobacter and Pseudomonas, were significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of N778 than in all other groups. Our results indicate that two dominant OTUs belonging to Pseudarthrobacter and Pseudomonas with stress tolerant phenotypes are significantly enriched in the rhizosphere of N778 at the maturation stage, implying that the perennial sweet sorghum cultivar N778 could recruit potential psychrotolerant bacterial taxa into its rhizosphere and assist it in surviving the winter below freezing temperature

865-878 Download
14

Overexpression of the ATP synthase β subunit gene enhanced the ability of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to resist low temperatures


Lirong Cui, Yunlong Wang, Kai Cao and Zhirong Zou

Overexpression of the ATP synthase β subunit gene enhanced the ability of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to resist low temperatures


ABSTRACT:

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a kind of important greenhouse vegetable in the north of China, but it is also sensitive to low temperatures. Commercial losses due to low-temperature stress are particularly serious here. The aim of this experiment is to improve the resistance of tomato plants to low-temperature stress employing genetic engineering technology. Here, the ATP synthase β subunit gene was cloned and connected with the overexpression vector CaMV35S. Then, together, they were transferred to the low-temperature-sensitive tomato variety ‘Zhongshu4’. Tomato plantlets of the transgenic T1 generation and of the wild type, were placed in one or other of two artificial climate chambers. These were operated (1) at normal temperatures (25/18℃) and (2) at low temperatures (12/6℃) both under a 12-h photoperiod (350 µmol·m-2·s-1). After 7 d of low-temperature treatment, compared with low-temperature treated wild-type controls, the transgenic plantlets had increased activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, but reduced contents of malondialdehyde. The transgenic plantlets also showed increased net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration rate and tomatal conductance, but reduced concentrations of intercellular CO2. Meanwhile, the transgenic plantlets showed increases in the actual photochemical efficiency and the maximum photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II, light energy capture efficiency by open Photosystem II reaction center and photochemical quenching coefficient. These results combine to confirm that overexpression of the ATP synthase β subunit gene enhances the ability of these transgenic tomato plantlets to resist low temperatures.

 

879-885 Download
15

Genomic analysis of C3H zinc finger proteins family in Brassica rapa


Faiza Mir, Sajida Bibi, Noreen Asim and Asad Jan

Genomic analysis of C3H zinc finger proteins family in Brassica rapa


ABSTRACT:

The C3H zinc finger proteins play critical roles in a number of biological processes both in animals and plants. These transcription factors are characterized by the presence of a unique motif with 3 cysteine and 1 histidine amino acids. In this study, a wide spread computational investigations of Brassica rapa C3H zinc finger proteins (BraC3H) were carried out by describing their phylogenetic analysis, motif distribution, chromosomal locations and duplication events. A total of 106 BraC3H proteins were identified in Brassica rapa genome. On the basis of phylogenetic tree, the BraC3H transcription factors were characterized into 17 sub families. All the genes were distributed on the Brassica rapa 10 chromosomes with ten segmental duplication events and one tandem duplication event. The non-synonymous to synonymous mutations ratio showed that BraC3H gene family had undergone strong negative or purifying selection pressure. Expression patterns of the selected salt and drought stress inducible genes BraC3H02, BraC3H04 and BraC3H06 were checked using semi quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Expression analysis of the BraC3H genes indicates that they have wide range of expression patterns under salt and drought treatments, signifying their varied functions. The expression and genome analysis of these BraC3H genes provide foundation for further functional dissection in Brassica rapa.

 

887-896 Download
16

Comparison among six DNA barcodes for molecular authentication of Otostegia fruticosa


Shawkat M. Ahmed, Eldessoky S. Dessoky and Amal M.E. Abdel-Hamid

Comparison among six DNA barcodes for molecular authentication of Otostegia fruticosa


ABSTRACT:

Otostegia fruticosa (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Penz. plant is native to eastern Africa and the Middle East. This study is the first work for barcoding of Otostegia fruticosa subsp. fruticosa in Saudi Arabia with six specific primers (ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL, TrnH-trnH2 and TrnH-GUG) and evaluating which one of these primers is more efficient than the other to characterize this plant. The results reveled from GenBank showed that there are only two rbcL reference sequences, one ITS sequence and no reference data for ITS2, matK, TrnH-trnH2 and TrnH-GUG sequences are available for Otostegia fruticosa plant. The results of DNA barcoding showed that ITS and matK loci recorded higher values of sequence length and variable sites than those of ITS2 and rbcL. The phylogenetic trees of ITS, TrnH-trnH2 and TrnH-GUG segregated O. fruticosa in a separate clade demonstrating that these loci performed better than ITS2, matK and rbcL for determining the genetic identity of this plant. This study contribute to supply molecular data about O. fruticosa based on DNA barcoding in Gene Banks, can be used for taxonomical studies of  O. fruticosa and detect its relationship with other Lamiaceae species and determine the position of the Otostegia fruticosa collected from Saudi Arabia in the new generic classification

897-902 Download
17

Analysis of genetic diversity among local and exotic Pisum sativum genotypes through RAPD and SSR markers


Asif Javaid, Abdul Ghafoor and Malik Ashiq Rabbani

Analysis of genetic diversity among local and exotic Pisum sativum genotypes through RAPD and SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

Pea is an important temperate legume that is used as a vegetable and pulse crop. Study of genetic diversity in the crop using molecular markers helps to enhance the plant breeding efforts. The experiment was conducted to evaluate 88 pea germplasm accessions from the National Genebank of Pakistan that consisted of 61 landraces and 27 improved varieties from Pakistan and other countries. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was conducted using 20 decamer oligonucleotide primers. Fifteen previously reported primers were used for Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) analysis. Data was recorded for 100 polymorphic RAPD bands and 51 polymorphic SSR bands. Data analysis was conducted using statistical package NTSYSpc version 2.21q. Cluster analysis of germplasm using RAPD analysis revealed three major groups. First group included 11 landraces from Pakistan and one landrace from Afghanistan. This group was further divided into two sub-groups by SSR analysis. Accession of Afghanistan was separated from 11 accessions of Pakistan that remained in the same cluster. Clustering of 11 accessions from Pakistan and one accession from Afghanistan by RAPD analysis shows that this region has distinctive landraces as previously reported. Separation of landraces from Pakistan and Afghanistan by SSR shows that Pakistan has its indigenous landraces of Pisum sativum germplasm. Further studies should be conducted on pea landraces and wild relatives from Pakistan for their utilization in crop improvement.

 

903-909 Download
18

Phytosterol alterations responding to ROS inhibitors by GC-MS in Arabidopsis


Yuanyuan Wang, Tianlin Jin, Xue Wang and Dacheng Liang

Phytosterol alterations responding to ROS inhibitors by GC-MS in Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT:

Phytosterols, essential components of cellular membrane integrity, play an important role in plant growth, development, and responses to various types of stressors. Emerging studies have proposed that phytosterols are a result of adaptation to the aerobic environment during evolution. We reasoned that phytosterols could dramatically respond to changes in external reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The levels of five phytosterols were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after Arabidopsis plants were treated with the ROS-altering drugs 2’-3’-dideoxycytidine (DDC), H2O2, Catalase (CAT), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). We found that all redox-altering agents can dramatically reduce sterol levels, whereas CAT and NPA can partly increase them. Our results establish a link between redox balance and sterol level alteration.

 

911-916 Download
19

Identification and verification of the optimal reference genes for the floral development of Luculia gratissima (Rubiaceae) by qRT-PCR


Hong Ma, Xiongfang Liu, Xiujiao Zhang, Zhenghong Li and Youming Wan

Identification and verification of the optimal reference genes for the floral development of Luculia gratissima (Rubiaceae) by qRT-PCR


ABSTRACT:

Luculia gratissima is a perennial short-day woody plant with important ornamental value, of which flowering is affected by photoperiod. Currently, the studies on the perennial woody plants remains scarce, especially on the short-day woody plants. However, the expression analysis of genes related to flowering is the basis of understanding the molecular mechanism of flowering regulated by photoperiod. Selecting the appropriate reference genes is an essential prerequisite for the qRT-PCR which is extensively applied into gene expression analysis. Therefore, based on the transcriptome data of the floral development of L. gratissima, seven housekeeping genes with low RPKM variation coefficient were chosen as candidate genes, and four softwares were applied to evaluate the optimal reference genes. The result of the study indicated that Actin, EF-1α and TUB had good stability in geNorm and NormFinder analysis. SKIP, UBQ and TUB had good stability in BestKeeper analysis. In RefFinder analysis, it was found that Actin, EF-1α and TUB had good stability, totally different with that of BestKeeper. In order to further verify the stability of the selected reference genes, the expressions of LgPRR7 and LgFKF1 in different floral development stages were standardized. The result indicated that when three individual genes (Actin, EF-1α and TUB) or the combination of five genes (Actin, EF-1α, TUB, UBQ and SKIP) were used as reference genes, the expression trends of LgPRR7 and LgFKF1 were basically consistent. According to the analysis of economic cost and correction accuracy of qRT-PCR, 2 or 3 gene combinations in Actin, EF-1α and TUB, as reference genes, can accurately correct the expression of genes involved in the floral development of L. grandissima. The results can provide a correction basis for the gene expression analysis on the floral development of L. grandissima in the future

917-924 Download
20

A meta-analysis on the relationship between seed size, seed shape and persistence in soil seed bank


Yaya Guo, Weihua Lu, Zhaobi Che, Jiamin Cao, Hanjun Yang and Xingyu Huang

A meta-analysis on the relationship between seed size, seed shape and persistence in soil seed bank


ABSTRACT:

The recent literature on seed size, shape and persistence in soil seed bank and the data from the seed plant traits database in Western Europe was collected. A total of 1656 information on seed size, shape and seed bank properties, 1518 species were obtained. Effect size of each grade seeds forming a persistent seed bank was calculated by Non-Comparative Binary Data and random effect models. Furthermore, the relationship between the grade of seed size and seed shape, a continuity data, and effect size was responsed by the regression analysis. The results show that seed size can predict the persistence of soil seed bank, but it reflects the obvious stage on the grades. At Grades 1 to 7, seed size is positively correlated with the probability of forming a persistence soil seed bank, and negatively correlated at Grades 7 to 15. Seed shape can also be a good predictor of seed bank persistence. With the increase of seed shape variance, the probability of persistent in soil seed bank will reduce as the seed becomes flattened or elongated from near spherical shape.

 

925-930 Download
21

Potential of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield, quality and nutraceutical properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.)


Safina Naz, Muhammad Usman Latif, Sakeena Tul-Ain Haider, Sajid Ali, Hasan Sardar, Riaz Ahmad and Muhammad Akbar Anjum

Potential of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield, quality and nutraceutical properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Nutrients management has prime importance in agricultural crops for imperative yield. Micronutrients, though needed in low amounts, are essential for different physiological processes, thus improve, growth, yield and nutritive value of food crops. Hence, current study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different micronutrients on two pea cultivars. Three micronutrients; zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), copper sulphate (Cu2SO4) and boric acid (H3BO3) were sprayed alone as well as in combinations, each at the level of 3 mg L-1. Meteor cultivar plants had taller plants, and had maximum number of leaves, while those of Pencil produced greater fresh and dry biomass, more number of branches, number of pods and number of seeds per pod, and higher pod fresh and dry weights and leaf chlorophyll content. However, quality traits did not differ between the cultivars. Plant height, fresh as well as dry plant biomass, number of branches as well as number of leaves/ plant were increased through foliar sprays of ZnSO4 + Cu2SO4 and ZnSO4 + H3BO3. Foliar sprays of ZnSO4 alone greatly increased the length pods as well as 100 seed weight. Plant height revealed significant association with all the studied growth as well as yield traits. Moisture content of seeds had significant relationship with all studied quality traits. Biplot analysis, a multivariate approach, confirmed the mean performance of genotypes as in mean tables and traits relationship as in trait association matrix. Conclusively, current study encourages the use of foliar spray of different micronutrients as mixture for attaining higher pea yields

931-942 Download
22

Development of an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system in carrot (T-29)


Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jaffar Jaskani and Abdul Salam Khan

Development of an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system in carrot (T-29)


ABSTRACT:

Embryogenic calli were induced from stem segment of carrot (Daucus carrota L.) cultivar T-29 when cultured on callus induction (CI) medium containing MS salts, Myo-inositol, B5 vitamins, 3 mgL‑1 2,4-D, 1 mgL-1 Kinetin and 20 gL-1 sucrose. Somatic embryos were developed from calli upon transferring to MS medium, containing 30gL-1 sucrose without any additional plant growth regulators PGRs (MS2 medium). To enhance the number of mature somatic embryos and plant regeneration, the induced calli were pretreated for two weeks on a modified CI medium that lacks 2,4-D but contains kinetin (0.6 mgL-1). The production of somatic embryos and shoots increased 10-fold in pretreated calli when cultured on MS2 medium compared with calli without pretreatment. The sucrose starvation treatment for two weeks, using modified CI medium that contains 20 gL-1 sucrose and reduced levels of kinetin, results in improved regeneration. Similarly, a greater number of mature somatic embryos and shoots primordia when transferred to a medium carrying 30 gL-1 sucrose were recovered. Thus, temporary sucrose and kinetin starvation remarkably enhanced plant regeneration that may be valuable in future experiments of genetic transformation.

 

943-951 Download
23

Biological potential assessment of samples of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) through the orthogonal analysis method


Slavka Kalapchieva, Valentin Kosev and Viliana Vasileva

Biological potential assessment of samples of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) through the orthogonal analysis method


ABSTRACT:

Plant material from aboveground biomass of 53 samples of pea different originated was analyzed during two consecutive years. The ecological-genetic model for the organization of the quantitative traits and the method of orthogonal regression were used. The following characteristics were studied: number of unproductive nodes per plant, number of productive nodes per plant, total number of nodes per plant; number of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant (g), weight of one pod (g), number of grain (green) per plant; weight of grains per plant (g), weight of one grain (g) and number of grains per pod. Mira, Marsi and Lincoln were distinguished by a larger total number of nodes per plant and a larger number of productive nodes per plant. Marsi (69.18 g), Lincoln (54.63 g), Izomrud (53.52 g) and Paldin (52.93 g) formed a larger number of pods in good combination with the weight of one grain per plant. Mira (105.50), Marsi (101.83), Vyatovo (97) and line 1855/3 (78.50) were distinguished by a large number of grains per plant, and Marsi (38.80 g), Izomrud (25.88 g), Mira (24.92 g), Puldin (24.38 g) and line 101i (24.22 g) had the highest weight of grains per plant. Lincoln, Marsi, Vyatovo and Mira were of interest and can be included in future hybridization schemes to obtain forms combining in one genotype a larger number of fertile nodes and a high weight of grains.

 

953-968 Download
24

Assessment of population structure and regeneration status of different communities of Acacia tortilis in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia


Alzubaidi Ali Ibrahim, Abadlla Ahmed Elfeel and Ahmed Abdalla Bakhashwain

Assessment of population structure and regeneration status of different communities of Acacia tortilis in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

Assessment of population structure provides necessary information about the status and disturbance of the forest key supporting indicator for forest management and conservation interventions. In this study, current Acacia tortilis community status in Makkah Region was assessed in term of population structure and regeneration pattern. To carry out vegetation survey we selected three main areas (Al-Qunfudah, Al-Leith and East Makkah) in Makkah Region. Further, within each area the data was collected from three different sites. Population structure was analyzed and classified according to tree height and crown area size class distribution. In order to determine the potential effects of other factors in the population we evaluated status of new regeneration, stand density, tree diameter, height, crown area, canopy cover percentage, associated trees and shrubs in addition to fluctuations in Emberger Aridity Index. The results of individual trees frequency distribution based on height size classes produced a bell-shaped curve in all the three populations with the highest density in 2-4 meters class. In regards to crown area the three populations revealed a reverse J-shaped pattern with most of the individuals falling in 0–20 m2 class. In Al-Leith the combination of poor natural regeneration, low stand density, higher proportion of big trees and invading of exotic Prosopis juliflora indicating deterioration in this community. While in East Makkah the higher density of smaller trees and lowest canopy cover percentage may reflect the presence of selective cutting of big trees. Despite the good natural regeneration, nevertheless, the arid climate and very high year to year variation in dryness recorded as well as land use change may highlight the vulnerability of this species in Makkah region.

969-976 Download
25

Analysis of  different manifestations and causes of liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum with three traditional Chinese medicinal herbs


Yuhan Ma, Yanyun Shao, Wanting Zhang, Yan Zhou, Yan Zhao and Yujun Sun

Analysis of  different manifestations and causes of liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum with three traditional Chinese medicinal herbs


ABSTRACT:

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been in use since ancient times, most TCM is consumed directly without going through the extraction and purification process, several components are difficult to digest and absorb, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Some fungus (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum) can break down these difficult-to-use components in TCM, allowing the beneficial elements to be released more easily. As a result, these fungi had been studied and utilized in TCM research and development, Chinese herbal cosmetics development, and Chinese medicine waste utilization.After Ganoderma lucidum co-cultivation with various TCM, however, the degradation process and culture results may change. As a result, more research is required to understand the culture patterns of Ganoderma lucidum when cultivated with various herbal medicines. Ganoderma lucidum was cultivated with varied doses of ginseng root, reed rhizome, and kirilow rhodiola root in this experiment (3g, 5g, and 7g). The changes in fungal biomass and the amount of medication residue left in the medium were compared and studied after multiple days (3 days, 6 days, or 9 days) of incubation. The results showed that the Ganoderma lucidum- ginseng culture was superior to Ganoderma lucidum- phragmites, while the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum was weaker in the rhodiola system. Electron micrographs showed that in the Ganoderma lucidum- ginseng culture, there were many mycelia attached to the surface of the ginseng powder, slightly less on the phragmites, and none could be seen on the rhodiola. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were most degraded in the ginseng system residue, followed by phragmites, and least in rhodiola. This may be the reason for the Ganoderma grow best in the ginseng system

977-984 Download
26

A taxonomic revision of the genus Eriobotrya Lindl. (Rosaceae)


Muhammad Idrees, Meng Li, Mitra Lal Pathak, Muhammad Qaiser, Zhiyong Zhang and Xin-Fen Gao

A taxonomic revision of the genus Eriobotrya Lindl. (Rosaceae)


ABSTRACT:

A comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Eriobotrya (Rosaceae) in Southeast Asia, the Himalayas and Western Malaysia were carried out. All published names or referrable to Eriobotrya were studied and discussed here. Thirty two species and nine varieties are recognized, of which five species and one variety are endemic to China. One species (E. grandiflora) is redescribed, one new hybrid (E. × balgooyi), and four new combinations, E. bengalensis var. intermedia, E. bengalensis var. contracta, E. petiolata var. glabrescens, and E. elliptica var. victoriensis, are proposed here. Four names are reduced to synonymy, and seven names are typified. Two names, E. platyphylla, and E. merguiensis, are listed as dubious species, and nineteen names are excluded. In addition, the taxonomic treatment, key to the species and varieties, distributions, habitat ecology, phylogeny, taxonomic notes, and records of specimens examined for each taxon are given

985-1017 Download
27

Phytotoxicity of root exudates of invasive Solidago canadensis on co-occurring native and invasive plant species


Beifen Yang and Junmin Li

Phytotoxicity of root exudates of invasive Solidago canadensis on co-occurring native and invasive plant species


ABSTRACT:

The mechanisms underlying the dominance of Solidago canadensis in invaded communities are unclear. We conducted a multi-species experiment to test whether the root exudates of S. canadensis inhibited both the native species and the invasive species in the invaded communities. The results showed that the root exudates from S. canadensis had significant phytotoxic effects on the root length, plant height, basal diameter, and the root, stem, leaf, and total biomass of seven plant species. The inhibition rate of root exudates on the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and total biomass was dose-dependent and species dependent. Species origin (native vs. invasive) had no significant effect on response to root exudates. Root exudates from S. canadensis had similar inhibition effects on the growth of native plants and invasive plants in the low concentration treatment, while the effects on the growth of native plants were greater than those on invasive plants in the high concentration treatment. These results indicated that the phytotoxic root exudates of S. canadensis might play an important role in the allelopathic capacities of this species.

 

1019-1024 Download
28

A Ramsar wetland’s endemic flora inventory and conservation of Chott El Hodna’s plants (Northeastern Algeria)


Abdelghani Zedam, Djamel Khoudour and Fateh Mimeche

A Ramsar wetland’s endemic flora inventory and conservation of Chott El Hodna’s plants (Northeastern Algeria)


ABSTRACT:

Chott El Hodna is classified as an internationally important site under the Ramsar Convention in Northeastern Algeria. It belongs to the Mediterranean arid bioclimatic zone. This area is an athalassic salt lake, with continental and dry climate. For the wetland operational management plan, it’s necessary to know the endemic flora, its spatial distribution, and its conservation status. We used a non-probability mixed sampling type according to the environment. We worked in thirteen stations and each station was surveyed several times. The stations were situated on two opposite sites. We conducted in all 353 surveys and recorded 37 plant families, distributed in 139 genera, and 199 species. The most important family was Asteraceae. There were 34 endemic taxa in the wetland flora which belonged to 17 families, distributed over 31 genera. Their most important life form was therophyte. Therefore the species richness was mainly represented by annuals. The endemic flora mainly belonged to the Mediterranean region, a world center of plant diversity. Eighteen species showing this restricted distribution belonged to Mediterranean element. However, no taxon is on the UICN Red List. Territorial zoning, based on endemism and species richness was established for the conservation of flora.

 

1025-1032 Download
29

Phylogenetic exploration of traditional Chinese medicinal plants: a case study on Lamiaceae 


Wajid Zaman, Jianfei Ye, Mushtaq Ahmad, Saddam Saqib, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Zhiduan Chen

Phylogenetic exploration of traditional Chinese medicinal plants: a case study on Lamiaceae 


ABSTRACT:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae) are one of the most important medicinal plant families having a wide variety of plants with traditional medicinal uses. The medicinal species of Lamiaceae are mainly used for musculoskeletal, skin, circulatory and digestive disorders in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The purpose of this study was to provide a phylogenetic exploration of traditionally used medicinal taxa of Lamiaceae as a roadmap to predict potential medicinal plants from this family for future bioprospecting. We collected data of Lamiaceae TCM plants from local pharmacopeias with traditional medicinal uses and phytochemical information. The data were examined through phylogenetic approaches i.e. nearest taxon index (NTI) and net related index (NRI) to find clustering and overdispersion of TCM plants of Lamiaceae. In addition, we used hot node analysis to identify overrepresentation among lineages against different disorders that possess high priority for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The phylogenetic patterns were examined for the traditional uses of 345 species belonging to 77 Lamiaceae genera in nine medicinal categories. Overall, most of the medicinal uses showed clustered structure on the phylogeny of TCM plants of Lamiaceae (NRI and NTI > 1). Of all the nine medicinal usage categories, the NRI matrix identified only two significant clusterings with p<0.05 for urinary and reproductive disorders. In total of 488 hot nodes that are significantly overabundant in species are used to treat different disorders. The highest number of hot nodes recovered was 191 for reproductive disorder, of these 138 species were reported to be potential novel species. The majority of new potential species were reported from Ajuga, Elsholtzia and Salvia. These results strongly indicate the independent discovery of plant usages in the light of phylogenetic exploration. We concluded that phylogenetic approaches could focus on screening efforts of taxonomic groups containing traditionally used species with abundant therapeutic compounds for the discovery of alternative/complementary medicines. The phylogeny-based study, after further refinement, will expand the horizon of medicinal plant exploration of plant-based bioactive compounds.

 

1033-1040 Download
30

Evaluation of grain quality properties and mineralcontents (nutritional values) of triticale (x Triticosecale wittmack) cultivars under rainfed agricultural conditions in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey


Abdulveli Sirat, Bilge Bahar and Necmiye Bahar

Evaluation of grain quality properties and mineralcontents (nutritional values) of triticale (x Triticosecale wittmack) cultivars under rainfed agricultural conditions in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Triticale is an important alternative crop and is largely grown on marginal lands in Turkey to overcome the shortage of rising animal feed problem. Sometimes Triticale is also used as human food. This study was conducted for two years between 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to determine some grain quality characteristics of nine different Triticale (Tatlicak-97, for cvs. Presto, Karma-2000, Melez-2001, Mihkam-2002, Ege Yildizi, Alperbey, Umranhanım, and Tacettinbey) cultivars under dry farming conditions at Siran-Gumushane (Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey). The experiment was conducted with three replications based on the randomized complete block design. According to two-years average, thousand-grain weight of cultivars changed from 38.85-45.12 g, also, hectoliter weight 74.68-77.21 kg hl-1, protein contents 10.56-12.09%, starch contents 64.74-68.19%, moisture contents 9.44-9.72%, ash contents 1.25-1.60%, oil contents 0.79-1.27%, ADF (acid detergent fiber) 3.22-4.39%, NDF (neutral detergent fiber) 15.14-16.88%, potassium (K) contents 0.432-0.527%, magnesium (Mg) contents 0.113-0.135%, and phosphorus (P) contents 0.360-0.387%. In terms of quality characteristics, the maximum thousand-grain weight was obtained from Tacettinbey and Ege Yildizi; the maximum grain yield weight from Tatlicak-97; the maximum hectoliter weight from Tatlicak-97, Ege Yildizi and Mihkam-2002 cultivars; Also, cv. Karma-2000 and Alperbey had the maximum protein contents, and Umranhanım and Mihkam-2002 cultivars had the maximum starch content. It is concluded that studies relating to Agronomic practices of these and other Triticale cultivars would help in improving the life style and the livestock sector of the region

1041-1048 Download
31

Zinc fertility of red delicious apple orchards and its association with soil properties in Tehsil Sanjavi, Balochistan


Syed Rehan Fareed, Mehrunisa Memon, Saleem Maseeh Bhatti and Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio

Zinc fertility of red delicious apple orchards and its association with soil properties in Tehsil Sanjavi, Balochistan


ABSTRACT:

Prevailing Zn issue at the country level and some studies of fruit orchards highlighting Zn deficiency gave rise to the evaluation of apple orchards in Sanjavi Tehsil. Soil and leaf tissue samples were collected from twenty-five apple orchards (eight trees from each) covering four union councils (Sanjavi, Mana, Warchm and Poi) of Sanjavi Tehsil. Four cores were dug under each tree to have a representative soil sample. Leaves were collected from the middle of each newly emerged twelve shoots of each tree. According to the critical nutrient level (CNL) approach, there was no deficiency of plant available Zn in soil. All the samples (100%) were above the adequacy limit of 1.5 mg kg-1. Nonetheless, 7 out of 25 orchards had relatively less available Zn (1.8 to 3.0 mg kg-1) over others. In contrast to available Zn, the leaf tissue samples were at the edge of adequacy level. In other words, 100% samples were marginal (25-150 mg kg-1) and if no application is carried out in near future, soil available and leaf tissue Zn, both may further lower down. Positive and significant relationships illustrated that organic matter contributed to soil available and leaf tissue Zn

 

1049-1054 Download
32

Macro- and micro-anatomical diversity in the Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. growing in varying climatic conditions of Sino-Japanese region of Pakistan


Zahoor Ul Haq, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Abdullah, Zeeshan Ahmad, Majid Iqbal, Raees Khan, Sana Rasheed and Zaheer Abbas

Macro- and micro-anatomical diversity in the Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. growing in varying climatic conditions of Sino-Japanese region of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. belong to the family Betulaceae. It is distributed in the western Himalayas and the Hindu Kush regions of the Sino-Japanese belt of northern Pakistan. This study was designed to investigate the morpho-anatomical variation in different populations of Alnus nitida (Himalayan Alder). Preliminary, a variation was observed in the size of both male and female catkins. Similar variations were observed in pollen morphology in different populations of the species. The micronutrients in soil and environmental conditions are the main drivers of these variations. These palynological, anatomical, soil characteristics and environmental conditions were analyzed through multivariate statistical software i.e., PCORD and CANOCO. It was observed an efficient accumulator of all heavy metals as revealed by the values (>1) of Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) in shoots, BCF in roots and the Translocation Factor (TF). Detailed morpho-anatomical and palynological variations in Alnus nitida were enlisted. The palynological and anatomical variations were not enough to define the taxonomic status of different populations. However, further molecular studies will be essential to clear the genetic diversity in these populations

1055-1064 Download
33

Ex-situ conservation and morpho-biochemical study of exotic germplasm of potato


Arifa Khan, Shazia Erum, Naveeda Riaz, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari and Maryum Ibrar Shinwari

Ex-situ conservation and morpho-biochemical study of exotic germplasm of potato


ABSTRACT:

To keep potato germplasm disease-free and available for use, it was conserved as In vitro micro-plants under tissue culture conditions using different concentrations of mannitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitol at 60 g/L effectively reduced growth of explants and kept healthy for 180 days. Whereas explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media alone or supplemented with 20-40 g/L of mannitol or sorbitol filled the growing tubes, and had to sub-culture after 110 and 150 days, respectively. Higher concentration of both mannitol and sorbitol (100 g/L) caused complete death of explants. Alike, explants in control treatments had higher chlorophyll while it was comparable in explants conserved in MS media along with 40-80 g/L sorbitol or mannitol. Higher proline and less sugar contents were depicted for explants conserved in MS media with 80 g/L of sorbitol compared to mannitol. Explants conserved in MS media along with 60 g/L sorbitol had maximum plant condition (4 out of 5) score than same level of mannitol (3.66). Genotype “Karuda” had maximum plant height, leaves and branches in both mannitol and sorbitol than genotype “Burna” and “Asterix”. In short, sorbitol and mannitol play a similar role however sorbitol has more beneficial effects than mannitol

1065-1071 Download
34

The reproductive biology of Fagonia indica Burm. f. (Zygophyllaceae) from Pakistan with special emphasis on mode of breeding system


Rubina Abid, Rida Faheem, Sana Riaz and Afsheen Ather

The reproductive biology of Fagonia indica Burm. f. (Zygophyllaceae) from Pakistan with special emphasis on mode of breeding system


ABSTRACT:

The reproductive biology of Fagonia indica Burm. f. (Zygophyllaceae) reveals that it is a facultative autogamous taxon i.e. predominantly self-fertilized but also gets benefit by crossing as normal seed set was observed in both selfing and crossing. Values of pollen ovule ratio did not show the positive correlation with breeding system. Opening and closing timings of flower govern by temperature and light intensity. An initiated bud required about 19-21 days to convert into a mature fruit. The flower simultaneously serve as primary as well as secondary attractant as it offers nectar, floral odor, waxes and glowing colour, due to which a variety of insects regularly visited the flower

1073-1076 Download
35

Plant genetic resources of Serbia - situation and perspectives


Natalija Grittner, Radomir Mandic and Maja Jecmenica

Plant genetic resources of Serbia - situation and perspectives


ABSTRACT:

The paper presents plant genetic resources of Serbia. Old autochthonous varieties including cereals and corn, fodder plants, industrial plants, vegetables, medicinal plants, fruits and vine plants were analyzed. The collections of the Plant Gene Bank of Serbia are presented, as well as the collections that are kept in certain scientific institutions. It was proposed to create a new National Program for the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources and re-entry in the National variety List of certain varieties that have been unjustifiably deleted. The need for further work on collecting and inventorying old and autochthonous varieties was pointed out, especially those that can still be found on farms (on farm) with some agricultural producers, and which have not yet been recorded. A proposal of measures and activities for further improvement of the work of the Plant Gene Bank and the overall conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources is also given.

 

1077-1088 Download
36

Development of a micropropagation protocol for endangered Hypericum bilgehan-bilgilii Başkose & Savran (Hypericaceae) species, local endemic to Turkey


Huseyin Turker and Bengu Turkyilmaz Unal

Development of a micropropagation protocol for endangered Hypericum bilgehan-bilgilii Başkose & Savran (Hypericaceae) species, local endemic to Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Hypericum species, are medicinally important and well studied for their pharmaceutical values. These species are gradually losing ground due to habitat loss, serious anthropogenic reasons as well as excessive collection from nature. Hypericum bilgehan-bilgilii is a local endemic species in Turkey. The population size is small and facing a threat. Keeping this in view there was a need to develop an In vitro ex-situ conservation protocol. Therefore an attempt was made to develop a protocol for callus induction, shoot growth, rooting and acclimatization for this endemic species. The nodal parts of the plant were preferred as the source of explant. These were cultured on a MS medium containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and Kinetin (Kin) in different concentrations and combinations. The best callus induction was recorded in MS medium including 1.0 mg.L-1 Kin and 0.5 mg.L-1 2,4-D with 6.2 shoots per callus. MS media with different Kin concentrations were used for shoot growth. The best shoot growth was observed on the MS medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 Kin. Shoots grown In vitro were subcultured to MS medium containing 0.5 and 1.0 mg.L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting. The best-rooting frequency (90 %) and rooting were determined in MS medium containing 1.0 mg.L-1 IBA. There were 10 root formations per shoot. The micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized in pots filled with peat and by this way, an effective In vitro tissue culture protocol for the species studied was developed and its sustainable conservation way was confirmed

1089-1095 Download
37

Allometric parameters assessment in canola under different macro and micronutrient regimes


Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui, Muhammad Mahran Aslam and Mahboob Ali Sial

Allometric parameters assessment in canola under different macro and micronutrient regimes


ABSTRACT:

Nutrient management strategies are an excellent resource for optimizing canola production in Pakistan's arid and semi-arid regions. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), and boron (B) on canola genotypes and determine optimal fertilizer levels. The two-season field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two promising canola genotypes (R00-125/14 and W97-75/16) and parents (Rainbow and Westar) under different combinations of N, P, B, and Zn. The results evinced that the varietal and fertilizer treatments produced significant differences regarding yield and yield contributing traits. In the case of the interactive effect of varieties and fertilizer treatments, R00-125/14 produced the maximum seed yield of 3377.7 kg ha-1 under the treatment N90-P45-Zn06-B1.0. The second-highest seed yield (3083.3 kg ha-1) was recorded in the same variety under N90-P45-Zn03-B1.5. The minimum seed yield (1471.4 kg ha-1) was obtained in W97-75/16 under N90-P45-Zn09-B1.5. The overall performance of the genotypes for yield and yield components indicated that all the characteristics significantly varied in mutants as well as the parent material under different treatments. The results of the study indicated that optimal fertilizer application can help enhance canola yield in Pakistan

1097-1101 Download
38

Biotechnologically potent halophilic fungal biodiversity from mangrove ecosystem of Lasbela, Balochistan


Shabir Ahmad Khan, Ali Akbar, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Shafee, Abdul Samad, Fazal Ur Rehman, Khalid Mehmood and Imran Ali

Biotechnologically potent halophilic fungal biodiversity from mangrove ecosystem of Lasbela, Balochistan


ABSTRACT:

In this study, we have isolated the halophilic fungi from mangrove ecosystem and analyzed it for their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from the mangrove’s ecosystem of district Lasbela, Balochistan Pakistan. Temperature, pH and salt concentration of the soil were analyzed for each sample. Potato dextrose agar supplemented with 15 % salt (NaCl) was used for the initial isolation of filamentous fungal strains. The isolated fungi were initially identified with the help of growth characteristics on potato dextrose agar, structural detailed observation by microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Total 19 different fungal species were analyzed for their halophilic and halotolerant capabilities. The fungi were then evaluated for biotechnologically important metabolites production (antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, polyphenolic compounds, xylanase, lipase, gelatinase, cellulases, amylase and protease). Majority of isolated species belonged to the genus Aspergillus (7) and genus Penicillium (7), 3 isolates belonged to genus Alternaria while one from Fusarium and one from the family Pleosporaceae. The antibacterial metabolites of the fungal isolates were found active against a range of bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. It was found that the fungal isolates from mangrove’s ecosystem have a great potential for their biotechnological applications. Mangrove’s ecosystems are rich in fungal biodiversity. The microbial biodiversity of such ecosystem can be a good source of biotechnologically important metabolites.

 

1103-1112 Download
39

A comprehensive study and antimicrobial evaluation of Alpinia eremochlamys K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae), an endemic ginger species of Sulawesi, Indonesia


Ramadanil Pitopang, Wahyu Harso, Umrah Umrah, Risqi Fadilah and Muhammad Sulaiman Zubair

A comprehensive study and antimicrobial evaluation of Alpinia eremochlamys K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae), an endemic ginger species of Sulawesi, Indonesia


ABSTRACT:

Antimicrobial activity of Alpinia eremochlamys K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) which is an endemic ginger species of Sulawesi, Indonesia was studied from May 2019 to March 2020. The research site was located in the montane forest of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP) near Sedoa village, Lore Utara district, Poso regency Central Sulawesi Indonesia. Identification of plant specimen, plant extraction and antimicrobial activities were carried out at the laboratory of Plant Biosystematics and Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Tadulako University. Antimicrobial activities were assayed by using agar well diffusion techniques. A.eremochlamys is now recorded from a new locality, in Sulawesi. The comprehensive notes of comprising synonym, descriptions, distribution, habitat and ecology, specimen examined and photographs are provided. Leaf and rhizome extract of Alpinia eremochlamys has an inhibition activity on the cell growth of three pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella thypi, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albican.

 

1113-1119 Download
40

 In vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiphage activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris)


Wardah Qureshi, Fasiha Saeed, Munazza Ajaz and Sheikh Ajaz Rasool

 In vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiphage activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris)


ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris water extract and essential oil against multidrug resistant clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). Antiphage activity of thyme water extract was studied by phage inhibition assay. Thyme extract was prepared with water while oil was extracted from dried thyme plant using steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The mechanism of action of thyme water extract against bacterial cells and biofilm formation was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Thyme oil was fractionated by column chromatography (normal phase chromatography) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Bioactivity of oil fractions against bacteria was also studied. Thyme in both forms (oil and water extract) was effective against all the tested isolates however, Gram positive bacterial and Candida strains were found more sensitive compared to Gram negative bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of thyme oil for Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus was recorded to be 0.2 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed disruptive properties of thyme against biofilm formation and significant distortion of bacterial cell morphology. Reduction in phage (in terms of plaque forming units percentile i.e. pfu) showed thyme water extract possessed antiviral potential.

 

1121-1128 Download
41

Antagonism of selected fungal species against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, causing charcoal rot of mungbean


Sajjad Hyder, Amjad Shahzad Gondal, Zarrin Fatima Rizvi, Rashid Iqbal, Abdul Hannan and Shahbaz Talib Sahi

Antagonism of selected fungal species against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, causing charcoal rot of mungbean


ABSTRACT:

Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid is a destructive soil-borne fungus that infect several crops and cause considerable yield losses. In this work, M. phaseolina was isolated from symptomatic munbean plants and was identified on the basis of morphological features. Morphological identification was further confirmed by the amplification of ITS regions which exhibited 99 to 100% identity with sequences of M. phaseolina present in previously published literature. In antagonistic assays, strains of Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium spp. and A. flavus significantly inhibited the mycelial growth in M. phaseolina except A. niger. Fungal agents with promising antagonism in dual culture were further investigated for disease suppression and plant growth promotion effects on five selected mungbean varieties in net house. Of all the tested fungal agents, T. Harzianum and Penicillium spp. significantly curbed the disease severity percentage, and showed positive effects on seed germination percentage and other plant growth parameters. An in-depth study of these fungal antagonists needs to be carried out which can lead to develop a better substitute to chemical formulations.

 

1129-1138 Download
42

Isolation and identification of novel leaf spot pathogen Fusarium equiseti from Spinacia oleracea


Shazia Shafique, Ayesha Mubarak, Sobiya Shafique, Abrar Hussain, Alina Javed and Rubab Rafique

Isolation and identification of novel leaf spot pathogen Fusarium equiseti from Spinacia oleracea


ABSTRACT:

In recent past spinach is threatened by various fungal, viral and bacterial diseases which are major cause of loss in crop production. Diseases caused by fungal pathogen, rank amongst the highest cause of spinach yield loss. During the field survey of selected areas of Punjab, spinach samples infected with leaf spot were collected and disease severity was recorded. The fungal pathogen was isolated from diseased spinach samples and based on morphological characterization and analysis of rDNA region of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence, partial elongation factor (EF1/EF2) and Beta tubulin (Bt2a/Bt2b), the isolate was identified as Fusarium equiseti var. bullatum (Sherb). of Spinacia oleraceae. The pathogenicity trails conducted in plates as well as in pots confirmed Fusarium equiseti, as the most virulent pathogen of spinach. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of a novel pathogen from S. oleraceae.

1139-1145 Download
43

In silico investigation of glycosylation of SET9 protein in different strains of Sordaria fimicola


Iqra Mobeen, Rabia Arif and Muhammad Saleem

In silico investigation of glycosylation of SET9 protein in different strains of Sordaria fimicola


ABSTRACT:

Glycosylation is the most abundant and complex type of post-translational modification (PTM), which diversifies the protein functions and is affected by environmental stress. This study has investigated the polymorphism and glycosylation of the SET9 (a histone methyltransferase) protein of six strains of Sordaria fimicola and Neurospora crassa for the first time. Various bioinformatics tools are used to predict the O and N-glycosylation and those sites, which were common and have the highest EVP (enhancement value product) value, are chosen. Two N-glycosylation sites Asn205, Asn262 are found conserved in the N. crassa and all strains of S. fimicola, predicted by NetNGlyc 1.0. Seven O-glycosylation sites are reported on serine and threonine residues in SFS (South-facing slope) strains, which are presented at Ser74, Ser219, Ser292, Thr330, Ser320, Thr333, and Ser412, predicted by NetOGlyc 4.0 and ISOGlyP. While the NFS (North-facing slope) strains have five O-glycosylation sites similar to the SFS strains except for Ser320, not present in NFS strains. N. crassa has four sites similar to the SFS and NFS strains with two missing sites Ser320 and Ser412. These all sites are also presented on the 3D models of the SET9 protein. PolyView-2D, NetSurfP, and I-TASSER are used to predict the 2D and 3D structures and surface accessibility of glycosylated sites of the SET9. Polymorphism reported at five sites in the SFS strains and at one site in the NFS strains of the SET9 region, which clearly shows the effects of environmental stress on the SFS strains. The functions of the glycosylated sites of SET9 in S. fimicola are not known, but this study is evidenced by the more glycosylation sites in SFS strains than NFS strains. Therefore, the current study concludes that environmental stress is responsible for polymorphism, which alters the genes expression and this leads towards the creation of more diverse types of glycoproteins through PTMs that are specifically preferred by the organisms facing environmental stress

1147-1155 Download
44

Detection and identification of quarantine bacteria and fungi associated with imported and local potato seed tubers


Rawish Zehra, Shumaila Moin, Syed Muhammad Enamullah and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Detection and identification of quarantine bacteria and fungi associated with imported and local potato seed tubers


ABSTRACT:

Potato, one of the most important vegetable crops, is feeding the growing global population. It has an enormous economic outlet however; fungal and bacterial pathogens associated with seed tuber cause huge losses in its production. Planting healthy seed potatoes is a key factor in maximizing the production of potatoes for consumption or processing. In this study, the presence of different pathogenic fungi and two pathogenic bacteria (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus that cause ring rot of potato and Salmonella sp., (a notorious human pathogenic bacterium) in imported seed potato varieties (Asterix, Ultra and Karuda) and four local varieties (Asterix, Lady Rusetta, Qasur and Mozika) were determined. Among highly plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium solani (8-23%) and Rhizoctonia solani (9-13%) were associated with imported tubers, while Fusarium oxysporum (12-20%) and, R. solani (8-17%) were isolated from local seed tubers. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and Salmonella spp., were detected in all potato tubers examined. Association of highly pathogenic fungi and bacteria with seed tubers is a serious issue and needs further investigation

1157-1161 Download
45

Satellite derived diatom dynamics in the Indian Ocean: mean seasonal patterns and trends


Imran Ahmed Khan, Mudassar Hassan Arsalan, Asma Tabassum, Syed Mohammed Saifullah, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui, Ibrahim Zia and Tariq Mahmood

Satellite derived diatom dynamics in the Indian Ocean: mean seasonal patterns and trends


ABSTRACT:

Assessment of phytoplankton (diatom) dynamics was studied using NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) from NASA Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) system, from Jan 1998 to Dec 2015. It was carried out from Indian Ocean to Southern Ocean covering areas of various small seas (45–145°E, 35N–80°S). High and low abundance of diatoms were observed during two periods from September to November and March to May, respectively. The diatoms spatial distribution and richness were observed high between 40° and 60° South latitudes throughout the year. During December to February they increased between 40 to 70 degree south. In March to May between 40 to 45 degree south, during June to August near Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and in the months from September to November diatom increased in the southern ocean areas and dropped in other areas. This study reveals potential rich diatom areas with its seasons and results can be useful further in ecological studies

1163-1167 Download
46

Tropical fruit peels as sources of bioactive compounds: a review


Lilian D. Chel-Guerrero, Luis F. Cuevas-Glory, Enrique Sauri-Duch, Edgar Sierra-Palacios, Fernando Díaz De León-Sánchez and José A. Mendoza-Espinoza

Tropical fruit peels as sources of bioactive compounds: a review


ABSTRACT:

Tropical ecosystems are rich in plant species of special interest to the pharmacological industry. Tropical fruit peels contain several bioactive compounds and show biological activities, unfortunately they don’t get enough attention. This is an updated review of the bioactive compounds present in tropical fruits peels: Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwifruit), Mangifera indica L. (Mango), Annona squamosa L. (Sugar-apple), Annona reticulata L. (Custard apple), Ananas comosus (Pineapple), Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (Dabai), Carica papaya L. (Papaya), Cucumis sativus L. (Cucumber), Persea americana Mill. (Avocado), Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), Musa acuminata, Musa sapientum, Musa paradisiaca (Banana), Psidium guajava L. (Guava), Genipa americana L. (Jagua), Citrus maxima - Citrus grandis L. (Pomelo), Citrus paradisi Macfad (Grapefruit), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Citrus macroptera (Wild Orange), Citrus reticulata (Mandarine), Citrus limon (Lemon), Citrus medica L. (Citron), Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Spanish Lime), Euphoria longana Lam. (Longan), Nephelium lappaceum L. (Rambutan) and Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Star Apple) belonging to 15 different families. The peels of tropical fruits are a potential source of various bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, alcaloids, among others. They also possess properties and antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer and antidiabetic activities that could be used to create new therapeutic agents. This review shows the pharmacological potential of tropical fruit peels and also pretends to be a basis to encourage cultivation and conservation of these rare (non-commercial) fruit species and promote their integral and sustainable use

1169-1179 Download
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