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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-MALVACEAE: DOMBEYOIDEAE-LXII
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-MALVACEAE: DOMBEYOIDEAE-LXII
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 2 species of the subfamily Dombeyoideae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, triporate and sub-oblate to spheroidal. Sexine thinner than nexine. Tectum echinate. On the basis of polar length two distinct pollen types viz., Melhania denhamii-type and Melhania futteyporensis-type are recognized.

491-494 Download
2
PALYNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF POLLEN LOADS FROM POLLEN SOURCES OF HONEYBEES IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
MEHWISH JAMIL NOOR1*, MIR AJAB KHAN2 AND ELIZABETH STEPHEN CAMPHOR3

PALYNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF POLLEN LOADS FROM POLLEN SOURCES OF HONEYBEES IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Palynological studies of pollen loads were carried out to determine the pollen sources for honeybees in Islamabad during January to December 2006. Three different sources for honeybees were identified as Major, Medium and Minor. A total of 40 plant species served as pollen sources for honeybees from amongst the fruit trees, ornamental and agricultural crop and weeds. Major pollen yielding plants viz., Brassica campestris L., Callistemon citrinus (Curt.) Stapf., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbek, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindlay, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Chenopodium album L., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Ageratum conyzoides L., Bauhinia variegata L., Bischofia javonica Blume., Bombax ceiba Burm., Cassia fistula L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Coriandrum sativum L., Cucumis melo-agrostis L., Delbergia sisso Roxb., Delphinium ajacis L., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Eucalyptus cammoldulensis Dehnh., Grewia asiatica L., Hamelia patens Jacq., Helianthus annus L., Iberis amara L., Jacranda mimosifolia Juss., Justicia adhatoda Linn, Lagerstromia indica L., Litchi chinensis Mill., Melilotus indica (L.) All., Nastertium officinale R. Br., Prunus armeniaca L., P. persica Benth., and Hook., P. bokhariensis Royle., Pongammia pinnata (L.) Pierre., Raphanus sativa L., Rosa sp., Rumex dentatis L., Silibum merianum L., Sonchus asper Hill., Trifolium alexandrium L., Verbena tunisecta L., were identified. Although the foraged plants are available throughout the year in the locality but January to April and July to August are major, whereas April and May are minor flow period of pollen while June is the dearth period. This study gives the general idea of range of plant species that occur in the area and their utility to the honeybees which is important for them so that they can make efficient use of these resources.

495-501 Download
3
ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ENDEMIC ONOSMA MERSINANA RIEDL, BINZET & ORCAN
RIZA BİNZET* AND NERMİN ORCAN**

ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ENDEMIC ONOSMA MERSINANA RIEDL, BINZET & ORCAN
ABSTRACT:
This study determines the anatomical and palynological characteristics of the endemic Onosma mersinana Riedl, Binzet & Orcan (Boraginaceae). The examined species is perennial and collected from Mersin vil. The root of examined species observed as secondary structure. Stem pith consist of paranchymal cells. Some pith cells contain crystals. In transverse sections, the leaves are isolateral (=equifacial) in type. The pollen type is syncolporatae. Pollen shape is prolatae P/E: 1.39 (W); subprolatae P/E: 1.22 (E).

503-510 Download
4
SEASONAL VARIATION IN NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CHRYSOPOGON AUCHERI (BOISS) STAPF., AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA (JONES) SCHULT., IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
GUL BANO1, MUHAMMAD ISLAM2, SARFRAZ AHMAD2, SOHAIL ASLAM2 AND SHAISTA KOUKAB2

SEASONAL VARIATION IN NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CHRYSOPOGON AUCHERI (BOISS) STAPF., AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA (JONES) SCHULT., IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss) Stapf., and Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., are the dominated perennial range grasses in highland Balochistan. Seasonal concentration dynamics of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in Chrysopogon aucheri and Cymbopogon jwarancusa were determined at a protected site. The concentration of nitrogen in spring ranged from 12.4 to 13 mg g-1, early summer 15.4-17.26 mg g-1 and late summer 6.7 to 10.7 mg g-1, respectively during 2001 and 2002 seasons. In 2001, the concentration of P in spring and early summer was (1.1-3.4 mg g-1) and least in late summer (0.26-0.81 mg g-1) while in 2002 the concentration of P in spring and early summer was significantly higher (1.28-3.35 mg g-1) and least in late summer (0.38-1.01 mg g-1). In both grass species, there was a similar response of concentrations of K, Mg and Na and the concentration of these elements were higher during spring and then dropped and remained static for the remainder of the year while the concentration of Ca was lower in early spring and significantly (p<0.05) increased with the passage of time during the season. In both grasses the N: P ratio was below < 14 suggesting N-limitation during March and July and showed more than >16 during drier months of August and September. Overall, both the grasses are low in N, P and other nutrients except Na and Ca. These findings suggest that heavy but short-term grazing of very long protected grasslands after substantial rainfall may be one strategy to increase palatability and animal nutrition. Results of this study also indicate the need for direct and high quality mineral supplementation for grazing stock.

511-517 Download
5
SEASONAL VARIATION IN CURRENT SEASON AND DEAD BIOMASS OF CHRYSOPOGON AUCHERI (BOISS) STAPF. AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA (JONES) SCHULT. IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
SARFRAZ AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ISLAM1, GUL BANO2, SOHAIL ASLAM1 AND SHAISTA KOUKAB1

SEASONAL VARIATION IN CURRENT SEASON AND DEAD BIOMASS OF CHRYSOPOGON AUCHERI (BOISS) STAPF. AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA (JONES) SCHULT. IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Aboveground current season growth biomass and dead accumulated biomass of Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss) Stapf., and Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., were evaluated during 2001 and 2002 in a protected site of Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park in highland Balochistan. Cymbopogon jwarancusa current season biomass ranged from 27 kg/ha in April to 51 kg/ha in June whereas Chrysopogon aucheri current season biomass production ranged from 2 kg/ha in April to 54 kg/ha in June. Above ground dead biomass of Cymbopogon jwarancusa ranged from 77 to 310 kg/ha whereas the dead biomass of Chrysopogon aucheri ranged from 50 to 320 kg/ha. In both years the dead biomass remained more than 70% in the growing season. The protected site had a higher accumulation of aboveground dead material and limited new growth. Accumulated dead materials reducing the productivity of these grasses and planned grazing or clipping may improve the productivity and quality of these grasses.

519-527 Download
6
MEDICO-ETHNOBOTANICAL INVENTORY OF TEHSIL CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*, ABDUL WAHEED, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD AND TALLAT UMBREEN

MEDICO-ETHNOBOTANICAL INVENTORY OF TEHSIL CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present research was to record the indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants of Tehsil Chakwal. Field trips were arranged to collect the plants and ethnobotanical information from the study area during October

529-538 Download
7
SEASONAL AVAILABILITY, PALATABILITY AND ANIMAL PREFERENCES OF FORAGE PLANTS IN HARBOI ARID RANGE LAND, KALAT, PAKISTAN
1FARRUKH HUSSAIN AND MUFAKHIRAH JAN DURRANI2

SEASONAL AVAILABILITY, PALATABILITY AND ANIMAL PREFERENCES OF FORAGE PLANTS IN HARBOI ARID RANGE LAND, KALAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Harboi rangeland Kalat, Pakistan, covering an area of 22351 ha, lies between 29o N and 66o, 45 to 67oE. The altitude varies from 2900 to 3300 m with dry temperate climate. The active growing season lasts from April to October with seasonal and annual variation in rainfall and temperature. The precipitation is mostly received during winter from western depression. The area receives regular snowfall during winter. A study was conducted for two consecutive years to assess the seasonal availability, palatability and animal preferences of forage plants. It was observed that the seasonal availability of forage, palatability and preferences of goats and sheep varied in their botanical composition throughout the growing season. There were 129 palatable species including 50.4% (65 species) highly palatable, 41.1% (53 species) mostly palatable, 4.65% (6 species) less palatable and 3.87% (5 species) rarely palatable species in the area. It was found that in 99 species (63%) shoots/whole plants were used; in 30 species (19%) foliage/leaves were used while in 29 species (18%) floral parts were consumed. Goats browsed on 104 species including 60% herbs

539-554 Download
8
TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY IN THE TRIBE ANTHEMIDEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
RUBINA ABID AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY IN THE TRIBE ANTHEMIDEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The present paper deals with the study of 44 species included in 15 genera of the tribe Anthemideae from Pakistan and Kashmir. Micromorphological characters of cypselas were found significant for taxonomic delimitation for most of the taxa both at the generic and specific levels.

555-579 Download
9
PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TIKO BARAN (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TIKO BARAN (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted for the plant biodiversity and phytosociological attributes of the Tiko Baran, Khirthar range. Tiko Baran is located in Dadu district. The primary goal of this study is to provide inclusive inventory of the area. The study area was thoroughly surveyed throughout the year (2008) from time-to-time in order to study the plant biodiversity. Tiko baran has never been explored for its plant biodiversity. Plants were collected from the study area, in different parts of the year i.e., in winter, summer and monsoon. Phenological status of each species i.e. flowering and fruiting conditions were also observed. Quantitative analysis on species diversity in addition to phytosociological attributes analysis were conducted. Some ecological parameters such as life forms, species density, species cover, species relative density and frequency were calculated. Within the study area 70 plant species representing 59 genera and 31 families were found.

581-586 Download
10
SOME CORRECTIONS AND NOTES IN ASTERACEAE AND MALVACEAE
SULTANUL ABEDIN AND ZAMARRUD TAJUDDIN

SOME CORRECTIONS AND NOTES IN ASTERACEAE AND MALVACEAE
ABSTRACT:
A new name Taraxacum khatoonae S. Abedin is proposed for Taraxacum laholensis S. Abedin, a later homonym. Some notes on Eclipta, Pterachaenia and Hibiscus are given.

587-589 Download
11
YIELD AND SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPER (CAPPARIS SPINOSA L.) POPULATION CULTIVATED AT VARIOUS SLOPES IN AEGEAN ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS*
ZEHRA AYTAÇ1, GÜLCAN KINACI1 AND AYHAN CEYLAN2

YIELD AND SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPER (CAPPARIS SPINOSA L.) POPULATION CULTIVATED AT VARIOUS SLOPES IN AEGEAN ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS*
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to determine the relationship between ecological conditions and caper bud production and the percentage distribution in calibre classes of caper buds to get information about caper bud yields and some morphological characteristics like number of branches and branch lenghts of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) population cultivated in Menemen ecological conditions on various slopy area (3.5% and 8%) for two years. Upto 79% of total production of caper bud was obtained when maximum temperatures (40.8oC and 41.1oC) occur and rainfall is absent (0 mm). The calibre classes of 0-7 mm were 38.64% in Menemen and a five-day average picking interval helped to obtain bud diameters below 11 mm. Upto 96% of the plants at first (3.5%) and 88% plants at second slope (8%) produced buds. The stem lenghts increased steadily upto 180 cm in second year at 3.5% slopy area. Upto 16% of the plants at the first slope (3.5%) and 4% of the plants at second slope (8%) had more than 7 branches per plant.

591-596 Download
12
IN VITRO CULTURE OF KINNOW EXPLANTS
NAFEES ALTAF, ABDUL REHMAN KHAN, LIAQAT ALI AND INKISAR AHMAD BHATTI

IN VITRO CULTURE OF KINNOW EXPLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Kinnow mandarin is the most adaptable Citrus scion variety in Punjab, Pakistan. The explant tissues responded to culture media. BA and 2-4, D were essential for good callusing. The reproductive tissues such as nucellus have tendency of embryogenesis, while vegetative tissues like seedling leaves regenerated as shoot organogenesis. The seeds formed callus in MS medium supplemented with BA+2, 4-D each @ 1mg/litre and callus regeneration was observed in MS +GA+BA each @ 1mg/litre +2, 4-D (0.25mg/litre). Seedling leaves formed callus in MS supplemented with BA+GA each @ 1mg/litre +2, 4-D (0.5mg/litre) + proline (5mg/litre) and callus regenerated in BA + GA each @ 1mg/litre +NAA (0.5mg/litre) + Proline (5mg/litre). Nucellus regenerated in BA (1mg/litre) + 2, 4-D (0.5mg/litre) + Glutamine (5mg/litre). Buds were initially cultured in BA (1mg/litre) + GA (1mg/litre) +Glutamine (5mg/litre) and buds developed shoots in BA (2mg/litre) +NAA (0.5mg/litre) +GA (1mg/litre). Nucellus at 100 DAP (Days after Pollination) responded best (68%) at 60 Gray gamma radiation exposure. LD50 dose for mature seeds was slightly less than 100 Gray. Apical meristem explants were sensitive to gamma (γ) radiation doses. The maximum survival of explants (77%) was in control (No γ-radiation exposure) followed by 15 Gray (66% survival). The regenerated shoots were grafted on rough lemon seedlings.

597-602 Download
13
A MICROPROPAGATION SYSTEM FOR CLONING OF HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L.) BY SHOOT TIP CULTURE
REN WANG1*, LI-SI HE1, BING XIA1, JIN-FENG TONG1, NING LI2 AND FENG PENG1

A MICROPROPAGATION SYSTEM FOR CLONING OF HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L.) BY SHOOT TIP CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
This study describes the standardization of an efficient in vitro propagation and hardening procedure for obtaining plantlets from shoot tips of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Hemp seedlings were germinated on half-strength 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 10 g·L-1sucrose, 5.5 g·L-1agar at a pH of 6.8 under light for 16 h per day. MS medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1TDZ, 0.1 mg·L-1NAA supported the maximal auxiliary bud multiplication rate of 3.22 per shoot tip. The proliferated buds were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg·L-1IBA and 0.05 mg·L-1NAA resulting in 85% of the plantlets rooting. The procedure requires a 54 days cycle for the In vitro clonal propagation (14 days for shoot multiplication and 40 days for root induction) which includes 35-42 days for acclimatized plantlet production.

603-608 Download
14
AN EFFICIENT, SHORT AND COST-EFFECTIVE REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR TRANSFORMATION STUDIES OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
AZAD HUSSAIN SHAH*, NAEEM RASHID, M. SALEEM HAIDER, FAIZA SALEEM, M. TAHIR AND JAVED IQBAL

AN EFFICIENT, SHORT AND COST-EFFECTIVE REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR TRANSFORMATION STUDIES OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Sugarcane genetic transformation efforts are seriously hampered by the lack of an efficient and reproducible regeneration system. An efficient, short and cost-effective regeneration system, through direct embryogenesis, was developed for local cultivars and elite lines of sugarcane. Using 1-2 mm thick meristematic young leaf whirls, direct embryogenesis was achieved in Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) under cool white fluorescent light for 16 hour/day at 25 ± 2 °C within three weeks. Of the various concentrations of 2, 4-D tested, 3 mg/L induced the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (60 %). The embryos germinated in the fourth week on the same medium. Shoot proliferation and multiplication was carried out in liquid MS medium containing benzyl aminopurine (BAP) at a concentration of 1 mg/L. The improved regeneration system will particularly be useful in our ongoing genetic transformation studies.

609-614 Download
15
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN ROSA CENTIFOLIA
M. KHALID SHABBIR1, RAZIYA NADEEM1, HAMID MUKHTAR2, FAROOQ ANWAR1 AND MUHAMMAD W. MUMTAZ1,

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN ROSA CENTIFOLIA
ABSTRACT:
This paper reports the isolation and characterization of essential oil of Rosa centifolia. The oil was extracted from freshly collected flower petals of R. centifolia with petroleum ether using Soxhlet apparatus. Rosa centifolia showed 0.225% concrete oil and 0.128% yield of absolute oil. Some physico-chemical properties of the extracted oil like colour, refractive index, congealing point, optical rotation, specific gravity, acid number and ester number were determined and were found to be yellowish brown

615-620 Download
16
ALLEVIATION OF DROUGHT-INDUCED ADVERSE EFFECTS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) USING PROLINE AS A PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT
MUHAMMAD KAMRAN, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM

ALLEVIATION OF DROUGHT-INDUCED ADVERSE EFFECTS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) USING PROLINE AS A PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of exogenous application of proline as a pre-sowing seed treatment on morpho-physiological and yield attributes of 5 wheat cultivars viz., SARC-I, Inqlab-91, MH-97, Bhakkar and S-24 under well watered or water deficit conditions. Plants of the 5 wheat cultivars raised from proline (control

621-632 Download
17
ROLE OF PROLINE, K/NA RATIO AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN SALT TOLERANCE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
M.A. KHAN, M.U. SHIRAZI, MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN, S.M. MUJTABA, E. ISLAM, S. MUMTAZ, A. SHEREEN, R.U. ANSARI AND M. YASIN ASHRAF*

ROLE OF PROLINE, K/NA RATIO AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN SALT TOLERANCE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies to determine the role of proline, K/Na ratio and chlorophyll contents in salt tolerance of wheat genotypes were conducted in lysimeters using hydroponics technique. Seeds were allowed to germinate under normal condition (1.5 dS m-1) and salinity treatment of 12 dS m-1 was imposed after one week of germination. Crop was irrigated at the interval of two weeks or whenever required with 1/4th Hoagland nutrient solution of respective concentrations. Results clearly indicated that wheat genotypes with higher proline, K/Na ratio and chlorophyll contents had higher grain yield. On the basis of yield reduction, three genotypes viz. Lu-26s, Sarsabz and KTDH were found tolerant. These genotypes also maintained the higher concentration of proline, K/Na ratio and chlorophyll contents under saline conditions.

633-638 Download
18
FATTY ACID AND TOCOCHROMANOL PATTERNS OF SOME ISATIS L. (BRASSICACEAE) SPECIES FROM TURKEY
EYUP BAGCI1 AND HASAN ÖZÇELİK2

FATTY ACID AND TOCOCHROMANOL PATTERNS OF SOME ISATIS L. (BRASSICACEAE) SPECIES FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
During investigations of new sources of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of some Isatis sp. (Isatis cappadocica subsp. steveniana, I. kotschyana, I. candolleana, I. spectabilis, I. glauca subsp. glauca and I. kozlowskyi) (Brassicaceae) were investigated by using GC and HPLC system. Some of the species are endemic to Turkey. All the Isatis species showed the same pattern of fatty acids. Linolenic and erucic acids were found as the abundant compounds. Tocochromanol derivatives of the seed oil showed more differences between Isatis species. Alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols were the main compounds. Total tocopherol contents of Isatis species studied were found higher than the total tocotrienols. Polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration of Isatis genus patterns were found higher than most of the family and genera patterns in higher plant groups.

639-646 Download
19
SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) RESPONSE TO DROUGHT STRESS AT GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH STAGES
SHAMIM AHMAD1, RASHID AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2*, M. ASHRAF3 AND EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH1

SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) RESPONSE TO DROUGHT STRESS AT GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Response of six sunflower hybrids/ breeding lines viz., G-101, SF-187, Hysun-33, Hysun-38, 64-A-93 and S-278 to drought stress imposed at germination and seedling growth stages was investigated in a laboratory experiment (25±3○C). Five water stress levels of zero (control), -0.35, -0.6, -1.33, and -1.62 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000). Complete randomized design with three replications was used for this experiment. Germination stress tolerance index (GSI), plant height stress index (PHSI), root length stress index (RLSI) and dry matter stress index (DMSI) were used to evaluate the genotypic response to PEG-induced water stress. Plant height and dry matter stress tolerance indices for all sunflower hybrids decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, an increase in RLSI was observed in all sunflower hybrids. Sunflower hybrids G-101 and 64-A-93 performed better and were classified as drought tolerant. The variation among hybrids for DMSI was found to be a reliable indicator of drought tolerance in sunflower.

647-654 Download
20
EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF OIL FROM SEEDS OF DESI CHICKPEA VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ASLAM SHAD*, HUMAYUN PERVEZ, ZAFAR IQBAL ZAFAR, MUHAMMAD ZIA-UL-HAQ AND HAQ NAWAZ

EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF OIL FROM SEEDS OF DESI CHICKPEA VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of three approved desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) varieties viz., Punjab 2000, Bittal 98 and CM 72 grown in arid zones of Pakistan were analysed for their biochemical and physicochemical compositions. The moisture contents ranged from 6.30±0.40-7.60±0.30 g/100g, dry matter from 92.30±0.69-92.70±0.41 g/100g, ash from 3.10±0.01-3.22±0.02 g/100g, crude protein from 22.19±0.11-22.50±0.43 g/100g, crude fat from 2.05±0.04-2.10±0.04 g/100g, total carbohydrates from 64.90±0.16-66.51±0.11 g/100g and calorific value from 368-373 Kcal/100g. The content of total nitrogen ranged from 3.55±0.11-3.60±0.43 g/100g. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed 5 bands of different proteins in each variety. All of the 3 varieties were found to be almost similar on the basis of total sugars, free amino acids and ascorbic acid contents. The crude fibre content ranged from 13.2±0.11-14.10±0.54 g/100g. The oil from the seeds of each chickpea variety was also analysed for specific gravity (0.9339-0.9346), acid value (2.40±0.87-2.50±0.67 mg KOH), iodine value (112.56±0.371-13.87±0.29), saponification value (178.90±0.19-180.64±0.12 mg KOH) and unsaponifiable matter (3.42±0.97-3.47±1.02 g/100g). These three varieties showed significant variation in the moisture, ash contents, total carbohydrates, iodine value and saponification value. The research results about the biochemical characteristics of desi chickpea varieties are expected to provide guidelines for the researchers confronted with the need to use such typical food seeds in Pakistan as well as in the rest of the world.

655-662 Download
21
FLAG LEAF STOMATAL FREQUENCY AND ITS INTERRELATIONSHIP WITH YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MEHARUN-NISA KHANUM YOUSUFZAI, K.A. SIDDIQUI AND A.Q. SOOMRO

FLAG LEAF STOMATAL FREQUENCY AND ITS INTERRELATIONSHIP WITH YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Three tall (C591, H-68 and H-23-42) and 5 semi-dwarf (Pavon, Pak-81, Mehran, Kohinoor and Sarsabz) cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the experimental field of Nuclear Institute of Agricultur (NIA) TandoJam for 3 consecutive years to study the stomatal frequency in the flag leaf and its interrelationships with yield and yield components. The cultivars showed significant differences with respect to stomatal frequency, yield and yield components. Higher stomatal frequency in flag leaf was positively associated with yield and yield components. The cultivar Sarsabz having significant superiority in yield and yield components also showed significantly (p<0.05) higher stomatal frequency at adaxial and abaxial surface of flag leaf as compared to other cultivars. Stomatal frequency of flag leaf thus provided a new selection criterion for screening of high yielding varieties of bread wheat.

663-666 Download
22
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITHIN THE RANGE OF GREY GORAL IN PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS*, TANVEER AKHTAR1 AND AFSAR MIAN

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITHIN THE RANGE OF GREY GORAL IN PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Phytosociological analysis of habitat, spread over some 5,000 km2, exploited by almost half the global population of endangered Himalayan grey goral (Naemorhedus goral, order: Artiodactyla, sub-order: Ruminantia, family: Bovidae) was carried out using line transect method, two way ordination using TWINSPAN and Sorenson’s coefficient of similarity. Study suggests a high overall species diversity (99; trees 22, shrubs 24, herbs 31, grasses 52) and in different stands (22–77). The canopy was fairly open and trees (3.80-44.42%), shrubs (6.20-68.73%) and herbs/grasses (9.89–59.54%) contributed different covers in different stands. Trees and shrubs constituted perennial layers, while herbs and grasses dry up during autumn and winter. Pinus roxburghii was indicator species of habitat. Most of the other species exhibited a low constancy, except Dodonaea viscose (77.28%), Carissa opaca, Acacia modesta, Myrsine africana, Aristida cyanatha, Cynodon dactylon. Eight vegetative communities were established, each having its own species composition and distributed in different tracts and shared high similarity indices. Habitat loss was not directly responsible for past population decline yet serious management and monitoring is required in the wake of expected increased grazing and wood cutting stresses.

667-682 Download
23
NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN LAND RACES AND IMPROVED VARIETIES AS AFFECTED BY PLANTING DATES
ASIM MUHAMMAD1,*, S. K. KHALIL1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, A.Z. KHAN1, I.H. KHALIL3, AMANULLAH1 AND SHAHNAZ ARIFULLAH4

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN LAND RACES AND IMPROVED VARIETIES AS AFFECTED BY PLANTING DATES
ABSTRACT:
Information is lacking on nutritional quality of indigenous land races of soybean. Three land races (Kulat brown, Kulat white, Mothi) and two improved varieties (NARC-II, Swat-84) of soybean were sown on April 2, May 2, June 2 and July 2, at New Developmental Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during 2004-05 and 2005-06 growing season. Planting dates had significantly affected oil and protein content and yield. Maximum protein content (321g kg-1) and protein yield (468 kg ha-1) was recorded for April planting, while maximum oil content (169 g kg-1) and oil yield (244 kg ha-1) was obtained from May planted crop. Maximum oil (17.2 g kg-1) and protein (320 g kg-1) was recorded for variety Swat-84 while higher oil (239 kg ha-1) and protein yield (433 kg ha-1) was given by NARC-II. Improved varieties were superior in nutritional quality as well as nutrient production.

683-689 Download
24
DEVELOPMENT OF RAPD-BASED MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR CHROMOSOME 5A OF COMMON WHEAT
AMJAD ALI, IMTIAZ AHMAD KHAN, HABIB AHMAD1* AND SAJID UL GHAFOOR

DEVELOPMENT OF RAPD-BASED MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR CHROMOSOME 5A OF COMMON WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
During the present study, 6 deletion lines (del 5AS-3, del5AS-7, del5AS-10, del5AL-10, del5AL-12 and del5AL-23) of chromosomes 5A of common wheat were used to identify RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) based molecular markers specific for short and/or long arm of chromosome 5A and one deletion line (5DS-1) used as a positive control. Out of the 7 RAPD primers used, OPA-07 showed useful polymorphism for long arm deletion line del5AL-23. By comparing the C-banding karyotype of the deletion lines, it is inferred that the primer (OPA-07) anneals to the distal half of the long arm of chromosome 5A.

691-694 Download
25
PARENTAGE CONFIRMATION OF COTTON HYBRIDS USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
MUHAMMAD ASIF, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA1 AND YUSUF ZAFAR

PARENTAGE CONFIRMATION OF COTTON HYBRIDS USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Parentage of F1 hybrids of cotton was verified using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsattelite (SSR) assays. Out of 500 primers surveyed, 3 random and 3 EST based SSR primers were found polymorphic between two cotton parents (FH-883 and FH-631S). These highly informative primers not only differentiated the parent genotypes but also confirmed the parentage of their true F1 hybrids. Primer OPM-07 amplified two polymorphic loci designated as OPM07_800 and OPM07_925, while primers OPU-01 and OPV-01 amplified OPU01_850 and OPV01_650 alleles, respectively. Polymorphic SSRs were named as MGHES06_95, MGHES17_220 and MGHES24_230. DNA markers OPM07_925, OPU01_850, MGHES24_230 and one allele of MGHES06_95 were specific to FH-883, while the others markers were specific to FH-631S. Our findings revealed that RAPD and SSR procedures are excellent genomic tools for parentage confirmation and hybridity determination, and would also enhance efficiency of our breeding programmes through marker assisted selection.

695-701 Download
26
COMPARATIVE SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING OF KABULI CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
AMJAD HAMEED*, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, NAYYER IQBAL, M. AHSANUL HAQ AND HINA ALI

COMPARATIVE SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING OF KABULI CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Seed storage protein profiles of 8 kabuli (white seeded) chickpea mutants/genotypes were analysed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels. Low variability in tested kabuli germplasm was observed. On the bases of seed protein banding patterns, 5 genotypes could be identified clearly and biochemical fingerprints of these varieties are reported. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes in three groups. Three genotypes viz., Pb-1, CM-94/99 and PKV Kabuli 2 showed 100% homology therefore could not be separated on the bases of seed storage proteins. One exotic genotype ILC-195 and two mutants CM-2000 and CM-98/99 were comparatively divergent from other genotypes. Identified protein markers i.e., KSSP-100, KSSP-93 and KSSP-64 can be used for identification of CM-98/99, ILC-195 and CM-2000 respectively. Moreover CM-315/99 and Noor-91 can also be identified by combination of identified protein markers. In conclusion, electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins can economically be used to assess genetic variation and relation in germplasm. The specific bands of seed storage protein profiles may be used as markers for identification of the mutants/ genotypes.

703-710 Download
27
NONPARAMETRIC METHODS IN COMBINED HETEROSCEDASTIC EXPERIMENTS FOR ASSESSING STABILITY OF WHEAT GENOTYPES IN PAKISTAN
SYED HAIDER SHAH1, SYED MUNAWAR SHAH2, M. INAYAT KHAN3, MAQSOOD AHMED4, IMDAD HUSSAIN5 AND K. M. ESKRIDGE6

NONPARAMETRIC METHODS IN COMBINED HETEROSCEDASTIC EXPERIMENTS FOR ASSESSING STABILITY OF WHEAT GENOTYPES IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Genotype performance in multienvironment trials (METs) are usually analyzed by parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stability models. The results of these models can give misleading inferences when some sensitive assumptions are not satisfied. In this paper, assumptions of combined ANOVA are scrutinized in detail to justify the validity of use of 5 nonparametric stability methods (Si

711-730 Download
28
WATER STRESS INDUCED VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN PROFILES OF GERMINATING COTYLEDONS FROM SEEDLINGS OF CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
N. BIBI*, A. HAMEED, H. ALI, N. IQBAL, M. A. HAQ, B.M. ATTA, T.M. SHAH AND S.S. ALAM

WATER STRESS INDUCED VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN PROFILES OF GERMINATING COTYLEDONS FROM SEEDLINGS OF CHICKPEA GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Studies were planned to analyze the response of chickpea genotypes to water stress (10% - PEG) at germination stage. Four genotypes viz., CM-2000, CM-94/99, CM-98 and 6153 were used and data for root length and protein mobilization from cotyledons to seedlings were collected on fifth and seventh day after germination. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among varieties under control and stressed conditions. CM-94/99 showed significant increase (p<0.05) in root length while CM-2000 showed significant decrease (p<0.05) under the applied stress. SDS-PAGE was utilized to detect variations in protein profiles of these genotypes from 1st till 7th day. Quantitative decrease in some high molecular weight proteins was observed at 5th day while some new germination related proteins appeared on 7th day in controlled samples of all genotypes. However genotype specific variations were observed under the applied stress. In CM-2000 delayed expression (on 7th day) of 100 kDa and 60.8 kDa proteins was observed under water stress while these proteins were expressed earlier (on 5th day) in CM-94/99. Moreover expression of 39.6 kDa and 42 kDa proteins was also delayed (7th day) in CM-2000 but no change in the expression of these proteins was observed in other genotypes.

731-736 Download
29
GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF RICE MUTANTS BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MOLECULAR MARKER (RAPD)
SAJIDA BIBI, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN BUGHIO, IFTIKHAR ALI ODHANO, MUHAMMAD AZEEM ASAD AND ABDULLAH KHATRI

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF RICE MUTANTS BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MOLECULAR MARKER (RAPD)
ABSTRACT:
Rice cultivars IR6 and IR8 were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and stable mutants along with parents were studied for genetic diversity on the basis of morphological traits and molecular marker (RAPD). Morphological data showed that mutants of IR6 and IR8 performed well as compared to their parents. The genetic variation was determined through RAPD. A total of 74 scorable bands were observed, out of which 47 (63.6%) were polymorphic and 27 (36.5%) were monomorphic. The size of fragments ranged from 201bp – 3.2 kbp. The number of fragments produced by various primers ranged from 1-12 with an average of 4.93 fragments per primer. Maximum 12 bands were amplified with primer A-03 and minimum one band was amplified with primer A-15, A-19 and B-10. Some specific RAPD bands were also identified reflecting the RAPDs application for the identification of rice cultivars/genotypes. Results revealed that variety Sarshar and IR8-178 contain a specific segment of 451bp amplified with primer A-19. The highest similarity was observed between IR8-15A and IR8-178 (96%) and the least similarity was recorded between IR-8 and IR6-15/B (69%). On the basis of RAPD studies, genotypes were grouped on the basis of their similarities and distinctness.

737-743 Download
30
PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.)
KOKSAL YAGDI

PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.)
ABSTRACT:
The results revealed that the direct and indirect effects on yield exhibited variation from year to year, eg., plant density had a direct effect towards reducing the yield with a path coefficient of -0.314 in the year 1999, while this trait had a positive direct effect towards increasing the yield, in the other three years with path coefficients between 0.045 and 0.494. The trait seed weight per spike had positive effect on yield during 4 years of the trial. This trait generally had a positive effect on yield indirectly through other traits as well. Seed number per spike and plant height had direct negative effects. Plant density, seed weight per spike and thousand kernel weight increased the yield with the direct effect values of 0.312. 0.295 and 0.286, respectively, based on the average of four years. However, plant height and seed number per spike had negative effects with the values of -0.078 and -0.064, respectively.

745-751 Download
31
HERITABILITY, VARIANCE COMPONENTS AND CORRELATIONS OF YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.)
KOKSAL YAGDI AND ELIF SOZEN

HERITABILITY, VARIANCE COMPONENTS AND CORRELATIONS OF YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.)
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out during the years 2001 and 2004 to determine the inheritance of important agronomical and quality traits and also the correlations between these traits in durum wheat. The research, studies concluded that genotypical variance is important with regard to spike length, number of spikelet per spike and test weight and that the useful selections could be made with respect to these traits. Environmental variance was found important for seed number per spike, seed weight per spike and thousand kernel weight, while the variance component of genotype x environment was found important for seed yield, gluten content and protein content. Environmental and genotype x environment variances were determined to be important for SDS-sedimentation. The estimated values of broad-sense heritability were found between 0.72% and 30.43%. Sedimentation had the lowest heritability value, whereas spike length had the highest. Heritability values determined were 6.35%, 9.38%, 6.13%, 5.26%,9.45% and 3.12% for plant height, number of spikelet per spike, seed number per spike, seed weight per spike, thousand kernel weight and seed yield, respectively. The test weight had the highest heritability value (17.69%) among the quality traits, followed by gluten content and protein content with 10.12% and 5.38%, respectively. Significant positive correlation was determined between the seed yield, plant height and spike length. The negative and significant correlations determined between gluten content and seed number per spike, seed weight per spike and plant density, as well as between the sedimentation and number of spikelet per spike and seed number per spike and between protein content and seed number per spike indicated that generally the important agronomical characteristics were inversely correlated with the quality traits.

753-759 Download
32
NITROGEN LEVELS AND ITS TIME OF APPLICATION INFLUENCE LEAF AREA, HEIGHT AND BIOMASS OF MAIZE PLANTED AT LOW AND HIGH DENSITY
AMANULLAH1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, PAIGHAM SHAH1, NOOR MAULA3 AND SHAHNAZ ARIFULLAH4

NITROGEN LEVELS AND ITS TIME OF APPLICATION INFLUENCE LEAF AREA, HEIGHT AND BIOMASS OF MAIZE PLANTED AT LOW AND HIGH DENSITY
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted at the New Developmental Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2002-03 and 2003-04 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) rate and its time of application on leaf area, plant height and biomass yield of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) planted at low and high density. Factorial experimental treatments comprising two plant densities (P1 = 60,000 and P2 = 100,000 plants ha-1) and three nitrogen rates (N1 = 60, N2 = 120 and N3 = 180 kg N ha-1) were kept in main plots, while six split application for N in different proportions were kept in subplots at different growth stages of maize in two equal (S1), three equal (S2), three unequal (S3), four equal (S4), five equal (S5) and five unequal splits (S6) at sowing and with 1st

761-768 Download
33
ASSESSMENT OF APPLE ROOTSTOCKS M 9 AND M 26 FOR IN VITRO ROOTING POTENTIAL USING DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
MEHWISH YASEEN, TOUQEER AHMAD, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI* AND ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ

ASSESSMENT OF APPLE ROOTSTOCKS M 9 AND M 26 FOR IN VITRO ROOTING POTENTIAL USING DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
A study was accomplished to evaluate the effect of different carbon sources for the In vitro rooting of apple rootstocks M 9 and M 26. Significant differences were exhibited by carbon sources, apple rootstocks as well as by the interaction of these two factors. Among the various carbon sources tested, the best rooting response was obtained with 35 g l-1 sorbitol (T9) both in terms of mean root number (5.0) and root length (3.84) while 45 g l-1 sorbitol (T10) was the optimum concentration to work out the highest rooting percentage of 86.67%. Sucrose showed its propensity to stimulate the rooting of both genotypes but it was not much appealing in comparison to sorbitol. Quite unfair results were yielded by glucose followed by highly meager outcome, which was given by mannitol. Within rootstocks the most supercilious outcome was given by M 26 which gained a cut above M 9 regarding rooting percentage (44.17 %), root number (2.02) and root length (1.59 cm).

769-781 Download
34
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION OF OLIVE CULTIVAR ‘MORAIOLO’
ANSAR ALI, TOUQEER AHMAD, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI* AND ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION OF OLIVE CULTIVAR ‘MORAIOLO’
ABSTRACT:
The effect of Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and Olive Medium (OM) with various concentrations of Zeatin & Benzylaminopurine (BAP) solely or in combinations with each other, was investigated on In vitro shoot proliferation of the olive cultivar ‘Moraiolo’. Olive medium proved to be the most effective one, resulting in better and morphologically superior microshoots as compared to woody plant medium. Zeatin (3.0 mg l-1) in combination with 0.5 mg l-1 BAP resulted in highest number of microshoots per explant (0.84), with 2.25 cm shoot length and 1.88 number of nodes on olive medium as compared to its single use. The best interaction of both media with cytokinins occurred when 3.0 mg l-1 Zeatin was used in combination with 0.5 mg l-1 BAP.

783-795 Download
35
DIRECT REGENERATION OF SUGARCANE PLANTLETS: A TOOL TO UNRAVEL GENETIC HETEROGENEITY
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT**, NIGHAT SEEMA, SHAFQAT YASMEEN, SAJIDA BIBI, GHULAM RAZA, ABDULLAH KHATRI AND MAZHAR H. NAQVI

DIRECT REGENERATION OF SUGARCANE PLANTLETS: A TOOL TO UNRAVEL GENETIC HETEROGENEITY
ABSTRACT:
A simple and efficient protocol for In vitro direct regeneration of shoot from immature leaf explants of sugarcane is reported. Three sugarcane clonal lines, viz., NIA-98, BL4 and NIA-2004 were studied for direct regeneration potential on different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Ten different media were used for direct regeneration studies. The best regeneration was observed on medium containing 4 mg/l IAA+ 1.0mg/lKin + 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D followed by media containing 4 mg/l IAA+ 0.5 mg/l Kin + 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D. The maximum rate of plantlet regeneration was recorded in clone NIA-98 while the minimum was in NIA-2004. Four different shoot elongation medium were used and best elongation rate were observed on medium containing 1.5 mg/l Kin + 1 mg/l NAA. Best root induction was observed when shoots were transferred on to media containing 1mg/l BAP and 60gm /l commercial sugar. The regenerated plants were transferred to jiffy pots and after weaning into the field for evaluation. Development of chlorophyll mutants confirms that direct regeneration cannot maintain genetic fidelity but could be considered as a good source of exploring existing aneuploidy. Agronomic data and SSR study also confirms the variation in the population

797-814 Download
36
OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROTOCOLS FOR CALLUS INDUCTION, REGENERATION AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF SUGARCANE CV. THATTA-10
ARJUMAND ATHER, SAIFULLAH KHAN*, ABDUL REHMAN AND MUDDASIR NAZIR

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROTOCOLS FOR CALLUS INDUCTION, REGENERATION AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF SUGARCANE CV. THATTA-10
ABSTRACT:
A very efficient protocol for the micropropagation of indigenous sugarcane cultivar Thatta-10 is presented here. The axillary buds and shoot apices taken as an explant were surface sterilized with 20% Sodium hypochlorite solution for 20 minutes followed by initiation on simple MS medium. The initiated plantlets were then used for the callus induction experiment in which high amount of calli (100%) were produced using 2,4-D in the concentration of 3.0 mg/L with MS medium. The induced calli were further evaluated for the regeneration. Medium comprised of MS basal salts and vitamins with BAP (6-Benzyl Amino Purine) in the concentration of 1.0 mg/L, was found best in terms of highest number of shoot regeneration (31.50±6.23). Maximum shoot elongation (10.52±1.88) alongwith the highest number of root emergence (6.51±2.41) was observed on the medium composed of MS salts and vitamins with GA (Gibberellic Acid) in the concentration of 3.0 mg/L. The In vitro grown plantlets were then transferred to green house conditions where they survived successfully with the rate of 96% (calculated after four weeks of transfer) when farm yard manure was used with garden soil in the ratio of 2:8 as a potting mixture.

815-820 Download
37
ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM FREE AND IMMOBILIZED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE UNDER STATIONARY CULTURE
IRFANA MARIAM1, KANWAL MANZOOR1, SIKANDER ALI2 AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ2

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM FREE AND IMMOBILIZED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE UNDER STATIONARY CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
In the present work, studies were carried out on the ethanol production by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae GC-IIB31 under stationary culture. Cane molasses in different concentration was used as sugar source for maximum conversion of reducing sugar into ethanol. The substrate was optimized after maintaining different levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium pH (4.0-5.5), incubation temperatures (25-30°C), volume of fermentation medium (200-350 ml) and reuse of immobilized yeast cells. Immobilized yeast cells gave significant results up to four consecutive batches. Rate of ethanol production was maximal with the free cells. The results indicated that 2 g vegetative cells of yeast on utilizing molasses at 15% sugar level with medium pH 4.5 at 30°C and 300 ml fermentation volume in 500ml Erlenmeyer flasks gave maximum ethanol production with both free and immobilized yeast cells. Maximum ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells was obtained in the 4th batch after which it declined markedly. The optimal results are highly significant (p≤0.05, LSD 3.962).

821-833 Download
38
OPTIMIZATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE TO STUDY THE BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NOVEL COMPOUNDS
ASMA NASIB* AND SAIFULLAH KHAN

OPTIMIZATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE TO STUDY THE BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NOVEL COMPOUNDS
ABSTRACT:
A highly efficient protocol for the induction of callus and establishment of cell suspension culture was developed for Actinidia deliciosa. Germination of Actinidia seeds were carried out on full strength MS medium without any growth hormone and the leaves from In vitro grown plantlets were used for the induction of callus. Maximum amount of friable calli were obtained on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) and 0.5 mg/L BAP (6-Benzyl amino purine) with the 16 hrs illumination period. Cell suspension cultures were established using MS medium with higher amount of IBA (2.0 mg/L) and BAP (0.5 mg/L), by rotating the culture flasks at 110 rpm on a gyratory shaker. Biotransformation ability of the suspension culture of Actinidia deliciosa was also determined by adding (-)-Ambrox to the cultures as a substrate. Six transforms were isolated after 15 days of incubation while two of them were found novel.

835-841 Download
39
A FACILE PROCEDURE FOR EFFICIENT PLANTLET REGENERATION AND FRUITING WITHOUT VERNALIZATION IN THELLUNGIELLA SALSUGINEA
WEIYANG SUN1,2, JIANFANG LI2, YANXIU ZHAO1 AND HUI ZHANG1*

A FACILE PROCEDURE FOR EFFICIENT PLANTLET REGENERATION AND FRUITING WITHOUT VERNALIZATION IN THELLUNGIELLA SALSUGINEA
ABSTRACT:
A facile and rapid system for efficient shoot regeneration and callus keeping was developed for Thellungiella salsuginea (Pall.) O. E. Schulz. Three kinds of explants including basal leaves, stems and anthers of vernalized plants were adopted here. Calli were formed from all these explants on MS medium supplemented with various plant hormone treatments. The highest callus inducing ratio for anther explants were observed on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l ZT zeatin, while for both stem and leaf explants 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D

843-848 Download
40
AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF SOME GYMNOSPERMS OF PAKISTAN: A DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH
MOINUDDIN AHMED, MOHAMMAD WAHAB, NASRULLAH KHAN, **MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN AND SYED TARIQ HUSAIN

AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF SOME GYMNOSPERMS OF PAKISTAN: A DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
Dendrochronological techniques were used in 49 different mature stands of 39 gymnosperms forests of Pakistan. Wood samples were obtained from 218 trees including Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson, Pinus roxburghii Sargent, Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss., Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Donf., Abies pindrow Royle and Taxus wallichiana Zucc., using Swedish Increment Borer to obtain age and growth rates of these trees. It showed that largest tree is not necessarily the oldest tree. Highest overall growth rate (2.65 ± 0.19 y/cm) was recorded in Cedrus deodara from south facing slopes while slowest growth was observed in Taxus wallichiana, from East facing slope. Except in Pinus roxburghii, Dbh and age showed no significant relation. In addition no significant relation was found between elevation and growth rates. Statistics of some selected species and sites are also presented and it is suggested that growth rings of these species could be used in dendrochronological research.

849-860 Download
41
SURVEY OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN
R. ALIYA1, A. ZARINA2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL1

SURVEY OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Altogether 214 species of algae belonging to 86 genera of 33 families

861-870 Download
42
SEASONAL PERIODICITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN LAKE MANCHAR
M.A. MAHAR, S.I.H. JAFRI, S.M. LEGHARI AND *M.Y. KHUHAWAR

SEASONAL PERIODICITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN LAKE MANCHAR
ABSTRACT:
Seasonal fluctuations of 16 dominant genera of phytoplankton, belonging to 4 groups, (Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta) found in Manchar lake were studied. Genus Anabaena, Chroococcus, Merismopedia, Microcystis and Pediastrum were found dominant during spring and summer months. Oocystis and Scenedesmus were dominant during autumn. In winter, Chloroococcus, Cyclotella, and Oscillatoria were found dominant. Gomphosphaeria was recorded in high density during summer months, while during winter, very small numbers of colonies were observed. Genus Cymbella gradually increased during warmer months, with a peak in July, and then it gradually decreased. During cold months; the population was very low. The peak of Cyclotella was observed in the month of January. Frequency of Cyanophycean species ranged between 60-70%. Chlorophyll content of water varied within 19-40 µg/l, during the year. These fluctuations are mostly dependant upon environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, nitrates and phosphate in Manchar lake water.

871-884 Download
43
ANALYSIS OF MINES AND CONTAMINATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL SAMPLES FOR FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS
SHAZIA IRAM1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2 AND DORIS STUBEN3

ANALYSIS OF MINES AND CONTAMINATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL SAMPLES FOR FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation soil samples were collected from peri-urban agricultural soils irrigated by industrial and sewerage waste of Hudiara drain, Lahore, Pakistan and mine waste of Wiesloch, Germany for the analysis of fungal diversity and tolerance to heavy metals. Heavy metals analysis was done by X-ray florescence and ICP-MS. X-ray florescence showed that Zn, As and Pb concentration was higher in waste mine soil sample of Wiesloch, Germany. ICP-MS appeared to be more sensitive and showed that Fe, Mn, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ti, Zn and Pb were present in higher concentration in waste mine of Germany. Soils of peri-urban areas of Pakistan had lower concentration of heavy metals as compared to waste mine of Wiesloch, Germany. Diversity and frequency of fungi was analyzed using soil dilution method. Overall frequency percentage and diversity was higher in Pakistan soil than soil of Wiesloch, Germany. Different fungi viz., Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus nodulans, Aureobasidium sp., Chaetomium sp., Coniothyrium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp., Monilia sp., Monocillium sp., Mortierella sp., were isolated. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nodulans were selected and checked for tolerance to toxic metals (CdCl2, CuSO4, NiCl2 and ZnCl2) at different concentrations (1, 5

885-895 Download
44
SCREENING OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND A. FLAVUS STRAINS FOR EXTRA CELLULAR ALPHA-AMYLASE ACTIVITY
SOBIYA SHAFIQUE, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

SCREENING OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND A. FLAVUS STRAINS FOR EXTRA CELLULAR ALPHA-AMYLASE ACTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
Five fungal strains of each of the two filamentous fungi viz., Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem and A. flavus Link ex Gray, indigenous to Pakistan, were screened for their alpha-amylase activity. Different selected strains were grown on two growth media viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Enzyme Production Medium (EPM), at three pH levels viz., 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5, in all the possible combinations. Performance of various strains was recorded in terms of hydrolyzing zone formation. Generally test strains exhibited their best performance on EPM at pH 4.5. On the basis of their best performance on solid media, strain 74 and strain 198 of A. niger and strain 209 and strain 231 of A. flavus were selected for periodic evaluation of their alpha-amylase activity in liquid medium, using shake flask technique. All the test strains exhibited their maximum alpha-amylase activity after 48 h incubation.

897-905 Download
45
CELLULASE BIOSYNTHESIS BY SELECTED TRICHODERMA SPECIES
SHAZIA SHAFIQUE*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SOBIYA SHAFIQUE

CELLULASE BIOSYNTHESIS BY SELECTED TRICHODERMA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The enzyme cellulase, a multi enzyme complex made up of several proteins, catalyses the conversion of cellulose to glucose in an enzymatic hydrolysis. The indigenous fungi of Pakistan viz., Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Gray, T. reesei Rifai and T. harzianum Rifai were selected and analyzed on the basis of extent of hydrolyzing zones for the evaluation of their enzymatic activity in solid state fermentation on PDA and plate screening medium (PSM) at pH 4, 5 and 6. PSM at pH 4 depicted best results for all the strains tested. Strains FCBP-142 and FCBP-232 of T. viride, strains FCBP-271 and FCBP-364 of T. reesei and strains FCBP-210 and FCBP-325 of T. harzianum were considered best in their extent of hydrolyzing ability and were selected for evaluation of their cellulolytic activity through submerged fermentation using 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. The maximum enzymatic activity was achieved after 72 hours of incubation at 30 ± 2oC at initial pH 4.

907-916 Download
46
RESISTANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD RELATIVES OF RICE IN RESPONSE TO BACTERIAL BLIGHT
SYED MEHAR ALI SHAH1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, FIDA MUHAMMAD ABASSI2, MUHAMMAD AFZAL AKHTAR3, ABDUL RAFI4 AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN5

RESISTANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD RELATIVES OF RICE IN RESPONSE TO BACTERIAL BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is becoming a potential threat to rice crop in many regions of the world. In order to identify resistant sources to virulent isolates of bacterial blight, an experiment comprising 14 species of wild rice (Oryza sp.) and three widely used cultivated varieties of rice in Pakistan was conducted in the greenhouse of National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during 2005. Adult plants were inoculated with virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae prevailing in NWFP, Pakistan i.e., Xo-103, Xo-107, Xo-139, Xo-143, Xo-304, Xo-351 and MNR-4. Of all the wild relatives of rice, O. nivara, O. longistaminata and O. grandiglumis showed resistance to all isolates. O. nivara even didn’t show any lesion against any isolate. Remaining wild species showed differential response to the isolates used in the study. These species were resistant to one or few isolates but expressed susceptibility to others. Bas-385, IR-6 and KSK-282, the cultivated varieties of Pakistan used in study were found susceptible to most of the isolates. The use of resistant wild species O. nivara, O. longistaminata and O. grandiglumis is, therefore, recommended in rice breeding programs for transfer of bacterial blight resistant genes to cultivated varieties.

917-925 Download
47
09-07-09
PATHOGENESIS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SESAMI ASSOCIATED WITH SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) BACTERIAL LEAF SPOT

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
SYEDA SADIQA FIRDOUS1, REHANA ASGHAR1*, MUHAMMAD IRFAN UL-HAQUE2, ABDUL WAHEED, SYED NADEEM AFZAL2 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN MIRZA3

927-934 Download
48
PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF BACTERIA IN TWO ETHNIC MILK BASED PRODUCTS
KALSOOM FARZANA1, SAEED AKHTAR2* AND F. JABEEN 3

PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF BACTERIA IN TWO ETHNIC MILK BASED PRODUCTS
ABSTRACT:
Prevalence of food borne pathogens in milk products, khoya (a common ingredient in many traditional Indian sweets made by slowly evaporating milk under heat) and burfi (khoya cooked with sugar until it solidifies) and their sensitivity against different antibiotics was evaluated. Coliform indicated the lowest count (7.5x103 CFU/g) and the highest (5.3x106 CFU/g) in burfi whereas 6.5x103 and 5.2x106 CFU/g­­ in khoya for 28 selected samples. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., was also confirmed in a large number in khoya and burfi samples. S. aureus represented the major part of bacterial flora in burfi and khoya. Enterobacter spp., and E. coli spp., constituted ~ 1.2%, in both burfi and khoya. The unidentified microflora comprised 12.56% and 8.41% in burfi and khoya, respectively. E. coli and Enterobacter spp., isolated from both khoya and burfi showed more susceptibility to Septran and Amikin. Ampiclox and Tetracycline exhibited higher degree of sensitivity against these isolates. However, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and E. coli were found to be resistant to Urixin. Locally prepared milk products might be a potential source of bacterial contamination which poses a significant clinical threat to consumers through excessive use of various antibiotics against these micro-organisms.

935-943 Download
49
DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR RESISTANCE IN POTATO AGAINST POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS AND POTATO VIRUS Y THROUGH AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED DOUBLE TRANSGENESIS
M. ARIF1*, P.E. THOMAS2, J.M. CROSSLIN2 AND C.R. BROWN3

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR RESISTANCE IN POTATO AGAINST POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS AND POTATO VIRUS Y THROUGH AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED DOUBLE TRANSGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop double transgenic plants of potato using PLRV replicase and PVY coat protein genes tandemly placed in a single T-DNA transformant through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 17 lines of putative transformants of potato cv. Desiree were generated from kanamycine resistant calli originated from co-inoculation of separate Agrobacterium cultures containing PVY CP and PLRV replicase genes. Shoots were excised and cultured onto shoot medium containing 250mg/L cefotaxime and 50mg/L kanamycin sulfate in test tubes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was conducted of 39 plants of 16 transformed lines using primers each of PVY CP and PLRV-replicase genes; 10 plants of 8 lines and 7 plants of 6 lines showed presence of of PVY CP and PLRV-replicase genes, respectively. However

945-954 Download
50
PREVALENCE, OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHILI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS IN PAKISTAN
HUSSAIN SHAH, TAHIRA YASMIN, MUHAMMAD FAHIM, SHAHID HAMEED AND M.I. HAQUE*

PREVALENCE, OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHILI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Chili veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the prevalent chili-infecting virus found throughout chili growing areas of Pakistan. Disease monitoring during 2003 and 2004 showed 44.7% relative occurrence of the virus in the country. In the year 2003, the relative occurrence was 48, 51, 41 and 38% in Sindh, Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan whereas during 2004, the relative occurrence was 47, 44, 41 and 34% respectively in the provinces. Highest relative occurrence was recorded in Sindh (47.3%) and Punjab (46.9%) followed by NWFP (41.3%) and Balochistan (35.7%). No district was found free from the viral infection in Sindh and Punjab except from few locations of NWFP (Dir, Bajour Agency, and Lakky Marwat District) and Balochistan (Kachi and Loralai districts). Among weed flora of chili pepper, Datura metel was found in Punjab province. Moreover, among insect vectors, Aphis gossypii were observed in NWFP during surveys.

955-965 Download
51
CHANGES IN MINERAL AND MINERALIZABLE N OF SOIL INCUBATED AT VARYING SALINITY, MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ASMA LODHI1*, M. ARSHAD2, F. AZAM3 AND M.H. SAJJAD1

CHANGES IN MINERAL AND MINERALIZABLE N OF SOIL INCUBATED AT VARYING SALINITY, MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to study the effect of factors like moisture, salinity and temperature on the release of N in plant-available forms (NH4 and NO3+NO2-N) and potentially mineralizable N in soil over a period of 8 weeks following amendment with leguminous plant residues. In this experiment, soil samples salinized to ECe 7, 9, and 18 dS m-1 (original ECe was 5.0 dS m-1) were amended with 0.5% plant material of Sesbania aculeata and incubated at three moisture levels of 15, 30 and 45%, w/w and three temperature regimes of 20, 30 and 40oC for 8 weeks. Soil samples were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks for the determination of NH4-N, NO3+NO2-N and mineralizable N. Ammonification of organic N as determined by the accumulation of NH4-N in soil was found to increase with time as salinity, moisture and temperature increased. However, the increase was more pronounced at higher moisture levels. While temperature had a positive effect on nitrification, increased salinity and moisture depressed the process. Net mineralization of N increased with time in all the treatments; the process being enhanced at higher incubation temperature with a maximum at 40oC. Salinity and high moisture had a depressing effect on the mineralization of N. The content of mineralizable N determined by NH4-N accumulation following 2 weeks of incubation under submerged conditions in soil remained higher under high moisture conditions, while high salinity and temperature had a variable and negative effect. Apparently, high moisture content conserved organic N due to reduced mineralization, while high temperature had an opposite effect. A complete loss of NO3-N was observed during incubation of soil samples for the determination of mineralizable N. This was attributable to denitrification as sufficient amount of easily oxidizable C was still present in the soil after 8 weeks of incubation under relatively aerobic conditions.

967-980 Download
52
Corrigendum
A paper entitled, “Preliminary floristic list of Chotiari Wetland Complex, Nawab Shah, Sindh, Pakistan” by Rahmatullah Qureshi was published in PJB Volume 40

Corrigendum
ABSTRACT:
6

981- Download
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