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Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 4
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY MALVACEAE FROM NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE, PAKISTAN
NOREEN BIBI1*, NAVEED AKHTAR2, MANZOOR HUSSAIN3 AND MIR AJAB KHAN4

SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY MALVACEAE FROM NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 9 species belonging to 6 genera viz., Abelmoschus, Abutilon, Alcea, Malva, Malvaviscous and Malvastrum of the family Malvaceae from North West Frontier Province, Pakistan were examined by light and Scanning Electron Microscope. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical, apolar, mostly spherical to oblate-spheroidal and poly pantoporate. Tectum uniformly echinate, medium to finely perforated or punctuate with granules or scabrae in between spines. The results demonstrated that pollen morphological characteristics, principally spine base, spine apex, spinular morphology, aperture characters, exine sculpture and structure are taxonomically important. However some of the genera studied were found to be stenopalynous thus limiting the value of taxonomic application of their pollen characters.

2205-2214 Download
2
FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF PAI FOREST, NAWAB SHAH, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI* AND G.R. BHATTI

FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF PAI FOREST, NAWAB SHAH, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of this study was to record the existing floral diversity of Pai forest, Nawab Shah, Sindh, Pakistan. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted in September

2215-2224 Download
3
NEW GENERIC RECORD AND RECLARIFICATION OF THESPESIA POPULNEOIDES (ROXB.) KOSTEL
SULTANUL ABEDIN, ZAMARRUD, RUBINA ABID AND JAN ALAM

NEW GENERIC RECORD AND RECLARIFICATION OF THESPESIA POPULNEOIDES (ROXB.) KOSTEL
ABSTRACT:
Decaschistia Wight & Arn., is reported for the first time from Pakistan and the validity of Thespesia populneoides (Roxb.) Kostel, has been discussed with necessary photographs.

2225-2229 Download
4
MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND NUMERICAL STUDIES ON SOME ANCHUSA L. (BORAGİNACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY
TULAY AYTAS AKCIN1*, SENAY ULU1 AND ADNAN AKCIN2

MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND NUMERICAL STUDIES ON SOME ANCHUSA L. (BORAGİNACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study used numerical methods to illustrate, describe and assess the taxonomic significance of morphological and anatomical features of three Anchusa species,, Anchusa undulata subsp. hybrida (Ten.) Coutinho, A. azurea Miller var. azurea and A. pusilla Guşul., collected from Northern Turkey. In this morphological study, it was determined that the ratio of calyx lobe to the calyx length and the arrangement of the anthers in the corolla tube were important characters in separating the taxa morphologically. Anatomical studies supported these morphological observations. Further, statistical analysis showed that corolla tube length was not important as a taxonomic character. However, the ratio of calyx lobe length to calyx length was the most significant character in distinguishing the taxa. The first two principal components explained 45.69 % of the total variance. Principal component analysis showed that no separation could be obtained among the species, although A. azurea specimens tended to compose a different group.

2231-2247 Download
5
IDENTIFICATION OF ELITE PURE-LINES FROM LOCAL LENTIL GERMPLASM USING DIVERSITY INDEX BASED ON QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
TAYYABA SULTANA1*, SHAHID NADEEM1, ZARRIN FATIMA2 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR 3

IDENTIFICATION OF ELITE PURE-LINES FROM LOCAL LENTIL GERMPLASM USING DIVERSITY INDEX BASED ON QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
Three hundred and seventeen accessions of lentil collected from all over the country were evaluated for six quantitative traits to investigate inter and intra-accession diversity in association with geographic pattern. Variation indicated that areas with high geographic diversity that is supposed to present high biological diversity are yet to be explored. Classification of germplasm gave rise to some elite lines for specific characters and the accessions for days to flowering (45), days to maturity

2249-2256 Download
6
IMPROVEMENT OF SELECTED STRAINS THROUGH GAMMA IRRADIATION FOR ENHANCED LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, YASIR HUSSAIN1, SYED QAISER ABBAS1, IFFAT ASHRAF2 AND MUHAMMAD ANJUM ZIA3

IMPROVEMENT OF SELECTED STRAINS THROUGH GAMMA IRRADIATION FOR ENHANCED LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80

2257-2267 Download
7
AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.): SOME CONDITIONS STANDARDIZATION
MUHAMMAD ZIA*, ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI, RIAZ-UR-REHMAN AND M FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY

AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.): SOME CONDITIONS STANDARDIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Present study was aimed to standardize some transformation conditions for soybean cultivar NARC-4 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 harboring pGUSintNPTII. Soybean half seed cotyledonary node method was opted. It was found that explant preparation in Agro-suspension culture resulted in highest transformation efficiency (48.3%) than in infection medium and water. One hour infection time was found optimum (55.9% transformation efficiency) in culture OD600 1.0. Co-cultivation of soybean half seed explants with Agrobacterium for five days showed better results as compared with three and four days. Two hr washing in washing medium containing 1g/L cefotaxime controlled prevalence of Agrobacterium in further steps. It was found that varying kanamycin concentration in selection medium resulted in high survival rate of transformed shoots. NARC-4 soybean cultivar showed better transformation efficiency than NARC-7 when genotype dependency was examined using Agrobacterium strain EHA101.

2269-2279 Download
8
EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON GERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) SEEDLINGS
A. BORZOUEI1

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON GERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
2*, M. KAFI2, H. KHAZAEI2, B. NASERIYAN1 AND A. MAJDABADI1

2281-2290 Download
9
PERFORMANCE OF COWPEA GENOTYPES AT HIGHER ALTITUDE OF NWFP
AKBAR KHAN1, ABDUL BARI2, SAJID KHAN2, NAZEER HUSSAIN SHAH3 AND ISLAM ZADA2

PERFORMANCE OF COWPEA GENOTYPES AT HIGHER ALTITUDE OF NWFP
ABSTRACT:
The performance of 24 exotic cowpea genotypes at higher altitude of NWFP was studied at the Agricultural Research Institute (North), Mingora, Swat during kharif 2006. Genotypes were evaluated for days to maturity, plant height, seed pod-1

2291-2296 Download
10
EXPLORING HETEROSIS FOR SEED COTTON YIELD IN UPLAND COTTON UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION REGIMES
MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN SOOMRO*, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1

EXPLORING HETEROSIS FOR SEED COTTON YIELD IN UPLAND COTTON UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
An experiment during the years 2003 and 2004 was conducted to explore the Heterosis in 15 F1 hybrids along with the performance of 6 parents regarding seed cotton yield per plant under 3 irrigation treatments (2, 4 and 7 irrigations). Results revealed that statistically all the parents and hybrids exhibited significant variation among them. Parents Marvi, CRIS-134 and CRIS-52 showed better performance regarding seed cotton yield per plant under all the three irrigation treatments. Hybrids Marvi x CRIS-134, Marvi x CRIS191 and CRIS-52 x CRIS-191 showed positive and constantly higher heterosis estimates over mid and better parent values under all the three irrigation treatments. Thus these parents viz., Marvi, CRIS-134 and CRIS-52 are recommended for sowing in the areas where there is shortage of water. Further these parents may be utilized extensively to develop above three specific hybrids for sowing in drought conditions and also for development of commercial varieties resistant to drought for Sindh province.

2297-2305 Download
11
GENETICS OF PRODUCTIVE PEDUNCLES ON MAIN STEM AND BRANCHES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
G.S.S. KHATTAK* AND I. SAEED

GENETICS OF PRODUCTIVE PEDUNCLES ON MAIN STEM AND BRANCHES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Components of genetic variation for productive peduncles on main stem and branches in mungbean were estimated using triple test cross procedure. Treatments used for estimation of genetic variation for both traits exhibited highly significant differences which indicate the existence of considerable genetic variation among inbred lines, testers and developed recombinants. Epistatic effect showed significant role in the inheritance of both traits. Productive peduncles on main stem exhibited almost equal values for both i type, and j + l type non-allelic interaction whereas i type interactions value was more compared to j + l type interactions in productive peduncles on branches. This indicated that additive x additive type non-allelic interaction plays an important role in the inheritance of productive peduncles on branches. The complex inheritance of both traits can be exploited for improvement by delay in selection until the material is advanced through bulk procedure.

2307-2311 Download
12
CRYSTALLIZATION OF FRUCTOSE 1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON THERMOCOCCUS KODAKARAENSIS
NAEEM RASHID1*, MASOOD AHMED SIDDIQUI2, MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER1 AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD JAVED1

CRYSTALLIZATION OF FRUCTOSE 1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON THERMOCOCCUS KODAKARAENSIS
ABSTRACT:
The enzyme Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase; EC 3.1.3.11) is one of the key enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway. It hydrolyses fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate (Pilkis & Claus

2313-2316 Download
13
NITROGEN FIXATION OF LEGUMES AND YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER LEGUMES-WHEAT ROTATION IN POTHWAR
RIFAT HAYAT* AND SAFDAR ALI

NITROGEN FIXATION OF LEGUMES AND YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER LEGUMES-WHEAT ROTATION IN POTHWAR
ABSTRACT:
Legumes build soil fertility and contribute substantial amounts of N for sustainability of cereal based cropping systems. These lacking information for the system as a whole in rainfed pothwar were investigated through field experiments at two different locations i.e. (Research farm of University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, UAAR and farmer’s fields in Chakwal district). Mung bean (Var. NM-92) and mash bean (Var. Mash-3) were rotated with wheat (Var. Wafaq 2001) with the objectives to assess N2-fixation of these legumes and study their residual effects on soil NO3-N and subsequent wheat yield. Sorghum (Var. YSS-98) was also grown as non-legume reference crop. Mash bean not fertilized with P produced 4.27 t ha-1 of dry matter compared with 4.38 t ha-1 when fertilized with P @ 80 kg ha-1. Similarly, mash bean fertilized with P yielded 4% more grain followed by mung bean and response of P fertilizer was 13%. Legumes N2-fixed ranged from 13-80 and 18-38 kg ha-1 at UAAR and Chakwal site, respectively. The NO3-N contents in the soil under non-legume sorghum were less compared with legumes. Maximum contents of total NO3-N, 58 kg ha-1 in soil profile was observed under mash bean fertilized with P. Additional residual soil NO3-N under legumes relative to adjacent sorghum crop were 22 kg ha-1 at UAAR site, 83 % higher when compared to Chakwal site. Both legumes with and with out P fertilization increased the biomass and grain yield of succeeding wheat with an increase of 18% over non-legume sorghum. Legumes-cereal sequence improved NO3-N status of soil as well as yield of subsequent wheat.

2317-2326 Download
14
HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AROUND A SALT LAKE IN TURKEY
G.N. TUG1* AND F. DUMAN2

HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AROUND A SALT LAKE IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd) accumulation around soils of Salt Lake in Turkey were evaluated, accounting for major sources including atmospheric deposition, sewage systems, livestock manures, fertilizers, traffic and industrial by-product wastes. The heavy metal concentrations were determined by using Varian model Inductively Coupled Plasma and statistically evaluated with SPSS 11.5 statistical program. The heavy metal concentrations were investigated monthly except winter months. The lowest and the highest accumulation levels were observed in April and in August, respectively. The soils were also evaluated according to zonation around the lake and the relations between the four selected stations. There is a correlation between the heavy metals and their sources. There should be some precautions taken against the heavy metal pollution around Salt Lake because of the ecological, agricultural and economical importance of the area.

2327-2333 Download
15
SIMPLE TREATMENT TO INVESTIGATE SPORE ORNAMENTATION OF FERNS FOR SEM OBSERVATION FROM HERBARIUM SPECIMENS
HU XIAO-YING, ZHAI JUN-WEN, WANG FA-GUO*AND XU XIN-LAN

SIMPLE TREATMENT TO INVESTIGATE SPORE ORNAMENTATION OF FERNS FOR SEM OBSERVATION FROM HERBARIUM SPECIMENS
ABSTRACT:
Fern spore surface from herbarium specimens is usually difficult to study because of the presence of dust or debris. After being soaked in ethanol (70%) and shaken in an ultrasonic wave bath (50-60Hz, 90W), the treated spore surfaces become clearer than untreated ones under scanning electron microscopy. This is an easy method that represents an improvement to commonly use techniques for the preparation of fern spores for SEM observation. As a case study, we observed the spore morphology of Bolbitis changjiangensis, Humata henryana and Hypodematium hirsutum. Micromorphological data for Hypodematium hirsutum are reported for the first time.

2335-2338 Download
16
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT RICE-BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS ON RICE GRAIN YIELD AND RESIDUAL SOIL FERTILITY
ABDUL JABBAR2, RIAZ AHMAD1*, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN BHATTI1, ATIQUE-UR-REHMAN1, ZAHEER ABBAS VIRK3 AND SHAH NAWAZ VAINS1

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT RICE-BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS ON RICE GRAIN YIELD AND RESIDUAL SOIL FERTILITY
ABSTRACT:
In a field study the biological efficiency of intercropping in direct seeded upland rice and its effect on residual soil fertility was determined at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad for two consecutive years. The intercropping systems comprised rice alone, rice + maize, rice + sesbania, rice + mungbean, rice + ricebean, rice + cowpea and rice + pigeonpea. The rice was seeded in 75 cm spaced 4-row strips (15/75 cm) while the intercrops as forage were seeded on the vacant spaces between the rice strips. The results revealed that rice grain yield decreased to a significant level by forage intercrops compared to monocropped rice which varied from 10.94 to 25.87%, with the maximum (25.87%) by sesbania followed by pigeonpea (16.67) against the minimum (10.94%) by maize intercrop. In terms of total rice grain yield equivalent (TRGYE), the highest TRGYE (6.45 ton ha-1) was recorded for rice + forage maize intercropping system followed by rice + cowpea (5.08 ton ha-1) and rice + sesbania (4.92 ton ha-1) against the minimum (4.02 ton ha-1) for monocropped rice clearly indicating yield advantages of intercropping over monocropping of rice. Similarly the net field benefits obtained from different intercropping systems were considerably higher than the sole cropping of rice. The maximum net benefit of Rs.42325 ha-1 was recorded for rice + maize which is 37.32% more than sole rice followed by rice + cowpea (Rs.30885 ha-1) which is 14.03% higher than monocropping of rice (Rs.26526 ha-1). The results also revealed that residual soil nitrogen and organic matter was improved in all the intercropping systems except rice + maize intercropping system. However, the maximum increase in soil nitrogen (7.14%) was recorded for rice + sesbania intercropping system while the residual soil phosphorus and potassium were depleted in all the intercropping systems as compared to initial soil analysis.

2339-2348 Download
17
IMPACT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND P-FERTILIZER SOURCE ON THE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF MAIZE
AMANULLAH1, M. ASIF1, K. NAWAB3, Z. SHAH2, M. HASSAN1, A. Z. KHAN1, S.K. KHALIL1, Z. HUSSAIN1, M. TARIQ2 AND H. RAHMAN4

IMPACT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND P-FERTILIZER SOURCE ON THE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Phosphorus (P) is one the most important factor affecting maize (Zea mays L.) growth and yield in the wheat-maize cropping system. To investigate the impact of P sources (control, DAP = Diammonium phosphate, SSP = single super phosphate, and NP = nitrophos) and planting densities (D1 = 4, D2 = 6, D3 = 8, and D4 = 10 plants m-2) on maize growth analysis (cv. Azam), field experiment was conducted at the New Developmental Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during summer 2006. Among all the parameters studied, P source had significant effects on CGR (crop growth rate), LAI (leaf area index), PER (plant elongation rate), LER (leaf expansion rate), DM (dry matter) and grain yield, but had no significant effects on AGR (absolute growth rate), NAR (net assimilation rate), RGR (relative growth rate) and LAR (leaf area ratio). Plots applied with DAP or SSP had maximum AGR, CGR, RGR, LAI, LER, DM and grain yields as compared to plots applied with NP and with zero-P control plots. Increase in planting density had negative effects on AGR, NAR, RGR and grain yield plant-1 (D1 > D2 > D3 > D4) and had positive effects on LAI, LAR, LER and PER (D1 < D2 D4 > D2 > D1). The findings suggest that growing maize at D3 applied with SSP or DAP could be more beneficial in the wheat-maize cropping system in the study area.

2349-2357 Download
18
IMPACT OF SALINITY ON SPECIES ASSOCIATION AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF HALOPHYTIC PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
NARGIS NAZ1, MANSOOR HAMEED1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF13, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2 AND M. SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1

IMPACT OF SALINITY ON SPECIES ASSOCIATION AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF HALOPHYTIC PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five distinct habitats in the Cholistan desert were explored for phytoecological attributes and species association. Community structure and distributional pattern of the species was mainly dependent on the salinity gradient. Relatively more salt tolerant species viz., Sporobolus ioclados with Aeluropus lagopoides, Haloxylon recurvum and Suaeda fruticosa were the dominant components of highly saline sites, whereas, moderately saline habitats supported less tolerant species Fagonia indica, Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Ochthochloa compressa. The distributional pattern of individual species was affected by the salinity level of the habitats. The association of the species was dependent on the degree of salinity tolerance of individual species. Relatively high salt tolerant species like A. lagopoides, S. ioclados, S. fruticosa, and H. recurvum, showed a broad range of association as compared to the moderately salt tolerant species.

2359-2367 Download
19
STATUS AND RESPONSE TO IMPROVED NPK FERTILIZATION PRACTICES IN BANANA
NOOR-UN-NISA MEMON1*, KAZI SULEMAN MEMON1, RAHELL ANWAR2, SAEED AHMAD2 AND MUHAMMAD NAFEES3

STATUS AND RESPONSE TO IMPROVED NPK FERTILIZATION PRACTICES IN BANANA
ABSTRACT:
Banana is a heavy feeder crop and requires high quantity of nutrients which must be supplied through fertilization to obtain optimum yield on sustainable basis. This study was conducted in order to assess banana nutrition status and its response to improved fertilizer management, especially K fertilizer. The study was conducted to evaluate NPK status of banana through soil and plant analysis and obtain quantitative data on the use of manures and mineral fertilizers along with the yield levels achieved. Field experiment involved at two locations comparing banana response to improved practice of fertilization (IP, 544-227-494 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 yr-1) with that of the famer’s traditional practice (FP, avg. rate 381-227-93 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 yr-1). Plant and soil samples were secured during the month of March and additionally in June from grower’s surveyed sites and fertilizer trials and analyzed for N, P and K. The average quantity of fertilizer nutrients used by banana growers were 437 kg N

2369-2381 Download
20
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF DODONAEA VISCOSA (L.) JACQ.
BARKATULLAH1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2 AND MUHAMMAD IBRAR1

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF DODONAEA VISCOSA (L.) JACQ.
ABSTRACT:
Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq., is widespread species forming dense populations in sub tropical regions of Pakistan. Allelopathic studies with aqueous extracts from leaves, bark, flowers, shoot litter and mulches in various experiments, invariably reduced the germination, plumule growth, radical growth, fresh and dry weight of Pennisetum americanum (L) Skhyuman, Setaria italica (L) P. Beauv and Sorghum vulgare Pers, used as the test species. Phytotoxicity of extracts depended upon amount and soaking duration. Generally 48 hour extracts were more inhibitory. Leaves were more toxic than bark and flowers. Hot water extract was more inhibitory than aqueous extract obtained at room temperature. Added litter and mulching experiments also proved inhibitory. It is suggested that Dodonaea viscosa has strong allelopathic potential and it might be further tested for its weedicidal and insecticidal activities. Further studies are required to see its allelopathic behavior under field condition against its associated species and to identify the toxic principle, their quantification and its efficacy in the soil.

2383-2390 Download
21
STATUS OF TWO MACRO ELEMENTS CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM, OF PASTURE AND CATTLE GRAZING IN A SEMIARID REGION OF CENTRAL PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, KAFEEL AHMAD1, NASRA RAZA1 , NAZIR AHMAD4,AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5

STATUS OF TWO MACRO ELEMENTS CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM, OF PASTURE AND CATTLE GRAZING IN A SEMIARID REGION OF CENTRAL PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation, concentrations of two macro elements Ca and Mg in forages and plasma of lactating cows in a pastureland located in Sargodha district, central Punjab, Pakistan were assessed during the winter season of the year 2009. At this animal ranch the lactating cows were not being supplemented with minerals. Blood samples of these cows were sampled at one month interval and a total of 50 forage and blood samples of each month were obtained and analyzed by wet digestion. Macro mineral levels in forage samples during different sampling periods ranged from 0.15 to 0.25 % for Ca, 0.321 to 0.344 % for Mg, whereas macro mineral levels in plasma at different sampling intervals were 75 to 90 mg/L Ca and 11.81 to 16.84 mg/L Mg, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that forage Ca was moderately and Ca and Mg in blood plasma were marginally deficient indicating the warranted requirement of supplementation to enhance the plasma Ca and Mg levels and to prevent any growth and metabolic disorders in animals at this ranch.

2391-2395 Download
22
SPATIAL PATTERNS OF VEGETATION WITH UNDERLYING SOIL PROPERTIES PREVAILING ALONG DRAIN SIDE AREAS IN ISLAMABAD CITY
SYEDA MARIA ALI1* AND RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2

SPATIAL PATTERNS OF VEGETATION WITH UNDERLYING SOIL PROPERTIES PREVAILING ALONG DRAIN SIDE AREAS IN ISLAMABAD CITY
ABSTRACT:
Present study was conducted in Islamabad one of the rapidly growing city of Pakistan the and aimed to identify vegetation communities prevailing along drain sides and their relationship to the underlying soil properties. A total of 186 quadrats were recorded which covered the whole stretch of drains passing throughout the city. A total of 18 edaphic properties were determined in acid extractable surface soils of each quadrat. Two way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) identified two major communities (Broussonetia-Populus and Panicum-Conyzanthes community types). Amongst weeds, species such as Cynodon dactylon, Malvestrum coromendilianum and Parthenium hysterophorus were more frequent. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) identified environmental gradients to vegetation distribution. First ordination axis demonstrated hierarchical vegetation gradient shift of species from trees to herbs due to transformation of land from open to constructed land whereas, second axis highlighted the influence of invasive species. The distribution pattern of vegetation influenced by soil physico-chemical properties was demonstrated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) which explained a total of 11.25% variance. The results conclude that human disturbance has affected environmentally designed vegetation patterns. It is therefore necessary to take into account trends like human influence, land abandonment and land use for the maintenance and conservation of vegetation.

2397-2410 Download
23
SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND MAGNESIUM DYNAMICS IN SOIL-PLANT- ANIMAL CONTINUUM
ASIA FARDOUS1, SUMAIRA GONDAL1, ZAHID ALI SHAH1, KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM2, ABID EJAZ1 WAQAR AHMAD3 SAMI ULLAH4AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5*

SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND MAGNESIUM DYNAMICS IN SOIL-PLANT- ANIMAL CONTINUUM
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to evaluate the macro mineral status in dry-non pregnant cows at Rural Domestic Farm. Soil, forage, and blood samples were obtained four times and after wet digestion were analyzed for macro minerals. Effect of sampling periods on soil sodium and Mg, forage K+ and Mg+2, and plasma Na+ and K+ was found to be significant while the reverse was true for other minerals in different parameters. Soil Na+ and Mg+2, forage Mg+2 and plasma Mg+2 was lower than the requirements of grazing livestock while the soil K+ forage Na+ and K+ and plasma Na+ and K+ were higher than the critical levels recommended for livestock. Based on these results it can be concluded that need of the soil amendment with fertilizers and supplementation of grazing animals with the mixture mineral deficient in forage and blood plasma is not warranted but occasionally supplementation would alleviate the potential hazards of deficiency of these elements in farm animals.

2411-2421 Download
24
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF AVICENNIA MARINA FORSK VIERH. TO RECLAIM WATERLOGGED AND SALINE AGRICULTURAL LAND
KANWAL NAZIM1*, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN1, NASRULLAH KHAN2, MUHAMMAD WAHAB2 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF AVICENNIA MARINA FORSK VIERH. TO RECLAIM WATERLOGGED AND SALINE AGRICULTURAL LAND
ABSTRACT:
Mangroves are woody plants that grow in tropical and sub tropical areas. The mangroves can exist under wide range of salinity, tidal amplitude, wind and temperature, even in muddy and anaerobic soil condition. An experiment was conducted in the University Campus to know the establishment, survival and growth of seedlings of Avicennia marina based on planting observations in water logged and saline silty loam of Karachi. Growth and physiological responses were recorded at seedlings stages. The area of seeds, height, number of leaves, area of leaves and number of pneumatophores were recorded. Physical and chemical analyses of soil and water were also carried out in order to get better information. The result showed that due to availability of oxygen, mangroves did not hold up complexity to respire that’s why could not exhibit pneumatophores. It is suggested that those areas which are fully saline and waterlogged and unable to support any other crop can be conserved by planting mangroves.

2423-2428 Download
25
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY, STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL IN QUERCUS BALOOT GRIFF, FOREST DISTRICT CHITRAL, PAKISTAN
NASRULLAH KHAN*, MOINUDDIN AHMED, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, KANWAL NAZIM AND MUHAMMAD AJAIB

PHYTOSOCIOLOGY, STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL IN QUERCUS BALOOT GRIFF, FOREST DISTRICT CHITRAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Phytosociology, structure and soil characteristics were investigated in Quercus forests of Chitral Hidukush range of Pakistan. Eight stands were sampled at four different valleys i.e., Gol National Park (GNP), Bumburate Kalash (BK), Rambor Kalash (RV), and Birir Kalash (BK) ranging from 1770 −2370m.asl. Quercus baloot formed pure vegetation in 5 stands, while at 3 locations Quercus dilatata Lindle. ex Royle, was co-dominant in high altitude with high soil moisture and maximum water holding capacity. The soil pH of oak forest was acidic ranging from 5.5±0.20 to 6.6±0.26. Maximum water holding capacity and soil moisture ranged between 47±2.4% to 62±4.6% and 28±0.57% to 57±0.49% respectively and both were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.01) correlated with altitude. Among the species Quercus baloot was dominant on all sites. The total density and basal area ranged between 166.42 ha-1 to 351.55 and 12.11 to 30.13 m2ha-1 respectively. The low density ha-1 and basal area m2ha-1 was obseverd from stands on lower elevation. Circular plot were used to assess the vegetation on the forest floor. A total 60 species including Quercus seedlings were recorded from forest floor. It was also obseverd that in the study area large sized trees of Quercus baloot and Quercus dilatata were at the risk of elimination due to anthropogenic factors.

2429-2441 Download
26
MOLECULAR MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR DROUGHT TOLERANT WHEAT GENOTYPES
SAJIDA BIBI1, MOHMUMMAD UMAR DAHOT2, GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI, IMTIAZ AHMAD KHAN1, ABDULLAH KHATRI1, MAZHER HUSSAIN NAQVI1 FATEH CHAND OAD3 AND UMEED ALI BURIO3

MOLECULAR MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR DROUGHT TOLERANT WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
A diverse population was generated through induced mutation with an objective to develop drought tolerant wheat genotypes. Population was first accesses for genetic diversity through random amplified polymorphic DNA and then investigated for drought tolerant through sequence tagged sites technique. A total of 100 alleles were amplified with 15 random primers out of which 78 % were polymorphic and 22 % were monomorphic. Fragments size ranged from 198bp-1.842kbp and fragments produced by various primers ranged from 2-13 with an average of 7.4 fragments per primer. Genetically most similar genotypes were SMP1 and KMP4 (95.2%) followed by TMP3 and TMP4 (94.9%) while most dissimilar genotypes were SMP5 and KMP2 (55.8%). On the basis of results achieved, the varieties could be divided into four clusters. Of eighteen, eleven genotypes amplify the DREB F1R1 fragment. Fourteen genotypes tagging the specific sites in the wheat genome with F2R2 and thirteen genotypes were amplified with F3R3 (DREB sequence). Wheat DNA amplification with DREB gene yields 190-220bp bands with F2R2 and F3R3 whereas F1R1 yields 1.9-3.0 kb.

2443-2452 Download
27
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MINERAL PROFILE, PALATABILITY AND IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SHRUBS
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN1, INAM-UR-RAHIM1, ASIF JAVAID1, MUHAMMAD QAMAR BILAL2, PERVEZ AKHTAR3 AND SAFDAR ALI3

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MINERAL PROFILE, PALATABILITY AND IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SHRUBS
ABSTRACT:
This study determined the nutritive value of Indigoferra gerardiana, Marisine affricana, Impashion bicolor and Adhatoda vesica shrubs for ruminants. Five shrubs of each species were sampled and composite sample of leaves for each species was oven dried at 55oC for 48 h. Chemical analysis revealed that dry matter (DM) content varied from 24.3% (Adhatoda vesica) to 38.1% (Indigoferra gerardiana, Impashion bicolor). Maximum crude protein (14.7%) was observed for Marisine affricana while, minimum (15.6%) was noted for Impashion bicolor and Adhatoda vesica. Higher ash content (14.7%) and lower neutral detergent fiber contents (49%) were observed for Marisine affricana. Higher hemicellulose (42%) and lignin (7.9%) contents, and lower acid detergent fiber (22%) were observed for Impashion bicolor. The Ca

2453-2459 Download
28
EFFECT OF SIX PROBLEMATIC WEEDS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT
*IFFAT SIDDIQUI1*, RUKHSANA BAJWA2, ZIL-E-HUMA2 AND ARSHAD JAVAID2

EFFECT OF SIX PROBLEMATIC WEEDS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
A field study was carried out at the Botanical Garden of the University of Punjab, Pakistan, to investigate the yield losses by 6 commonly occurring and most abundant weeds in wheat field viz., Phalaris minor Retz., Rumex dentatus L., Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm., Medicago denticulata Willd., Chenopodium album L., and Poa annua L. These weeds were grown with two commercially grown wheat varieties viz., Inqalab 91 and Punjab 96 in 1:1 weed-crop ratio. Maximum yield losses of 76% in Inqalab 91 were caused by P. annua followed by 75% by C. didymus, whereas other weeds caused 60-70% yield losses. In case of Punjab 96, maximum yield reduction of 55% was caused by R. dentatus followed by P. minor (28%), M. denticulata, C. album (23%), C. didymus (10%) and P. annua (0%). Punjab 96 proved to be the comparatively resistant against weeds than Inqalab 91.

2461-2471 Download
29
DETRENDED CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-2), PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*

DETRENDED CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-2), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Road verges are identified as natural habitat to conserve the native flora and provide the basic environment for the growth of indigenous flora. For this purpose a field survey was carried out along the road verges of motorway (M-2). The road verges data collected along the road verges was analysed using ordination technique, DECORANA, computer programme in order to classify the data. Deterended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) identifies clusters of species in ordinate space and verifies groups of species. The road verges data was collected from 397 quadrats and 227 vascular plants species belonging to 75 families were recorded. DCA eigenvalues for the first two axes were 0.59 and 0.46. These values suggest a good dispersion of data along the axes. However, scatter diagram is more easily interpretable in ecological terms. A total of four communities were identified which differs mainly on the basis of their ecological amplitudes. This data will be used as initial source data which can be used to study the successional changes in future with reference to different environmental conditions.

2473-2477 Download
30
SALT TOLERANCE OF KOCHIA SCOPARIA: A NEW FODDER CROP FOR HIGHLY SALINE ARID REGIONS
BILQUEES GUL, RAZIUDDIN ANSARI, IRFAN AZIZ AND M. AJMAL KHAN

SALT TOLERANCE OF KOCHIA SCOPARIA: A NEW FODDER CROP FOR HIGHLY SALINE ARID REGIONS
ABSTRACT:
Effects of salinity on germination, growth, ion accumulation and water relations were studied in a highly palatable and nutritious forage grass species- Kochia scoparia, under greenhouse conditions. It was highly tolerant to salinity (600-800 mM NaCl) at germination; the seedling growth remained unaffected up to 600 mM NaCl and the plants survived with reduced growth upto a high salinity of 1800 mM NaCl. Maintenance of leaf succulence seemed dominant factor in offsetting harmful effects of salinity.

2479-2487 Download
31
EVALUATION OF NIGELLA SATIVA L., FOR GENETIC VARIATION AND EX–SITU CONSERVATION*
MUHAMMAD SAJJAD IQBAL, AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1

EVALUATION OF NIGELLA SATIVA L., FOR GENETIC VARIATION AND EX–SITU CONSERVATION*
ABSTRACT:
Nigella sativa L., has been widely used for various purposes in Pakistan but its production in the country has not been reported. Therefore 31 genotypes collected and acquired from various sources were evaluated to investigate the potential of this crop in Pakistan. The experiment was planted in RCBD with three replications under field conditions during winter 2002-2003. High genetic variation was recorded for plant height, days to first flower, days to 50% flowers, days to maturity, biomass, capsule weight, yield, seed weight and harvest index. The best genotypes identified from the germplasm could be tested under diverse environment to select the best ones. Three accessions (MP00023, MP00111 and MP00120) were better for more than one character and hence are expected to be a potential for improving N. sativa L. in future. Negative association of seed weight with yield and its components is suggested to be broken through mutation, selective diallel or back cross method. Based on genetic diversity, selected accessions from various clusters could be used in hybrid program to develop superior cultivars.

2489-2495 Download
32
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME DRIED APRICOT VARIETIES GROWN IN NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ARSHAD HUSSAIN*, AZRA YASMIN AND JAVED ALI

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME DRIED APRICOT VARIETIES GROWN IN NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of edible portion of some dried apricot (Prunus armeniae) varieties such as Charmagazi, Halmas, Margulam, Nari and Travet from different localities of Northern areas. The selected parameters included were moisture content, total ash, total acidity, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and total sugars ranged from 11.09±0.80 to 15.10±0.65 g/100g

2497-2502 Download
33
A NEW MANGO HYBRID SHOWS BETTER SHELF LIFE AND FRUIT QUALITY
ISHTIAQ AHMAD RAJWANA1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK2*, AHMAD SATTAR KHAN2, BASHARAT ALI SALEEM2 AND SAEED AHMAD MALIK3

A NEW MANGO HYBRID SHOWS BETTER SHELF LIFE AND FRUIT QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
Mango cultivars are mostly the result of selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous/introduced germplasm. Development of mango hybrid remains a major focus to boost local industry. Pakistan, being an important mango producing country developed a hybrid ‘Faiz Kareem’ by making a cross between two commercial mango cultivars i.e., Anwar Ratole X Chaunsa. These studies were carried out to compare the fruit ripening behaviour and quality of this new promising mango hybrid cultivar Faiz Kareem with its parents under ambient (28±2°C; 65-70% RH) conditions. Mature fruits of three cultivars were harvested randomly from a commercial orchard in district Multan, Punjab. During ripening, data on various physico-chemical characteristics including physiological fruit weight loss percentage, fruit softness, visual peel colour, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, sugars, vitamin C, and total carotenoids were recorded daily up to 7 days. Under ambient conditions all the cultivars took 7 days to ripe however, Faiz Kareem expressed better firmness, which indicates its potential for extended shelf life. Highest levels of total sugars (25.88%), total soluble solids (26.75°Brix) and total carotenoids (69.99µg g-1) were observed in Chaunsa while lowest in Faiz Kareem (23.71%

2503-2512 Download
34
GROWTH, YIELD AND NITRATE ACCUMULATION OF IRRIGATED CARROT AND OKRA IN RESPONSE TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
M. MUBASHIR1*, S.A.MALIK1, A.A. KHAN1, T.M. ANSARI2, S. WRIGHT3, M.V. BROWN3 AND K.R. ISLAM4

GROWTH, YIELD AND NITRATE ACCUMULATION OF IRRIGATED CARROT AND OKRA IN RESPONSE TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
ABSTRACT:
A randomized block experiment conducted on Sultanpur silt loam evaluated the N effects on growth and nitrate accumulation of okra (Hibiscus esculents L. cv. Sabz pari) and carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T29). Treatments consisted of a control

2513-2521 Download
35
PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–III: SDS-PAGE DIVERSITY PROFILE OF GLUTELINS (SEED STORAGE PROTEIN)
SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI*, TOSHIHIRO KUMAMARU AND HIKARU SATOH

PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–III: SDS-PAGE DIVERSITY PROFILE OF GLUTELINS (SEED STORAGE PROTEIN)
ABSTRACT:
Rice grain quality characters pertaining to seed storage proteins profile for glutelin was evaluated for diversity within Pakistan local rice genetic resources using SDS-PAGE. Materials consisted of 475 accessions collected from 3-rice cultivation zones and other parts of the country. A wide variation was found in the glutelin fraction of rice protein at 57kD pro-glutelin and 40kD glutelin acidic subunit bands 3 and 4. The enriched glutelin variation at 57kD may be used in the development of improved protein cultivars with respect to quality and quantity.

2523-2530 Download
36
PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID INVERTASE FROM SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.
FAIZA AMIN, HAQ NAWAZ BHATTI* AND MUHAMMAD ASGHER

PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID INVERTASE FROM SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.
ABSTRACT:
An acid invertase was isolated and partially purified from mature sugarcane (var HSF 240) stem juice by a combination of Ammonium sulphate, DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration. The purified acid invertase had a specific activity of 17.05 Umg-1. Invertase was characterized for various parameters. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 3.0 and 45°C respectively. The Km value and energy of activation (Ea) of the enzyme was 5mM and 21.37 kJmol-1, respectively. Irreversible thermal inactivation of the enzyme was studied at different temperatures that followed the first order kinetics. Different kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also investigated. A slight increase in the activity of acid invertase was observed with Ca+2, Mn+2 and Mg+2 ions while Cd2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions inhibited the activity.

2531-2540 Download
37
LOWER AND UPPER BASELINES FOR CROP WATER STRESS INDEX AND YIELD OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. UNDER VARIABLE IRRIGATION REGIMES IN IRRIGATED SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT
M. USMAN1*, M. ARSHAD1, A. AHMAD2, N. AHMAD1, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ3, A. WAJID2, T. KHALIQ2, W. NASEEM2, Z. HASNAIN, H. ALI3 AND S. AHMAD3*

LOWER AND UPPER BASELINES FOR CROP WATER STRESS INDEX AND YIELD OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. UNDER VARIABLE IRRIGATION REGIMES IN IRRIGATED SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop of Pakistan. The study regarding determination of lower and upper base lines for crop water stress index (CWSI) for cotton was conducted during summer

2541-2550 Download
38
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BASMATI AND NON-BASMATI PAKISTANI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI1*, MUHAMMAD SHAHID MASOOD1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND KAZUKO YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI3

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BASMATI AND NON-BASMATI PAKISTANI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Information of genetic variability and relatedness among rice genotypes is essential for future breeding programmes and derivation of superior cultivars. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among traditional and improved cultivars of Pakistani rice and to determine differences in the patterns of variation between two indica rice groups: basmati and non-basmati. Forty-one cultivars were evaluated by means of 30 microsatellite markers distributed over the whole rice genome. A total of 104 alleles were detected by 30 markers, all of them (100%) were polymorphic. The number of alleles generated by each marker ranged from 2 to 6 with an average of 3.5 alleles marker-1. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.259 to 0.782 with an average of 0.571. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.71**) was found between the number of alleles at SSR locus and the PIC values. Pair-wise Nei and Li’s similarity coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.99. A dendrogram based on cluster analysis by microsatellite polymorphism grouped 41 rice cultivars into 2 major groups effectively differentiating the late maturing, tall and slender-grain basmati and other aromatic rice cultivars from the early, short statured, short bold and long bold grain non-aromatic cultivars. Higher level of genetic diversity between basmati and non-basmati support the concept that former had a long history of independent evolution and diverged from non-basmati rice a long time ago through human selection and patronage. Present investigation further indicated that genetically basmati rice is different from that of coarse indica and japonica type. The results suggested that microsatellite markers could efficiently be utilized for diversity analysis, and differentiation of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars. In addition, marker-based identification of traditional basmati rice may help in maintaining the integrity of this high quality product to the benefit of both farmers and consumers.

2551-2564 Download
39
THE ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN CROP PRODUCTION AND HUMAN HEALTH
MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ1*, ABDUL RASHID2, PARVEZ KHAN, M.Y. MEMON AND M. ASLAM

THE ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN CROP PRODUCTION AND HUMAN HEALTH
ABSTRACT:
The soils in Pakistan across 22 Mha cultivated area are predominantly alluvial and loessal, alkaline in pH, calcareous and low in organic matter. These factors are mainly responsible for nutrient fixation in soil and low availability to plants. Zinc (Zn) deficiency in Pakistan was the first micronutrient disorder recognised in early 1970s as a cause of hadda disease in rice. After identification of Zn deficiency, extensive research has been carried out during last four decades on micronutrient deficiencies in soils and their drastic effects on crops. Subsequently, field-scale deficiencies of zinc (Zn) boron (B) and iron (Fe) have been established in many field and horticultural crops. The most widespread deficiency is of Zn as 70 % of the soils of Pakistan are Zn deficient and observed in rice, wheat, cotton, maize, sunflower, sugarcane, brassica, potato and in many other crops along with citrus and deciduous fruits. Boron deficiency is another major nutritional disorder which severely affects rice, cotton, wheat, sugarbeet, peanut, citrus and deciduous fruits. The third field-scale disorder is Fe chlorosis which has been exhibited in peanut, chickpea, cotton, citrus, ornamentals and many tree species. Copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies are of localized occurrence. The mineral elements like Zn, Fe and Cu are as crucial for human health as organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, protein and vitamins. The daily dietary intake of young adult ranges from 10-60 mg for Fe

2565-2578 Download
40
ROLE OF PHYTOHORMONES UNDER INDUCED DROUGHT STRESS IN WHEAT
ASGHARI BANO* AND SAMINA YASMEEN

ROLE OF PHYTOHORMONES UNDER INDUCED DROUGHT STRESS IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The performance of plants (grown in pots) was studied for drought induced at critical stages of grain filling. Furthermore, the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and benzyladenine (BA), were also studied on the physiology of plants during grain filling. Seeds of two wheat varieties cv Margalla-99 (cv1) and cv Manthar-2003 (cv2) were sown in pots. Stress treatments were imposed immediately after anthesis. Drought stress resulted in maximum decrease in IAA and GA content but proline and ABA content of leaves showed maximum increase at hard dough stage in cv1. With decrease in soil moisture content under induced drought stress, the percentage decrease in IAA and GA and increase in proline and ABA was greater in leaves and spikes of potted plants. All parameters showed greater decrease in cv2 than in cv1. Application of both ABA and BA, each at 10-6 M applied at anthesis stage, was involved in osmoregulation by the production of proline. The adverse effect of drought started at anthesis stage reaching maximum at hard dough stage. ABA was more effective at the later stages of grain filling whereas, BA was more effective at early stages.

2579-2587 Download
41
SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND ACTIVITIES AS INFLUENCED BY GREEN MANURE LEGUMES AND N FERTILIZER IN RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM
ZAHIR SHAH1*, S. RASHID AHMAD2 AND HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN3

SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND ACTIVITIES AS INFLUENCED BY GREEN MANURE LEGUMES AND N FERTILIZER IN RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of green manure legumes and N fertilizer on soil microbial biomass and activities in rice (Oryza sativa) -wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from field experiment established in 2001 involving mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), soybean (Glycine max), sesbania (Sesbania rostrata), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) as green manure in rice-wheat system in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. The results showed that the green manure legumes and N fertilizer application significantly increased the microbial biomass and activities in rice-wheat system. The average improvement gained from the green manure legumes relative to (fallow-based-rice-wheat) FRW, was 1.79 times for microbial activities

2589-2598 Download
42
WEIGHT LOSS AND CHANGES IN ORGANIC, INORGANIC AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS IN THREE SPECIES OF SEAWEEDS DURING DECOMPOSITION
SEEMA SHAFIQUE, PIRZADA J.A. SIDDIQUI*, R.A. AZIZ, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN AND SHAHNAZ N. MANSOOR

WEIGHT LOSS AND CHANGES IN ORGANIC, INORGANIC AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS IN THREE SPECIES OF SEAWEEDS DURING DECOMPOSITION
ABSTRACT:
Seaweed species constitute an important component in the mangrove ecosystem in Pakistan and contribute to the primary production and food web. Decomposition rate of these most common species of seaweed viz., Enteromorpha intestinalis, E. clathrata and Ulva reticulata occurring in mangrove environment were estimated in the laboratory using nylon mesh bag. Each seaweed species was decomposed separately in nylon net bag (1 mm2 mesh) and were placed in well aerated seawater tanks. Triplicate sample bags of each seaweed species were retrieved after 2, 5, 7

2599-2604 Download
43
DYNAMICS OF ANTI-OXIDANT LEVELS AND ACTIVITIES OF REACTIVE OXYGEN-SCAVENGING ENZYMES IN ‘PINK LADY’ APPLE FRUIT DURING MATURATION AND RIPENING
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI1,*, ZORA SINGH AND AHMAD SATTAR KHAN2

DYNAMICS OF ANTI-OXIDANT LEVELS AND ACTIVITIES OF REACTIVE OXYGEN-SCAVENGING ENZYMES IN ‘PINK LADY’ APPLE FRUIT DURING MATURATION AND RIPENING
ABSTRACT:
‘Pink Lady’ apple fruit were evaluated for anti-oxidative stress at various stages of fruit maturity and ripening. Fruit were harvested at weekly intervals starting 7 days before anticipated commercial harvest up to 42 days after commercial harvest (DACH), and then fruit harvested at commercial maturity were allowed to ripen at 22 ± 0.5oC for 20 days. Ethylene production and respiration rate increased with advancing fruit maturity. Fruit firmness and titratable acidity (TA) decreased, whilst SSC and SSC:TA ratio increased with increase in fruit maturity and ripening. A significant decline in SOD (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) activity in fruit harvested on 21 and 28 DACH was detected in fruit skin and pulp tissues and then SOD activity increased. During fruit ripening period, skin and pulp tissue also exhibited a similar trend in SOD activity. A significant increase in the activity of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) enzyme was observed in the fruit skin and pulp tissue during fruit maturation and ripening. ‘Pink Lady’ apple fruit exhibited appreciable levels of SOD and CAT activities harvested during extended period of fruit harvest maturity and subsequent fruit ripening.

2605-2620 Download
44
PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITIONS AS A RESPONSE OF WATER QUALITY IN EL SALAM CANAL HADOUS DRAIN AND DAMIETTA BRANCH OF RIVER NILE EGYPT
MOSTAFA M. EL-SHEEKH1*, MOHAMMED A.I. DEYAB2, SAMY SHABAAN DESOUKI3 AND MAGDA ELADL2

PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITIONS AS A RESPONSE OF WATER QUALITY IN EL SALAM CANAL HADOUS DRAIN AND DAMIETTA BRANCH OF RIVER NILE EGYPT
ABSTRACT:
Considerable variation in water quality was found in El Salam canal; Hadous drain and Damietta branch of River Nile, Egypt. These resulted in variation of phytoplankton flora at the study area. Sixty seven species of phytoplankton were recorded at River Nile (site I) with maximum mean individual numbers (4810.6×105 cell/l), Bacillariophyta predominant group followed by Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Dinophyta. Hadous Drain recorded maximum mean species number 72 species but with low mean individual number (195×105 cell/l) mean while, El Salam canal have local variation in phytoplankton standing crop (32-65 species). Cyanophyta or Chlorophyta were the predominant groups followed by Bacillariophyta and Euglenophyta in both El Salam and Hadous water. Phycological monitors (Diversity, Saprobic indices and Saprobic quotient) indicated that Hadous Drain has relatively high polluted water and El Salam canal water more polluted than River Nile water. The matrix of biological (phytoplankton number and biomass standing crops) parameters and environmental variables of 36 samples were subjected to Canonical correspond analysis and cluster analysis.

2621-2633 Download
45
STUDIES ON THE BIOACTIVITY AND PHYCOCHEMISTRY OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA (CYANOPHYCOTA) FROM SINDH
M.N. KHALID1, MUSTAFA SHAMEEL1, V.U. AHMAD2, SALEEM SHAHZAD3 AND S.M. LEGHARI4

STUDIES ON THE BIOACTIVITY AND PHYCOCHEMISTRY OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA (CYANOPHYCOTA) FROM SINDH
ABSTRACT:
A toxic alga, Microcystis aeruginosa (KÜtzing) KÜtzing was collected from ponds of Mancher Lake, near Thatta, Sindh (Pakistan) during October 1994 and extracted in methanol. The crude extract showed a strong antimicrobial activity against 14 bacterial and 20 fungal species including 7 human-, 5 plant- pathogens and 8 saprophytes, but its cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae was non-significant. A variety of fatty acids (FAs) were detected from the extract by GC-MS, including 7 saturated, 7 mono-, 4 di-, 7 tri- and 2 poly-unsaturated FAs. Oleic acid was present in the higest proportion (30.5 %) followed by hexa- decatetraenoic and pentadecylic acids (9-10 %). Palmitic acid was also present in appreciable quantity (5.9 %). Furthermore cholesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, phytol and sucrose have also been isolated from this extract and chemically elucidated by a variety of spectroscopic techniques.

2635-2646 Download
46
TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THREE MARINE GENERA OF DINOPHYSIALES FROM ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
SADAF GUL1* AND S.M. SAIFULLAH2

TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THREE MARINE GENERA OF DINOPHYSIALES FROM ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper describes the composition, occurrence and distribution of species belonging to three dinoflagellate genera Dinophysis, Phalacroma and Histioneis from the north Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan and adjacent deep sea during the northeast monsoon season and the transition period. The most diverse genus was Phalacroma including two toxic species. It is probably for the first time that 6 species of Histioneis are reported from the area. The most common and widespread species was Dinophysis caudata Sville-Kent followed by D .miles Cleve and may, therefore, be regarded as characteristic species of the area. There seems to be a seasonal isolation among species on the basis of their temperature and salinity tolerances.

2647-2660 Download
47
ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF EPIPHYTIC LICHENS IN THE ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY) FORESTS ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN ULUDAG MOUNTAIN, BURSA – TURKEY
SULE OZTURK*, SEYHAN ORAN, SABAN GUVENC AND NURHAYAT DALKIRAN

ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF EPIPHYTIC LICHENS IN THE ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY) FORESTS ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN ULUDAG MOUNTAIN, BURSA – TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
A study of the diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (900–1400 m) in the Fagetum zone of Uludag Mountain. Twenty four species of epiphytic lichens were analyzed. The most frequent species were Lecanora argentata, Lecanora carpinea, Lecanora chlarotera, Lecanora intumescens, Lecidella elaeochroma, Melanelixia subaurifera, Parmelia sulcata and Scoliciosporum umbrinum. The distribution of epiphytic lichens was significantly related to altitude. The species composition of epiphytic lichens at high altitudes was distinctly different than that of at low altitudes. The effect on the distribution of epiphytic lichens of altitude was statistically significant.

2661-2670 Download
48
NIFA BATHOOR-08: A HIGH YIELDING AND DISEASE RESISTANT WHEAT VARIETY DEVELOPED FOR IRRIGATED AREAS OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA (KP) PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
TILA MUHAMMAD1, SAJJAD HAIDAR2*, MUHAMMAD IRFAQ KHAN1, FAZLE SUBHAN1, SYED JAWAD AHMAD SHAH1, MUHAMMAD AMIN1 AND ABDUL JABBAR KHAN1

NIFA BATHOOR-08: A HIGH YIELDING AND DISEASE RESISTANT WHEAT VARIETY DEVELOPED FOR IRRIGATED AREAS OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA (KP) PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The high yielding and disease resistant wheat variety NIFA Bathoor 08 was developed through introduction of an exotic CIMMYT line and was evaluated under the name of CT-99022 for seed yield, disease resistance and wide adaptation in yield trials during 1998-2007. It has shown superb yield performance in various yield trials during 1998–2004 by producing grain yield of 8%, 8.7% and 6.2% higher seed yield as compared to standard varieties Bakhtawar-92, Fakhre Sarhad and Saleem 2000 respectively. In national yield trials, CT-99022 was tested at 42 locations under normal and late planting conditions during 2005-06. On an average it produced 6.8% higher grain yield than the local check and ranked 1st in KP under normal planting. During 2006-07, CT-99022 produced 3.4% higher grain yield than the local check across 36 locations in Pakistan and produced 7.36% higher grain yield than the local check at 4 locations in KP. The line CT-99022 showed a desirable level of resistance to yellow rust (YR), Leaf Rust (LR) and desirable quality parameters. CT-99022 is well adapted in the irrigated areas of both KP. It has distinctness of different genetic background, medium tall with dark green leaves, high tillering capacity and creamy white spike with reddish stem color at maturity. CT-99022 has been approved with the name of “NIFA BATHOOR-08” by KP Provincial Seed Council for general cultivation in the irrigated areas of KP.

2671-2680 Download
49
STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SOME LOCAL AND EXOTIC LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) GENOTYPES
MUHAMMAD JAWAD ASGHAR1*, GHULAM ABBAS2, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH2 AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA1

STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SOME LOCAL AND EXOTIC LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity was studied in 30 lentil genotypes (including 15 hybrids, 8 mutants and 7 exotic accessions) originating from Pakistan, Argentina and ICARDA (Syria) by using Metroglyph analysis. The objectives were to classify the lentil germplasm into distinct groups and to identify the most desirable genotype(s) for hybridization programme for the evolution of high yielding varieties. A desirability index was constructed to assess the worth of a particular genotype for different traits. Metroglyph analysis distributed the genotypes into 10 distinct groups. Maximum mean index score was observed for group-V followed by group-VI and group-VII. Mean index score of exotic accessions (14.3) was found greater than those of hybrids (13.9) and mutants (13.8). Genotypes like TCL 85-1, ILL 6821, Precoz and Masoor 93 were found to be the desirable genotypes. TCL 85-1 appeared as most prominent one with a high desirability index and maximum index score (17) followed by an exotic accession, viz., Precoz (15). Metroglyph technique was found useful in identifying groups of genotypes with yield enhancing traits and in the selection of superior genotypes.

2681-2690 Download
50
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
SAEED AKHTAR1*, SAFINA NAZ1 , M.TUSEEF SULTAN1 , SEEMA MAHMOOD2, MUHAMMAD NASIR3 AND ANWAAR AHMAD4

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical attributes and heavy metal content of 4 popular mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties viz., Dusahri, Chaunsa, Ratol and Langra grown in Multan (MUL), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK) and Mir Pur Khas (MPK), three major districts of Pakistan. Ash content, total soluble solid (TSS), pH and titratable acidity significantly (p<0.0.5) varied among these varieties. Langra, collected from MUL showed the highest ash % with relatively lower pH and TSS. The results indicated a substantial build-up of macro (Na, K, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Pb) elements in the selected mango varieties. Mango varieties collected from MUL showed a higher concentration of these metals as compared to other regions which may be attributed to irrigation from industrial effluents and sewage water. This study concludes that the levels of heavy metals in tested Pakistani mango varieties are higher than the safe limits laid down by World Health Organization (WHO) and need regular monitoring both at the farm and the table.

2691-2702 Download
51
CELL CYCLE MODULATION IN RESPONSE OF THE PRIMARY ROOT OF ARABIDOPSIS TO ABA
JUN XU13, GUILAN GAO23, JINJU DU23, YONG GUO 1 AND CHENGWEI YANG2*

CELL CYCLE MODULATION IN RESPONSE OF THE PRIMARY ROOT OF ARABIDOPSIS TO ABA
ABSTRACT:
ABA plays a crucial role in plant growth and development in response to stress and it can inhibit root growth. Studies were carried out the importance of cell cycle regulation in mediating the primary root growth response of Arabidopsis to ABA. When seedlings were transferred to medium with ABA, the root growth rate and the GUS expression was progressively reduced with increasing concentrations of ABA. In addition, the expression levels of the CDKA, CDKB1, CDKB2 genes roughly were constant, however, the CYCB1 gene expression was down-regulated by ABA treatment. Our results indicated that the inhibition of primary root growth was mediated, at least partly, by an ABA-induced regulation of CYCB1 expression at the G2/M checkpoint.

2703-2710 Download
52
DEVELOPMENT AND CYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EMBRYO SAC, EMBRYO AND ENDOSPERM IN ALLIUM PERONINIANUM
IŞIL İSMAİLOĞLU*, ZEYNEP MİNE COŞKUN, MUSTAFA KESKİN AND MERAL ÜNAL

DEVELOPMENT AND CYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EMBRYO SAC, EMBRYO AND ENDOSPERM IN ALLIUM PERONINIANUM
ABSTRACT:
The development of the embryo in Allium peroninianum Aznav., is of the Onagrad type. The developmental stages include the followings: Proembryo, globular embryo, spheroidal, stick-shaped and cylindrical mature embryo. The endosperm of A. peronnianum follows nuclear type of development. The endosperm becomes completely cellular at the stage of globular embryo. The chalazal end of the embryo sac forms a coenocytic haustorium. The nuclei in haustorium are hypertrophic. However, some features of endosperm development show striking differences from the nuclear type. The embryo sac is divided into two chambers at free nuclear stage: small micropylar and large chalazal chambers. Both the chambers are firstly free nuclear, later they become cellular. Cytochemical tests indicate the presence of higher amounts of insoluble and acidic polysaccharides in haustorium than that of endosperm but there were no lipids in both.

2711-2718 Download
53
RESISTANCE TO PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN SOME PAKISTANI WHEATS
A.R. RATTU1, I. AHMAD1, R.P. SINGH2, M. FAYYAZ1, J.I. MIRZA1, K.A. KHANZADA3 AND M.I. HAQUE3

RESISTANCE TO PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN SOME PAKISTANI WHEATS
ABSTRACT:
Seventy six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) candidate lines and commercial cultivars from Pakistan were postulated for their leaf rust genes resistance. Since limited information available on the genes, the main objective of the study was to postulate the known Lr genes conferring low seedling reactions to 14 pathotypes of Puccinia triticina in 76 Pakistani wheats. Eleven leaf rust resistance genes were present either singly or in combination: Lr1 (in 12 lines), Lr3

2719-2735 Download
54
EFFECT OF FOLIAR VS SOIL APPLICATION OF NITROGEN ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT VARIETIES
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2 MOHAMMAD ZUBAIR2, MOHAMMAD AMAN3 KHAN AND ZAHIR SHAH4

EFFECT OF FOLIAR VS SOIL APPLICATION OF NITROGEN ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out at the farms of Agricultural University Peshawar, KPK Pakistan during 2007. Experiments were conducted using RCB design with split plot arrangements, having four replications. Different wheat varieties viz., Uqab 2000, Saleem 2000 and Pirsabak 2004 while nitrogen levels (0, tap water, 90 kg ha-1 in soil

2737-2745 Download
55
EFFECT OF CADMIUM AND SALINITY STRESSES ON ROOT MORPHOLOGY OF WHEAT
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, ZHANG GUOPING2, JEHAN BAKHT1, MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN3, EJAZ-UL-ISLAM4, MOHAMMAD DAWOOD KHAN5 AND RAZIUDDIN1

EFFECT OF CADMIUM AND SALINITY STRESSES ON ROOT MORPHOLOGY OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
A hydroponics experiment was conducted in the University of Zhejiang Hangzhou, China to investigate the effect of salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) on root morphology of different wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Cd and NaCl stress inhibited shoot and root dry weight, number of root tips (lateral roots), total root length, root average diameter and total root volume. Increasing concentration of Cd and NaCl had negatively affected root morphology of all cultivars under study. The combined effect of Cd and NaCl on these parameters was more than both Cd and NaCl alone. There was an obvious difference in response to both stresses among the three cultivars with Bakhtawar-92 being less affected.

2747-2754 Download
56
EVALUATION OF ISSR MARKERS TO ASSESS GENETIC VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG WINTER TRITICALE (X TRITICOSECALE WITTMACK) CULTIVARS
SÖZEN EMEL1*

EVALUATION OF ISSR MARKERS TO ASSESS GENETIC VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG WINTER TRITICALE (X TRITICOSECALE WITTMACK) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars “Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti”. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, “Stan-1” was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale.

2755-2763 Download
57
DOES LUTEIN PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THE PROTECTION OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS IN ARABIDOPSIS UNDER SEVERE OXIDATIVE STRESS?
HONG-YING HUANG1

DOES LUTEIN PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THE PROTECTION OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS IN ARABIDOPSIS UNDER SEVERE OXIDATIVE STRESS?
ABSTRACT:
2, §, QIANG ZHANG1, §, LI-PING ZHAO2, JI-NAN FENG2 AND CHANG-LIAN PENG1*

2765-2774 Download
58
MODELING OF SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MANSF.) SEEDS DEPENDING ON MOISTURE CONTENTS AND MINERAL COMPOSITIONS
MUSTAFA PAKSOY1*, CEVAT AYDIN2, ÖNDER TÜRKMEN1 AND MUSA SEYMEN1

MODELING OF SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MANSF.) SEEDS DEPENDING ON MOISTURE CONTENTS AND MINERAL COMPOSITIONS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, mineral contents for human diet and some physical properties that are important for the design of equipments for sowing, harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of watermelon seed (cv. Diyarbakır) grown in South Eastern Turkey were determined. Those properties were evaluated as functions of moisture content in the moisture range from 6 to 28% dry basis (d.b.) for the rewetted watermelon seed. Results showed the average length, width, thickness, the geometric mean diameter, sphericity

2775-2783 Download
59
RESEARCH ON PROPAGATION METHODS OF PERSIAN LILY BULBS [FRITILLARIA PERSICA LINN.] WITH VARIOUS VEGETATIVE TECHNIQUES
B. VEDAT ULUĞ1, ASLI B. KORKUT2, ELIF E. SISMAN2 AND MURATOZYAVUZ2

RESEARCH ON PROPAGATION METHODS OF PERSIAN LILY BULBS [FRITILLARIA PERSICA LINN.] WITH VARIOUS VEGETATIVE TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
Research was carried out to determine the propagation (of Persian Lilly [Fritillaria persica Linn.] bulbs) with various vegetative techniques at Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Yalova-Turkey. The experiment consisted of 24 combinations with two different locations (laboratory and store house), two different period (July and September), 5 different vegetative production techniques and control groups. The experiment was designed as a randomized block design with 3 replicates and 20 bulbs were used in each plot. With the analysis of results, it was found that the number of bulblets were significantly high in a horizontal cutting of bulbs in July which were kept in the store house. This result indicated that the horizontally cutting the bulbs is the most suitable vegetative technique to get maximum bulbs of Persian Lily.

2785-2792 Download
60
MAIZE RESPONSE TO INTEGRATED USE OF NP-FERTILIZERS AND COMPOST
ZARINA BIBI1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, MUHAMMAD AKRAM3, QUDRAT ULLAH KHAN1, MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN1, SUNDAS BATOOL2 AND KHADIJAH MAKHDOOM2

MAIZE RESPONSE TO INTEGRATED USE OF NP-FERTILIZERS AND COMPOST
ABSTRACT:
An experiment to investigate the influence of different NP-fertilizers and compost on maize plant growth was carried out in a pot experiment during 2009 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design. According to analysis of variance, the four different sole fertilizers (Urea and DAP (Di-ammonium phosphate) @ 50 and 100ppm), two fertilizer formulations (DAP + Compost @ 50 and 100ppm) and control manifested highly significant (p£0.01) differences for mean values of maize growth parameters. Overall, the fresh root weight was 7.50 g (Urea @ 50ppm) to 15.36 g [DAP + Compost @ 100ppm], fresh shoot weight was 22.53 g (Urea @ 100ppm) to 33.93 g (DAP + Compost @ 50ppm), root length was 39.33 (DAP @ 50ppm) to 56.33 cm (Urea @ 50ppm), shoot length was 70.50 cm (DAP + Compost @ 100ppm) to 81.50 cm (DAP @ 100ppm), dry root weight was 0.67 g (Urea @ 50ppm) to 1.27 g (DAP + Compost @ 100ppm) and dry shoot weight was 2.83 g (Urea @ 50ppm) to 4.00 g (DAP + Compost @ 50ppm) among the said seven treatments. The fertilizer formulations DAP + Compost @ 50ppm and DAP + Compost @ 100ppm performed better in boosting the maize growth parameters about root and shoot. It was concluded that said fertilizer formulations can provide significant positive enhancement to maize growth as compared to sole fertilizers.

2793-2801 Download
61
EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH PARAMETERS OF SOYBEAN
MUHAMMAD ARIF1*, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, AHMAD KHAN1, M.J. KHAN3 AND IQBAL MUNIR

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH PARAMETERS OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
The beneficial effects of seed priming have been demonstrated for many field crops. The objective of this study was to study the effect of seed priming on growth parameters of soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. William-82. For this purpose, experiments were conducted at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2003 and 2004. Three seed priming durations (6

2803-2812 Download
62
EFFECT OF SEED MASS VARIATIONS ON THE GERMINATION AND SURVIVAL OF THREE DESERT ANNUALS
SEEMI AZIZ AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT

EFFECT OF SEED MASS VARIATIONS ON THE GERMINATION AND SURVIVAL OF THREE DESERT ANNUALS
ABSTRACT:
This study is focused on the germination and survival of three desert annual viz., as Ipomoea sindica Stapf., Cleome viscosa L., and Digera muricata Forsk., influenced by the variations in the seed size. The frequency distribution of seed size of each species was constructed and the seeds were sorted out in three over-lapping size classes categorized as small, medium and large. Seed size variations were higher for I. sindica, having higher values of coefficient of variation (25.11 %), followed by C. viscosa (17.24 %) and D. muricata (13.09 %). Large, medium and small-size seeds of three selected species were allowed to germinate. Higher germination rates were observed in large-size seeds followed by medium and small-size seeds. Clear-cut effect of seed size was also observed on growth and survival of plants. Plants emerged from large-size seeds of three species were more likely to survive to maturity. It was due to the fact that large-size seeds have large food reserves, which help them to cope with adverse conditions.

2813-2825 Download
63
BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA
AAMIR ALI1*, IRUM GULL2, SHAGUFTA NAZ3 AND SHAHID AFGHAN4

BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA
ABSTRACT:
In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bert, an important non-caloric sweetening herb was carried out to explore its potential for micropropagation (both from apical and nodal meristem) and callogenesis (using leaf, node and internode as explant). MS basal medium with 1.0 mg l-1 of BAP was found to be the best medium for shoot formation, with 90% shoot formation response within 12 days of meristem inoculation, both from shoot apical and nodal meristem. Maximum shoot multiplication response (90%) was also obtained in MS medium having 1.0 mg l-1 of BAP, with average of 8.6 shoots per culture vial having an average shoot length of 6.0 cm. The best In vitro rooting response (96%) was recorded on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 NAA within 7.3 days of inoculation. When well developed In vitro plants were shifted for hardening on a mixture of sand + soil + peat (1:1:1) 90% success was recorded. For callogenesis leaf explant proved to be the best followed by nodal and internodal explant. The highest response of callus induction from leaf explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg l-1 2,4-D while nodal and internodal explants showed best results for callogenesis in MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg l-1 NAA and 1.0 mg l-1 BAP. The highest total soluble protein contents and the peroxidases activity were estimated in the six week old callus cultures derived from leaf explant.

2827-2837 Download
64
GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN GRAIN-ONLY AND FORAGE-PLUS-GRAIN WINTER WHEAT SYSTEMS
IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1*, BRETT F. CARVER2 AND SHAD KHAN KHALIL3

GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN GRAIN-ONLY AND FORAGE-PLUS-GRAIN WINTER WHEAT SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Dual purpose winter wheat utilized for both livestock forage and grain yield is frequently grown throughout the Southern Great Plains of USA, yet no cultivars to date were bred specifically under a dual-purpose management system. This research was initiated to determine whether breeders should select winter wheat genotypes in a forage-plus-grain system, or continue the current practice of indirect selection in the grain-only system. Thirty-seven random winter wheat lines were evaluated in three experiments for 3 yr at the North Central Research Station, Lahoma, OK. Each experiment represented either an early-planted forage-plus-grain (FG) system, a normal-planted grain-only (GO) system, or a forage-plus-grain control (FGC) system, in which the forage was not removed. To simulate continuous grazing, the FG experiments were mechanically clipped three to four times from November until first-hollow-stem development in late-February. Though significant genetic variation was observed among wheat lines for all traits under each system, the genotype × system interactions were not significant due to strong genetic (rG > 0.94) and phenotypic (rP > 0.71, P < 0.01) correlations. Genetic variances and heritability estimates for all traits were equal to or slightly higher in the GO system than those in FG and FGC systems. Indirect selection in the GO system was as effective as direct selection for trait improvement in the FG system. It is concluded that separate selection of wheat genotypes should not be applied in FG and GO systems.

2839-2845 Download
65
PROXIMATE AND ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS EVALUATION OF SELECTED VEGETABLES SPECIES FROM KOHAT REGION, PAKISTAN
JAVID HUSSAIN1*, NAJEEB UR REHMAN1, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1

PROXIMATE AND ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS EVALUATION OF SELECTED VEGETABLES SPECIES FROM KOHAT REGION, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
2, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN3, S. MURTAZA HUSSAIN1 ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4*

2847-2855 Download
66
EVALUATING SALT TOLERANT COTTON GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NaCl STRESS IN SOLUTION AND SOIL CULTURE
JAVAID AKHTAR*, Z.A. SAQIB, M. SARFRAZ, I. SALEEM AND M.A. HAQ

EVALUATING SALT TOLERANT COTTON GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NaCl STRESS IN SOLUTION AND SOIL CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out to compare generally used screening methods for salt tolerance: (i) a seedling-based, solution culture method, (ii) plant yield-based, soil method. The physiological and ionic analyses were used for comparisons of methodologies along with yield in soil based systems. The two methods were similar to each other by reproducing similar rankings for genotypes across the methods. In solution culture experiment, genotypes FH-113 and FH-911 produced significantly more (83 and 81% of control respectively) fresh weight compared to the rest of cotton genotypes, while in saline soil conditions the reduction was minimum in tolerant genotype FH-113 with magnitude of 40% in boll weight and 37% in number of bolls plant-1 at 21 dS m-1 with respect to control. The reduction in yield was much higher in salt sensitive genotype FH-5015 (47-75% of control) at 21 dS m-1. The saline soil experiment demonstrated a higher sensitivity for discriminating Na+ response among genotypes for yield reduction. It was concluded that solution culture selection approach can be helpful for the screening of cotton genotypes for salt tolerance, if using selective physiological traits and criteria.

2857-2866 Download
67
AN ELICITOR ISOLATED FROM SMUT TELIOSPORES (SPORISORIUM SCITAMINEUM) ENHANCES LIGNIN DEPOSITION ON THE CELL WALL OF BOTH SCLERENCHYMA AND XYLEM IN SUGARCANE LEAVES
ROCÍO SANTIAGO, JULIA QUINTANA, SUSANA RODRÍGUEZ, EVA MARÍA DÍAZ, MARIA ESTRELLA LEGAZ AND CARLOS VICENTE*

AN ELICITOR ISOLATED FROM SMUT TELIOSPORES (SPORISORIUM SCITAMINEUM) ENHANCES LIGNIN DEPOSITION ON THE CELL WALL OF BOTH SCLERENCHYMA AND XYLEM IN SUGARCANE LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Sugarcane leaf shows the classical arrangement of cells which defines a C4 species. Vascular bundles consist of xylem, phloem and fibres, surrounded by an outer layer of sclereids and an inner ring of stone cells associated with the phloem. Some sclereids located below and above the vascular bundles act as docking cells and connect the vascular bundle to the internal surfaces of upper and lower layers of the epidermis. A compact mass of sclereids occupies the total internal volume of the leaf edge. Neither docking cells nor the internal mass of sclereids in the edge were markedly coloured by acriflavin or phloroglucinol, indicating the absence of lignin in their cell walls. However, such staining indicated that fibres of the vascular bundle and the external layer of sclereids were strongly lignified. Incubation of leaf discs with an elicitor produced by the pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum increased the thickness of the lignified cell walls of sclereids as well as the mid and small xylem vessels, as a possible mechanical defense response to the potential entry of the pathogen.

2867-2881 Download
68
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM EGYPTIAN HENBANE (HYOSCYAMUS MUTICUS L.)
FATMA F. ABDEL-MOTAAL1,2, MORTADA S. M. NASSAR2, SOAD A. EL-ZAYAT2, MAGDI A. EL-SAYED1,2 AND SHIN-ICHI ITO 1*

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM EGYPTIAN HENBANE (HYOSCYAMUS MUTICUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
A total of 44 strains of endophytic fungi have been identified from the medicinal plant Hyoscyamus muticus L. Ten of these strains were inoculated into aseptic seedlings of H. muticus. Of the inoculated strains, 9 were reisolated from the plants as endophytes. Using dual culture assay, we investigated whether eight of these strains, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Drechslera hawaiiensis, Fusarium solani, Penicillium citrinum, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Thyrostromella myriana and Ulocladium chartarum have antagonistic activities against two strains of plant pathogenic fungi viz., Gibberella zeae and Thanatephorus cucumeris, as well as 6 strains of non-pathogenic fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Curvularia clavata, Penicillium janthinellum and Ulocladium chartarum. The endophytic fungi showed antagonistic activities against all the examined fungal strains. Extra- and intracellular fractions of P. citrinum and N. dimidiatum cultures, both of which showed high antagonistic activities, were extracted with ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The resulting fractions were examined for their antifungal activity by performing bioautography coupled with thin-layer chromatography (TLC-bioautography). Extracellular fluids secreted by the cultures of these organisms showed high antifungal activities against fungi, including the two plant pathogenic fungi; this result indicates that these endophytes secrete antifungal compounds extracellularly.

2883-2894 Download
69
EXPRESSION PATTERN OF TRICHODERMA CELLULASES UNDER DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
NIGHAT ASLAM1, MUNIR A SHIEKH1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2 AND AMER JAMIL1*

EXPRESSION PATTERN OF TRICHODERMA CELLULASES UNDER DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Production of easily fermentable low-cost sugars demands for an economic and less expensive method of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. It is highly desirable to compare various fermentation media with different carbon sources for cellulase production. Trichoderma harzianum was grown on different carbon sources and monitored for cellulase production. Glucose-grown cultures of T. harzianum showed high amount of mycelial growth but no yield of cellulase enzyme. Cellulase expression was also studied herein by comparing the cellulase activities using soluble and insoluble cellulosic carbon sources in the growth media in order to obtain less expensive fermentation media. Outcome of the research will be helpful in the development of low cost system for production of cellulose.

2895-2902 Download
70
EVALUATION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATES AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES FOLLOWING SEED APPLICATION IN OKRA AND MUNGBEAN
M. QASIM KHAN, M. WASEEM ABBASI, M. JAVED ZAKI AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

EVALUATION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATES AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES FOLLOWING SEED APPLICATION IN OKRA AND MUNGBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus thuringiensis, an insecticidal bacterium is widely used as a biological control agent for a number of insects. During a survey

2903-2910 Download
71
IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT DIFFUSATES AGAINST ALTERNARIA SOLANI, RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
AQSA ASLAM1, FARAH NAZ2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1* AND C.A. RAUF2

IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT DIFFUSATES AGAINST ALTERNARIA SOLANI, RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports the antifungal activity of plant diffusates from 5 indigenous medicinal plant species of Potohar region viz., Adhatoda zeylanica, Azadirachta indica, Capparis decidua, Dodonaea viscosa and Salvadora oleoides. Antifungal activity was tested against 3 pathogens attacking commercial crops viz., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. All selected medicinal plants exhibited considerable distinction in radial mycelial growth of tested pathogens. Overall, Dodonaea viscosa appeared significantly the most effective and suppressed the radial mycelial growth of the Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani, whereas, Adhatoda zeylanica exhibited maximum inhibition (77.44%) against Macrophomina phaseolina. However, Salvadora oleoides exhibited minimum inhibition against all tested pathogens. It was also observed that radial mycelial growth of selected pathogens reduced at an increase of plant diffusates concentration. Among 5 concentrations of plant diffusates, the highest inhibition in radial mycelial growth of all 3 pathogens was observed at 100 and 200g/l respectively, as compared to control, while minimum inhibition was recorded at 10g/l in all plant diffusates. It may be concluded from the present investigation that Dodonaea viscosa can be utilized for the management of fungal diseases caused by Alternaria solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

2911-2919 Download
72
EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES, MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AND OILCAKES IN THE CONTROL OF FUSARIUM SOLANI, THE CAUSE OF SEED ROT, SEEDLING AND ROOT INFECTION OF BOTTLE GOURD, BITTER GOURD AND CUCUMBER
NASREEN SULTANA1 AND A. GHAFFAR2

EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES, MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AND OILCAKES IN THE CONTROL OF FUSARIUM SOLANI, THE CAUSE OF SEED ROT, SEEDLING AND ROOT INFECTION OF BOTTLE GOURD, BITTER GOURD AND CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
The effect of fungicides, microbial antagonists and oilcakes in the control of Fusarium solani the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd, bitter gourd and cucumber was studied In vitro and In vivo. Complete inhibition of colony growth of F. solani was observed where fungicides viz., Aliette, Benlate and Carbendazim @ 100 ppm were used. Carbendazim completely eradicated seed borne infection of F. solani in bitter gourd and gave maximum reduction in cucumber and bottle gourd. Root infection was completely checked by Benlate and Carbendazim in bitter gourd and was best controlled by Aliette, Topsin-M and Carbendazim in bottle gourd and cucumber. F. solani infested seeds of bottle gourd, cucumber and bitter gourd reduced seedling mortality and root infection when sown in mustard and neem cake amended soil. Mustard cake was found most effective at all ratios followed by neem and castor cake.

2921-2934 Download
73
BIOEFFICACY OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON SUNFLOWER
MUHAMMAD ANIS, M. WASEEM ABBASI AND M. JAVED ZAKI

BIOEFFICACY OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Seed treatment with biological control agents were found successful in prevention of fungal diseases of crop plants. In the present study, efficacy of microbial antagonists viz., Aspergillus flavus Link, Paecilomyces variotii Bainier, Trichoderma viride Pers., Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard and Bacillus subtilis Ferdinand Cohn was evaluated for their effect on plant growth promotion and against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., the cause of root rot of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). In dual culture assays, all antagonists inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina. Rhizobium meliloti and Bacillus subtilis showed maximum inhibition in the growth of M. phaseolina. Seed treatments with tested antagonists in blotting paper, test tube and pot experiments, did not show any detrimental effect on germination of sunflower seeds. On the other hand, in all the experiments seeds coating with antagonists proved effective in protecting sunflower seeds from root rot and significantly increased in root length and vigor index.

2935-2940 Download
74
MOLECULAR AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ZEBA PARWEEN IMRAN1, ANITA ZAIDI2, ANWER ALI SIDDIQUI2, SATHEESH NAIR3 AND AQEEL AHMAD*4

MOLECULAR AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Incidence of paratyphoid infections caused by Salmonella paratyphi A is significantly mounting high in the country. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics which often results in the development of drug-resistant strains, is making the treatment difficult. This situation becomes worst when organism acquire multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present study, various isolates of MDR S. paratyphi A, obtained from different regions of Pakistan, were analyzed for plasmid profile and multiplex PCR to determine the resistance gene associated with plasmid and chromosomal DNA of S. paratyphi A. Multi-drug resistant isolates of S. paratyphi A obtained during the year 2001-2006 from different regions of Pakistan have been included in this study. These isolates showed resistance to chloramphenical (30µg), ampicillin (10µg), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (23.5µg), and tetracycline (30µg). Some strains were also found resistant to ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The plasmids from bacterial strains were found to be approximately 220 kbp, harboring antibiotic resistance genes. A multiplex PCR was used to identify any variation in antibiotic resistance genes encoding the MDR phenotypes in clinical isolates of S. paratyphi A. A homogenous pattern of multiplex PCR product revealed that MDR isolates of S. paratyphi A harbored the same resistance genes. This study will help taking effective measures for controlling disease in the region, and the data could be used for future medical reference.

2941-2947 Download
75
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF SEED EXTRACT OF ERUCA SATIVA
SHRAT RANI, SHAISTA AKHUND, M. SUHAIL AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF SEED EXTRACT OF ERUCA SATIVA
ABSTRACT:
The antimicrobial activity of crude water extract, Aqueous extract as well as Methanolic extract of Eruca sativa were investigated In vitro by using Agar well diffusion method. All extracts were tested against 2 Gram negative bacteria and four fungal species. Plant extracts exhibited displayed highest antibacterial activity while fungal species viz. Penicillium lilacinum, Paecilomyces variotii, Spadicoides stoveri, Penicillium funiculosum showed variable degrees of inhibition even at lower concentration.

2949-2953 Download
76
MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SUGAR CANE JUICE IN KARACHI CITY
ALMAS AHMED, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND MARIUM TARIQ

MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SUGAR CANE JUICE IN KARACHI CITY
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted for investigating the quality of 28 sugar cane juice samples collected from different localities of Karachi. pH value of sugarcane juice samples with lemon ranged from 4.60-6.56, whereas the sugarcane juice samples without lemon ranged from 5.0-6.85. Mycoflora of samples was studied by using direct plate and serial dilution techniques. Twenty eight samples of sugarcane juice with and without lemon were tested and 18 different species belonging to 11 different genera of fungi isolated by direct plating method were Absidia corymbifera, Acremonium sp., Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. wentii, Fusarium semitectum, F. sporotrichoides, Humicola grisea, Gilmanieila humicola, Curvularia lunata, Monilia sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, R. oryzae, Penicillium sp., and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) whereas Aspergillus candidus, A. subolivaceous, A. erythrocephalus and A. tamarii were isolated in addition to these by serial dilution techniques. The highest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution technique and A. niger appeared as a dominant fungus of sugarcane juice with and without lemon by both of the techniques. The addition of lemon juice reduced the occurrence of A. corymbifera, C. lunata and A. erythrocephalus by serial dilution technique.

2955-2962 Download
77
POTENTIAL OF CITRUS SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST DENGUE FEVER MOSQUITO, AEDES ALBOPICTUS (SKUSE) (CULICIDAE: DIPTERA)
WASEEM AKRAM1*, HAFIZ AZHAR ALI KHAN1, FAISAL HAFEEZ1, HAZRAT BILAL1, YEON KOOK KIM2 and JONG-JIN LEE 2

POTENTIAL OF CITRUS SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST DENGUE FEVER MOSQUITO, AEDES ALBOPICTUS (SKUSE) (CULICIDAE: DIPTERA)
ABSTRACT:
Citrus seeds and peel contain certain compounds with varied level of bitterness. These compounds have been tested against insects and proved to be effective. The present study was therefore carried out to test the citrus seed extracts from 10 varieties against 4th instar larvae of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The results indicate that the extracts from rough lemon and lemon were more effective as larvicides with lowest LC50 (119.993 and 137.258 ppm respectively, after 24h of exposure and 108.85 and 119.853 ppm respectively, after 48h of exposure) and LT50 values (2.51 and 4.91h, respectively). Seed extracts from remaining citrus varieties were less active at lower doses; however at higher doses these were biologically active against Ae. albopictus. Our study has suggested that citrus-seed extract are environment friendly and can be used for managing Ae. albopictus larvae.

3343-3348 Download
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