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Year 2015 , Volume  47, Issue 1
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1
EFFECT OF SALINITY STRESS ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TOMATO CULTURED IN VITRO
KANOKWAN SRINIENG1, TANATORN SAISAVOEY1, AND APHICHART KARNCHANATAT2*

EFFECT OF SALINITY STRESS ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TOMATO CULTURED IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
Under inappropriate environments, plants responses by changing their metabolisms to maintain homeostasis that acclimation abilities are different among species and varieties. Saline tolerance tomato is an alternative way to overcome saline soil condition of some areas in Thailand. This study aims to select one or some saline tolerance tomato varieties from mostly used commercial ones. Six tomato variety seeds (Pethlanna, Puangphaka, Seeda, Beefeater, Seeda chompoo and TE VF 1-3-4) were grown by tissue culture technique in MS medium and MS medium supplied with 0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM NaCl. The Puangphaka variety was selected since it could grow in all tests NaCl concentrations with best germination time compared to the others cultivar seeds and exhibited 80-90% growth compared to control group. The seedlings were further cultivated in the same medium for 7, 14 and 21 days before they were conducted to determine stem and root superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as amount of chlorophyll. It was found

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2
EFFECTS OF SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND DORMANCY REGULATING CHEMICALS ON SEED GERMINATION OF SALSOLA DRUMMONDII ULBR.
AYSHA RASHEED1, ABDUL HAMEED1, M. AJMAL KHAN1 AND 2 AND BILQUEES GUL1*

EFFECTS OF SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND DORMANCY REGULATING CHEMICALS ON SEED GERMINATION OF SALSOLA DRUMMONDII ULBR.
ABSTRACT:
Salsola drummondii Ulbr. is a perennial halophyte found in salt deserts of southern Balochistan, Pakistan. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of salinity (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mM NaCl), thermoperiod (10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35oC), light (12-h photoperiod and dark) and dormancy regulating chemicals (DRCs) on germination, recovery and viability of the seeds of S. drummondii. Seeds of S. drummondii germinated quickly in distilled water at different temperature regimes and increases in salinity decreased seed germination. Interestingly, few seeds could even germinate in 1000 mM NaCl treatment, which is about twice as high as seawater salinity. Seeds were partially photoblastic and showed relatively higher germination under 12-h photoperiod than in dark. Seeds showed poor recovery of germination from salinity and particularly when germinated in dark. Germination inhibition at high salinity (800 mM NaCl) under 12-h photoperiod was partially alleviated by the exogenous application of different DRCs, particularly fusicoccin. Moreover, all the DRCs, except GA4+7, ameliorated germination of salt stressed seeds under complete darkness and GA4 and fusicoccin were most effective. Our study shows that seeds of S. drummondii are highly tolerant to salinity and variation in temperature but partially photoblastic nature indicate that seeds will not germinate if buried under the soil. Seed germination under saline conditions can be improved by the use of DRCs particularly by application of fusicoccin.

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3
PERFORMANCE OF DIVERSE WHEAT GENETIC STOCKS UNDER MOISTURE STRESS CONDITION
MISBAH SEHER1, GHULAM SHABBIR1, AWAIS RASHEED2, ALVINA GUL KAZI3*, TARIQ MAHMOOD4 AND ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI5

PERFORMANCE OF DIVERSE WHEAT GENETIC STOCKS UNDER MOISTURE STRESS CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to evaluate divergent wheat germplasm for their performance under drought and control conditions. The germplasm consists of wheat land races of Pakistan, advanced D-genome synthetic derivatives and high yielding varieties of Pakistan. This wide array of germplasm was selected to identify sources, which can be opted later by the wheat breeders while breeding for drought tolerance. The evaluation parameters involved some important physiochemical testing and morphological characteristics in the field under drought and control conditions. Based on these parameters, 13 wheat genotypes were selected on the basis of their best performance regarding morphological and physiological parameters. These genotypes exhibited higher yield under drought stress conditions and increased percentage of proline, sugar, SOD and protein content under laboratory conditions as compared to the susceptible genotypes. Correlation studies revealed that grains per spike (GPS) and thousand grain weight (TGW) had direct relationship with spike length (SL), proline and sugar content under both control and drought conditions. Thus, these parameters can be used as selection criteria for the identification of tolerant genotypes.

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4
EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE RATES OF TWO LOCAL SAUDI WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS
TAHAR BOUTRAA*, ABDELLAH AKHKHA AND ABDUL KHALIQ AL-SHOAIBI

EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE RATES OF TWO LOCAL SAUDI WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The present study investigated the effects of three temperature regimes, low (20ºC), moderate (25ºC) and high (30ºC), on growth and physiological parameters of two local Saudi wheat (Triticum durum) cultivars, Hab-Ahmar and Algaimi. Plants were grown under controlled environment in growth chambers. After four weeks plants were harvested and the following growth parameters were measured; plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, root length, fresh and dry weight. Physiological traits include chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters; Fo, Fm and Fv/Fm. In cultivar Hab-Ahmar, moderate and high temperatures caused significant decrease in most growth and physiological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). In contrast, cv. Algaimi was shown to be more thermotolerant to moderate and high temperatures, with the exception of some growth parameters that were decreased. Unlike cultivar Hab-Ahmar, cultivar Algaimi had an increased rate of dark respiration when temperature was high (30ºC). Stomatal behavior is shown to be positively correlated with the rates of photosynthesis in both cultivars; however, in cultivar Hab-Ahmar such correlation decreased as temperature increased.

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5
MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) TO PGPR AND SA UNDER SALT STRESS
RABIA NAZ1* AND ASGHARI BANO2

MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) TO PGPR AND SA UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 µM) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress.

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6
ASSESSMENT OF CONTENDER SUGARCANE CLONES FOR MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND BIOTIC TOLERANCE UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF TANDO JAM
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, GHULAM RAZA, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL, SABOOHI RAZA, NIGHAT SEEMA AND SHAFQUAT YASMINE

ASSESSMENT OF CONTENDER SUGARCANE CLONES FOR MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND BIOTIC TOLERANCE UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF TANDO JAM
ABSTRACT:
Sugarcane germplasm comprises different phases (Advance and station yield trial) were planted at the experimental farm of NIA, Tando Jam to evaluate the growth and biotic tolerance performance during September

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7
EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESS ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN SEEDLINGS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
MINGYANG WENGα, LIRONG CUIα, FENLING LIUα, MIN ZHANG, LUN SHAN, SHUSHEN YANG* AND XIPING DENG*

EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESS ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN SEEDLINGS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this experiment was to study the relationship between the physiological and biochemical indices and drought resistance of different wheat varieties. The response parameters evaluated were: relative water content (RWC), malondialdehyde content (MDA) and isozymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings of four genotypes, including Changwu134, Xinong2208, Xinong928 and Shaan253. The wheat seedlings were subjected by -1.0MPa PEG-6000 solution for 1~6 d in hydroponic condition and the quantities of antioxidant enzymes was measured. The results showed that the expression of SOD isozymes in seedling leaves was strongest in Changwu134 and weakest in Shaan253. CAT isozymes were induced well and increased readily in Changwu134 and Xinong928 seedling leaves than in Xinong2208 and Shaan253 during drought stress. The expression pattern of POD isozymes was similar to CAT. It is well known that SOD, CAT and POD enzymes play a significant role in determining response of wheat genotypes to drought stress. The results of this study suggested that the amount of antioxidant enzymes determine drought stress tolerance in wheat.

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8
GENE ACTION STUDIES FOR PROTEIN QUALITY TRAITS IN ZEA MAYS L. UNDER NORMAL AND DROUGHT CONDITIONS
MOZAMMIL HUSSAIN1, TAUSEEF TAJ KIANI1*, KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH2, ABDUL GHAFOOR3 AND ASHIQ RABBANI3

GENE ACTION STUDIES FOR PROTEIN QUALITY TRAITS IN ZEA MAYS L. UNDER NORMAL AND DROUGHT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A complete 8 × 8 diallel set (parents and F1 hybrids) involving eight maize inbred lines was planted in replicated trials. Genetic components D and H (H1, H2) showed that inheritance of quality traits i.e. protein, tryptophan and lysine percentage was under the control of additive effects with partial-dominance under normal as well as drought stress conditions. Inbred line NCMLD4 contained maximum number of dominant genes for protein and tryptophan percentage across water regimes. Additive gene action together with high narrow sense heritability suggested that improvement in maize for these traits through early generation selection can prove fruitful.

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9
ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ATTENUATE DECLINE IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS AND MEMBRANE THERMO- STABILITY IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) UNDER HEAT STRESS
ABDUL REHMAN KHAN*1, CHENG ZHI HUI*1, BUSHRA GHAZANFAR1, MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN2, SHAHJAHAN SHABBIR AHMAD1 AND IMRAN AHMAD1

ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ATTENUATE DECLINE IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS AND MEMBRANE THERMO- STABILITY IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) UNDER HEAT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of exogenous application of varying levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0.75, 1.5 and 3 µM) and acetyl salicylic acid (0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 mM) for induction of heat tolerance in terms of their effect on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, membrane integrity and survival in four weeks old tomato (cultivar: Mei Jie Lo) seedlings under high temperature stress (46°C/4 h daily) for 21 days was investigated. The daily heat stress treatment had deleterious effects on seedlings but chemical treatments significantly reduced the magnitude of losses to different extents. 24-epibrassinolide (3 µM) was over all the best treatment to improve survival (86.11%), photosynthesis (39.4%) and chlorophyll contents (26.12%) accompanied with initiation of flower buds and improved vegetative growth. Whereas acetyl salicylic acid (1.25 mM) best improved photosynthetic activity (40.6%) as compared to the untreated heat stressed control seedlings. Moreover, 3 µM 24-epibrassinolide and 0.75 mM acetyl salicylic acid reduced cell membrane injury to 8.3 and 6.9% respectively as compared with 22.4% in heat stressed control seedlings. However lower doses of acetyl salicylic acid (0.25 and 0.75 mM) had slight (5.6 and 12.8%) inhibition effect on the photosynthesis than the heat stressed controls. Overall both acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide up regulated basal heat tolerance in tomato seedlings and studied concentrations demonstrated signature affect upon different parameters. Thus both chemical agents can be potential candidates for further investigations for exogenous application aiming at extension of tomato growth season in summer.

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10
THE OPTIMAL DOSAGE OF 60Co GAMMA IRRADIATION FOR OBTAINING SALT GLAND MUTANTS OF EXO-RECRETOHALOPHYTE LIMONIUM BICOLOR (BUNGE) O. KUNTZE
FANG YUAN1, MIN CHEN1, JIANCHAO YANG1, JIE SONG1 AND BAOSHAN WANG1*

THE OPTIMAL DOSAGE OF 60Co GAMMA IRRADIATION FOR OBTAINING SALT GLAND MUTANTS OF EXO-RECRETOHALOPHYTE LIMONIUM BICOLOR (BUNGE) O. KUNTZE
ABSTRACT:
Limonium bicolor (Bunge) O. Kuntze is a typical exo-recretohalophyte with multi-cellular salt glands. It is often used to improve saline-alkali soil. Seeds of L. bicolor were treated with different doses of 60Co gamma irradiation to determine the LD50 for 60Co gamma irradiation; the goal was to produce a relatively high number of mutants in salt gland development and salt secretion with a relatively low level of mortality. 60Co gamma irradiation did not greatly affect germination, but an increase in gamma dose prevented the development of true leaves and reduced the percentage of seedlings that emerged from soil. The LD50 for 60Co gamma irradiation was 120 Gy. Two mutants (few and many) were obtained under the LD50 using the screening methods — differential interference contrast microscope and leaf discs excretion model. Compared with the wild type, few and many had mutation in salt gland development, and many showed lower salt secretion rate per single salt gland than WT. These mutants would provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of salt gland development and salt secretion and into the development of salt-tolerant crop plants.

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11
EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS GROWTH REGULATORS ON CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF “YIN-HONG” GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OPTIMUM MEDIUM
YU CHAO1, JIAO CAI FENG1, WU YUE YAN1*, YANG XIAO1, YANG YAN JUN1 AND JI JIN JUN2

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS GROWTH REGULATORS ON CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF “YIN-HONG” GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OPTIMUM MEDIUM
ABSTRACT:
Callus induced by stem of "Yin-hong" grape (Vitis vinifera L.) was used as materials and B5 medium as basic medium. The major growth parameters of cell suspension cultures with various levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA) and 6-Benzyl aminopurine(6-BA)were investigated to provide a basis for the optimum medium of suspension cell cultures of “Yin-hong” grape regarding cell number, packed cell volume (PCV), dry cell weight (DCW), cell viability, and morphology. All data were analysed by of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the treatment of 6-BA and NAA would effect the cell growth dynamics, probably causing logarithmic phase in advance at higher levels of 6-BA. Different concentration of 6-BA and NAA had significant effects on cells' number, PCV, DCW and viability (p<0.05), while no-significant effect was observed on the cells morphology. The optimum medium for suspension cell cultures of “Yin-hong” grape was identified asB5+1.5 mg/L6-BA+1.5 mg/LNAA+ 250 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 30 g/L sucrose. With the optimum medium, the maximum number of suspension cells after the logarithmic growth phase was 34.78 × 108 / mL, the highest cell viability reached 86.45%.; DCW reached 3.84 g/L and PCV reached 0.092 mL/mL after eight days cultivating.

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12
INFLUENCE OF SOWING DATES ON PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF DUAL PURPOSE WHEAT CULTIVARS
FAZAL MUNSIF1*, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, M.T. JAN1, KAWSAR ALI1 AND M.J. KHAN2

INFLUENCE OF SOWING DATES ON PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF DUAL PURPOSE WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that wheat can be used as dual purpose crop having valuable additional fodder supply costing no or least reduction in grain yield to fill the fodder gap in the scarcity fodder months on irrigated tracts of Pakistan.

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13
ALUMINUM INDUCED ENZYMATIC DISORDER AS AN IMPORTANT ECO BIOMARKER IN SEEDLINGS OF LENS CULINARIS MEDIC.
RAFIA AZMAT1*, NOSHAB QAMAR1, HAJIRA N BHATTI2, RAHEELA NAZ1, FAHIM UDDIN1 AND MUSTAFA KAMAL3

ALUMINUM INDUCED ENZYMATIC DISORDER AS AN IMPORTANT ECO BIOMARKER IN SEEDLINGS OF LENS CULINARIS MEDIC.
ABSTRACT:
This article discusses the Al (Aluminum) induced disorder on the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase (NR), protease (PA) and proline contents of seedlings of Lens culinaris as some important eco-biomarkers. The seedlings were cultured hydroponically in the nutrient solution with or without AlCl3. 6H2O (pH = 4.0) for 15 days. The relative toxicity of Al3+was found to be directly related with Al concentration in the nutrient medium. The reduction in the seedlings growth may be attributed with the poor root growth which in turns related with an inhibition in the cell division. Al treatments for 15 days increased the nitrate reductase activities in the seedlings while protease activity was decreased. Increase in the proline contents may cause a substantial shield to the enzymes against the detrimental effects of the tense components Al. The essential electrolyte like sodium (Na) and potassium (K) contents were found to be decreased, accredited to the rupturing of cell membrane. These results suggest that inhibition of the root growth by Al, closely related to the metabolic changes including an increase in nitrate reductase activity and decline in proteases activity in of the seedlings.

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14
TAXONOMY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE GENUS CITRUS BASED ON THE NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA ITS REGION SEQUENCE
YAN-LIN SUN1*, HO-MIN KANG2, SANG-HEON HAN3, YOUNG-CHUL PARK4 AND SOON-KWAN HONG5, 6*

TAXONOMY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE GENUS CITRUS BASED ON THE NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA ITS REGION SEQUENCE
ABSTRACT:
The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in the “true citrus fruit tree” group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus.

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15
KARYOTYPES AND FISH DETECTION OF 5S AND 45S RDNA LOCI IN CHINESE MEDICINAL PLANT ATRACTYLODES LANCEA SUBSP. LUOTIANENSIS: CYTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE NEW TAXONOMIC UNIT
YUAN-SHENG DUAN1, 2, BIN ZHU 1, SHAO-HUA SHU, ZAI-YUN LI1 AND MO WANG1*

KARYOTYPES AND FISH DETECTION OF 5S AND 45S RDNA LOCI IN CHINESE MEDICINAL PLANT ATRACTYLODES LANCEA SUBSP. LUOTIANENSIS: CYTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE NEW TAXONOMIC UNIT
ABSTRACT:
Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. in the Asteraceae family produces the atractylodes rhizome which is widely used as a traditional medicine in China. The subspecies A. lancea (Thunb.) DC subsp. Luotianensis distributed in mountainous Luotian and Yingshan regions in Hubei Province presented distinct morphology and superior medicinal quality. This study firstly reported the chromosome karyotype of this subspecies and the detection of 5S and 45S rDNA loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The karyotype was 2n=24=12m+12sm (2SAT). A single locus of 5S rDNA and two loci of 45S rDNA loci were identified and separated on different chromosomes. Its one pair of the satellited chromosomes rather than two pairs in other Atractylodes species yet still with 2n=24 occurred likely after its occupation of this geographic location. The evidence of karyotype differentiation of this subspecies native to the area is useful for elucidating the genome structure and identifying chromosomes.

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16
MALVA XIZANGENSIS (MALVACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM XIZANG (TIBET), CHINA
LIN FU 1*, YU-SHI YE2, DAI-XIANG DUAN3 AND XING WU2

MALVA XIZANGENSIS (MALVACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM XIZANG (TIBET), CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Malva xizangensis Y. S. Ye, L. Fu & D. X. Duan, a new endemic species of Malvaceae from Xizang (Tibet), China, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to M. pusilla, from which it differs in having shorter individuals, stellate velutinous leaf blade, linear epicalyx lobes, blue corolla and 8–11 ridged mericarps which are smooth abaxially and reticulate adaxially. Leaf epidermal characters also support the recognition of M. xizangensis.

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17
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMONLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM GHAZI BROTHA, ATTOCK DISTRICT
ZABTA K. SHINWARI1*, SUMERA MALIK1, ASAD MUSTAFA KARIM2, RIZWAN FAISAL3 AND MUHAMMAD QAISER4

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMONLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM GHAZI BROTHA, ATTOCK DISTRICT
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants are important natural source of possibly secure drugs. They have been playing a significant role in mitigating human miseries by contributing herbal medicines in the primary health care systems of remote areas. About 70% population of rural and remote areas depends on folklore and traditional medicines to cure various ailments. The traditional medicines have gained much popularity due to the high cost and adverse effects of allopathic medicines which encouraged manufacturers of Greco-Arab and Ayurvedic systems of medicines to fuse their orthodox medicines with local traditional medicines in order to spread health coverage at a reasonable rate.

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18
PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF ALHAGI MAURORUM MEDIK.
NISAR AHMAD1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2*, JAVID HUSSAIN3 AND RAZIA PERVEEN4

PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF ALHAGI MAURORUM MEDIK.
ABSTRACT:
Ethnomedicinally the plant Alhagi maurorum is used for diverse topical infections in the different culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The aim of the present study is to look into the possible natural tharapy in the form of bioactive fractions which can be further subjected to the isolation of natural products leading towards drug discovery. The methanolic extract and its derived fractions {n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and residual aqueous fraction} of leaves, roots and flowers of Alhagi maurorum are subjected to microbicidy against Salmonella typhe, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae, E. coli and Bacillus anthrax, antioxidant profile by DPPH method and preliminary phytochemical investigations. It is observed that the leaves of the plant showed outstanding response to most bacterial pathogens followed by roots while the fractions from flowers were almost inactive. The antibactrial profile of the plant leaves exhibited that the crude extract, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed outsatandinding activities giving above 80% inhibition against B. anthracis. The crude extract showed 80% inhibition against S. dysenteriae. The ethyl acetate and crude extarct was also good against S. typhe with 78.35% and 76.50% inhibition respectively. Extracts/fractions from leaves of the plant showed strong radicle scaving activity, it may be due to the presences of phenolic compounds in plant. Phytochemical screening of crude extracts and its subsequent fractions demonstrated the presence of fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids in leaves and roots while the flowers were found to be devoid of any such phytochemical.

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19
TRADITIONAL USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ÜZÜMLÜ DISTRICT, ERZINCAN, TURKEY
MUSTAFA KORKMAZ1* AND SİNEM KARAKUŞ2

TRADITIONAL USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ÜZÜMLÜ DISTRICT, ERZINCAN, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
A list of medicinal plants used by local people in Üzümlü district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica,Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey.For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost .

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20
RESENT STATE AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF A FEW JUNIPER FORESTS OF BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED1, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI2*, ALIA AHMED3 ATTA MUHAMMAD SARANGZAI3, TANVEER ABBAS4 AND MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN5

RESENT STATE AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF A FEW JUNIPER FORESTS OF BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Quantitative multivariate investigations were carried out to explore various forms of Juniper trees resulting human disturbances and natural phenomenon. Thirty stands were sampled by point centered quarter method and data were analysed using Ward’s cluster analysis and Bray-Curtis ordination. On the basis of multivariate analysis eight various forms i.e. healthy, unhealthy, over mature, disturbed, dieback, standing dead, logs and cut stem were recognized. Structural attributes were computed. Highest numbers (130-133 stem ha-1) of logs were recorded from Cautair and Khunk forests. Highest density ha-1 (229 ha-1) of healthy plants was estimated from Tangi Top area while lowest number (24 ha-1) of healthy plants was found from Saraghara area. Multivariate analysis showed five groups in cluster and ordination diagrams. These groups are characterized on the basis of healthy, over mature, disturbed and logged trees of Juniper. Higher number (115, 96, 84, 80 ha-1) of disturbed trees were distributed at Speena Sukher, Srag Kazi, Prang Shella and Tangi Top respectively. Overall density does not show any significant relation with basal area m2 ha-1, degree of slopes and the elevation of the sampling stands. Present study show that each and every Juniper stands are highly disturbed mostly due to human influence, therefore prompt conservational steps should be taken to safe these forests.

135-140 Download
21
GROWTH OF FLOATING-LEAVED AND SUBMERGED PLANTS IN ARTIFICIAL CO-CULTURED MICROCOSMS: MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO VARIOUS WATER FLUCTUATION REGIMES
QIAN-JIN CAO* AND FANG-FANG MEI

GROWTH OF FLOATING-LEAVED AND SUBMERGED PLANTS IN ARTIFICIAL CO-CULTURED MICROCOSMS: MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO VARIOUS WATER FLUCTUATION REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Hydrocharis dubia can alternate between a rooted floating-leaved and a free-floating form, so given increasingly frequent precipitation extremes, it is not expected to be more negatively impacted by rapid water fluctuations than by gradual ones and may adapt water fluctuations by alteration of life forms. However, the opposite may be true for Nymphoides peltata, with only a rooted floating-leaved form. We designed an experiment combining six water depth treatments (constant shallow, constant deep, and two rapidly and two gradually fluctuating treatments) with three speciescombinations (N. peltata–H. dubia, N. peltata–Ceratophyllum demersum, and H. dubia–C. demersum) to investigate plant responses to depth fluctuations and their co-cultured species. The total mass of N. peltata was considerably lower in the rapidly- than in the gradually-fluctuating treatments. However, total mass of H. dubia in the rapidly-fluctuating treatments was similar to or higher than in the gradually-fluctuating ones. Rapid fluctuations had a negative impact on the growth of C. demersum than gradual fluctuating. The floating-leaved species demonstrated divergent adaptive strategies to different water fluctuation patterns. In addition to expanding leaf blades, H. dubia can adapt to changing water depths by changing its life form. However, N. peltata, which mainly relies on morphological plasticity, such as petiole elongation, to adapt to water rise may reduce its abundance in communities subjected to increasingly frequent floods. The growth of submerged C. demersum, either co-occurring with H. dubia or with N. peltata, may be repressed by high flooding rates.

141-148 Download
22
EFFECTS OF HUMAN PROXIMITY AND NOMADIC GRAZING ON THE DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TEMPERATE HINDUKUSH
MUHAMMAD ADNAN1*, AKASH TARIQ1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

EFFECTS OF HUMAN PROXIMITY AND NOMADIC GRAZING ON THE DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TEMPERATE HINDUKUSH
ABSTRACT:
Over exploitation and overgrazing are considered major factors for decreasing plant species diversity. However, we do need some more exploration on the types of anthropogenic disturbances responsible for variation in species’ decline among different regions. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a temperate Hindukush region of Pakistan with the aim to assess human settlements’ pressure on the diversity of medicinal plants. Field data was collected from 15 plots, of which 5 plots each were randomly selected at three distant locations in derived woodland forest. Near to community plots were heavily disturbed due to natives’ proximity, 2 kilometer away plots from the native community were moderately disturbed, while 4 kilometer away plots were under the disturbance regime from temporary settlers (Nomads). We have found all 10 studied medicinal plant species at 2 Km distance followed by 8 species found at 4 km distance. Economically important species such as Bergenia ciliata, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were completely absent near village. Similarly, density (8.72 n m-2) and species richness (8.2 n 40 m-2) were found significantly highest at 2 km distance than other locations. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that among forest stand structural variables, slope was the influencing variable related to the density of only Bergenia ciliata. In conclusions, moderate disturbance is associated to increase in the diversity of medicinal plants, while high anthropogenic pressures the otherwise. Hence, effective management strategies may be adopted to conserve such precious eroding flora.

149-157 Download
23
EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE TREATMENT ON THE MICROTUBULE CYTOSKELETON AND TOTAL PROTEIN DURING MICROSPOROGENESIS IN GINKGO BILOBA L.
YUHAN SUN1, YARU WANG1, 2, YINGYUE LI1, JINZHONG JIANG1, 3, NINA YANG1, CHEN NIU4 AND YUN LI1*

EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE TREATMENT ON THE MICROTUBULE CYTOSKELETON AND TOTAL PROTEIN DURING MICROSPOROGENESIS IN GINKGO BILOBA L.
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of colchicine treatment on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the expression of proteins during microsporogenesis in G. biloba, as observed by immunofluorescence and 2-DE analysis in microsporangia treated with colchicine. The results showed the microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine in Ginkgo biloba, but the treatment effect of the colchicine had certain limitation in G. biloba. The percentage of microsporocytes whose microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine treatment was less than that observed in other plant species, not higher than 10 %. It was also found that the expression level of several endogenous proteins were changed in G. biloba when the microsporangia were treated with colchicine. Although we only tested colchicines was only tested in the present study, G. biloba appeared to possess factors that restricted the effect of such chemical agents. Our observations led us to speculate that the endogenous proteins are possibly responsible for the reduced effects of colchicine treatment in G. biloba.

159-170 Download
24
PROFILING MICRO RNAs AND THEIR TARGETS IN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.)
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI*1, MUHAMMAD QASIM2 AND MUHAMMAD DIN1

PROFILING MICRO RNAs AND THEIR TARGETS IN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, non-protein coding and negative regulatory RNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 25 novel miRNAs from 18 families (ras-miR-156, 160, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 319, 399, 408, 413, 414, 841, 1310, 2936, 5030 and 5661) are identified in an important vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The 25 miRNA precursor sequences showed secondary structures with the mature miRNAs in the stem region. Total 42 putative targets are also identified for the novel 25 radish miRNAs. These findings suggest that more thorough understanding of the function of such miRNAs will help to unravel the mysteries role in plant biology.

171-176 Download
25
DEFENSIVE RESPONSES OF POPLUS DELTOIDES 895 SEEDLINGS AGAINST EXOGENOUS METHYL JASMONATE
QUN LIU, YANQIONG ZHOU, JUAN CHEN AND DEJUN HAO*

DEFENSIVE RESPONSES OF POPLUS DELTOIDES 895 SEEDLINGS AGAINST EXOGENOUS METHYL JASMONATE
ABSTRACT:
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a chemical elicitor that induces a series of defensive responses in plants and has been widely used to simulate pathogens and herbivore attacks for several decades. This study aimed to determine the effect of exogenous MeJA on one-year-old Populus deltoids 895 seedlings. MeJA solution (10µM) was sprayed on the leaves, and the activities of sugar, free amino acid, four defensive enzymes, tannin, flavone, phenolic acid and volatile compounds were examined at different time periods. Sugar, free amino acid, and protein contents decreased to some extent regardless of the type of treatment (direct MeJA-treated leaves or indirect contralateral non-MeJA-treated leaves), whereas tannin, flavone, and phenolic acid increased. PPO, LOX, TI, and CI were activated by the treatment. MeJA also affected emissions of the leaf volatiles. These results indicate that MeJA could generate or trigger defensive responses by P. deltoids seedlings. This study provided basic information as reference for further studies on defoliators performance after feeding on MeJA-treated poplar leaves.

177-188 Download
26
ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF CALLI AND DEVELOPING SOAMATIC EMBRYO OF HYBRID LIRIODENDRON
YAN ZHEN*, JINHUI CHEN, QIN CHEN AND JISEN SHI*

ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF CALLI AND DEVELOPING SOAMATIC EMBRYO OF HYBRID LIRIODENDRON
ABSTRACT:
Somatic embryogenesis is a complex biological process in which somatic cells transform into an embryonic state. Understanding the mineral nutrition requirements is important to optimize development and growth of somatic embryos. In this study, we used inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy to compare the key elemental profiles of tissues of Liriodendron chinense × Liriodendron tulipifera hybrids during the induction and expression phases of somatic embryogenesis. The maximum levels of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Al were detected on day 9 of embryo development. Phosphate and Zn accumulations peaked at day 13. Sodium content was highest on day 5 and sharply decreased at day 9. Potassium content showed three peaks; on day 5, 13, and 20. Boron was only detected on day 5 during somatic embryogenesis. High levels of Cu were detected on days 5 and 9. The Mg, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, and Al levels were higher in embryogenic callus than in nonembryogenic callus; Cu levels were higher in non-embryogenic callus than in embryogenic callus. Information about the mineral composition of calli provides important background data to improve existing media by adding minerals that favor the induction of embryogenesis and embryo development. This will be useful for clonal propagation of L. chinense ×L. tulipifera hybrids.

189-196 Download
27
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND VARIATION OF ACER MONO MAX SEEDLINGS AFTER SPACEFLIGHT
YUHAN SUN1,2,§, YUYAO ZHANG2,§, CUNQUAN YUAN1,§, QING YANG3, CUI LONG1, YUN LI1,* AND MINSHENG YANG2,*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND VARIATION OF ACER MONO MAX SEEDLINGS AFTER SPACEFLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity and variation of Acer Mono Maxim seedlings sampled from space-mutated (sm) populations were compared to seedlings from parallel control (ck) ones using molecular markers. RAMP analysis showed that the percentage of polymorphic band, Shannon diversity index and Nei’s gene diversity index of the space-mutated populations were higher than those of the control ones, which indicated that genetic variation increased after spaceflight in populations of Acer Mono Maxim. By using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method, three space-mutated repeats (populations) were clustered together, and control groups clustered separately, which further indicated that there was difference between the space-mutated ones and the control ones, which may be caused by space mutation. Further analysis of genomic inconsistency between the root and leaf samples from the same tree showed that a total variation rate of 6.3% and 1.7% were obtained in ten space-mutated individuals by using RAMP and SSR markers, respectively, however, the variation rate was zero in control ones. It provided that space mutation may be caused the individual variation of Acer Mono Maxim.

197-202 Download
28
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOYBEAN ACCESSIONS USING SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
ZAFAR IQBAL1, REHAN NAEEM2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD4, AFTAB AFZAL1, AZHAR HUSSAIN SHAH1, MIAN SAYED KHAN5 AND MUHAMMAD FAROOQ6

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOYBEAN ACCESSIONS USING SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
Soybean, Glycine max (L) Merrill, is the most important grain legume in the world that has a fairly wide range of adaptations to different climatic conditions. The present study was conducted to assess genetic variations on 139 Soybean genotypes collected from different countries including Australia, Brazil, India, Japan, Pakistan, Tiwan, USA, Yugoslavia and China. A total of 17 bands have been identified for 139 Soybean genotypes which include 9 monomorphic bands and 8 polymorphic bands. Total number of bands was found highest for India (215) while these were lowest for Yugoslavia (33). Cluster analysis, clustered these accessions into 10 clusters without having any indication of grouping on the basis of their relationships to their regions. Pairwise comparisons based on Nei and Li similarities for inter-population genetic distances of soybean accessions ranged from 0.14 to 1.12. Genetic distances for soybean germplasm from different countries were found highest for Brazil (0.97±0.03) while it was lowest for Taiwan (0.91±0.02). Clustering for Soybean groups was clustered into three clusters including Korea, Taiwan in the first group while Yugoslavia and Japan were clustered in the second group. The third cluster was comprised of Soybean genotypes from China, Pakistan, USA, India Brazil and Australia. Total seed storage protein variation was partitioned by AMOVA on the basis of their origins into within-population and among-population components which revealed 10.00% of the total variation resided among countries and 90.0% within countries. Genetic patterns obtained from this study can help soybean breeders to make better plan for selecting germplasm from wide sources for a specific purposes.

203-209 Download
29
AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF BRASSICA JUNCEA (L.) CZERN. WITH CHITINASE GENE CONFERRING RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL INFECTIONS
BASHIR AHMAD1*, AMBREEN1, MUHAMMAD SAYYAR KHAN2 ALI HAIDER3 AND IBRAR KHAN1

AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF BRASSICA JUNCEA (L.) CZERN. WITH CHITINASE GENE CONFERRING RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL INFECTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Brassica juncea (Czern & Coss., L.) is an important oilseed crop. Since it is attacked by several bacterial and fungal diseases, therefore, we developed an easy and simple protocol for the regeneration and transformation of B. juncea variety RAYA ANMOL to give rise to transgenic plants conferring resistance against various fungal diseases. The transformation was carried out using Agrobacterium with Chitinase gene. This gene was isolated from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037. We used two types of explants for transformation i.e. hypocotyls and cotyledons. Only hypocotyls explants showed good results regarding callus initiation. Different hormonal concentrations were applied i.e. BAP 2, 4 and 6 mgL-1 and NAA 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mgL-1. However, high transformation efficiency was observed by supplementing the medium with combination of 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 for initiation of callus. Similarly 10 mgL-1 kanamycin and 200 mgL-1 cefotaxime also proved successful for the selection of transformed callus. In order to confirm the presence of transgenic callus Polymerase chain

211-216 Download
30
BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS AND METALLOIDS IN LUFFA (LUFFA CYLINDRICA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN JHANG, PAKISTAN: A PROSPECT FOR HUMAN NUTRITION
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3*, RUKHSANA PARVEEN1, IRFAN MUSTAFA1, AMEER KHAN1, ZAHARA BIBI1 AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM4

BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS AND METALLOIDS IN LUFFA (LUFFA CYLINDRICA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN JHANG, PAKISTAN: A PROSPECT FOR HUMAN NUTRITION
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, 12 heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, As, and Mo) were assessed in a potential vegetable Luffa cylindrica. The vegetable was collected randomly from two different sites located at Jhang, Punjab Pakistan. The analyses of variance of data collected from soil showed non-significant effect on Se, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mo and Pb while significant effect on Fe, Co, Mn, Cu and Cd metals. Concentrations of all 12 heavy metals in the soil samples were low at sampling site-I as compared to those at site-II except Ni. These concentrations were found below the safe limits except that of Cd. At site-I, the concentrations recorded for different heavy metals were: As > Fe > Pb > Mn > Cd > Co > Cu > Mo > Zn > Ni > Se > Cr while at site-II were: As > Fe > Mn > Pb > Co > Cd > Cu > Mo > Zn > Ni > Se > Cr. Enrichment co-efficient of Cr was higher which showed that root of luffa plant accumulated more Cr concentration from the contaminated soil. The order of enrichment co-efficient was recorded at site-I as: Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu > Fe > Ni > Mo > Pb > As > Se > Co > Cd, and at site-II Cr > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu > Fe > Mo > Pb > Se > As > Co > Cd. The transfer co-efficient of Mn was higher which indicates that more contents of Mn were transferred from roots to upper edible part. The order of transfer co-efficient at site-I was: Ni > Se > Mo > Cr > Zn > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb > As > Cu > Co and at site-II was Mn > Zn > As > Fe > Pb > Se > Cd > Co > Mo > Cu > Ni > Cr. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Se, Co, Cd, Ni, Mo and Pb had positive non-significant correlation, whereas a negative and non-significant correlation for Zn, As, Fe and Cr. The order of pollution load index at site-I was Cd > Mo > Se > Pb > Cu > Co > As > Fe > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cr and at site-II: Cd > Mo > Se > Pb > Cu > Co > As > Fe > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cr. Overall, at both sites, lowest concentration of Cr and highest of As were observed which need substantial awareness. Health risk index depends on soil characteristics, chemical composition, rate of consumption and type of a vegetable. In the present study, the order of health risk index due to these heavy metals at site-I was as As > Mo > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Zn > Se > Fe > Co > Cr > Cu and at site-II as As > Mn > Mo > Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Se > Fe > Co > Cr > Cu.

217-224 Download
31
IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE BURNING AIR POLLUTION ON SOME PHYSIO-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME PLANTS
SAADULLAH KHAN LAGHARI1*, MUDASSIR ASRAR ZAIDI1 AND GHULAM RAZAQ2

IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE BURNING AIR POLLUTION ON SOME PHYSIO-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll ‘a and b’ and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m & 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species.

225-232 Download
32
INTEGRATED USE OF BIOCHAR: A TOOL FOR IMPROVING SOIL AND WHEAT QUALITY OF DEGRADED SOIL UNDER WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING PATTERN
KAWSAR ALI1*, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN2 AND DAVEY L. JONES3

INTEGRATED USE OF BIOCHAR: A TOOL FOR IMPROVING SOIL AND WHEAT QUALITY OF DEGRADED SOIL UNDER WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING PATTERN
ABSTRACT:
Wheat quality, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency are significantly influenced by nutrient sources and application rate. To investigate the integrative effect of biochar, farmyard manure (FYM) and nitrogen (organic and inorganic soil amendments) in a wheat-maize cropping system, a two year study was designed to assess the interactive outcome of biochar, FYM and nitrogenous fertilizer on wheat nitrogen (N) parameters and associated soil quality parameters. Three levels of biochar (0, 25 and 50 t ha-1), two levels of FYM (5 and 10 t ha-1) and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (60 and 120 kg ha-1) were used in the study. Biochar application displayed a significantly increased in wheat leaf, stem, straw and grain N content; grain and total N-uptake and grain protein content by 24, 20, 24, 56, 50, 17 and 20% respectively. Similarly, biochar application significantly increased soil total N (TN) and soil mineral N (SMN) by 63 and 40% respectively in second year. FYM application increased grain, leaf and straw N content by 20, 19.5 and 18% respectively, and increased total N-uptake and grain protein content by 49 and 19% respectively. FYM increased soil TN and SMN by 63 and 32% in both the years of the experiment. Mineral N application increased soil TN by over a half and SMN by a third, and grain protein content increased 16%. In contrast, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreased for all amendments relative to the control. However, biochar treated plots improved NUE by 38% compared to plots without biochar. In conclusion, this field experiment has illustrated the potential of biochar to bring about short-term benefits in wheat and soil quality parameters in wheat-maize cropping systems. However, the long-term benefits remain to be quantified.

233-240 Download
33
MAT RUSH (JUNCUS EFFUSUS L.) TROUNCES MANGANESE TOXICITY THROUGH ULTRA-MORPHOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS AND MANGANESE RESTRICTION IN ROOTS
ULLAH NAJEEB1, LING XU2*, SHAFAQAT ALI3, NAEEM IQBAL3 AND WEIJUN ZHOU1

MAT RUSH (JUNCUS EFFUSUS L.) TROUNCES MANGANESE TOXICITY THROUGH ULTRA-MORPHOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS AND MANGANESE RESTRICTION IN ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
This study appraised phyto-remediation efficiency and tolerance mechanism of Juncus effusus as was evidenced by ultrastructural modification in its roots under manganese (Mn) toxicity. Three-week-old J. effusus plants were treated with different concentrations of Mn (50, 100 and 500 μM) in hydroponics. Although higher Mn levels caused modifications in growth, biomass, height and root morphological traits, J. effusus tolerated Mn toxicity without showing any obvious phyto-toxic symptoms even under the highest level of Mn (500 μM). With incremental Mn levels in the growth media, the plants showed a steady increase in Mn uptake, while translocation factor (TF) for Mn declined. This illustrated the tendency of J. effusus plants to avoid Mn-induced stress by restricting maximum Mn in root tissues. Electron microscopy of root tip cells elucidated plant tolerance mechanism to Mn toxicity. Modification in cellular shape and size, and increased number of vacuoles and mitochondria appeared to play a major role in induction of tolerance against Mn toxicity, and ultimate survival of plant.

241-246 Download
34
VARIATION OF FUNCTIONAL CLONAL TRAITS ALONG ELEVATION IN TWO FERN SPECIES
YAO-BIN SONG, LING-YUN CHEN, WEI XIONG, WEN-HONG DAI, WEN-BING LI AND MING DONG*

VARIATION OF FUNCTIONAL CLONAL TRAITS ALONG ELEVATION IN TWO FERN SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Phenotypical plasticity is generally considered among adaptive strategies by which plants can cope with environmental variation in space and time. Although much is known about plasticity in seed plants in terms of functional clonal traits while little is known about ferns. Variation of functional clonal traits of two ferns Dicranopteris dichotoma and Diplopterygium glaucum among plots differing in elevation in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China was investigated. Along with elevation increasing the two fern species showed similar variation pattern of functional clonal traits: stable spacer length, increasing specific spacer length and decreasing spacer weight per ramet and specific spacer weight. The two ferns species had similar variation pattern of ramet performance traits but different variation pattern of ramet population properties. These results suggest an evolutionary trade-off between functions of foraging for and storing of resources in the two ferns, with a functional preference for the foraging in response to environmental change.

247-253 Download
35
SEASONAL VARIATION IN BRYOPHYTES COVER IN THE CALCAREOUS MIRE BELIANSKE LUKY, SLOVAKIA
ŠOLTÉS RUDOLF1*, DÍTĚ DANIEL2, MIHÁLIK DANIEL1,3, ONDREIČKOVÁ KATARÍNA3, HREHOVÁ ZUZANA1,5, MAXIMOVÁ NATÁLIA1, SEDLÁKOVÁ BLAŽENA4

SEASONAL VARIATION IN BRYOPHYTES COVER IN THE CALCAREOUS MIRE BELIANSKE LUKY, SLOVAKIA
ABSTRACT:
While making investigations of glacial relic bryophytes in Belianske lúky mire, we recorded seasonal change in cover of selected bryophytes. It was decided to perform repeated monitoring between 2008-2010, in three replicates each year. In particular, the main observation was the decreasing cover of Campylium stellatum and Drepanocladus cossonii in the course of the year. In order to explain the seasonal change, we have sampled physico-chemical features of the examined sites: pH, redox potential (ORP), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand (COD), CaCO3, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ and Cl-.

255-262 Download
36
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXVIII. ALLIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXVIII. ALLIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology 20 species of the family Alliaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually bilateral, hetropolar mostly boat shaped, sexine thicker tor thinner than nexine. Tectal surface is mostly rugulate - foveolate or subpsilate rarely reticulate. On the basis of apertural types 3 distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Allium fedtschenkoanum –type, Allium grifthianum-type and Allium roylei-type.

263-268 Download
37
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF AJUGA L., LAMIUM L. AND PHLOMIS L. (LAMIACEAE) FROM DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD PAKISTAN
SHAMILA FIRDOUS1*, HABIB AHMED2, MANZOOR HUSSAIN3 AND MUQARRAB SHAH4

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF AJUGA L., LAMIUM L. AND PHLOMIS L. (LAMIACEAE) FROM DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of six wild species belonging to three genera, (two species each), of the family Lamiaceae, (Ajuga L., Lamium L. and Phlomis L.) from the District Abbottabad (Pakistan), has been studied. The overall oobjective of this study was to assess the Lamiaceous Flora of District Abbottabad on palynological basis. Pollen grains were examined under light and scanning electron microscopy and photomicrographs of pollen under light microscope (LM) as well as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were incorporated to show the diagnostic features. Pollen grains are free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, trizonocolpate; prolate to subprolate to spheroidal, sexine is thicker than nexine. Tectum is fossulate and reticulate.The shape of pollen and pollen aperture are found to be important at generic level while exine thickness and its ornamentation are found to be more significant characters at specific level and could prove to be a diagnostic feature for species identification.

269-274 Download
38
DETERMINATION OF POLLEN QUALITY AND QUANTITY IN MULBERRY (MORUS ALBA L.)
ÜMMÜGÜLSÜM ERDOĞAN

DETERMINATION OF POLLEN QUALITY AND QUANTITY IN MULBERRY (MORUS ALBA L.)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the pollen grains of eight different mulberry types in İspir and Pazaryolu districts of Erzurum were tested for the determination of viability, germination rates, pollen production levels and morphologically homogeneity. Viability of the pollens was determined by TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenly tetrazolium chlorid) and IKI (iodine + potassium iodide) tests. Pollen germination experiments were performed with ‘Agar-plate (1%)’ method in sucrose solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% concentrations. In addition, pollen production and morphologically homogeneity were determined by the ‘Hemacytometric method’. The pollen viability of all types used in this study was obtained in high ratios. Pollen germination rates were the highest for 15% and 20% sucrose solutions. The highest pollen production level was obtained from the genotype 6. The morphologically homogeneity levels of pollens changed from 97.36 to 98.86% in types.

275-278 Download
39
STUDY OF THE OPTIMAL PRODUCTION PROCESS AND APPLICATION OF APPLE FRUIT [MALUS DOMESTICA (L.) BORKH] FERMENTATION
JIE ZHANG1, †, WEI SHAO1, †, RONG JIANG1, QIANLONG JI1,2 AND YUNCONG YAO1*

STUDY OF THE OPTIMAL PRODUCTION PROCESS AND APPLICATION OF APPLE FRUIT [MALUS DOMESTICA (L.) BORKH] FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could effectively improve the vegetative growth and fruit quality of apple trees.

279-286 Download
40
DEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS IN DIGERA MURICATA: PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ROOT AND SHOOT LEACHATE PLUS N FERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF MILLET
SEEMI AZIZ* AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT

DEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS IN DIGERA MURICATA: PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ROOT AND SHOOT LEACHATE PLUS N FERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF MILLET
ABSTRACT:
Digera muricata was found to be highly allelopathic in nature. Phenolic compounds (quercetin, sinapic and ferluic acid), alkaloids (cystine and berbine) and a terpenoid (limonene) was detected from root and shoots of D. muricata. Decaying plant material of D. muricata inhibit not only the germination and growth of neighbouring species but it is also self inhibitory. When plant matures and dies down, the leachates having greater concentrations of phenols enter the soil. At this time the leachate is highly concentrated but with the passage of time it undergoes degradation and level of phenolic declines. Thus allowing the germination of other plants. Therefore, the present study was designed to reveal the degradation process of phenolic compounds in the soil Moreover, adverse effects of phenolic compounds on the growth of bullrish millet, the most susceptible crop plant.was also studied. For this purpose different levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 mM, 1 mM and 5 mM) were added to the soils having different dilutions of decaying root and shoot leachate of D. muricata (full-strength, 1/2 strengthand 1/4 strength). Addition of nitrogen to the soil showed significant decline of phenolic compounds with time, because nitrogen might increase the microbial activites in the soil, which lowered the phenolic levels, thus ameliorating growth rates. Concentration of phenolic compounds were greater in the soil having full-strength root/shoot leachate with 5 mM N fertilization, followed by by 1 and 0 mM N fertilization. Growth of millet was significantly higher in the controls having no plant leachate followed by 1/4 and 1/2 strength root/shoot leachate. Dry weights were considerably lower in full-strength plant leachate. Whereas, 5 mM N fertilization showed maximum growth followed by 1 and 0 mM N fertilization. Relatively root leachate was found to be more toxic than shoot leachate.

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41
POTENTIAL OF VETIVER (VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES L.) GRASS IN REMOVING SELECTED PAHS FROM DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL
WAQAR UN NISA AND AUDIL RASHID*

POTENTIAL OF VETIVER (VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES L.) GRASS IN REMOVING SELECTED PAHS FROM DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo[a]pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal of PAHs from diesel contaminated soil.

291-296 Download
42
IMPACT OF NO-TILL AND CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE PRACTICES ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
I. AZIZ1., N. BANGASH2, T. MAHMOOD2 AND K.R. ISLAM3

IMPACT OF NO-TILL AND CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE PRACTICES ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
ABSTRACT:
There is a global concern about progressive increase in the emission of greenhouse gases especially atmosphere CO2. An increasing awareness about environmental pollution by CO2 emission has led to recognition of the need to enhance soil C sequestration through sustainable agricultural management practices. Conservation management systems such as no-till (NT) with appropriate crop rotation have been reported to increase soil organic C content by creating less disturbed environment. The present study was conducted on Vanmeter farm of The Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to estimate the effect of different tillage practices with different cropping system on soil chemical properties. Tillage treatments were comprised of conventional tillage (CT) and No-till (NT).These treatments were applied under continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn–soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) cropping system following randomized complete block design. No-till treatment showed significant increase in total C (30%), active C (10%), and passive salt extractable (18%) and microwave extractable C (8%) and total nitrogen (15%) compared to conventional tillage practices. Total nitrogen increased significantly 23 % in NT over time. Maximum effect of no-till was observed under corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea crop rotation. These findings illustrated that no-till practice could be useful for improving soil chemical properties.

297-303 Download
43
EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS INDUCTION, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS, REGENERATION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO L.) FROM NUCELLAR EMBRYO AND EPICOTYL REGION
SYEDA KAHKASHAN KAZMI1, SAIFULLAH KHAN1,3*, NURUL KABIR2, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1, MARIAM RAZIQ4 AND NAHEED KAUSER1

EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS INDUCTION, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS, REGENERATION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO L.) FROM NUCELLAR EMBRYO AND EPICOTYL REGION
ABSTRACT:
Citrus is one of the most dominant horticultural fruit crop in the world. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for invitro embryogenic callus induction and regeneration of Kinnow mandarin. In this study, different concentrations of 2,4-D (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mg/L) along with constant 0.5mg/L BAP were used to check the effective response of epicotyl segments and nucellar tissues on callus induction and regeneration. It was observed that MS medium containing 2.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5mg/L BAP supplemented with 0.5gm/L malt extract was suitable for embryogenic callus induction from both epicotyl segments and nucellar embryonic tissues. Callus embryogenesis was achieved on simple MS medium where as regeneration was obtained on MT medium containing 0.5mg/L BAP and 0.5mg/L Kinetin along with 0.5gm/L malt extract. It was observed that the nucellar embryos are the best explants for efficient callus induction and regeneration. In order to ensure the efficient regeneration ability of nucellar callus histological studies were performed, which showed that nucellar embryos and its calli have more chloroplasts as compared to epicotyl segments, which enhanced regeneration ability of nucellar embryos.

305-310 Download
44
MICROPROPAGATION OF EUCALYPTUS SALIGNA SM. FROM COTYLEDONARY NODES
ANDRÉ LUÍS LOPES DA SILVA1*, ANDRÉ LUIZ GOLLO1, GILVANO EBLING BRONDANI2, MICHELI ANGÉLICA HORBACH3, LEANDRO SILVA DE OLIVEIRA2, MARÍLIA PEREIRA MACHADO4, KHIOMARA KHÉMELI DELLANI DE LIMA1, JEFFERSON DA LUZ COSTA1

MICROPROPAGATION OF EUCALYPTUS SALIGNA SM. FROM COTYLEDONARY NODES
ABSTRACT:
Eucalyptus saligna is an important woody plant used to lumber and cellulose. The aim of this research was to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species from cotyledonary nodes. Plantlets with 16 days old were used as a donor explants. The induction of cotyledonary nodes consisted of two parts: a dark culture followed by a light culture. Basal medium was MS added with 30g.L-1 sucrose, 10% coconut water and solidified with 7g.L-1 agar. For the dark culture the media were supplemented with 3.6μM NAA (Naftalenoacetic acid) and 4.4 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and for the light culture the media were supplemented with 2.7μM NAA and 1.1 μM BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 μM BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl2 levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl2 reduces the hyperhydricity in liquid medium; nevertheless, it had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation.

311-318 Download
45
EDIBLE SPECIES OF THE FUNGAL GENUS HEBELOMA AND TWO NEOTROPICAL PINES
VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ1, JESÚS PÉREZ-MORENO1, 2*, ROBERTO QUINTERO-LIZAOLA1, TEODORO ESPINOSA-SOLARES3, ARMANDO LORENZANA-FERNÁNDEZ4 AND VICENTE ESPINOSA HERNÁNDEZ1

EDIBLE SPECIES OF THE FUNGAL GENUS HEBELOMA AND TWO NEOTROPICAL PINES
ABSTRACT:
Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas.

319-326 Download
46
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI MITIGATES NaCl INDUCED ADVERSE EFFECTS ON SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.
HASHEM ABEER*¥1; ABD_ALLAH EF2, ALQARAWI A.A.2, ALWHIBI MONA, S.1, ALENAZI M.M.2, DILFUZA EGAMBERDIEVA3,4, AND AHMAD P.5

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI MITIGATES NaCl INDUCED ADVERSE EFFECTS ON SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AMF on the growth and physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth regulators and inorganic nutrients in tomato grown under salt stress condition. Tomato plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl alone (0, 50 and 150 mM) and in combination with AMF (0mM+AMF, 50mM+AMF and 150mM+AMF). Spore population and colonization, growth and biomass yield, pigments, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde were negatively affected. Exposure of plants to combination of NaCl and AMF showed positive impact on the above parameters. Proline and antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing concentration of NaCl and further increase was observed in plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF. Acid and alkaline phosphatase, hydrolytic enzymes and pectinase are also affected with increasing concentration of salt. However plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF balances the above enzymatic activity. Salt stress decreases the auxin concentration in plants but application of AMF has been shown to restore the auxin content. ABA increases with salt concentration but less accumulation of ABA have been found in plants treated with AMF. Regarding the nutrient uptake, Na+ and Na;K ratio increased and P, K, Mg and Ca decreases with increasing concentration of NaCl. Enhanced accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca and K:N ratio and less uptake of Na+ was observed in presence of AMF. The results confirm that NaCl imposes threat to the survival of tomato plants and application of AMF mitigates the negative effect to an appreciable level.

327-340 Download
47
DEVELOPMENTAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE SUSPENSOR AND COLEORHIZAE IN SOME TAXA OF THE SUBFAMILY MIMOSOIDEAE (FABACEAE)
CHUAN QI SHI, MEI LIU*, XIN XIN ZHANG, XIN YU CHENG AND CHEN WANG

DEVELOPMENTAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE SUSPENSOR AND COLEORHIZAE IN SOME TAXA OF THE SUBFAMILY MIMOSOIDEAE (FABACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The embryo development of Mimosa pudica and the seedling development of Acacia farnesiana, Albizzia julibrissin, Leucaena glauca and Mimosa pudica were studied by wax method in this paper. The results showed that M. pudica has a suspensor composed of about ten cells which degenerate and integrate into the embryo proper during the cotyledons development. The coleorhiza in M. pudica is from the residual suspensor cells and the cells produced by periclinal and anticlinal divisions of the meristematic cells in the embryo development. The coleorhiza in the four studied taxa is broken by the elongation of the primary root, withdraws and finally falls off during the seedling development.

341-345 Download
48
MANGROVE FORMULATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
MARIUM TARIQ AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR*

MANGROVE FORMULATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder.

347-352 Download
49
PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF METHANOLIC PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELL LINE FROM SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1,*, MASROOR IKRAM2, SAFDAR ALI2, MUHAMMAD RAFI2, JUNAID AHMED KHAN2, AND MUHAMMAD SHEERAZ AHMED3

PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF METHANOLIC PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELL LINE FROM SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cell death by plant extract in the Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line by using human muscle cancer cells as an experimental model. The optimal uptake of plant extracts in RD cells was investigated by means of spectrometric measurements, while cytotoxicity and cellular viability of the RD cells were estimated by means of neutral red assay (NRA). RD cells were exposed to plant extracts at the concentrations of 150μg/mL dissolved in dimethyle sulphoxide (DMSO) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Results indicated that maximum cellular uptake was occurred after 1 hour in vitro incubation, while plant extracts induced killing of more than 70 to 80% of the cells at 150μg/mL. The methanolic extracts killed 88-93% cancer cells, while the chemo-drug killed 23% cells after 48 hours that clearly indicated anticancer activity of plant extracts. Based on the results, it can be concluded that further study is required to isolate and characterize bioactive compounds responsible for anti-cancer activity established by this study.

353-357 Download
50
COMMUNITY STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ZHALONG WETLAND, CHINA
NANNAN ZHANG 1, 2 AND S. SHUYING ZANG1 *

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ZHALONG WETLAND, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
In autumn 2010, the phytoplankton samples were collected in Zhalong Wetland. A total of 347 species belonging to 78 genera,6 phyla were identified, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were dominated phytoplankton communities, including 143 species of Chlorophyta, 116 species of Bacillariophyta, 45 species of Cyanophyta, 39 species of Euglenophyta, 3 species of Pyrrophyta, 1 species of Chrysophyta. In the core area 66 genera, 222 species were identified, in the buffer area 63 genera, 210 species were identified, in the experiment area 63 genera, 167 species were identified. The dominant species in Zhalong Wetland included Cyclotella meneghiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Trachelomonas volvocina, Nitzschia sp.. The average phytoplankton density was 12.13×106ind·L-1 in Zhalong Wetland, the phytoplankton density of Bacillariophyta was highest (32.82×106 ind·L-1), and then Chlorophyta (23.73×106 ind·L-1) and Cyanophyta (11.43×106ind·L-1), respectively. The results of cluster analysis showed that phytoplankton community structure could be divided into three types, and within-group similarities of phytoplankton community structure was not high, but inter-group non-similarity was high. Based on the species composition, phytoplankton density, phytoplankton pollution indicator, it suggested that Zhalong Wetland was mesotrophic state.

359-366 Download
51
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA L. NATIVE TO PAKISTAN
AISHA ASHRAF1, RAJA ADIL SARFRAZ1,2*, FAROOQ ANWAR3,4*, SHAUKAT ALI SHAHID5 AND KHALID M. ALKHARFY6,7

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA L. NATIVE TO PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ziziphus mauritiana L., is a fruit tree well known for its nutritional and medicinal benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate the chemical composition as well as biological (antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor and anticancer) attributes of different solvent extracts from the leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana. It was established by colorimetric method that chloroform extract had greater amount of total phenolics (84.69 ± 0.92 μg GAE/mg of extract), while methanol extract contained higher content of total flavonoids (46.94±1.55 µg QE/mg of extract). Meanwhile, methanol extract exhibited higher DPPH free radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.11 mg/mL) and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity among others. Overall, E. coli was noted to be the most resistant microbial strain against all the tested extracts. Chloroform extract showed strongest antitumor (IC50 = 70.74µg/mL) and anticancer activity (IC50 values of 27.78 and 18.32 µg/mL against human cancer cell lines U937 and HCT-116, respectively) and significantly inhibited the viability of these cell lines.According to GC-MS analysis methyl stearate (15.59%), plamitic acid (38.55%) and α-linolenic acid (26.45%) were identified as the major components of methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts, respectively in addition to presence of several other bioactives. The results of this study conclude that Z. mauritiana leaves extract with efficient biological activities can be explored for potential uses as antioxidant, antitumor and anticancer agents for pharmaceutical industry.

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52
EVALUATION OF POLLEN VIABILITY IN DATE PALM CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE TEMPERATURES
MARYAM1, M. JAFAR JASKANI1*, BILQUES FATIMA1, M. SALMAN HAIDER1, SUMMAR ABBAS NAQVI1, M. NAFEES1,3, RASHID AHMAD2 AND IQRAR AHMAD KHAN1

EVALUATION OF POLLEN VIABILITY IN DATE PALM CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE TEMPERATURES
ABSTRACT:
Date palm is a dioecious monocotyledonous plant which belongs to Arecaceae family. Date palm pollen retains viability for a single growing season. Air dried pollen was enclosed in sealed capsules and stored at 4°C, -20°C and -80°C for different storage periods (1, 3, 6, 12 months). Pollen viability of fresh and stored pollen was determined by in vitro germination and staining test. After thawing, stored pollens were cultured in petri dishes and incubated at three different temperature i.e., 20°C, 25°C and 30°C for different time periods (3, 6, 12 and 24 hours). Pollen grains looking normal and stained red were considered viable, whereas weakly stained or colorless were recorded as non viable. Germination test showed that pollen of cultivar Khadrawy stored at -20°C had higher germination (71.22%) when incubated at 30°C for 24 hours after 12 months of storage while least was in Hillawi i.e. 34.86%.

377-381 Download
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