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Year 2015 , Volume  47, Issue 2
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1
DIFFERENTIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SALT STRESS RESPONSE IN JUTE (CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS & OLITORIUS L.) SEEDLING ROOTS
HONGYU MA1,2, RUIFANG YANG3, LIRU SONG1, YAN YANG1, QIUXIA WANG2, ZHANKUI WANG1, CAI REN1 AND HAO MA1

DIFFERENTIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SALT STRESS RESPONSE IN JUTE (CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS & OLITORIUS L.) SEEDLING ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Jute (Corchorus capsularis & olitorius L.) is mostly grown in Southeast Asian countries and has been recently suggested as a promising candidate for planting in wetland and saline soils in China. To effectively breed more salt-tolerant jute cultivars, it is necessary to understand its salt stress-responsive mechanism at molecular level. Morphological, physiological and proteomic analyses were performed on seedlings of two jute genotypes exposed to 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively, for four days. Our results indicated that genotype 9511, with lower degree of average index of salt harm (AISH) in leaf, less fallen leaf number/ten plants and higher root proline (Pro) content, was more salt tolerant than genotype Mengyuan. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that expressions of 44 protein spots were significantly changed in the seedling roots of the two genotypes in response to salt stress. Thirty-nine (39) differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, and classified into nine groups. Based on most of the 39 identified salt-responsive proteins, a salt stress-responsive protein network in jute seedling roots was proposed. After the persistent (for 4 d) salt stress, jute seedling would adapt to salt stress through altering signal transduction, accelerating ROS scavenging, impairing energy metabolism, enhancing nucleotide metabolism, lipid metabolism and cell wall metabolism, as well as altering cytoskeleton in roots. NaCl-responsive protein data will provide insights into salt stress responses and for further dissection of salt tolerance mechanisms in jute.

385-396 Download
2
EVALUATION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
SARA ZAFAR1*, M. YASIN ASHRAF2*, M. NIAZ1, ABIDA KAUSAR1 AND JAFAR HUSSAIN2

EVALUATION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major threat to world food security, to ensure future food needs of an increasing world population, development of salt tolerant crop varieties are necessary. Effective screening techniques for salinity tolerance would be beneficial in developing high yielding and salt tolerant wheat varieties. In the present study, an attempt for rapid screening of wheat genotypes for salt tolerance was made. Twenty wheat genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance under laboratory/green-house conditions using different physiological indices like germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) , shoot dry biomass stress tolerance index (SDSI). The data was pooled together to different multivariate techniques including correlation and cluster analysis to assess the diversity for salt tolerance in wheat genotypes. Highly significant and positive correlations were found between GSI, SDWSI and RDWSI. Cluster analysis classified 20 genotypes into three divergent groups. The members of first cluster (Abadgharr, Bhakkar-2000, Chakwal-86, Kiran-95, LU-26-S, Margalla-99, Marvi Pak-81, Sarsabaz) exhibited adequate degree of salt tolerance on the basis of various physiological stress tolerance indices, whereas, cluster-2 included genotypes (Bhattai, Pasban-90, Shafaq-2006, Soghat-90) with medium level of salt tolerance and cluster-3 consisted of wheat genotypes (Inqilab-91, Iqbal-2000, Kohistan-97, PARI-73, Punjab-90, Sehar-2006 and Uqab-6) with lower level of salt tolerance and did not perform upto the mark. On the basis of results and scores obtained, indicated that physiological indices can be used as a selection tool for salinity tolerance in wheat.

397-405 Download
3
AMELIORATING INFLUENCE OF SULFUR ON GERMINATION ATTRIBUTES OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER CHROMIUM STRESS
SUMMERA JAHAN, SUMERA IQBAL*, KHAJISTA JABEEN AND SARA SADAF

AMELIORATING INFLUENCE OF SULFUR ON GERMINATION ATTRIBUTES OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER CHROMIUM STRESS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola.

407-411 Download
4
RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER TO VARIOUS PRE- GERMINATION TECHNIQUES FOR BREAKING SEED DORMANCY
SYEDA NASREEN1, M. AYUB KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ZIA2, MEHWISH ISHAQUE3, SALEEM UDDIN1, M. ARSHAD1 AND ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI4*

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER TO VARIOUS PRE- GERMINATION TECHNIQUES FOR BREAKING SEED DORMANCY
ABSTRACT:
Seed dormancy is considered to be a serious constraint in sunflower seed production. Viable seeds sometimes do not germinate even in the presence of favorable environmental conditions. Such seeds are suspected to be dormant. The study was conducted under controlled/laboratory conditions during spring 2010 at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The objective of the study was to evaluate some techniques to convert a seed from dormant to non-dormant germinable state. Dormant seeds of 21 sunflower hybrids were treated with three hot water treatments (100°/80°C) and four chemicals potassium nitrate, 0.2%, thiourea, 0.5%, ethanol, 25%, acetone, 25% for breaking seed dormancy .The untreated seed was taken as control. Soaking seeds in hot water (80°C) for 15 minutes followed by one day dry and seed treatment with acetone were found to be the most effective and successful techniques in converting the seed from dormant to non-dormant state.

413-416 Download
5
SEED DORMANCY ALLEVIATION OF GREWIA TENAX (FORSSK.): A WILD FRUIT TREE SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD SOHAIL1,*, AMINA SIRAJ SAIED 2, JENS GEBAUER3 AND ANDREAS BUERKERT4

SEED DORMANCY ALLEVIATION OF GREWIA TENAX (FORSSK.): A WILD FRUIT TREE SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori is a fruit shrub and grows wild in arid and semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. The species is highly valuable for the rural populations because of its edible fruit and fodder for livestock. Species has immense potential for re-vegetation of degraded lands, as it has ability to withstand soil salinity and drought. Wild stands of the species are sparse which is supposed to have some kind of seed dormancy. Seeds of G. tenax were subjected to different combinations of heat and cold seed stratification treatments in two consecutive experiments. A positive correlation (r2 = 0.97) was observed between total emergence and weeks of seed exposure to constant dry heat at 40°C from 0 to 4 weeks. Maximum germination (70%) was achieved, when seeds were exposed to dry heat at 40°C for 4 weeks as compared to control (20%). Seeds exposed to constant heat for 4 weeks also took only 4 and 5 days to reach 1st and 50% emergence, respectively as compared to untreated seeds, which took 10 and 14 days to reach 1st and 50% emergence, respectively. Moreover, emergence spread lasted only 4 days as compared to untreated seeds with 21 days. Our results indicate that seeds of G. tenax possess a limited physiological dormancy which can be overcome by heat stratification

417-420 Download
6
SEED DORMANCY OF CORISPERMUM PATELLIFORME LIJIN (CHENOPODIACEAE): A WILD FORAGE DESERT SPECIES OF NORTH CHINA
YOUJUN LIU1,2,3 *, SHIZENG LIU2, YONGFU JI2, FANG CHEN2 AND XINWEN XU1,3*

SEED DORMANCY OF CORISPERMUM PATELLIFORME LIJIN (CHENOPODIACEAE): A WILD FORAGE DESERT SPECIES OF NORTH CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by the comparison with germinability and water imbibition between non-scarified and scarified seeds. The seed structure was studied illustrated through SEM and the effect of pre-soaking and soaked solution on seed germination was determined with GA3. Germination percentage was significantly improved (98.5%) in scarified seeds on 25°C in dark, whereas the value in non-scarified seeds was only 27.5%. Water absorption percentage in scarified seeds was higher (41.55%) than that of non-scarified seeds (36.68%). From seed illustration, the micropyle was jammed by some waxy substance which impeded water into seeds and the hard seed coat made up of collenchyma and palisade tissue which led to the barrier to water permeability. Germination percentage wasn’t significantly improved (from 27.5% to 48.5%) by pre-soaking with the solution of 500mg/l GA3, whereas significantly improved (from 27.5% to 98.5%) in the same concentration of GA3. Our results showed that seed dormancy in Corispermum patelliforme Iljin seeds was caused by the hard seed coat, the jammed micropyle and the inhibitory compounds from the “bubble structure”. It can be concluded that dormancy-releasing requires removing or destroying seed coat.

421-428 Download
7
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-X. CUCURBITACEAE
RUBINA ABID, DURDANA KANWAL AND M. QAISER

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-X. CUCURBITACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphological characters of 14 taxa of the family Cucurbitaceae distributed in 6 genera were examined using light and scanning microscopy. Seeds are obovate, oblanceolate, oblong, ovate or orbicular. Size ranges from 4-15 x 2-9mm. It is observed that seed morphology not only provides a beneficial tool for delimitation of taxa at various levels, but it can also be used to assess the phylogenetic relationship among different taxa.

429-436 Download
8
TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SOME SPECIES OF OROBANCHE L. EVIDENCE FROM RAPD-PCR AND ISSR MARKERS
SHERIF SHARAWY1,2 AND EMAN KARAKISH1,3,*

TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SOME SPECIES OF OROBANCHE L. EVIDENCE FROM RAPD-PCR AND ISSR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The taxonomic relationships among 25 samples representing nine species of Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) were determined by the analysis of morphological characters and molecular polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In order to construct dendrogram elucidating the relationships among the examined taxa, the coded data were analyzed using the software package NTSYS-pc 2.1 based on the Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree building method based on a distance matrix. The aim of this study is to develop taxonomic relationship based on morphological and molecular data, in order to obtain a more reliable taxonomic relationship of Orobanche species under study. The dendrogram produced by the analysis of the molecular data (RAPD and ISSR) resembled that constructed by NJ dendrogram for the morphological variation. The studied taxa were separated in two groups, the first comprised of the five species of section Trionychon (O. purpurea, O.lavandulacea, O. ramosa, O. mutelii and O. aegyptiaca) and the second comprised of the four species of section Orobanche (O.cernua, O. crenata, O. minor and O. pubescens). High similarity was detected between O. pubescens and O. minor. The results confirmed the close relationship between O. ramosa and O. mutelii. Moreover, this study demonstrated the grouping of the studied taxa in most cases by geographically isolated population.

437-452 Download
9
THE PHYLOGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FRUIT STRUCTURES IN RANUNCULACEAE OF CHINA
XIN YU CHENG, MEI LIU*, CHUAN QI SHI, XIN XIN ZHANG AND JIAN RU

THE PHYLOGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FRUIT STRUCTURES IN RANUNCULACEAE OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The external and internal structures of fruits from 95 taxa representing 27 Ranunculaceae genera of China were studied. The results show that Ranunculaceae could be divided into 4 groups based on the fruit types, epidermal surface, vascular bundle, mesocarp cell, and endocarp cell structures: Group 1: follicle or achene, branching or branching and anastomosing vascular bundles, mesocarp parenchyma, and endocarp with one layer of lignified cells (including Aconitum and other genera); Group 2: achene, vascular bundle branching, mesocarp lignified, endocarp with one layer of irregular and partly lignified cells (Thalictrum only); Group 3: achene, endocarp with multilayered thick-walled cells (including Adonis, Batrachium and Ranunculus); Group 4: achene, two non-branching vascular bundles, and endocarp with one layer of fibers (including Anemone, Clematis and Pulsatilla). This study show that the fruit structures of Ranunculaceae could provide morphological and anatomical evidences for molecular phylogeny.

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10
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF HAIRS IN MALVA ALCEA L. (MALVACEAE) POPULATIONS FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, AND CONSIDERATION OF THE STATUS OF MALVA EXCISA RCHB.
ZBIGNIEW CELKA1*, MARIA DRAPIKOWSKA2, SZYMON JUSIK2, NATALIA OLEJNIK1, MYROSLAV V. SHEVERA3 AND PIOTR SZKUDLARZ1

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF HAIRS IN MALVA ALCEA L. (MALVACEAE) POPULATIONS FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, AND CONSIDERATION OF THE STATUS OF MALVA EXCISA RCHB.
ABSTRACT:
Among the relics of medieval cultivation, Malva alcea L. is one of the most thoroughly studied species. In Central and Eastern Europe, a similar taxon – Malva excisa Rchb. – has been recognized. The key diagnostic characters used so far to distinguish the 2 species include the depth of petal sinus and types of stem hairs. This study was aimed to analyse the variability of stem and leaf hairs and their usefulness as diagnostic characters for both taxa. The research material was collected from 19 localities in Poland, Germany, Czech Republic, Belarus and Ukraine. Several types of hairs were observed on the stems and leaves of M. alcea: single, bifurcate and stellate. Single and bifurcate hairs were found on stems and leaves of plants from all the studied populations, more frequently on the lower part of the stem, as well as on the upper (adaxial) surface of the leaf. Stellate hairs, with 3-10 branches, were observed on stems, mainly in their upper parts, and on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves. The principal component analysis for hairs from the upper and lower part of the stem showed that individuals from most of the studied populations were clustered in one large group and only single individuals from several different populations were outside this group. Based on the graphic presentation of the Manhattan distances, calculated with the use of the Ward method, 2 groups were distinguished, but they included a mixture of individuals from various populations and geographic regions. The studied populations are not distinguishable by their key morphological characters, so all samples can be considered as M. alcea. The results of this study show that Malva alcea is a highly variable species, and its specific morphological forms are not correlated with geographical or ecological factors. There are also scientific grounds to question the distinction of M. excisa as a separate species or subspecies.

467-476 Download
11
SYSTEMATIC VALIDATION OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT GENUS EPIMEDIUM SPECIES BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1*, WEIMING HU2, YANJUN ZHANG2, SHAOHUA ZENG3AND YING WANG3

SYSTEMATIC VALIDATION OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT GENUS EPIMEDIUM SPECIES BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Epimedium is taxonomically complicated in terms of identification and availability of limited phenotypical markers. Therefore in the present study, 36 SSR primers markers were used for 44 individuals belonging to 13 medicinal species of the Epimedium genus and one out group species Vancouveria hexandra W. J. Hooker to resolve their existing taxonomic problems. A total of 164 alleles by genomic SSR were detected. The markers were presented between 2-10 alleles per locus. Jacard index cluster analysis revealed two main and four subclusters. Principle component analysis indicated that genetic variability is analogous to geographical variability. It has been concluded that medicinally important species of the genus Epimedium possesses sufficient genetic variation for effective resolution of the existing taxonomic problems in combination of morphological markers. .

477-484 Download
12
MACROMORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FOUR SELECTED PASSIFLORA SPECIES IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
RUBASHINY VEERAMOHAN*AND NOORMA WATI HARON

MACROMORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FOUR SELECTED PASSIFLORA SPECIES IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
ABSTRACT:
Taxonomic studies of four selected Passiflora species; Passiflora edulis Sims (Passion fruit), Passiflora coccinea Aubl. (Scarlet passion flower), Passiflora foetida L. (Stinking passion flower) and Passiflora incarnata L. (Fragrant passion flower) were carried out to distinguish their morphological characteristics. Macromorphological characters on the leaves, flowers and fruits of all four Passiflora species were observed under a binocular microscope and they varied characteristically in terms of colour, texture and shape of flowers, leaves and fruits. Jeol JSM-7500F Scanning Electron Microscope was used to observe the micromorphological characters such as stomata, trichomes, and leaf surface indumentum of each Passiflora species. Micromorphologically, each species varied in types and sizes of stomata, epidermal

485-492 Download
13
PSILOTUM NUDUM:A NEW PTERIDOPHYTE RECORD FOR THE CRYPTOGAMIC FLORA OF PAKISTAN
FAZLI RAHMAN, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ AND SAYED AFZAL SHAH*

PSILOTUM NUDUM:A NEW PTERIDOPHYTE RECORD FOR THE CRYPTOGAMIC FLORA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The cryptogamic Flora of Pakistan is devoid of the family Psilotaceae. Psilotumnudum (L.) P. Beauv., is recorded for the first time from Elum Mountain, district Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Habitat of the plant, important synonyms, morphological and palynological descriptions, plant’s photograph and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs of the spores are provided. Furthermore, the conservation of this species in Pakistan is suggested.

493-494 Download
14
DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORA OF MASTUJ VALLEY, DISTRICT CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH RANGE, PAKISTAN
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, S. MUKARAM SHAH1, LAL BADSHAH1 AND MUFAKHIRA JAN DURRANI2

DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORA OF MASTUJ VALLEY, DISTRICT CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study revealed that the floristic diversity consisted of 571 species belonging to 82 families including 65 dicots, 13 monocots, 2 gymnosperms and 2 pteridophyte families. There were 334 genera including 3 Pteridophytes, 2 gymnosperms, 54 monocot and 275 dicot genera. Asteraceae (91 Spp., 15.95 %), Poaceae (58 Spp., 10.16 %), Papilionaceae (38 Spp., 6.65 %), Lamiaceae & Rosaceae (each with 26 Spp., 4.55 %), Polygonaceae (25 spp; 4.38), Caryophyllaceae (23 spp.; 4.03%), Apiaceae (21 Spp., 3.68 %), Boraginaceae and Brassicaceae (20 Spp., each with 3.50 %) were the leading families. There were 45 (13.47%), 32 (9.58%), 19 (5.69%), 18 (5.39%) and 16 (4.79%) genera respectively in Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae and Papilionaceae. Flora consisted of 91.59% wild species, 92.64% deciduous species, 92.12% nonspiny species, 80.04% mesophytes and 94.57% heliophytes. Biological spectrum was dominated by therophytes (234 spp., 40.98%), followed by hemicryptophytes (154 spp., 26.97%), geophytes (82 spp., 14.36%), chamaephytes (44 spp., 7.71%), nanophanerophytes (31 spp, 5.43%) and megaphanerophytes (24 spp., 4.20%). The leaf size spectra was dominated by nanophylls (40.98%), leptophylls (24.87%), mesophylls 18.56%) and microphylls (9.11%). Further plant exploration is suggested in this remote inaccessible valley in the Hindukush Range, Pakistan

495-510 Download
15
ANATOMICAL INDICATORS OF THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF FERULA ILIENSIS, GROWING IN THE EASTERN PART OF ZAILIYSKIY
ALATAU (BIG BOGUTY MOUNTAINS)

ANATOMICAL INDICATORS OF THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF FERULA ILIENSIS, GROWING IN THE EASTERN PART OF ZAILIYSKIY
ABSTRACT:
AIGUL AKHMETOVA*, NASHTAY MUKHITDINOV AND ALIBEK YDYRYS

511-515 Download
16
STUDIES ON THE COMPARISON OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND VIABILITY OF FOUR NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AND COMMERCIAL VARIETIES OF ANEMONE CORONARIA L.
FEYZA CANDAN1 AND İLKAY ÖZTÜRK ÇALI2*

STUDIES ON THE COMPARISON OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND VIABILITY OF FOUR NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AND COMMERCIAL VARIETIES OF ANEMONE CORONARIA L.
ABSTRACT:
The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty & Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kırkağaç-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of İzmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the majör cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples.

517-522 Download
17
EFFECT OF SOIL STRENGTH ON ROOTS AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF WHEAT AT SEEDLING STAGE
GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK1*, COLIN WEBSTER2, IQBAL SAEED1, AND ABDUL JABBAR KHAN1

EFFECT OF SOIL STRENGTH ON ROOTS AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF WHEAT AT SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
The effect of soil strength (SS) on the performance of three UK wheat genotypes i.e., Rht or Rht1 or Rht3 was studied. These genotypes were all basically the variety Mercia but containing stem dwarfing genes referred to as Rht or Rht1 or Rht3. Experiment was conducted in a controlled environment growth cabinet at Rothamsted. For the measurements of leaf area and the number of tillers per plant there was no significant genotype x SS interaction. But the Rht1 showed the greatest relative decline in the strong soil. However shoot and root weight, root number, the maximum depth of rooting all showed some genotype x SS interaction. In all cases it was only the Rht1 that showed statistically significant (p>0.05) difference between the two SSs. It is concluded that the stem dwarfing genes in Rht and Rht3 may have the potential to give the advantage of high productivity associated with dwarf plants, without the penalty of weaker root systems. They may therefore be useful in breeding programmes to develop wheat varieties suitable for soils with high strength.

523-526 Download
18
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON AGRO-PHYSIOLOGY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT IRRIGATION CO-EFFICIENT VALUES
UZAIR FAROOQ1*, SEEMA MEHMOOD1, SHAHID AFGHAN2, AAMIR SHAHZAD2 AND MUHAMMAD ASAD2

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON AGRO-PHYSIOLOGY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT IRRIGATION CO-EFFICIENT VALUES
ABSTRACT:
Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions.

527-532 Download
19
DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA – A DESERT ANNUAL SYLVIA SABIR AND SEEMI AZIZ*
The present study was designed to investigate the surviving patterns of Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq., an annual herb widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The plants exhibited Deevey Type I survivorship curve with m

DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA – A DESERT ANNUAL SYLVIA SABIR AND SEEMI AZIZ*
ABSTRACT:
Key words: Demography, Growth, Biomass allocation, Annuals.

533-535 Download
20
EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE AND WATER ON FLOWERING AND FRUITING OF JATROPHA CURCAS L.
SHIYU MA, LANYING ZHOU*, GUANGLAN PU, BAOSHENG LEI, LIQIN HOU, XIAOHUI DAI AND TING YU

EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE AND WATER ON FLOWERING AND FRUITING OF JATROPHA CURCAS L.
ABSTRACT:
Field survey was conducted at three different altitudes in the dry-hot valley of Chin-sha River,China. The variances of flowering and fruiting and the quantity of fruit at three different altitudes areas (Low 800m, Middle 1,200m and High 1,700m) were observed and recorded. Data of 100-seeds weight came from 9 experimental groups which classified by three fruiting periods (early, middle and late) at three different altitudes. To ensure single variable, water effect was studied in the cline banks where situated in the 1,200m and controlled by artificial irrigation. The results showed that flowering and fruiting time under different altitude had significant difference, the lower altitude, the earlier flowering. Fruit number in the middle elevation was remarkably higher than the other two altitude areas. Fruit quantity in early and middle fruiting period accounted for 85 percent at 1,200m, which was significantly higher than the late fruiting period. 100-seeds weight between low and middle elevation, early and middle fruiting period had no significant difference respectively, but they were, respectively, higher than the high altitude and late fruiting period. The maximum of the 100-seeds weight was 65.17g while the lightest was only 49.51g. Water promoted flowering earlier, fruiting delayed but open flower and whole fruiting stage extended. Average fruit numbers in the early and middle stages with regularly irrigation were 220.8 per tree and 195.6 per tree respectively, which were 2.26 times as the same period of plant without irrigation. Therefore, in hilly areas, J. curcas optimal elevation is 800 -1,200m and have high demand for water during flowering and fruiting period.

537-541 Download
21
SPATIAL PATTERN FORMATION AND INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION OF ANABASIS APHYLLA L. POPULATION IN THE DILUVIAL FAN OF JUNGGAR BASIN, NW CHINA
MEI WANG, YUAN-YUAN LI, PAN-XIN NIU AND GUANG-MING CHU*

SPATIAL PATTERN FORMATION AND INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION OF ANABASIS APHYLLA L. POPULATION IN THE DILUVIAL FAN OF JUNGGAR BASIN, NW CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Using conventional nearest neighbour analysis and Ripley’s L-function, the goal of this study was to analyze spatial patterns of Anabasis aphylla plants in order to investigate underlying competitive processes that shape the population spatial structure from diluvial fan in Junggar Basin, NW China. We found that the spatial patterns of all growth stages were aggregated in the three study plots, and seedling and juvenile plants were more aggregated than expected by chance. Positive associations among growth stages of A. aphylla population were found at a small scale while negative associations of seedling and juvenile relative to adult plants were shown at a larger scale. The processes such as dispersal, seedling establishment, environmental heterogeneity, plant interactions and disturbance may have acted individually or in concert with other processes to produce the aggregated patterns and competitive relationship. Moreover, these findings suggested that the aggregated distribution and the competitive interaction between A. aphylla plants in the diluvial fan reflected not only in mortality, but also in decreased performance (smaller canopy) that was an important characteristic of drought-enduring plant, thus preventing a regular distribution pattern.

543-550 Download
22
PROSPECTS OF WILD MEDICINAL AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS OF SALINE HABITATS IN THE JORDAN VALLEY
JAMAL R. QASEM

PROSPECTS OF WILD MEDICINAL AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS OF SALINE HABITATS IN THE JORDAN VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

551-570 Download
23
SOIL MOISTURE DYNAMICS OF CARAGANA KORSHINSKII WOODLAND IN LOESS PLATEAU OF NORTHWEST CHINA
ZONGXI CHE1*, XIANDE LIU1, XUELI ZHANG2, YE LI3, ZONGQI CHE4, MING JIN1, WENMAO JING1, XUELONG ZHANG1, YILIN WANG1, SHUNLI WANG1 AND WEIJUN ZHAO1

SOIL MOISTURE DYNAMICS OF CARAGANA KORSHINSKII WOODLAND IN LOESS PLATEAU OF NORTHWEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Root water uptake is an important process of water circle and a component of water balance in the field. It should be understood better and effectively. A quantitative method of determining root water uptake should be built for efficient water use. The aims of this paper were to develop a water uptake model for single Caragana Korshinskii individual and to validate the model with soil water content in a plantation. Tube–time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil volumetric water content, and sap flow sensors based on stem–heat technology were used to monitor locally the sap flow rates in the stems of C. Korshinskii. Root density distribution was determined and soil hydraulic characteristics parameters were fitted from measurements. A root water uptake model was established, which includes root density distribution function, potential transpiration and soil water stress–modified factor. The measured data were compared against the outputs of transpiration rate and soil water contents from the numerical simulation of the soil water dynamics that uses Richards’ equation for water flow and the established root uptake model. The results showed an excellent agreement between the measured data and the simulated outputs, which indicate that the developed root water uptake model is effective and feasible.

571-579 Download
24
ACCUMULATION OF CHOLINE AND GLYCINEBETAINE AND DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE INDUCED IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BY THREE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) STRAINS
WEI GOU1, LI TIAN1, ZHI RUAN, PENG ZHENG1, FUCAI CHEN1, LING ZHANG, ZHIYAN CUI1, PUFAN ZHENG, ZHENG LI, MEI GAO1, WEI SHI1, LIXIN ZHANG1*, JIANCHAO LIU1 AND JINGJIANG HU1

ACCUMULATION OF CHOLINE AND GLYCINEBETAINE AND DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE INDUCED IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BY THREE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) STRAINS
ABSTRACT:
The role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing the tolerance of crop plants to drought is vital in regulation of physiological reactions that eventually adapts to a stressed environment, however, how PGPR strain induces better drought resistance by accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize under drought stress (DS) is still poorly understood. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the induced role in maize by the three PGPR strains i.e. Klebsiella variicola F2 (KJ465989), Raoultella planticola YL2 (KJ465991) and Pseudomonas fluorescens YX2 (KJ465990) in view of plant growth, water relations and accumulation of choline and GB in leaves. Seedlings of cultivar Zhengdan 958 were inoculated with strains F2, YL2 and YX2 under different DS degrees induced by different PEG-6000 concentrations of 0, 10%, 15% and 20%. The soil microbe strains F2, YL2 and YX2 substantially enhanced the accumulation of choline and GB, and in turn improved leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry mater weight (DMW) under varying DS regimes. The best responses induced by PGPR were obtained by strain YX2 regardless of DS degree and all three strains under moderate DS stimulated by 10-15% concentrations of PEG-6000. The PGPR strains were involved in the regulation of osmotic adjustment via accumulations of choline and subsequent GB, resulting in improvement of water relations and plant growth in maize plants under DS. The effects of PGPR strains on improvement of plant drought resistance might be dependent on microbial species and degree of DS.

581-586 Download
25
THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GROWTH MEDIA, CARBON SOURCE AND PGRs ON DENDROBIUM BROGA GIANT ORCHID’S PROTOCORM-LIKE BODIES (PLBs) PROLIFERATION SUPPORTED WITH SEM AND TEM ANALYSIS
JASIM UDDAIN, PAVALLEKOODI GNASEKARAN, LATIFFAH ZAKARIA, CHEW BEE LYNN AND SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM*

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GROWTH MEDIA, CARBON SOURCE AND PGRs ON DENDROBIUM BROGA GIANT ORCHID’S PROTOCORM-LIKE BODIES (PLBs) PROLIFERATION SUPPORTED WITH SEM AND TEM ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Dendrobium Broga Giant (Dendrobium Bobby Messina × Dendrobium Superbiens) is a new orchid hybrid in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different growth media, carbon sources and PGRs on Dendrobium Broga Giant orchid’s protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) proliferation supported with SEM and TEM analysis. The PLBs were cultured on different strength of semi-solid and liquid MS medium and the proliferation rate was recorded based on the fresh weight basis. The maximum PLBs proliferation (12.31% } 0.57) was obtained in MS semi-solid medium. PLBs were cultured on MS semi-solid media supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 & 40 g.L-1). The highest proliferation rate of PLBs (15.48% } 1.20) was recorded from MS supplemented with 20 g.L-1 sucrose. Different concentrations of BAP (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg.L-1) and NAA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mgL-1) were added to MS semi-solid medium. Combinations of 1.0 mg.L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg.L-1 NAA produced higher PLBs proliferation. Micromorphological studies by SEM and TEM displayed trichome, leaf primordial, stomata, various sizes of mitochondria, vacuoles, different shapes of chloroplast were found in PLBs which ameliorated the slow proliferation nature of plantlets.

587-593 Download
26
TOBACCO EXPRESSING PAP1 INCREASES THE RESPONSES TO PAR AND UV-A BY ENHANCING SOLUBLE SUGARS AND FLAVONOIDS AND ELEVATING PLANT PROTECTIONS
KANOKPORN SOMPORNPAILIN* AND SUPHA KANTHANG

TOBACCO EXPRESSING PAP1 INCREASES THE RESPONSES TO PAR AND UV-A BY ENHANCING SOLUBLE SUGARS AND FLAVONOIDS AND ELEVATING PLANT PROTECTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell.

595-602 Download
27
OSABC1K8, AN ABC1-LIKE KINASE GENE, MEDIATES ABSCISIC ACID SENSITIVITY AND DEHYDRATION TOLERANCE RESPONSE IN RICE SEEDLINGS
YIYANG LIU1,3, YU GAO1,3, TAO LI1, YONGXIA ZHANG2, MING LIU1 AND CHENGWEI YANG1*

OSABC1K8, AN ABC1-LIKE KINASE GENE, MEDIATES ABSCISIC ACID SENSITIVITY AND DEHYDRATION TOLERANCE RESPONSE IN RICE SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
The activity of bc1 complex kinase (ABC1K) protein family, which widely exists in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, consists of 15 members in rice, and the role of this family in plants has not yet been studied in details. In this study, a novel function of OsABC1K8 (LOC_Os06g48770), a member of rice ABC1K family, was characterized. The transcript level of OsABC1K8 changes in response to salt, dehydration, cold, PEG, oxidative (H2O2) stresses, or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Overexpression of OsABC1K8 significantly increased sensitivity to dehydration and reduced sensitivity to ABA. In the contrast, RNAi transgenic lines displayed significantly reduced sensitivity to dehydration stress and increased sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of several ABA/stress-regulated responsive genes were suppressed in OsABC1K8 over-expressing plants under dehydration stress. In conclusion, our results suggested that OsABC1K8 is a negative regulator in response to dehydration stress through an ABA-dependent pathway.

603-613 Download
28
MULTIPLE BANDS CHARACTERISTICS OF TREE-RING AND AGE OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON IN GURBANTUNGGUT DESERT
YUYANG SONG* AND CHAOBIN ZHOU

MULTIPLE BANDS CHARACTERISTICS OF TREE-RING AND AGE OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON IN GURBANTUNGGUT DESERT
ABSTRACT:
The characteristics of the multiple bands of Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A. Mey) Bunge tree-ring were studied in three edaphic types. Age equations were derived relating ground diameter and tree height, and the effects of irrigation on numbers and widths of growth bands at the longest radius were analyzed. Results showed that the number of growth bands ranged from 3.3 to 6.3 per year, the widths ranged between 0.181 mm and 0.473 mm. Multiple growth bands formed every growing season, leading to the conclusion that multiple growth bands in H. ammodendron tree-ring are a natural feature. A dark brown layer and a light brown one make up one growth band. The dark brown layers consists of fibres and vessels as well as some ray parenchyma, and each fibres layers with 22–35 cell layers; the light brown layers formed by vessels, fibres and abundant paratracheal axial parenchyma are 4–15 cell layers. The widths of growth bands at the longest radius increased significantly as the irrigation amount increased in three edaphic types (p<0.01). The numbers of growth bands at the longest radius had significant positive correlation with irrigation times. The ratio of dark brown layers to light brown layers of growth bands at the longest radius appeared to have a rising tendency with the increase in irrigation amount and times.

615-622 Download
29
GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG ADVANCED LINES OF BRASSICA
NASEEB ULLAH1, FARHATULLAH1*, HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN1, LAILA FAYYAZ2 AND NOOR UL AMIN3

GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG ADVANCED LINES OF BRASSICA
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variability for morphological and biochemical traits among six advanced lines (F10:11) of brassica was studied at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during crop season of 2012-13. These lines were developed through interspecific hybridization. Significant differences at (p≤0.01) for plant height, main, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seed yield plant-1 and protein content at (p≤0.05) for 100-seed weight, oil content were recorded. The advanced line, AUP-05 produced the maximum seed yield plant-1 (19.73 g), protein content (24.56%), 100-seed weight (0.64 g). Advanced line AUP-04 had the highest erucic acid (50.31%), linolenic acid (10.60%) and was late maturing (179.33). Advanced line AUP-06 produced the high oil content (48.82%). Advanced line AUP-03 produced comparatively longer main raceme (69.32 cm). Environmental variance was smaller than genotypic variance for majority of the traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 2.45 to 25.67% and 2.50 to 27.68%, respectively. Heritability was high for majority of the traits. The maximum heritability was recorded for plant height (0.61), main raceme length (0.81), pods main raceme-1 (0.74), seed yield plant-1 (0.86) and protein content (0.77). Moderate heritability was observed for oil (0.58) contents. Heritability for 100-seed weight (0.30) was the lowest. These lines may be released as new improved varieties for specific parameters.

623-628 Download
30
ACTIN GENE IDENTIFICATION FROM SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THEIR USE AS INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES
FAREES UD DIN MUFTI1, SITWAT AMAN2, SADIA BANARAS1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1,3 AND SAMINA SHAKEEL2*

ACTIN GENE IDENTIFICATION FROM SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THEIR USE AS INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of ~370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank [Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)]. The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants.

629-635 Download
31
SCoT MARKER FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SAUDI ARABIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS
FAHAD AL-QURAINY, SALIM KHAN*, MOHAMMAD NADEEM AND MOHAMED TARROUM

SCoT MARKER FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SAUDI ARABIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Different types of molecular markers based on DNA have been used for the assessment of genetic diversity in the plant species. Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) marker has recently become the marker of choice in genetic diversity studies. SCoT marker was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in Saudi Arabian date palm cultivars. The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) at population level ranged from 3.28 to 13.11 with an average of 7.10. The Nei’s gene diversity (h) and Shannon’s Information index (I) were 0.033 and 0.046, respectively. However, at cultivar level, PPL, Nei’s gene diversity (h) and Shannon’s Information index (I) were 42.62, 0.090 and 0.155, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 48% of variation within the populations, whereas 52% was found among the populations. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed level of genetic differentiation among populations (52% of total variance, P = 0.001), consistent with the gene differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.631). Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the six cultivars and their populations into five main clusters at 0.95 genetic similarity coefficient level.

637-643 Download
32
COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF VOLATILES FROM THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF FOUR SAURURACEAE SPECIES
ZHAN-NAN YANG1, 2, YI-MING SUN1, SHI-QIONG LUO2, ZHENG-WEN YU2, XIN ZHOU2, DAN WU2, JING MA2 AND MIN SUN1*

COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF VOLATILES FROM THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF FOUR SAURURACEAE SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Saururaceae (lizard's tail family) comprises three genera and four species [Saururus chinensis (Loureiro) Baillon. (SC), Gymnotheca chinensis Decne. (GC), Gymnotheca involucrata Pei. (GI) and Houttuynia cordata Thunberg. (HC)] in eastern Asia, and they extend from the most primitive to the most evolutionary levels. The purpose of this study is to examine whether and to what extent the diversity of volatiles can support the accepted evolutionary scheme in Saururaceae for the four species. Volatiles from fresh leaves and flowers of Saururaceae species from different regions were analyzed comparatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The samples studied showed differences in the volatile profiles of leaves and flowers among the species. In the leaves and flowers, concentrations of all monoterpenes and oxides, all alcohols, all acids and all esters were highest in SC, lowest in HC, and the concentrations of these components for GC and GI were between those of SC and HC. Concentrations of all sesquiterpenes and oxides, all straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, all branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, all aldehydes, and all ketones were lowest in SC, highest in HC and the concentrations of these components for GC and GI were between those of SC and HC. The results in this study could support the accepted taxonomical scheme of four species in Saururaceae.

645-658 Download
33
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOTS AND AERIAL PARTS OF LEPTADENIA PYROTECHNICA
MEHMOODA MUNAZIR, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI* AND MUBASHRAH MUNIR

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOTS AND AERIAL PARTS OF LEPTADENIA PYROTECHNICA
ABSTRACT:
Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne is a medicinal plant that is native to hot deserts of Pakistan. This plant is sporadically known with reference to bioactivity including phytochemical screening especially from Pakistan. The present study was designed to screen out four major groups of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins from eight solvents based roots and aerial parts extracts viz., hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, methanol and water of the selected plant. The qualitative screening showed the presence of all major groups of phytochemicals in both plant parts extracts in which methanolic ones were the most efficient that extracted all the selected classes of phytochemicals. Quantitative screening revealed various concentrations of selected phytochemicals in both plant parts. The alkaloid contents were 3.267±0.643and 3±0.6 in roots and aerial parts respectively (p>0.05). The total flavonoid content was 76.867±2.266 and 139.448±8.677 QE/100g in roots and aerial parts respectively. In the case of total saponin contents, the proportions were 0.34±0.013% and 0.46±0.010% in roots and aerial parts respectively, whereas; total tannin contents were 62.713±4.841 and154.961±5.853 mg of TAE/100g of extract in roots and aerial parts, respectively. This study will serve as a benchmark for further pharmacological studies on the said plant that may be harnessed for drug development in the future.

659-664 Download
34
A SIMPLE METHOD FOR MICROTUBER PRODUCTION IN DIOSCOREA OPPOSITA USING SINGLE NODAL SEGMENTS
MINGJUN LI1, 2, 4, *, JUNHUA LI1, 2, 4, *, YIPENG WANG1, WEN LIU1, XIAOBO GUO1, SHUJIE LI1, LINLIN HAN1, ZHIHUI SONG1, XITING ZHAO1, 2, 4 AND QINGXIANG YANG1, 3

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR MICROTUBER PRODUCTION IN DIOSCOREA OPPOSITA USING SINGLE NODAL SEGMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (Chinese yam) is an important tuber crop in East Asia because of its dual benefits edible and medicinal properties. Microtubers may provide a feasible alternative to in-vitro-grown plantlets as a means of micropropagation and a way to exchange healthy planting material. In this study, we have developed a simplified culture method for In vitro production of microtubers from D. opposita cv. ‘Tiegun’. In this method, microtubers formed in 98% of the internodes of single nodal segments after four weeks of dark-incubation when cultured in MS medium supplemented with 60 g sucrose l-1 with shaking. Anatomical observations strongly supported the process of tuberization. We also found that 66% of the microtubers produced In vitro sprouted two months after transfer to vermiculite. The protocol presented here provides a simple model for studying the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of tuberization in D. opposita, and shows good potential for large-scale production of microtubers as well. Key words: Dioscorea opposita; Liquid medium; Microtuber; Shaking culture; Single nodal segments.

665-668 Download
35
INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EMBRYO RESCUE IN SEEDLESS GRAPE
XIUWU GUO, WENLING CHEN, YINSHAN GUO*, ZHENDONG LIU, HONG LIN, JIAN TANG, KUN LI AND YUHUI ZHAO*

INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EMBRYO RESCUE IN SEEDLESS GRAPE
ABSTRACT:
In this study, we investigated the impact of inoculating stage, medium type and concentration of plant growth regulators on embryo rescue effectiveness by L25(5)6 orthogonal design using selfed ovules of ‘Venus Seedless’ as the testing material. The main results were as follows. The most important factor influencing ovule germination was inoculating stage. Ovule germinating rate gradually increased as inoculating being postponed. The highest germinating rate appeared when inoculation was done 55d after flowering. Other influencing factors were IBA concentration, exogenous amino acid, 6-BA concentration, GA3 concentration and medium type in descending order. The best embryo rescue result was based on Nitsch medium including 1.0 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L GA3, 0.7 mg /L 6-BA and 2.0 mmol/L glutamine using ovules inoculated 55d after flowering. The highest germinating rate reached 41.25%, and a batch of seedlings was also obtained.

669-673 Download
36
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE TO WINTER RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) AS AFFECTED BY BORON
MD. FARUQUE HOSSAIN1, 2, 3, PAN SHENGGANG1,2, DUAN MEIYANG1,2, MO ZHAOWEN1,2, MAURICE BAIMBA KARBO 1,2 ASGHARI BANO4 AND TANG XIANGRU1,2 *

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE TO WINTER RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) AS AFFECTED BY BORON
ABSTRACT:
Effect of boron on photosynthesis and antioxidant response to rapeseed yield was studied by the field experimentation along with plant analysis during the winter season of 2010 and 2011. The field experimentation was conducted by split plot design with three replications consisting of two factors such as i) two rapeseed cultivars (viz. Xiangzayou 1613 and 09-13581613), assigned in main plots and ii) five boron levels (viz. 0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 and 18.0 kgha-1) imposed in the sub-plots. The rate of photosynthesis increased with increasing boron level upto 9.0 kgha-1 with simultaneous increase in photosynthetically active radiation, rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance and decrease in intercellular CO2 concentration in both cultivars, while reverse trend was shown with further increase of B concentration. B @ 9.0 kgha-1 improved the activities of antioxidant protective enzyme of SOD and POD and decreased the accumulation of MDA content in the both cultivars. Dry matter translocation increased with increasing B level upto 9.0 kgha-1 that resulted the highest seed yield and harvest index of rapeseed in both cultivars. Thus, B @ 9 kgha-1 is sufficient for rapeseed cultivation under the subtropical environmental condition of the Southern China. Brassica napus

675-684 Download
37
EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE RESPONSE OF ACACIA EHRENBERGIANA HAYNE SEEDLINGS TO VARIATIONS IN SEED MASS
HASHIM EL ATTA*, IBRAHIM AREF AND ABDALLA AHMED

EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE RESPONSE OF ACACIA EHRENBERGIANA HAYNE SEEDLINGS TO VARIATIONS IN SEED MASS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of seed mass of Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne on seedling growth and gas exchange activity under glass house conditions was investigated. Seeds were collected from three locations (Al Madinah (24°89´N, 39°16´E), Aseer (17°55´N, 42°11´E) and Baha (19°13´N, 41°80´E) in Saudi Arabia. The seeds were categorized into large, medium and small on the basis of the seed mass. Seeds were sown in potted soil (sand, clay and peat moss, 2:2:1 v/v) for six months. Seedling growth parameters and gas exchange were measured. Seedlings emerged from large seeds exhibited significantly faster growth in terms of shoot and root length and more dry weight, higher RGR (relative growth rate) and greater net photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance than those emerged from medium and small seeds. Leaf number also increased with seed mass but inconsistently.

685-690 Download
38
CHANGES IN SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERS AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES DURING CONTINUOUS MONOCROPPING OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS)
XINGANG ZHOU1,2 AND FENGZHI WU1*

CHANGES IN SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERS AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES DURING CONTINUOUS MONOCROPPING OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS)
ABSTRACT:
Soil sickness, a phenomenon of negative plant-soil feedback in continuous monocropping systems, can cause severe yield penalty in agricultural production. Changes in soil chemical and biological characters are thought to account for soil sickness. However, changes in soil properties in continuous monocropping systems and links between these changes and plant growth performance are still not clear. In this study, dynamics of soil chemical characters and enzyme activities were monitored in a continuously monocropped cucumber system, in which cucumber was successively monocropped in pots for nine croppings under greenhouse conditions from 2005 to 2009 in the experimental station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China. Cucumber showed an obvious stunted growth behavior in the seventh cropping and turned better in the ninth cropping. Soil pH decreased from the first cropping to the seventh cropping and increased in the ninth cropping. Contents of soil available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were the highest while activities of soil urease, neutral phosphatase and catalase were the lowest in the seventh cropping. Our results suggested that cucumber in the seventh cropping did not absorb enough soil nutrients, which may lead to the decrease in soil pH and changed soil biological properties. Changes in soil chemical and biological characters may be linked to the soil sickness of cucumber.

691-697 Download
39
CULTIVAR, HARVEST LOCATION AND COLD STORAGE INFLUENCE FRUIT SOFTENING AND ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES OF PEACH FRUIT [PRUNUS PERSICA (L.) BATSCH.]
SAMI ULLAH1, 2, AHMAD SATTAR KHAN1*, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1, MUHAMMAD SHAHID3 AND KASHIF RAZZAQ1

CULTIVAR, HARVEST LOCATION AND COLD STORAGE INFLUENCE FRUIT SOFTENING AND ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES OF PEACH FRUIT [PRUNUS PERSICA (L.) BATSCH.]
ABSTRACT:
Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes [endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)] and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv ‘Early Grand’ showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than ‘Flordaking’. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage.

699-709 Download
40
IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM RESPONSE IN TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS BY cDNA-RAPD
SHOUCHENG HUANG1§, SHAHLA KARIM BALOCH2§, YINGJIE SHU1, M. ALI2, ABDUL WAHID BALOCH3, ASGHAR ALI RAJPER3 AND AIRONG LIU*1

IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM RESPONSE IN TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS BY cDNA-RAPD
ABSTRACT:
Identification of aluminum (Al) responsive genes is of great importance in illuminating the molecular mechanism of plant Al response. In this present study, we preliminarily identified several genes that possibly involved in Al-response by cDNA based random amplified polymorphic DNA (cDNA-RAPD) method from Al tolerant/sensitive soybean cultivars exposed to 0 or 50μM Al3+ solutions for two days. Totally one hundred random primers were used to identify the differentially expressed genes; however, only two primers generated eight stable PCR products. The eight gene fragments were cloned and sequenced, then compared with NCBI gene bank. We subsequently verified the expression profiles of these eight genes by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and found that two genes were significantly up-regulated after Al treatment for 24, 48 and 72h. One gene, encoding nucleotide-diphospho-sugar transferase which is essential for polysaccharide synthesis and another gene, encoding polygalacturonase inhibiting protein which exerts its role in terms of inhibiting polysaccharide hydrolysis, suggesting the possibility that they might cooperate in response to Al stress through the modification of cell wall components. These findings provided valuable candidate genes for further study on the molecular mechanisms in plant Al tolerance.

711-715 Download
41
OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDATIVE MECHANISMS IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) PLANTS SPRAYED WITH DIFFERENT PESTICIDES
MAHMUT YILDIZTEKIN1, CENGIZ KAYA2*, ATILLA LEVENT TUNA3 AND MUHAMMED ASHRAF4

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDATIVE MECHANISMS IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) PLANTS SPRAYED WITH DIFFERENT PESTICIDES
ABSTRACT:
A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise the influence of exogenously applied pesticides such as abamectin, thiamethoxam, pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on oxidative defence system and some key physiological attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Each of these pesticides was applied in three doses (recommended dose, twice and three times higher than the recommended dose). Higher doses of pesticides sprayed to the plants resulted in marked increase in leaf free proline content and electrolyte leakage, but in a decrease in shoot dry matter, chl a, chl b and chl a+b in tomato plants as compared to those plants not sprayed with pesticides. These reductions were greater in tomato plants sprayed with highest doses of thiamethoxam (144 mg L-1), whereas the reverse was true for proline content and electrolyte leakage. The foliar application of pesticides at the highest levels caused enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in most cases, and these being greater in treatment of foliar application of thiamethoxam at the highest level. The highest doses of pesticides promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in most cases. The results clearly indicate that application of pesticides at higher doses than recommended doses provoked both oxidative and antioxidative systems in tomato plants.

717-721 Download
42
VARIATIONS IN PHYSICOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SEED OIL AMONG DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
SHAHNAZ KOUSER1, KARAMAT MAHMOOD1 AND FAROOQ ANWAR2,3*

VARIATIONS IN PHYSICOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SEED OIL AMONG DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Variation in the physicochemical attributes of the seeds and the extracted seed oils from six varieties (CIM-496, N-121, Z-33, AA-802, Desi, and CIM-534) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were appraised. The amount of oil and protein in the tested seeds varied from 15.06 to 18.35% and 20.42 and 27.03%, respectively revealing a significant (p<0.05) differences among varieties analyzed while the contents of fiber (20.65-21.31%), ash (3.46-4.64%) and moisture (6.36-8.44%) did not vary considerably.The physicochemical properties including density (24ºC) 0.9154-0.9207 mg/mL, refractive index (40°C) 1.4607-1.4632, iodine value 100.54-108.73 I/100g of oil, saponification value 180.39-190.28 (mg of KOH/g of oil), unsaponifiable matter 0.49-0.58%, free fatty acids content 0.71-1.24% %, and color 12.01-13.04 R +63.61-68.11Yof the extracted cottonseed oils (CSOs) indicated a slight variation among varieties selected. The oxidation parameters of CSOs, as assessed by estimation of conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, peroxide value, para-anisidine and induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/ h, 120°C), were noted to be 2.32-2.61, 0.91-0.99, 1.81-1.98 (meq/ kg of oil), 2.00-2.31and 3.19-3.61 h, respectively. The tested CSOs mainly contained linoleic acid (48.96-50.46%), followed by palmitic acid (24.42-25.80%), oleic acid (17.81-23.15%) and stearic acid (2.49-2.81%). The contents of α (125.47-296.20), γ (269.23-326.21) and δ (2.23-5.47 mg/kg) tocopherols among CSOs varied significantly. In conclusion, some of the physicochemical parameters of the oils varied significantly (p<0.05) among varieties selected that might be attributed to the different genetic makeup of the cotton plants. The results of this study can be useful for the selection of an appropriate cotton variety in the specified area.

723-729 Download
43
GALL INFLUENCE ON FLOWER PRODUCTION IN SOLANUM LYCOCARPUM (SOLANACEAE)
KIRA MALVES1* AND FLÁVIA DE FREITAS COELHO2

GALL INFLUENCE ON FLOWER PRODUCTION IN SOLANUM LYCOCARPUM (SOLANACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a negative influence on the flower production in Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae), due to the attack of gall inductor herbivores. 120 individuals were analyzed and compared as to the relation between presence and absence of galls and flower production. All flowers were collected from these individuals, so that the following characteristics could be compared: number of flowers, flower size (cm) and biomass (g) in plants with and without galls. Although these flowers are produced during the whole year, we found a greater number of flowers in plants without galls, being that plants without galls showed approximately four times more flowers than plants with galls. The flowers length in plants without galls was greater than flowers in plants with galls. The flower biomass of the individuals without galls was also higher than in individuals with galls. The results are pursuant to the hypothesis that producing galls demands a high energetic effort from these plants, resulting in nutrient allocation and decrease in flowers formation.

731-734 Download
44

Effects of Allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity


EJAZ AHMAD KHAN, ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI, MUHAMMAD MUNIR AND GHAZANFARULLAH

Effects of Allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity


ABSTRACT:

A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike-1, 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield.

735-740 Download
45

LEAF BLIGHT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L). G. DON CAUSED BY MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI) GOID AND ITS IN VITRO CONTROL THROUGH BIO-PESTICIDES


M.A.U. MRIDHA AND M. M. RAHMAN

LEAF BLIGHT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L). G. DON CAUSED BY MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI) GOID AND ITS IN VITRO CONTROL THROUGH BIO-PESTICIDES


ABSTRACT:

Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery.  Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T.  arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect.

741-745 Download
46

SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH OKRA [ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) MOENCH]


SUMMIAYA RAHIM* AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH OKRA [ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) MOENCH]


ABSTRACT:

Around 75 species belonging to 31 fungal genera were isolated from the eighteen seed samples collected from thirteen localities of Pakistan. Seed-borne mycoflora associated with the samples were isolated and identified by using ISTA techniques. Agar plate method was found best for the isolation of fungi followed by standard blotter method. Seed samples from the areas of Fatu-chuk, Islamabad, Akora Khattak, Mandibahauddin, and Karachi, respectively were found to be highly infected with fungi. Species of Aspergillus and Chaetomium were the most dominant fungi. Species of Fusarium, Phoma, and Macrophomina phaseolina were isolated through both agar plate and standard blotter methods. Variation in size of sclerotia of M. phaseolina was observed. Surface sterilization of seeds with 1% Ca(OCl)2 has reduced the incidence of storage fungi. 32 species belonging to 21 fungal genera are newly reported from Pakistan.

747-751 Download
47

ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES


SHUMAILA ISHFAQ1, NAEEM ALI1, ISFAHAN TAUSEEF2, MUHAMMAD NASIR KHAN KHATTAK3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4,5 AND MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ ALI1*

ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES


ABSTRACT:

Paint is a liquor blend, used as a decorative or protective coating. Paints are the main source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), very harmful for the environment and human beings. In the present study, fungal and bacterial growth on paint flakes sandwiched between the mineral salt medium agar layers were subjected to various analysis. Dry cell mass quantification was carried out by shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum. The maximum growth of 0.7g observed on 28th day. Further evidence of paint film biodegradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The loss in intensity of the bands at a wavelength of 1115.7 cm-1 and 1065.67 cm-1 for ester linkages indicated degradation of the paints through the breaking of the ester group. A loss in intensity of bands at a wavelength of 3286.87 cm-1 (corresponding alcoholic peak) due to breakage of alcoholic linkages. Scanning electron micrographs clearly showed the adherence and fungal growth on paint flakes and the distorted / ruptured surface was also observed in three months treated paint samples. The current research study represents the significant trends of paint biodegradation by isolated microorganism.

753-760 Download
48
ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PSEUDOSTELLARIA HETEROPHYLLA CONSECUTIVE MONOCULTURE ON YIELD
S. LIN1, 2, 3, J.J. HUANGPU2, 3, T. CHEN1, 3, L.K. WU, Z.Y. ZHANG2, 3 AND W.X. LIN1, 2, 3*

ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PSEUDOSTELLARIA HETEROPHYLLA CONSECUTIVE MONOCULTURE ON YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture.

761-769 Download
49

STABILITY AND ACTIVITY PROFILE OF ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCED FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS


SOBIA ANJUM1, HAMID MUKHTAR1*, ALI NAWAZ1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2,3 AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ1

STABILITY AND ACTIVITY PROFILE OF ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCED FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS


ABSTRACT:

The present study gives an insight into the effect of different activators and inhibitors on the activity and stability of alkaline proteases produced by Bacillus subtilis IH-72. The alkaline protease was strongly activated both by bivalent and monovalent cations such as Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+ and K+. The enzyme activity was considerably enhanced in the presence of fructose, galactose, glucose and mannitol. The enzyme was stabilized up to 10 days by immobilization on activated charcoal and was efficiently stabilized up to 2 months by lyophilization. The enzyme remained stable up to 19 days both at 4oC and 30oC in the presence of Mn2+. However, it exhibited significant stability up to 22 days at 4oC and 30oC in the presence of fructose, galactose and polyethylene glycol.

771-777 Download
50

PRODUCTION OF XYLANASES AND CELLULASES BY ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS MS16 USING CRUDE LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES


SAMINA NASEEB, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL, AQEEL AHMAD AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

PRODUCTION OF XYLANASES AND CELLULASES BY ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS MS16 USING CRUDE LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES


ABSTRACT:

Xylanolytic and cellulolytic potential of a soil isolate, Aspergillus fumigatus (MS16) was studied by growing it on a variety of lignocellulosics, purified cellulose and xylan supplemented media. It was noted that carboxymethyl cellulose, salicin and xylan induce the production of endoglucanase, -glucosidase and xylanase, respectively. The study revealed that Aspergillus fumigatus (MS16) co-secretes xylanase and cellulase in the presence of xylan; the ratio of the two enzymes was influenced by the initial pH of the medium. The maximum titers of xylanase and cellulase were noted at initial pH of 5.0. Relatively higher titers of both the enzymes were obtained when the fungus was cultivated at 35oC. Whereas, cellulase production was not detected when the fungus was cultivated at 40oC. The volumetric productivity (Qp) of xylanase was much higher than cellulases. The organism produced 2-3 folds higher titers of xylanase when grown on lignocellulosic materials in submerged cultivation than under solid-state cultivation, suggesting a different pattern of enzyme production in presence and in absence of free water. The partial characterization of enzymes showed that xylanase from this organism has higher melting temperature than endoglucanase and -glucosidase. The optimum temperature for activity was higher for xylanases than cellulases, whereas the optimum pH differed slightly i.e. in the range of 4.0-5.0. Enzyme preparation from this organism was loaded on some crude substrates and it showed that the enzyme preparation can be used to hydrolyze a variety of vegetable and agricultural waste materials.

779-784 Download
51

ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF CADMIUM STRESS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI


ABD_ALLAH E.F.1*, HASHEM ABEER2,3, ALQARAWI A.A.1, AND ALWATHNANI HEND A.2

ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF CADMIUM STRESS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI


ABSTRACT:

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF.

785-795 Download
52

ASSESSING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN PHYTOPLANKTON CONCENTRATION THROUGH CHLOROPHYLL-a SATELLITE DATA: A CASE STUDY OF NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA


IMRAN AHMED KHAN1, LUBNA GHAZAL2, MUDASSAR HASSAN ARSALAN3, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI4*AND JAMIL HASAN KAZMI2

ASSESSING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN PHYTOPLANKTON CONCENTRATION THROUGH CHLOROPHYLL-a SATELLITE DATA: A CASE STUDY OF NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA


ABSTRACT:

This study focuses on applying remote sensing technology to identify and assess seasonal and intra-annual variation of phytoplankton availability. A standard MODIS algorithm for Chlorophyll-a, is used to obtain a variation of phytoplankton with the help of MODIS time series images from April 2011 to March 2012 that describe the situation for a whole year, we also used periodical data for each three months, i.e., from April 2011 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, October 2011 to December 2011 and finally January 2012 to March 2012. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), products were retrieved from the sensor data that demonstrates the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton concentration in the northern Arabian sea near the coastline and open sea water of Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. High concentration of Chl-a, were observed during two periods August to September and February to March respectively. It was also revealed that Chl-a, concentration was almost identical between the latitude 20 and 21 degrees N throughout the year.

797-805 Download
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