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Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 2
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1
MODIFICATIONS IN STOMATAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. IN RESPONSE TO CADMIUM STRESS
NAILA MUKHTAR1, MANSOOR HAMEED1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1* AND RASHID AHMED2

MODIFICATIONS IN STOMATAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. IN RESPONSE TO CADMIUM STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of cadmium (Cd) on modifications in stomatal structure and function of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cynodon dactylon was investigated to compare the relative Cd tolerance of these 2 grass species. Each grass species from 3 different habitats were subjected to varying levels of Cd, viz., 0, 30 and 60 mg L-1. Growth of all ecotypes of both grasses decreased under Cd stress. A significant reduction in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange parameters, such as net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and sub-stomatal CO2 concentration was recorded in all ecotypes of both grass species. Cadmium tolerant populations of both grasses from Pakka Anna relied on water conservation mechanism when exposed to metal contaminated environments. These populations showed high net assimilation rate, low transpiration rate, and high water use efficiency, whereas the anatomical parameters they over-expressed were increased leaf thickness, cortical cell area, conducting tissue area, bulliform area, trichome density, and decrease in stomatal density and area.

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2
PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY INVESTIGATIONS IN SUGARCANE FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE AND SUCROSE CONTENT
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, SAJIDA BIBI, SHAFQUAT YASMIN, ABDULLAH KHATRI AND NIGHAT SEEMA

PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY INVESTIGATIONS IN SUGARCANE FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE AND SUCROSE CONTENT
ABSTRACT:
Ten elite sugarcane clones were tested for genetic diversity through RAPD, sucrose synthase activity was determined via TRAP and drought tolerance was examined with the help of STS techniques / field trial. RAPD study revealed that genetically most similar genotypes were Thatta-10 and AEC82-223 (80.4%) and most dissimilar genotypes were AEC71-2011 and NIA-2004 (49.8%). On the basis of dendrogram, the varieties could be divided into four clusters (A to D). Variety AEC82-223 produced a specific allele of 311bp with primer B-02. Primer sucrose synthase amplified three alleles which were polymorphic and allelic size were 561, 327 and 222bp. Of 10, seven varieties tagged the specific gene responsible for drought tolerance in the genome. L116 containing a different allele of 912bp amplified with DREB-2 showed the specificity of the variety. Maximum sugar recovery % (14.82) and cane yield (t/ha) (156 t/ha) were recorded in AEC81-0819.

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3
INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED SALICYLIC ACID AND PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
RABIA NAZ AND ASGHARI BANO*

INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED SALICYLIC ACID AND PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Present attempt is to evaluate the effect of Salicylic acid (SA) alone and in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) on sunflower plant under salt stress. Two hybrids of sunflower were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. applied as seed soaking treatment prior to sowing. Salt stress (20dSm-1) was induced 28d after sowing. Foliar application of Salicylic acid (10-4 M) was made 4h after induction of salt stress. The osmotic potential, antioxidants (SOD, POD) analyses were made from the plant leaves. Salicylic acid application alone and in combination with Azospirillum and Pseudomonas minimized the inhibitory effects of salt stress. The survival efficiency of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas under salt stress in the presence of Salicylic acid was higher as compared to salt treatment made alone. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by increase in the superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in leaves of sunflower and increase in growth of sunflower hybrids. The adverse effects of salt stress could be alleviated by foliar application of Salicylic acid used alone and more effectively in combination with Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculations.

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4
INFLUENCE OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSES OF TWO MALUS SPECIES AT CALLUS AND PLANTLET STAGES
KAI WANG1, LIXIN ZHANG1*, MEI GAO1, LIXIA LV2, YONGGUI ZHAO1, LINSEN ZHANG3, BINZHI LI3, MINGYU HAN3 AND ASHOK K. ALVA4

INFLUENCE OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSES OF TWO MALUS SPECIES AT CALLUS AND PLANTLET STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Soil salinization has become a major threat to apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some regions of China. In this study, we investigated the effects of salt stress i.e. 150 mM NaCl on growth and antioxidant responses of 15-d old callus and plantlets of two Malus species i.e., rootstock Malus robusta Rehd (Rehd) and scion Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji (Fuji) grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Salt stress induced an increase in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) in two Malus species, while a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity in Fuji and unchanged pattern in that in Rehd species respectively at callus and plantlets stages. Additionally, salt stress led to an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radicals (O2• −) contents, along with an enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) resulting in a decrease in relative growth rate (RGR) of both species. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT and GR of both species at plantlets stage were greater while H2O2, O2• − and MDA contents lower than those at callus stage. The two Malus species showed similar accumulation of MDA and RGR at both differentiation stages, although they showed different patterns of H2O2 and O2• − accumulation and their corresponding scavenging capacity. The results of this study suggested that callus of both species was more sensitive to salt stress than plantlets. The responses of two Malus species to salt stress were similar at a given differentiation stage. Therefore, callus stage is more appropriate for evaluation of plant responses to salt stress. The scion (Fuji) can be matched with rootstock (Rehd) to adapt to soil salinity stress.

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5
VARIATIONS IN ACCESSIONS OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER UNDER STRESS CONDITION
NUSRAT JABEEN* AND RAFIQ AHMAD

VARIATIONS IN ACCESSIONS OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER UNDER STRESS CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
Two sunflower i.e., Helio & NuSun, and 2 safflower accessions i.e. Spiny & Non-Spiny differing in salt sensitivity, were examined for compatible solutes and some enzyme activities involved in seed germination i.e. α-amylase, β-amylase and α-glucosidase, under control and different levels of sea salt concentrations i.e. 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% having ECiw = 0.5, 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS/m respectively. The inhibitory effects of salts differed among all the accessions tested. In Helio and Non-Spiny cultivars the increase in salt concentration reduced germination percentage and lower relative water content, and also decreased the endogenous levels of proline, total soluble sugars and activities of the main enzymes involved in the germination process. In contrast, seeds of NuSun and Spiny cultivars accumulated higher proline and total soluble sugar concentrations in response to salt stress, which improved their water status and the enzyme activities involved in the process of germination. Differences in response of the different accessions of sunflower and safflower to salt stress may be due to the accumulation of compatible solutes in their seeds.

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6
COMPARISON OF PROXIMATE AND HEAVY METAL CONTENTS OF VEGETABLES GROWN WITH FRESH AND WASTEWATER
KHADEEJA REHMAN1, SOBIA ASHRAF1, UMER RASHID2*, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM1, SAADIA HINA1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR3 AND SHAHLA RAMZAN4

COMPARISON OF PROXIMATE AND HEAVY METAL CONTENTS OF VEGETABLES GROWN WITH FRESH AND WASTEWATER
ABSTRACT:
Due to insufficient clean water resources wastewater is largely used for irrigation of vegetables in many developing countries, particularly in Pakistan. As a result, vegetables in spite of providing nutrients also accumulate toxic metals and causes health risks. In the present study, comparison of heavy metal contents, using two digestion methods, in fresh and wastewater-irrigated vegetables was appraised by ICP-AES and also their proximate composition was accessed. Samples of wastewater-irrigated vegetables; cauliflower, green pepper, spring onion and brinjal edibles and leaves were collected from wastewater-irrigated and fresh water-irrigated area of Faisalabad. In all the samples large variation of elemental concentration was found however, wastewater grown vegetables showed more accumulation of heavy metals than their respective fresh water irrigated vegetables. The amount of Pb (1.87 mg kg–1), Fe (1.09 mg kg–1), Cu (1.01 mg kg­–1), Zn (1.03 mg kg–1), Cr (0.97 mg kg­–1) showed more accumulation than Mn (0.17 mg kg­–1), Cd (0.08 mg kg-1) and Ni (0.45 mg kg–1) both the edible and leaves of investigated vegetables but nearly all metals were found within safe limits. Only Pb (1.87 mg kg­–1) concentration in wastewater-irrigated vegetables exceeded the permissible limits defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Of the two digestion methods nitric acid showed more recovery of metals as compared to dry ash procedure. The leaves of vegetables showed more intake capacity of heavy metals. Continuous accumulation of these metals can pose severe threats to health of people.

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7
EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING CEREALS AND LENTIL IN SUGAR BEET ON YIELD AND MONETARY BENEFITS
M. U. USMANIKHAIL1*, S.D. TUNIO1, G.H. JAMRO1, F.C. OAD1, SYED WASEEM UL HASSAN1, Q.D.CHACHAR1 AND M. ALI KHANZADA1

EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING CEREALS AND LENTIL IN SUGAR BEET ON YIELD AND MONETARY BENEFITS
ABSTRACT:
Field trials were carried out at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 to study the impact of intercropping sugar beet with wheat and barley (cereal crops) and lentil. For this purpose three sugar beet varieties viz., Kaweterma, Aura and Pamela and four intercropping systems (sugar beet sole, sugar beet + wheat, sugar beet + barley, and sugar beet + lentil) were used. Sugar beet varieties planted as sole showed significantly higher values of all traits. Among the tested varieties, sole planting of sugar beet variety Kaweterma showed maximum leaf length, leaf area, leaves plant-1, vertical diameter of beet, horizontal diameter of beet, beet root weight, beet yield, total dry matter, purity, Pol, brix, sugar recovery, N uptake and P uptake followed by Aura and Pamela when planted as sole. The intercropping of sugar beet with lentil produced second lowest values than sugar beet sole planting. However, wheat and barley intercropping produced minimum values of sugar beet. Maximum monetary benefits like higher gross revenue, input: output ratio, cost: benefit ratio and net returns were recorded when lentil crop was intercropped with sugar beet variety Kaweterma. It is concluded that sugar beet yields and consequently the monetary benefits were also higher in lentil intercropping as compared to cereals intercropping system.

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8
POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GRAIN
SYED MUHAMMAD SAQLAN NAQVI1*, IRAM BATOOL1, MUHAMMAD USMAN FAROOQ1, FARAH DEEBA1, MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN HYDER2, TARIQ MAHMOOD3

POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GRAIN
ABSTRACT:
Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the most popular cereals used in the world. An important problem for the flour and flour related products is their darkening and discoloration which is believed to result from polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. Pakistani wheat grain collection from NARC gene bank and some other cultivars were investigated for their PPO activities for the first time. Different PPO substrates were employed which included caffeic acid, catechol, tyrosine, l-DOPA and phenol. Among these substrates, l-DOPA at pH 6.5 produced the highest enzyme activity. Among the genotypes tested, Chalsi showed the highest (150 units/min/g) sum of activities PPO activity while the minimum activity was exhibited by Wafaq-2001 (34units/min/g). All the genotypes and the substrates tested, differed in a highly significant manner in variance analysis; and our results are also supported by correlation analysis. These results showed presence of genotypes both very high and very low in PPO activities and also supported the hypothesis that more than one PPO activities may be present in wheat grains.

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9
RESPONSE OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA L. VAR. BOTRYTIS) GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT AFTER CURD INITIATION TO DIFFERENT DAY AND NIGHT TEMPERATURES
HABIB UR RAHMAN1*, PAUL HADLEY2, SIMON PEARSON2 AND M. JAMIL KHAN3

RESPONSE OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA L. VAR. BOTRYTIS) GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT AFTER CURD INITIATION TO DIFFERENT DAY AND NIGHT TEMPERATURES
ABSTRACT:
Two experimental runs were conducted to assess the response of the growth and development of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) cv. “Nautilus” F1 hybrid after curd initiation to different day and night temperatures in Saxcil Growth environmental cabinets, which were set to run at 24/12°C, 12/24°C, 20/16°C, 16/20°C, 20/20°C (1st Run) and 24/20°C, 20/12°C and 20/16°C (2nd Run) with a total irradiance of 441 m mols m-2 s-1 (90 Watts m-2) at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, United Kingdom. Greater rates of curd growth (curd length, diameter, fresh and dry weights) were achieved at warmer night temperatures than day temperatures, whilst greater leaf and stem growth (leaf area, stem length, fresh and dry weights) were achieved when day temperatures were warmer than night temperatures, even with the same mean temperatures. Greater curd growth (curd length, diameter, fresh and dry weights) were achieved at warmer night temperatures than day temperatures. Similarly greater Relative Curd Growth Rate (RCGR) was recorded in plants grown at warmer night than day temperature (12/24°C) compared to the plants grown at cooler night than day temperature (24/12°C). Moreover, RCGR decreased significantly (p<0.01) with increase in day temperature (DT) and increased significantly (p<0.01) with increase in night temperature (NT). Similarly, curd length, diameter, fresh and dry weights decreased with increase in DT and increased with increase in NT. Further, cauliflower stem length (SL) was linearly related to the effective mean temperature with optimum day temperature of 24°C and optimum night temperature of 12°C.

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10
AN APPRAISAL OF THE USE OF RECIPROCAL TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS: ASSESSING THE STAGES OF PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY IN PANSY, SNAPDRAGON, PETUNIA AND COSMOS
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1*, M. MUNIR2 AND M. ABID3

AN APPRAISAL OF THE USE OF RECIPROCAL TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS: ASSESSING THE STAGES OF PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY IN PANSY, SNAPDRAGON, PETUNIA AND COSMOS
ABSTRACT:
To assess photoperiod sensitive/insensitive phases of 3 long day plants (LDPs) viz., Pansy cv. Baby Bingo, Snapdragon cv. Coronette and Petunia cv. Dreams and one short days plant (SDP) viz., Cosmos cv. Sonata Pink a non-linear statistical model was used for its validation. Six plants of each cultivar were transferred from LD to SD and Vice versa at four days interval from emergence until first flower appearance. Plants at juvenile phase (initial phase of development) were insensitive to photoperiod in both inductive (LD for LDPs and SD for SDP) and non-inductive (SD for LDPs and LD for SDP) environment. After completing the juvenile phase when plants were transferred from LD to SD (Pansy, Snapdragon and Petunia) and SD to LD (Cosmos), they showed a coherent recognition of the stimulus carry forward from their respective inductive environment and induced flowering. However, plants transferred from non-inductive environment to inductive showed a continuous phase of photosensitivity. The duration of photoperiod sensitive phases varied with the cultivars. Hence, it is concluded that LDPs and SDP are not sensitive to photoperiod during their entire course of growth and development. Therefore, providing light during whole growing span is mere wastage of energy. These cultivars require 5-10 days of photoperiod at critical phase to flower that will minimize the production cost of cut flower industry.

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11
INTERACTIVE STUDY OF ROW SPACINGS AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MACRO AND MICRO-NUTRIENTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
ATIQUE-UR-REHMAN*,1, EHSANULLAH, RIAZ AHMAD AND ABDUL JABBAR

INTERACTIVE STUDY OF ROW SPACINGS AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MACRO AND MICRO-NUTRIENTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A proper distance among the crop plants ensures efficient use of applied materials by the plants, thus affecting the yield. A balanced fertilization of plant nutrients not only improves crop growth but guarantees optimal crop production. The present investigations were carried out to examine the effect of foliar application of macro and micro elements on the growth, yield and qualitative characteristics of sugarcane sown at different row spacings. The experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. A uniform dose of 200-100-100 NPK kg ha-1 was used as soil application. Cane crop was grown at row spacings of 75, 90 and 120 cm and sprayed with water (control), macro nutrients (N, P and K), micro nutrients (Fe and Zn) and a combination of both macro and micro nutrients (NPK + Fe and Zn). Cane diameter, cane length, stripped cane weight and stripped cane yield were significantly higher in wider row spacing of 90 to 120 cm apart rows. Crop sprayed with micro nutrients or macro + micro nutrients gave the highest cane yield. Leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate and total dry matter were significantly higher in wider row spacings and foliar applications of macro + micro nutrients. Net assimilation rate, CCS and sugar recovery were significantly higher in wider row spacing with foliar application of macro- and micro nutrients.

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12
RESPONSE OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED NITROGEN AND SULFUR TOWARDS YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT CULTIVARS
BEENA SAEED1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN2, FARHAT ULLAH2, HASINA GUL1 AND HABIB AKBAR1

RESPONSE OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED NITROGEN AND SULFUR TOWARDS YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil and foliar application of nitrogen and sulfur on wheat varieties during two growing seasons (2008-09 and 2009-10) at New Developmental Farm of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The experimental setup was Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 5 × 3 factorial experiment was designed with eight different nitrogen and sulfur treatments and were applied to main plots at four application timings (T1 = at sowing , T2 = at tillering, T3 = at anthesis and T4 = after anthesis stages). Number of spike m-2, Number of grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight and grain yields increased significantly by both N and S application methods. Wheat yield and yield components were higher when nitrogen and sulfur were applied in split doses at sowing (N @ 60 kg ha-1 + S @ 15 kg ha-1), tillering (N @ 40 kg ha-1), at anthesis (N @ 10 kg ha-1 + S @ 10 kg ha-1). It is concluded that N and S spray at the rate of 10-15% during different growth stages would improve the grain yield and yield components of wheat in the study area and contributed significantly to increased production.

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13
STUDY OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA CARINATA A. BRAUN) GERMPLASM
MUHAMMAD ZADA1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*, NAHIDA ZAKIR2 AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI2

STUDY OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA CARINATA A. BRAUN) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
The Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) germplasm, comprising 94 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm accessions were obtained from PGRP Gene bank, Institute of Agri-Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), NARC, Islamabad Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of B. carinata genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12.25% polyacrylamide gels using standard protocols. A total of 31 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (45.27%) were polymorphic and 17 (54.83%) were monomorphic. The molecular weight of various bands ranged from 8 to 180 KDa. Similarity coefficients varied from 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all accessions into five main groups. Overall low level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension) in Pakistani local accessions, while medium to high level of genetic variability was observed for exotic material. As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type molecular markers may reveal variability with more help. Our investigation suggests that more germplasm of Ethiopian mustard need to be acquired to broaden the genetic base for research and development.

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14
POPULATION SIZE OF THE MONOCARPIC PERENNIAL PEUCEDANUM ARENARIUM WALDST. ET KIT. WITH REGARD TO EXPERIMENTALLY TESTED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
BOŽENA ŠERÁ1*, DARINA VÁLKOVÁ2, EVA KOCIANOVÁ3, MICHAL ŠERÝ4, VIERA FERÁKOVÁ5 AND IVA HODÁLOVÁ5

POPULATION SIZE OF THE MONOCARPIC PERENNIAL PEUCEDANUM ARENARIUM WALDST. ET KIT. WITH REGARD TO EXPERIMENTALLY TESTED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
ABSTRACT:
The monocarpic perennial Peucedanum arenarium is a critically endangered plant species in Slovakia, growing only in several micro-localities on the Sandberg hill near Bratislava (NNR Devínska Kobyla). Disturbances such as grazing and fire were excluded from possible management measures on the dry, sandy slopes of the Sandberg hill. Three types of treatments (selective clipping, full clipping, and raking) were tested as possible management methods for the preservation of P. arenarium during a 10 year period. Two types of clipping treatments showed a positive effect on the population size. The most useful treatment for the management of P. arenarium was the spring clipping of all non-P. arenarium individuals and the removal of biomass from the plot (selective clipping). This treatment was correlated with a more than 100% increase in the total number of P. arenarium between 2000 and 2009. In contrast, the raking of dry biomass had a negative effect when compared to the abandoned plots. Evaluation of the population size of P. arenarium showed a five year temporal fluctuation. This fluctuation was connected with a high or low number of small vegetative individuals. The presented management and realities may be effective for in situ conservation of monocarpic perennial species growing on sand or dry habitats with sparse vegetation (Ferula sadleriana).

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15
INFLUENCE OF CURING METHODS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF ONION BULBS
GHULAM NABI1, ABDUR RAB1, MUHAMMAD SAJID1, FARHATULLAH2*, SAYED JAFFAR ABBAS3 AND IMRAN ALI3

INFLUENCE OF CURING METHODS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF ONION BULBS
ABSTRACT:
Influence of curing methods, storage conditions and duration on the post harvest quality of onion bulbs was studied at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, during 2006-07. Onion bulbs were cured with and without foliages and stored under different conditions e.g., cold store, cemented room and mud room for four months and evaluated for different quality attributes. Results indicated that the quality of onion bulbs was significantly affected by curing methods, storage conditions and duration. The maximum dry matter (17.5%) and TSS (11.5%) was recorded in bulbs cured with foliage as compared to 15.7% DM and 9.36% TSS with curing without foliage accordingly. The DM (21.2%) and TSS (14.9%) recorded in cold stored bulbs was followed by 15.65 and 13% DM with 9.44 and 6.65% TSS in mud and cemented room storage accordingly. Curing with foliage resulted in significantly lower weight loss, sprouting and rotting. The rate per month weight loss (1.95%), sprouting (2.4%) and rotting (0.4%) were the lowest in cold stored bulbs, while maximum 59.3, 59.5 and 31.3% accordingly were observed in bulbs stored cemented room. Weight loss, sprouting and rotting percentage increased with increasing storage duration. The lowest weight loss, sprouting and rotting (0 % each) obtained in cold store during the 1st month storage duration and highest percentage (13, 2.5 and 1.67 respectively) recorded with cemented room. After four months storage, the minimum percentage of weight loss (6%), sprouting (9.6%) and rotting (1.7%) was recorded in cold stored bulbs while the maximum weight loss (98%), sprouting (100%) and rotting (70%) was observed in bulbs stored cemented room.

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16
IDENTIFICATION OF MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS IN ARTEMISIA ANNUA L.
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI

IDENTIFICATION OF MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS IN ARTEMISIA ANNUA L.
ABSTRACT:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of regulatory RNAs, are tiny, non-protein coding and about 18 to 26 nucleotides long. They are involved in the posttranscriptional gene regulation. Their conserved nature among various organisms makes them a worthy foundation for the prediction of novel miRNAs by computational comparative genomics approach. This study resulted in 16 miRNAs belonging to 13 families; miR 156, 159, 160, 162, 166, 171, 172, 390, 395, 397, 535, 1310 and 4221 for the first time in Artemisia annua. All 16 miRNA precursors are observed with stable secondary structures and the mature miRNAs found in stem region of the stem loop structures. Their targets consist of transcription factors like; APETALA2, WRKY3, DELLA, MYB and hypothetical proteins.

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17
GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VERTICILLIUM CHLAMYDOSPORIUM ISOLATED FROM PAKISTAN USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) PRIMERS
MUHAMMAD NAZIR UDDIN, SAIFULLAH, MUSHARAF AHMAD, IJAZ ALI, AQIB IQBAL* AND NAQIB ULLAH KHAN

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VERTICILLIUM CHLAMYDOSPORIUM ISOLATED FROM PAKISTAN USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) PRIMERS
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken to determine genetic variations, using RAPDs, among Verticillium chlamydosporium isolates infecting Meloidogyne incognita, a major pest in the tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Significant differences noted among the isolates from different locations and host plants. Maximum loci detected in VC-5 and VC-6, resulting in the highest polymorphism. Among the RAPD Primers, OPB-16 amplified maximum of 10 loci. Monomorphic loci detected only when OPA-19 was used. The bands amplified ranged between 200~2000 bp. The average genetic distance ranged between 16.6 to 54.0%. A dendrogram, constructed on the amplification pattern of these primers, revealed that the isolates could be divided into two different distinct groups. The data further indicated that the genetic differences among the isolates influenced by the geographical location but not by host plant.

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18
BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) TO GAMMA RADIATION
A. BORZOUEI1, M. KAFI2*, R. SAYAHI3, E. RABIEI4 AND P. SAYAD AMIN4

BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) TO GAMMA RADIATION
ABSTRACT:
This study assessed the biochemical changes in wheat plants exposed to gamma radiation. Seeds of two wheat cultivars Roshan and Bam were irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy and were immediately planted into soil plots in greenhouse. Leaf samples for various measurements were taken from flag leaves on the 7th day after anthesis. The results demonstrated that seeds of cv. Roshan did not germinate above 200 Gy dose. Gamma irradiation increased the malondialdehyde content remarkably in both cultivars. In both cultivars the chlorophyll content increased at 100 Gy. However, the highest amount of proline was obtained at 200 Gy. Cultivars Roshan and Bam at 200 Gy showed the highest (70.98 µg/g Fw) and lowest (38.91 µg/g Fw) amount of total soluble protein, respectively. Increasing gamma doses improved the activity of peroxidase in both cultivars, but the effect was much greater in cv. Bam than that in cv. Roshan. It seems that cv. Roshan was more sensitive to irradiation stress than cv. Bam. Overall, leaf soluble protein, chlorophyll contents, and lipid peroxidation were found to be effective in assessing the response of wheat cultivars to gamma radiation.

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19
HOW NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS INFLUENCE THE PHENOLOGY OF OKRA
MUHAMMAD AJMAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD SAJID1, ZAHID HUSSAIN2*, ABDUR RAB1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, FAZAL-I-WAHID1 AND SHAHIDA BIBI2

HOW NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS INFLUENCE THE PHENOLOGY OF OKRA
ABSTRACT:
Phenology and crop stand are the two important determinants that fix crop growth cycle as well as directly or indirectly affect the crop productivity. In this connection, we carried out a field trial at Horticulture Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2010 in order to sort out how N and P influence the phenology of okra using various okra varieties. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement. The parameters studied were survival percentage (%), days to flowering, plant height (cm), pod length (cm), and sound seeds pod-1 of the okra plants at various levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers. The different levels of N and P had a significant effect on days to flowering, plant height (cm), and pod length (cm). However, among varieties, maximum days to flowering (39.57) were recorded in Sabz Pari and minimum (36.33) in Arka Anamika; maximum plant height (104.47 cm) in Sabz Pari and minimum (86.86 cm) in Green Star. Among the fertilizer levels, maximum days to flowering (41.11) were recorded in plots of N and P fertilizers applied at rate of 150 and 120 kg ha-1, respectively, while minimum days to flowering (33.11) were there in control plots. Similarly, the tallest plants of height 106.51 cm were observed in N and P treated plots at 150 and 90 kg ha-1, respectively, whereas plant height was least (72.17 cm) in control plots. Pod length was highest i.e., 17.97 cm recorded in N and P combined treated plots at 100 and 120 kg ha-1 as compared to the lowest pod length (15.35 cm) in control plots. In light of the results it could be concluded that okra is phonologically vulnerable to different levels of N and P applications in Peshawar region.

479-482 Download
20
DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE AND ECO-FRIENDLY WEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MULCHING TECHNIQUES
SAIMA HASHIM*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT, MUHAMMAD SAEED, MUHAMMAD HAROON, MUHAMMAD WAQAS AND SHAHFAHAD

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE AND ECO-FRIENDLY WEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MULCHING TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
To determine the effect of different mulching treatments against weeds in maize, an experiment was laid out in RCB Design during summer 2011. The mulching treatments consisted of farmyard manure, chicken manure, black plastic, white plastic, hand weeding, eucalyptus (chopped) and weedy check. The data were recorded on nitrogen content in weed (%), weed frequency (%), fresh weed biomass (kg ha-1), dry weed biomass (kg ha-1), plant height (cm), biological yield (kg ha-1), harvest index (%) and cost benefit ratio. Higher nitrogen content in weeds were observed in chicken manure which was statistically at par with farmyard manure, while lower nitrogen content were recorded in hand weeded plots. Maximum weed frequency (71.61%) was recorded for Cyperus rotundus L., while the minimum weed frequency was observed for Convolvulus arvensis L. (9.52%). The highest fresh weed biomass was recorded in weedy check (389.90 kg ha-1) and the lowest fresh weed biomass was recorded in hand weeding (35.10 kg ha-1) followed by black plastic (92.93 kg ha-1) and white plastic (128.70 kg ha-1). Different mulching treatments did not significantly affect plant height. The highest biological yield (8979 kg ha-1) was recorded in hand weeding plots however, it was statistically at par with black plastic producing biological yield of (8671.7 kg ha-1), while minimum biological yield (7363.7 kg ha-1) was recorded in weedy check plots. Maximum cost-benefit ratio was observed for farmyard manure plots (4.9) followed by chicken manure (4.6), while the minimum cost-benefit ratio was observed for hand weeding (3.5). The results showed that it is necessary to cover the soil surface with different materials to obtain high biological activity, retain soil moisture and to achieve a good control of weeds.

483-486 Download
21
STUDIES ON EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES AGAINST WEEDS IN POTATO CROP IN PESHAWAR
ZAHID HUSSAIN1*, FAZAL MUNSIF2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, KAWSAR ALI2, RIAZ AHMAD AFRIDI1 AND SHAHIDA BIBI1

STUDIES ON EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES AGAINST WEEDS IN POTATO CROP IN PESHAWAR
ABSTRACT:
Prevention of weed–crop competition at an early stage plays a very important role. Potato is grown abundantly in our country and particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but due to lack of proper attention potato yield is always very low as compared to the developed countries. Regardless of other factors, weeds are one of the serious obstacles in producing higher yields. In this context, an experiment was designed in which there were a total of nine treatments including eight herbicides and a weedy check for comparison. Metribuzin 70% WP (metribuzin) @ 0.63 kg, Gramoxone 200SL + Dual gold 960EC (gramoxone+s-metolachlor) @ 3.75L+2.5L, Sencor 70WP (metribuzin) @ 0.63 kg, Torrent 50WDG (terbutryn+terbuthylazine) @ 1.75kg, Solanum 500SC (terbutryn+terbuthylazine) @ 1.75L, Dual gold 960EC (s-metolachlor) @ 2.5L, Multiquat 200SL (gramoxone) @ 3.75 L, and Gramoxone 200SL (gramoxone) @ 3.75L ha-1 were the herbicidal treatments that were evaluated. The results revealed that all the herbicides had a significant effect on weed density m-2 and also on tuber yield of potato. Herbicidal treatments significantly reduced the weed population as compared to the control treatments, with 104 weeds m-2. All the treatments resulted in more than 80% mortality of the weeds that infested the field before application of the herbicides. No crop injury was observed in any of the herbicides used in the experiment. The herbicide combination, Gramoxone+Dual gold gave the highest potato tuber yield (15910 kg ha-1) which was 36% higher than the weedy check treatments (10162 kg ha-1). However, it was statistically similar to Gramoxone and Multiquat treatments that resulted in tuber yield of 15288 and 15022 kg ha-1, with percent increase as 33.53 and 32.35%, respectively. Therefore, Gramoxone+Dual gold was the best treatment in the experiment for effective weed control and profitable tuber yields of potato crop in agro-ecological conditions of Peshawar.

487-491 Download
22
SEED GERMINATION ECOLOGY OF CYPERUS ARENARIUS – A SAND BINDER FROM KARACHI COAST
SALMAN GULZAR1*, ABDUL HAMEED1, ABDELREHMAN A. ALATAR2, AHMAD K. HEGAZY2 AND MUHAMMAD AJMAL KHAN 2,3

SEED GERMINATION ECOLOGY OF CYPERUS ARENARIUS – A SAND BINDER FROM KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
Cyperus arenarius Retz. (Cyperaceae) is a low stoloniferous perennial of coastal sand dunes. We examined the effects of salinity (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 mM NaCl), temperature (10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 oC) and light (12/12 h dark/light and 24 h dark) on seed germination of C. arenarius. Freshly collected seeds showed highest germination in distilled water and 100 mM NaCl at 25/35 oC. However, germination in 100 mM NaCl solution was about 25% slower than in distilled water. About 50% germination inhibition was observed at 200 mM NaCl and no seed germinated above 300 mM NaCl. Under optimal conditions, germination in complete darkness was about half of the 12-h photoperiod. About 50% of the un-germinated seeds from 400 and 600 mM NaCl recovered when transferred to distilled water (enforced dormancy), 35% remained un-germinated but viable (induced dormancy), while 15% were dead. Seeds from non-saline and complete dark treatment showed dark-induced dormancy (about 40%) whereas, seeds from saline conditions had about 20-25% higher salt-enforced dormancy than the 12 h photoperiod. Ecological significance of the effects of salinity, temperature, light and their interactions on seed germination and recovery of C. arenarius is discussed.

493-496 Download
23
ANTIMALARIAL AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF AERIAL PARTS OF POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (L.) ALL. AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS BY GC-MS
HAROON KHAN1,2, MUHAMMAD SAEED1*, NAVEED MUHAMMAD1, SHAFIQ AHMAD TARIQ3, RUKHSANA GHAFFAR1 AND FARAH GUL1

ANTIMALARIAL AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF AERIAL PARTS OF POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (L.) ALL. AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS BY GC-MS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to evaluate the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. for its antimalarial and antioxidant activity. In vitro antimalarial activity was carried out against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum while free radical scavenging assay was performed against DPPH. Chemical identification of constituents was carried out on GC MS spectrometry. The crude extract demonstrated potent activity (IC50: 14.75 μg/ml) which further increased upon fractionation. The maximum antiparasitic potency was noted for n-hexane fraction (IC50: 4.86 μg/ml) followed by chloroform (IC50: 5.71 μg/ml). However, the remaining fractions were insignificant in the assay. The extracts of the plant illustrated marked scavenging activity against stable free radical, DPPH. The most potent antioxidant was crude extract (IC50: 122 μg/ml) followed by ethyl acetate (IC50: 137 μg/ml) that strongly augmented the antimalarial potential of the plant. GC MS spectrometry was used to explore the chemical composition of n-hexane fraction that can be attributed to the current antimalarial activity. Based on our findings, aerial parts of the plant could be a significant natural healing agent against resistant P. falciparum.

497-500 Download
24
EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT OCHRADENUS BACCATUS DELILE FROM COTYLEDON AND SHOOT AXIS
FAHAD AL QURAINY, MOHAMMAD NADEEM*, SALIM KHAN, SALEH ALANSI AND MOHAMED TARROUM

EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT OCHRADENUS BACCATUS DELILE FROM COTYLEDON AND SHOOT AXIS
ABSTRACT:
Ochradenus baccatus (Del.) is one of the high value medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia. The plant is used particularly in lowering blood cholesterol level and counteracting malaria. The propagation of the species in Saudi Arabia and other allied areas is scarce. Therefore, we have developed an effective regeneration method of mass propagation of this potential plant. In vitro shoot multiplication was obtained from cotyledon and shoot axis on the MS medium containing 2.0 µM (BA) and 4.0 µM (NAA). The shoots were further multiplied on the MS medium containing (0.5-5.0 µM) BA and 2ip individually. BA was better in enhancing the multiplication of shoots. These shoots were routinely cultured on the MS medium with BA at 1.0 µM concentration which resulted in a fair amount of shoots per subculture at one month interval. The multiplied shoots were exposed to the MS medium supplemented with IBA and NAA. This resulted in reduced percent rooting. Rooting was enhanced when the shoots pulse treated with IBA (25-200 µM) at 5, 10 and 15 days. When the shoots were transferred to the MS medium without any PGR maximum (96.6%) rooting was achieved on treatment with 100.0 µM IBA for 10 days. Plants were acclimatized on different soils. Highest (70%) survival was obtained on sterilized soil with FYM. Efforts are being made to transplant the In vitro developed plants to the natural habitat.

501-505 Download
25
MOLECULAR AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEWLY ISOLATED BETA-TUBULIN PARTIAL GENE SEQUENCES FROM SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
SITWAT AMAN1, MUNEEZA IQBAL1, SAFDAR ABBAS1, SADIA BANARAS2, MUHAMMAD AWAIS1, IMTIAZ AHMAD1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND SAMINA N SHAKEEL1*

MOLECULAR AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEWLY ISOLATED BETA-TUBULIN PARTIAL GENE SEQUENCES FROM SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Dynamic nature of beta tubulin (β-tubulin) gene is unleashed by recent studies reporting that apart from being a reliable reference gene serving for normalization purposes in gene expression analysis, β-tubulin encodes for structural proteins playing important role in cell cytoskeleton, microtubules and regulation of cell networking. This study is focused on the identification, isolation and characterization of 6 novel β-tubulin genes isolated from diverse range of 6 medicinal plants including Ficus carica, Pisum sativum, Capsicum annum, Capparis decidua, Maytenus royleana and Eruca sativa. The genomic sequences of newly isolated β-tubulin genes were analyzed and confirmed by using different bioinformatics tools followed by submission to genebank. We used ClustalW for pairwise alignment of these novel sequences with other known 18S rRNA sequences to find out their phylogenetic relationships. Our results have shown conserved nature of β-tubulin with some variable regions might be landmarks of some historical signals. Being housekeeping gene, β-tubulin can be used as good marker and internal control for several types of molecular analysis followed by validations of their consistent expression in the several plant species in future. This study will provide a platform for the molecular biologist interested in studying novel mechanisms of different medicinal plants.

507-512 Download
26
FAST EXTRACTION OF BIOACTIVE FATTY ACIDS FROM THE PERILLA SEEDS BY SMASH TISSUE EXTRACTION
WEIZHUO TANG1,4, YANLING SUN1, YANZE LIU2, YINGFENG WEI3 AND YUQING ZHAO1,4*

FAST EXTRACTION OF BIOACTIVE FATTY ACIDS FROM THE PERILLA SEEDS BY SMASH TISSUE EXTRACTION
ABSTRACT:
In this study, smashing tissue extraction (STE) was successfully applied to extract bioactive fatty acids from the Perilla seeds. As control experiment, four conventional extraction methods including leaching, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted, and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction have been comparatively investigated. The content of bioactive fatty acids from each extract were quantified with the help of GC-FID in order to further optimize the extraction process of STE. The result shows that STE is an efficient extraction method to obtain fatty acids due to its simple, rapid preconcentration of required components and the highest oil yield among those methods tested. The optimized parameters of STE obtained through orthogonal design were the ratio of liquid to solid material at 8:1, the power of extraction at 50w, and extracting time 30 second.

513-517 Download
27
MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT FOR GENETIC IDENTIFICATION AND STABILITY OF CYMBIDIUM SANDERAE (ORCHIDACEAE)
PORNARONG SIRIPIYASING1, KOBSUKH KAENRATANA2, PIYA MOKKAMUL1 AND ARUNRAT CHAVEERACH3*

MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT FOR GENETIC IDENTIFICATION AND STABILITY OF CYMBIDIUM SANDERAE (ORCHIDACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
In order to verify a natural hybrid or a wild type species of Cymbidium sanderae, the putative parents and four more species were collected for genetic stability assessment by molecular data. Dendrogram constructed from 13 Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) profiles distinguished each species with genetic distance (D) values of different species at similar level. The D values of C. sanderae compared to the expected parents, C. lowianum, C. insigne, and C. eberneum are 0.500, 0.501, and 0.470, respectively. While those compared to other species, C. haematodes, C. ensifolium, C. sinense, and C. munronianum are 0.501, 0.490, 0.496, and 0.485, respectively. Additionally, overall D values between other samples range from 0.414 (C. ensifolium and C. sinense) to 0.547 (C. insigne and C. haematodes). Regarding the D values mentioned, they appear to be at the same or similar levels. Therefore, C. sanderae is a species just as the other studied species are, and this means that it should be classified as a wild type species.

519-523 Download
28
DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF ASTRAGALUS L. IN SOME OF THE PERIPHERAL POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA
JACOB THOMAS1*, M.A. EL-SHEIKH1,2, A.A. ALATAR1, A.H. ALFARHAN1 AND M. SIVADASAN1

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF ASTRAGALUS L. IN SOME OF THE PERIPHERAL POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
Peripheral populations have significant conservation values due to their evolutionary potential and regional ecological implications. Astragalus, the largest genus in the flora of Saudi Arabia, has an extensive distribution range in West Asia. However, the distribution of Astragalus species in Arabian Peninsula is restricted. The present study analyzes the floristic diversity and ecology of some of the peripheral populations of Astragalus species occurring on the edge of their distribution range in central Saudi Arabia and highlights its common associations through TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA approach. Five ‘Raudhas’ (meadows) in the central region have been selected to quantify the density and abundance of Astragalus species. Although these populations in no way dominate the selected habitats as a whole, at least a few species exert a local dominance in some stands. 180 species were recorded from 150 stands, including 14 species of Astragalus and 15 very common associated species. 12 plant communities were recognized after application of TWINSPAN and DCA programmes. Based on the data obtained from 150 species-rich stands, we also assessed the relationships between edaphic-gradients and plant relationships using CCA. The results show that the pattern of distribution and existence of Astragalus species are highly influenced by both edaphic factors such as soil texture, pH, organic matter, etc. and competition among Astragalus species and associated species. As the peripheral populations of Astragalus in all ecologically divergent habitats of the central and eastern regions are potentially significant for future speciation events, protection of such populations have impending importance in the evolutionary process.

525-534 Download
29
AGE AND GROWTH RATE ESTIMATION OF GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH FROM PAKISTAN
KANWAL NAZIM1*, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN1 AND QADEER MUHAMMAD ALI1

AGE AND GROWTH RATE ESTIMATION OF GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study focused on the determination of age and radial growth in grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. The growth rate was measured by using two different methods. Firstly, the dendrometer technique was employed in which a dendrometer was fixed properly on the main tree trunk in order to determine the monthly radial growth; secondly, the manual measurements were taken from the healthy branches, the upper and the lower portions of the main trunk. The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of stem diameter change measurements in detecting the growth rate of the trees. In both the measurement techniques, the radial growth of main trunk as well as the branches significantly increased with the passage of time. The results of the dendrometer method showed the maximum growth rate (9.54±0.95cm) in the month of July, whereas it was minimum (0.58±0.058cm) in the month of October. It was found that the growth rate was higher in the upper branches, whilst it was lesser in the lower part of the main trunk. Age and the growth rate of Avicennia marina were estimated by applying the standard dendrochronological techniques, with dendrometer, manual measurement and cross- sectioning plants of the known ages. The maximum age of 32±1.42 years was recorded from the Port Qasim whereas the minimum (10±0.57 years) was recorded from the Korangi Crossing. The average growth rate ranged between 0.98±0.04 to 1.40±0.16 year/cm. Appearance and the successive development of cambium, characteristics of the initiation of growth rings were also investigated. Avicennia marina plants were grown by seeds in natural habitat as well as in the greenhouse. The cross sections were taken at the regular intervals to observe the appearance of growth rings. It was demonstrated that Avicennia marina has exhibited non-annual growth rings. It was concluded that the classical dendrochronological methods alone could not be applicable to this mangrove species.

535-542 Download
30
SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CURRENTLY USED BY HERBALISTS IN LEBANON
TAHA DEEB1, KHOUZAMA KNIO1, ZABTA K. SHINWARI2, SAWSAN KREYDIYYEH1 AND ELIAS BAYDOUN1*

SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CURRENTLY USED BY HERBALISTS IN LEBANON
ABSTRACT:
Lebanon encompasses a relatively large flora of 2,607 species. Several species in this rich flora were reported to have medicinal applications for various diseases. However, there have been few studies on the use of medicinal plants in Lebanon. In an attempt to study the Lebanese ethnopharmacological status, a survey on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Lebanon was conducted. Based on data collected from 26 local herbalists, the study revealed that 128 plant species are used for treating various diseases, in the following way: 51 species for treating gastrointestinal disorders; 32 for kidney and urinary diseases; 37 for blood and cardiovascular diseases; 19 for disorders of the nervous system; 21 for diabetes; 19 for respiratory illnesses including 4 for asthma; 18 for sexual disorders; 17 for hair problems; 7 for liver diseases, 6 for tumors, and several other plant species for other diseases. The survey also showed that most interviewed herbalists did not hold a high school certificate and they were not licensed for this practice. Hence, there is a need to properly train the herbalists in plant taxonomy and disease diagnosis, and to implement proper herb collection and storage.

543-555 Download
31
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE BENTH. A MEDICINAL PLANT OF SINDH, PAKISTAN
SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA1*, AMINA KABIR KHANZADA1, WAZIR SHAIKH1 AND SYED ABID ALI2

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE BENTH. A MEDICINAL PLANT OF SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce Benth. was subjected for fatty acid analysis and 9 saturated and 17 unsaturated fatty acids were identified by (GC MS). Moreover, some essential and toxic elements (e.g. As, Cu, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Pb & Zn) were also measured in different concentrations (Zn & K being the highest (26.89 mg/kg) and Pb (0.19mg/kg) & As (17.6µg/kg) were the lowest in concentrations) justifying its medicinal applications. Total protein contents analyzed in different parts of P. dulce was highest in seeds ranging from 50.3-67.1%, stems 15.7%, roots 10.6%, leaves 13.7%, flowers 14.8%, and in fruits 10.50% as established by kjeldhal method. P.dulce plant was found to be a rich source of proteins, fatty acids and essential elements particularly seeds and can be exploited for human and animal consumptions.

557-561 Download
32
INFLUENCE OF DEFOLIATION AND DEBLOSSOMING ON FRUIT QUALITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. GOLA
AHMAD SATTAR KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD REHMAN GUL KHAN1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1, ISHTIAQ AHMAD RAJWANA2, TAYYABA SHAHEEN3 AND ALLAH BAKHSH4

INFLUENCE OF DEFOLIATION AND DEBLOSSOMING ON FRUIT QUALITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. GOLA
ABSTRACT:
To investigate the influence of defoliation and deblossoming on fruit quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.), trees of cv. ‘Gola’ were subjected to various levels of defoliation and deblossoming manually [T1 = control (no defoliation and deblossoming), T2 = 100% defoliation + 100% deblossoming, T3 = 50% defoliation + 50% deblossoming, T4 = 0% defoliation + 50% deblossoming, and T5 = 0% defoliation + 100% deblossoming] by using pruning scissor in the last week of April. The physical and biochemical fruit characteristics were recorded at harvest. Defoliation and deblossoming significantly affected the fruit size and maximum fruit size (34.4 cm-2) was exhibited by fruit harvested from trees subjected to T4 in summer. However, other physical fruit quality characteristics did not differ significantly with various levels of defoliation and deblossoming. Fruit harvested from trees subjected to T4 exhibited maximum score for organoleptic characteristics. The level of total soluble solids (12.2%) in the guava juice in summer crop and reducing sugars (2.6%) in winter crops exhibited significantly higher values than other treatments. It can be concluded that trees subjected to different defoliation and deblossoming levels had a significant influence on fruit quality of guava cv. ‘Gola’. Application of 50% deblossoming without defoliation produced fruit with better fruit size, organoleptic chatacetistics, souble solids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars both during summer as well as winter crop.

563-570 Download
33
EVALUATION OF PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF SIX WILD PLANTS FOR METAL IN A SITE POLLUTED BY INDUSTRIAL WASTES: A FIELD STUDY IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA
IBRAHIM M.M.1, 2*, A.A. ALSAHLI.2 AND G. EL-GAALY3

EVALUATION OF PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF SIX WILD PLANTS FOR METAL IN A SITE POLLUTED BY INDUSTRIAL WASTES: A FIELD STUDY IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to assess the accumulation content of toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb in the soil, shoots and roots of six plants species collected from the second industrial zone of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Translocation factor (TF), biological concentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) parameters were used to evaluate the of phytoremediation potential of the six studied plants named Malva parviflora, Datura stramonium, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhazya stricta, Phragmites australis and Lycium shawii. Metal concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb in soils collected from industrial region varied between 19.79, 217, 332, 37.12and 169.8 mg/kg. The pattern of metal accumulation in studied plants were: Zn> Cu> Pb> Ni> Cd. Results obtained showed significant (P≥0.05) accumulation in the above ground components of Malva parviflora, Rhazya stricta, Phragmites australis and Lycium shawii compared with root. However, the highest accumulation of Cd and Pb was observed in Phragmites australis and followed by Lycium shawii. The translocation factor of Cd and Pb with most plant species are greater than 1, indicating that these moved more easily in these plants. However, these results also showed that the translocation of Cd and Pb from root to shoot of Phragmites australis and Lycium shawii plants was higher than other metals. Similar pattern was observed with Malva parviflora and Rhazya stricta. In conclusion, none of our studied plant species were identified as hyperaccumulator; however, Phragmites australis and Lycium shawii together with Malva parviflora and Rhazya stricta showed a highly positive phytoextraction potential for Cd and Pb. whereas, , Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis were found to be suitable for phytostabilization of soils contaminated with Ni and Cu.

571-576 Download
34
VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP OF CONIFER DOMINATING FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE BELT OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI1*, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MOINUDDIN AHMED2*, NASRULLAH KHAN3 AND IMRAN AHMED KHAN4

VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP OF CONIFER DOMINATING FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE BELT OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation focuses on quantitative description of moist temperate conifer forest vegetation. Forty-one stands of conifer dominating forests, throughout their natural range, were sampled by point-centered quarter method while associated understorey vegetation was sampled by circular plots (1.5 m radius) and relevant quantitative attributes calculated and described. In addition to vegetational sampling, topographic observations were also taken and described in relation to vegetation description and distribution. Out of the twelve tree species, five conifer species were common in moist temperate area of Pakistan, including Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson (average importance value = 46%), Abies pindrow Royle (43%), Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don. (49.6%), Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. (25.2%) and Taxus fuana Nan Li & R.R. Mill. (6%). Among angiospermic trees, Juglans regia L. attained 9.25 % average importance value. Common understorey species were: Pteris cretica L., Rosa brunoni Lindl, Berberis lyceum Royal I.C., Hedera nepalensis K. Koch, Rubus biflorus Ham. ex Sm., Thymus serpyllum L., Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle, Rubus ellipticus Smith and seedlings of some tree species. Thirteen forest community types were recognized on the basis of dominance (importance value) and described in relation to associated topographic and climatic characteristics. The community types examined, in particular, correlated well with the biotemperature and precipitation.

577-592 Download
35
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFYING EVERGREEN AZALEA (ERICACEAE) CULTIVARS IN CHINA USING NUMERICAL TAXONOMY
HONG ZHOU, JİN LİAO, Yİ-PİNG XİA* AND YUAN-WEN TENG

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFYING EVERGREEN AZALEA (ERICACEAE) CULTIVARS IN CHINA USING NUMERICAL TAXONOMY
ABSTRACT:
Azaleas are among the 10 famous traditional flowers in China having a long cultivation history since the Tang Dynasty. Today, there are probably over 300 evergreen azalea cultivars preserved in different nurseries, all of which are usually classified as belonging to East, West, Summer and Hairy groups. Numerical taxonomy was carried out to determine the phenetic relationships between cultivars. Sixty six evergreen azaleas cultivars were studied based on 30 morphological characters (13 qualitative and 17 quantitative). Cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) was performed by using NTSYS software. Mantel’s test showed a good fitness between the cluster analysis and Euclidean distance matrix. The first three axes in PCO explained 49.94% of the total variation, and revealed that 14 characters, most of which are related to flowers, played an important role in numerical taxonomy. Both cluster analysis and PCO suggested that cultivars in the East and summer groups were distinct from other groups in the 4 group classification system based on the morphological characteristics, but the West and Hairy groups were closer when concerned primarily with phenetic relationships.

593-598 Download
36
STUDIES ON LIMNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PLANKTONIC DIVERSITY IN D.G. KHAN CANAL WATER AT D.G. KHAN (PAKISTAN)
M. ISMAIL CHUGHTAI1,2*, TANVEER KAUSAR2, KHALID MAHMOOD1, M. NAEEM2 AND ABDUL RASUL AWAN1

STUDIES ON LIMNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PLANKTONIC DIVERSITY IN D.G. KHAN CANAL WATER AT D.G. KHAN (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to investigate the seasonal variations in limnological characteristics and planktonic diversity of D.G. Khan Canal water as affected with sewage at D.G. Khan, Pakistan. Water samples were collected on monthly basis and analyzed for estimation of water temperature, light penetration, turbidity, boiling point, surface tension, viscosity, density, specific gravity, pH, EC, dissolved O2, Free CO2, alkalinity, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, chlorides, acidity, hardness, total solid, total volatile solids, total dissolved solids and total volatile dissolved solids. An attempt was also made to assess the biological parameters including frequency of occurrence, relative abundance and diversity index of plankton life. Density and diversity of plankton was used as a measure of water quality. Phytoplankton were abundant as compared to Zooplankton. 39 Phytoplankton genera were recorded. Among these 08 of Cyanophyta, 12 of Chlorophyta, 11 of Chrysophyta, 4 of Euglenophyta, 2 of each Pyrrhophyta and Cryptophyta. 14 genera of Zooplankton were observed including 9 of Protozoan, 4 of Rotifers and one genus of Cladoceran. Total number of organisms was 616, out of which 523 were Phytoplankton and 93 were Zooplankton. Diversity index of Phytoplankton ranged from 2.53 to 2.99 and diversity index of Zooplankton ranged from 1.08 to 1.68. It may be concluded that the quality of canal water is marginally fit as the diversity index of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton was less than three throughout the study period.

599-604 Download
37
A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF KABAL VALLEY, SWAT, PAKISTAN
MOHAMMAD ILYAS1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1 AND SARWAT NAZ MIRZA2

A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF KABAL VALLEY, SWAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The floristic survey of Kabal valley, Swat was carried out during 2009-2012 and a total of 593 species belonging to 408 genera and 130 families have been identified. Of them, 20 species of ferns, 8 species of Gymnosperms and 565 species of angiosperms (128 species of Monocotyledons and 437 species of Dicotyledons) were recognized. Poaceae was the largest family which contributed 65 grasses (10.96%), followed by Asteraceae (44 spp., 7.42%), while 13 largest families represented by 10 or more species accounted for 53.1% of the species. The largest genera were: Cyperus, Persicaria (7 spp. each), Euphorbia, Solanum (6 spp. each), Impatiens, Prunus, Allium and Amaranthus (5 spp. each). This checklist will provide a useful starting point for further ecological and bioprospective research of the area.

605-615 Download
38
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS REGIMES ON DISEASE RESISTANCE IN TWO COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN RESISTANCE TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS (CLCUV)
ZAFAR UIIAH ZAFAR* AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS REGIMES ON DISEASE RESISTANCE IN TWO COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN RESISTANCE TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS (CLCUV)
ABSTRACT:
In recent years, plant diseases are major limiting factor in agricultural production. However, severity of disease incidence can be reduced by nutrient management. Therefore, understanding physiological and biochemical changes in relation to disease incidence will help in devising economic approaches to control crop damages due to different diseases. Therefore, two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, S-12 (CLCuV-susceptible) and CIM-448 (CLCuV-resistant) were grown at varying concentration [62, 31(control) 15.5 and 3.88 mg P L-1] of phosphorus supplied with Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Throughout the experiment, cv. CIM-448 remained free from CLCuV disease, whereas plants of cv. S-12 showed a degree of disease symptoms. Increasing P supply caused a consistent increase in growth of both cotton cultivars with concomitant increase in disease symptoms in only cv. S-12. The CLCuV-resistant cultivar, CIM-448 was higher in growth than that of cv. S-12 at all external phosphorus regimes. Leaf epicuticular wax content was greater in diseased leaves of CLCuV-susceptible S-12 as compared to its healthy leaves and CLCuV-resistant cultivar CIM-448. Lowering in P supply caused a decline in leaf K+ in both healthy leaves of S-12 and CIM-448 but it remained unchanged in diseased leaves of S-12. However, diseased leaves of S-12 had significantly higher leaf K+ and Ca2+ as compared to those of healthy S-12 and CIM-448. Leaf Mg2+ concentration was higher in CIM-448 as compared that to diseased or healthy leaves of S-12 at all P levels. Accumulation of N remained unchanged with decrease in P levels. Leaf P content was decreased with decrease in external P levels in all the cultivars. Total soluble proteins and amino acids increased with the decrease of P levels. Total soluble sugars were lower in healthy leaves of S-12 as compared to diseased leaves of S-12 and CIM-448 at all external P levels whereas starch content decreased in diseased leaves of S-12 with decrease in P levels but it remained unchanged in diseased leaves of S-12 and CIM-448. Net CO2 assimilation rate decreased in both cultivars with decrease in P levels. In conclusion, low P supplies decreased the severity of disease in S-12. Disease resistance in S-12 and CIM-448 was positively associated with P and Mg2+ accumulation, photosynthetic rate and low accumulation of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and total free amino acids.

617-627 Download
39
SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF AUXINS AND CYTOKININS ON PROPAGATION OF ARTEMISIA AMYGDALINA (ASTERACEAE), A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED PLANT OF KASHMIR
RAFIA RASOOL1*, BASHIR A. GANAI1, AZRA N. KAMILI2, SEEMA AKBAR3 AND AKBAR MASOOD1

SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF AUXINS AND CYTOKININS ON PROPAGATION OF ARTEMISIA AMYGDALINA (ASTERACEAE), A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED PLANT OF KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Efficacy of different auxins and cytokinins was studied on critically endangered and endemic plant Artemisia amygdalina Decne. of Kashmir by exploiting the morphogenetic potential of shoot tip explants. Four phytohormonal combinations (NAA and BAP; Kn and 2, 4-D; BAP and 2, 4-D; NAA and Kn) were used to find the viable combination for its optimum proliferation and growth. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 2 µM of α- napthaleneacetic acid together with 1 µM of 6-benzyladenine produced up to 19 shoots per shoot tip after 6 weeks under optimal culture conditions. Regenerated shoots showed maximum rooting on MS basal media with an average of 10 roots per explant. Rooted plants were transferred to soil in green house where they exhibited normal growth. This is the first In vitro regeneration report of A. amygdalina which focuses on conservation of its unique germplasm.

629-634 Download
40
PREVALENCE OF PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM OF SINDH PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
A. MUBEEN LODHI1*, M. ALI KHANZADA1, S. SHAHZAD2 AND A. GHAFFAR2

PREVALENCE OF PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM OF SINDH PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
P. aphanidermatum is cosmopolitan in distribution and one of the most common plant parasitic pathogen of a number of different crop plants in warmer parts of the world. In the present investigation, P. aphanidermatum was isolated in very high frequency from different locations of Sindh province and from various sources. The complete ITS region DNA sequence (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) and partial LSU (D1-D3) of P. aphanidermatum consists of 2171 base pairs (bp). ITS-1 consisted of 174 (6-179), 5.8S of 159 (180-338), ITS-2 of 444 (339-782) and partial LSU of 1389 (783-2171) bp. Sequences of all our P. aphanidermatum isolates were 99-100% identical except ML1634 which showed 98.2% similarity with ML700. Phylogenetically, P. aphanidermatum belong to basal clade A of Lévesque & de Cock (2004). In ITS (ITS-1 & 2 and 5.8S) sequence analysis our isolates of P. aphanidermatum were found to be 99-100% identical to sequences of P. aphanidermatum deposited in GenBank. In present studies, P. aphanidermatum was isolated from millet, banana, cucurbits, coriander, wheat, sugarcane, tomato, papaya, squash, bottle gourd, chilies, guava, betel vine, mung bean, cotton, muskmelon, brinjal, berseem, okra and radish, as well as from water canal and ponds.

635-642 Download
41
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF TOBACCO (NICOTIANA RUSTICA) AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE BACTERIA
JEHAN BAKHT1*, AZRA1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF TOBACCO (NICOTIANA RUSTICA) AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tobacco extracts from Nicotiana rustica at different concentration in different polar solvents. For this purpose 6 different extracts were prepared, using 5 different polar solvents viz., ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, acetone, butanol and water. Four different concentrations (6, 12, 18 and 24 mg Disc-1) of each extract were subjected for preliminary antibacterial screening against 7 pathogenic bacteria by Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion method. The result of In vitro antibacterial screening showed that 6 extracts from Nicotiana rustica had different ranges of antibacterial activities. The ethyl acetate extracts showed more potent effects followed by butanol, very little in the ethanol extracts while no significant inhibitory effects were observed in acetone or hexane extracts. When tobacco extracts were studied for their antibacterial potential against gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria, ethyl acetate extracted samples were more effective against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Erwinia carotovora at highest concentrations. Hexane and acetone extracted samples did not inhibit the growth of both gram +ive and –ve bacteria.

643-648 Download
42
EFFECT OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (Sw.) DC. IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L.) AND MUNG BEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
NAHEED IKRAM AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR*

EFFECT OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (Sw.) DC. IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L.) AND MUNG BEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation was carried out for the control of root infecting fungi by using wild plant. Soil amendment with leaves, stem and flower powder of Prosopis juliflora @ 0.1,1 and 5% w/w for the control of root infecting fungi like (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina) Results obtained showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot and root length and weight, leaf area and number of nodules per plant. Prosopis stem and leaves powder @ 0.1 and 1% were found effective for the enhancement of plant height and weight of cowpea and mung bean.

649-654 Download
43
PLANT-BENEFICIAL RHIZOBACTERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE INCREASED YIELD OF COTTON WITH REDUCED LEVEL OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
SUMERA YASMIN1, FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ1, 2*, MICHAEL SCHMID3 AND ANTON HARTMANN3

PLANT-BENEFICIAL RHIZOBACTERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE INCREASED YIELD OF COTTON WITH REDUCED LEVEL OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
ABSTRACT:
Traditional use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural production can not be over-emphasized, but with fertilizer costs going up, these need to be supplemented or substituted with biofertilizers. Twenty-two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) isolated from cotton grown in Pakistani soils were selected to assess the range of growth promoting properties. Some important capabilities of practical utility shown by these strains were nitrogenase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, P and Zn mobilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity and siderophores production. Growth and yield of cotton plant was significantly increased by these bacterial inoculations with different reduced levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers under controlled conditions as well as in field trials of two years. Co-inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Z5 and Bacillus fusiformis S10 with half and 1/4th of the recommended N and P fertilizers improved the boll mass, lint and seed yield compared to un-inoculated controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using domain, division and subdivision-level probes was employed in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy for identification of cotton rhizosphere associated bacteria. The results of FISH were found to be in accordance with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Here we demonstrate that the seed treatment of cotton plants with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Z5 (AY548952) and Bacillus fusiformis S10 (AY548956) can improve growth and yield parameters in cotton fields with reduced levels of chemical fertilizers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Z5 was deposited to DSMZ German Culture Collection with accession no. DSM16519.

655-662 Download
44
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR AMYLOGLUCOSIDASE BY A MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER IN STIRRED FERMENTER
SHAZIA MALIK1,3, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2*, IKRAM UL HAQ1 AND MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR AMYLOGLUCOSIDASE BY A MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER IN STIRRED FERMENTER
ABSTRACT:
The present study was designed to optimize the process parameters for the production of amyloglucosidase bya mutant strain of Aspergillus niger in stirred fermenter by. For this purpose, various cultural conditions like rate of fermentation, process pH, rate of agitation and size of inoculum was investigated. The maximum production (25.15 U/mL/min) of amyloglucosidase was achieved at the agitation speed of 200rpm. The production of amyloglucosidase was found to be maximum (25.08 U/mL/min) at pH 5 of the medium. The optimum productivity (25.15 U/mL/min) of the enzyme was achieved with 4% inoculum after 48 h of incubation. The process temperature was optimized at 30oC throughout the study.

663-666 Download
45
SELECTIVE IN VITRO GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECT OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ON HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND BIFIDOBACTERIA
K. HALAMOVA1, L. KOKOSKA1*, Z. POLESNY1, K. MACAKOVA2, J. FLESAR3 AND V. RADA3

SELECTIVE IN VITRO GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECT OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ON HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND BIFIDOBACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Antimicrobial activity of crude acetone extract from the aerial part of Withania somnifera was tested in vitro against six pathogenic bacteria viz., Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis, S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes and five bifidobacteria viz., Bifidobacterium animalis, B. breve, B. catenulatum, B. infantis and B. longum evaluating its potential harmful effect on beneficial gastrointestinal microbiota using disk diffusion method. The results showed that pathogenic bacteria were significantly more susceptible to the extract of W. somnifera than bifidobacteria (average of diameters of inhibition zones 20.45 mm and 13.10 mm, respectively) at the concentration of 2 mg/disc. Among all bacteria tested, S. pneumoniae was the most sensitive, while B. animalis was the most resistant species. These results suggest W. somnifera as an effective antibacterial agent against human pathogenic bacteria with lowered harmful effect on bifidobacteria.

667-670 Download
46
SCREENING OF ELITE TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND RESISTANT TO TOBACCO BUD WORM (HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS F.)
HAYAT BADSHAH1, ABDUL WAJID2, MUHAMMAD SAEED3, HIDAYAT ULLAH4, FARMAN ULLAH5, QAMAR ZEB1 AND BASHIR AHMAD6

SCREENING OF ELITE TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND RESISTANT TO TOBACCO BUD WORM (HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS F.)
ABSTRACT:
Varietal resistance is an effective pest control strategy, if used in combination with other control measures, taking this the present experiment was conducted at Philip Morris Pak. Ltd formally known as Lakson Tobacco Company Limited Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2006-2007; to investigate the growth and yield parameters and comparative natural resistance against tobacco budworm, for this purpose four tobacco genotypes comprising Speight G-28, NC- 606, K-399 and RGH-4 were tested. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block (RCB) design with 4 replications and 5 treatments including check, results revealed that for each cultivar statistical differences were observed and recorded for parameters i.e. damaged plants (%), plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, leaf area (cm²), yield per hectare (kg), Grade index (%) that were at par for RGH-4 followed by Speight G-28 and K-399 in comparison with NC-606. We concluded from this experiment that genotypes RGH-4 and Speight G-28 were recorded comparatively more resistant against the pest and for other traits so in case of unavailability of RGH-4 the Speight G-28 may also be cultivated for good performance in terms of comparatively resistant cultivar against tobacco budworm.

671-675 Download
47
SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF A RAPHID PENNATE DIATOM ASTERIONELLA GLACIALIS CASTRACANE FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
TAHIRA NAZ*, SONIA MUNIR, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF A RAPHID PENNATE DIATOM ASTERIONELLA GLACIALIS CASTRACANE FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Diatom community has thousands of species belonging to the pennate and centric groups in which Asterionella glacialis is a raphid pennate diatom species known to form blooms in various regions including Pakistani waters. Its seasonal abundance and detailed morphological data were missing from coastal waters of Pakistan. To fill the gap of knowledge for these data this species was studied during the period of May 2002 to July 2003 at Manora Channel. Considerably lower cell abundance was encountered during study period. Maximum cell density 127cell-l was observed in the month of July, 2002. The species abundance has a significant positive correlation (Pearson) 0.980 with the salinity but a negative correlation with chlorophyll a -1.00.

677-680 Download
48
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR INVERTASE PRODUCTION IN CANDIDA UTILIS
FATIMA ZAFAR QURESHI AND AAFIA ASLAM*

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR INVERTASE PRODUCTION IN CANDIDA UTILIS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty-five strains of Candida utilis were isolated from various varieties of Vitis vinifera (black grapes), obtained from the local markets of Lahore. Strain KC-B10 showed maximum enzyme activity. Five media, M1, M2,M3, M4 and M5 were screened for enzyme activity with KC-B10 M1 showed maximum invertase activity i.e. 25.2 ± 0.20 U/ml extracellular invertase, 21.5 ± 0.40 U/ml intracellular invertase activity and dry cell mass 5.53 ± 0.03 g/l. The nutritional and environmental conditions were optimized for this medium using shake flask fermentation technique. After optimization of cultural conditions, the maximum enzyme activity of intracellular invertase (30.4 ± 0.47 U/ml) and extracellular invertase (49.4 ± 0.20 U/ml) with dry cell mass of 6.19 ± 0.01 g/l at 24 hrs incubation time, 1.6% (w/v) sucrose concentration, 1% yeast extract, pH 4, 30°C temperature and 200 rpm agitation rate. An increase of 49% was observed in extracellular activity while an increase of 30% was observed in intracellular activity with an increase of 10% dry cell mass. Invertase finds its uses in the confectionary and pharmaceutical industries. This study indicates that single organic source of nitrogen with a single carbon source and no other supplements are required for the optimum production of both types of invertases from Candida utilis KC-B10. Thereby resulting in the formation of an economically friendly optimized medium for production of invertases in Pakistan, a third world country with a fast growing population and limited resources.

681-686 Download
49
EVALUATION OF ARTHROSPIRA (SPIRULINA) PLATENSIS PRODUCTION TRAIT USING CPCHID OPERON
HUI-NA ZHOU,×YAN-GUANG XIE, ZHI-PING WANG*, BIN SHAO, XIN-YING LIU, JIN-XIN YU AND ZI-YUAN CHEN

EVALUATION OF ARTHROSPIRA (SPIRULINA) PLATENSIS PRODUCTION TRAIT USING CPCHID OPERON
ABSTRACT:
Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is one of the most cultivated commercial microalgae. Many genotypes of A. platensis have been identified, while not all are suited for economic exploitation because of low productivity or poor vitality. The cpcHID (C-phycocyanin rod linker polypeptide H, I and D) operon encodes the phycobilisome linker peptides involved in the photosynthesis, and may directly correlate to the production trait. Here, ten strains of A. platensis with known production traits from traditional procedure were selected and characterized by cpcHID sequences. With the help of phylogenic analyses, three commercially cultivated strains with high growth yields were in evolutionarily close relationship forming a single cluster, while others with varying low growth yields formed the other cluster. Simultaneously, eight market products were also classified into the cluster with high growth yield. We thus gave the conclusion that production trait from traditional procedure is consistent with the cluster analysis of cpcHID sequence. Furthermore, the cluster-specific residues of CpcHID are revealed, and these residues may involve in the interaction with allophycocyanin or other functions. CpcD structure is predicted and modeled on the allophycocyanin-linker complex, showing the direct interaction between cluster-specific residues and chromophores. In comparison with normal tedious, time and labor-consuming procedure for evaluating the production trait, cluster analysis based on cpcHID sequences is undoubtedly a reasonable way to carry out the high throughout evaluation of this trait and discover new strains for mass production.

687-694 Download
50
EFFECT OF PEPPER-GARLIC INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ON SOIL MICROBIAL AND BIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
IMRAN AHMAD1, ZHIHUI CHENG1*, HUANWEN MENG1, TONGJIN LIU1, MENGYI WANG1, MUHAMMAD EJAZ2 AND HUMAIRA WASILA3

EFFECT OF PEPPER-GARLIC INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ON SOIL MICROBIAL AND BIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
ABSTRACT:
The effects of pepper-garlic intercropping system on soil microorganisms i.e. bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes; soil enzymes such as invertase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and catalase; soil chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity were investigated under plastic tunnel cultivation. Two intercropping models in which pepper were intercropped in standing normal garlic (sowing clove of cv. G026 for harvesting of scape and bulb) and green garlic (sowing bulb of cv. G064 for harvesting of green garlic). Intercropping, in which pepper was planted on each side of garlic row plantation were compared to mono-culture cultivation of pepper. Results showed that bacteria population significantly increased in the pepper plot intercropped with normal garlic, while actinomycetes were significantly enhanced in pepper plot intercropped with green garlic. Populations of fungi were significantly inhibited in pepper-green garlic intercropped plot. Intercropping of green garlic significantly increased the activities of invertase, alkaline phosphatase and catalase, while urease was promisingly higher in pepper plot intercropped with normal garlic. Soil pH was affected by intercropping and low level was measured in plot intercropped with normal garlic. Furthermore, soil EC was significantly higher in pepper plot intercropped with normal garlic. It is concluded that intercropping pepper with green garlic improved soil microbial and bio-chemical properties as compared to monocropping.

695-702 Download
51
SELECTION OF CHLOROPLAST DNA MARKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DNA BARCODE AND RECONSTRUCTION OF PHYLOGENY OF SENECIO ASIRENSIS BOULOS AND J.R.I. WOOD
SALIM KHAN*, FAHAD AL-QURAINY, M. NADEEM AND M. TARROUM

SELECTION OF CHLOROPLAST DNA MARKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DNA BARCODE AND RECONSTRUCTION OF PHYLOGENY OF SENECIO ASIRENSIS BOULOS AND J.R.I. WOOD
ABSTRACT:
Senecio asirensis Boulos & J.R.I. Wood (family: Asteraceae) is an endemic plant of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia found at a few places. The medicinal value of this plant is due to the presence of a variety of complex secondary metabolites. For the development of DNA barcode for this species the chloroplast spacer sequences rps16 and psbA-trnH were found more variable and effective. Among the various loci of molecular DNA markers, nrDNA-ITS was used for the evaluation of phylogenetic relationship with other Senecio species retrieved from the GenBank database. Senecio asirensis had a separate clade from all other Senecio species suggesting its endemism to Saudi Arabia. However, using BLAST search of ITS sequence of this species on NCBI a maximum (98%) similarity to the other Senecio species was found. We analysed the data using the methods viz., maximum parsimony (MP), Neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood for the accuracy of the results and found congruence in phylogeny for this species. Thus, based on nr-ITS marker, S. asirensis clearly showed its phylogenetic relationship to the other Senecio species.

703-710 Download
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