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Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 4
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1
OBITUARY: ROFESSOR DR. MUSTAFA SHAMEEL
ShameelM.jpg

OBITUARY: ROFESSOR DR. MUSTAFA SHAMEEL
ABSTRACT:
(3rd July, 1941 – 13th May

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2
CHARACTERISITS OF VEGETATION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE USUN MOUNTAINS, XINJIANG
ZHONG-PING TIAN1, LI ZHUANG1*, SHUANG LU1, WEI-HONG LI2, ZHONG-KE WANG1 AND YANG LIU1

CHARACTERISITS OF VEGETATION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE USUN MOUNTAINS, XINJIANG
ABSTRACT:
Representative plant communities on the northern slope of the Usun Mountains, Xinjiang were selected for sampling and investigation. A total of 48 plots were established along the slope, ranging from 1,400 to 3,000m asl. The investigated vegetation communities covered all community types along the altitude gradient. Using TWINSPAN classification, GAM model diversity index fitting and comprehensive DCCA sorting analysis, the results showed that: (1) Plant genera and species were relatively diverse. Rosaceae, Cruciferae, Leguminosae, Compositae, Poaceae and Labiatae were relatively abundant, seed propagation was dominant. (2) Four vegetation vertical bands were classified from high to low elevation as sub-alpine meadow, coniferous forest, mountain steppe and desert steppe, respectively. (3) Total species richness, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index exhibited multiple peaks with the increase in elevation gradient, although only the last Pielou evenness index peak was very obvious. (4) The specific species diversity index pattern observed along the northern slope of the Usun Mountains was likely related to climate and soil nutrient status, and was specific for the Tianshan Mountains. (5) Under complex mountainous terrain, the differences in biotope conditions were very significant. The combination of elevation, slope, soil moisture, available phosphorus, available potassium and pH influenced and controlled the formation of community distribution patterns on the northern slope. This study revealed vegetation distribution patterns and their relationship with the environment on the northern slope of the Usun Mountains and provided important information for biodiversity conservation and the development.

1123-1134 Download
3
AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF DOMINANT CONIFERS FROM MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGION OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI1*, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MOINUDDIN AHMED2*, NASRULLAH KHAN3 AND IMRAN AHMED KHAN4

AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF DOMINANT CONIFERS FROM MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Dendrochronological studies were conducted based on the data of 41 different mature stands of moist temperate areas of southern Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan. Wood samples as cores were obtained from 222 trees including those of Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson, Abies pindrow Royle, Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don., Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., and Taxus fuana Nan Li & R.R. Mill., using an increment borer. Age and growth rates of these trees were estimated. Correlations were sought between the diameter / age, diameter / growth rate and age and growth rate on the basis individual stands and on an overall basis. More than 50% correlations were found to be significant. Relationship between the growth rate of dominant conifer species with environmental factors (soil nutrients, edaphic factors and topographic factors) was also sought. In general, they disclosed poor relationships. Growth rate of Abies pindrow showed weak correlation (p<0.1) with salinity, total dissolved salts and water holding capacity while that of Cedrus deodara also exhibited weak correlation (p<0.1) only with total nitrogen of soil. These significant correlations did not show any particular trend of growth and development of dominant conifer species and may be spurious. Pinus wallichiana is widely distributed species in the moist temperate area but its growth rate did not exhibit any relationship with the measured environmental variables. It is shown that largest tree, in terms of diameter, is not necessarily the oldest. Highest growth rate (1.7 ± 0.5 years/cm) was recorded for Pinus wallichiana while slowest growth rate (8.4 ± 0.7 years/cm) was recorded for Cedrus deodara.

1135-1147 Download
4
IS THE OVERSPREADING OF PAEDERIA SCANDENS IN HIGHLY DISTURBED AREAS JUST OCCASIONAL?
YOU HUA YE1, 2+, SHI SHI LIN1, 2+, DE YONG YU1* AND YONG XIAN LIANG1, 2

IS THE OVERSPREADING OF PAEDERIA SCANDENS IN HIGHLY DISTURBED AREAS JUST OCCASIONAL?
ABSTRACT:
Paederia scandens, a native weedy vine, is a common species in China, however in recent years, it has spread extensively. Though research focused on this vine has increased, still ecological information concerning it is rare. We hypothesized that the overspreading of this weedy vine in highly disturbed area was not an occasional case. In order to test this hypothesis, field observations were carried out in Shenzhen, China. Records showed that P. scandens was distributed sporadically before in most of the ecosystems in Shenzhen, but it was densely distributed in 8 areas now where the ecosystems were disturbed and quite vulnerable. The current coverage area is about 24-5000 times that of the past and the total coverage area has reached 8.8 hm2. More than 29 plant families, 39 genera and 45 species have been impacted by this weedy vine. The average growth rate was 1.3cm/d in the rapid growing period, and the maximum growth rate was 1.9cm/d. The simple community of P. scandens had a lower number of species and abundance than the control. Results suggested that the distribution pattern of P. scandens had changed from sporadic to dense in the highly disturbed areas. P. scandens had the potential to overspread in highly disturbed areas and the community with simple configuration offered more opportunities for it to overspread. Integrating the present investigations and studies, we conclude that the overspreading of P. scandens in highly disturbed areas is not just an occasional case.

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5
FLORISTIC INVENTORY, ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF RANGELAND, DISTRICT TANK, PAKISTAN
LAL BADSHAH1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND ZAMAN SHER2

FLORISTIC INVENTORY, ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF RANGELAND, DISTRICT TANK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to assess the floristic composition and its ecological characteristics of District Tank during 2007- 2011 in different seasons. The floristic diversity consisted of 205 species within 56 families. Based on number of species, Poaceae (34 Spp), Papilionaceae (19 Spp), Asteraceae (14 Spp), Chenopodiaceae (10 Spp) and Brassicaceae (9 Spp), Euphorbiaceae (8 Spp), Boraginaceae and Polygonaceae, (each with 7 species) were the leading families. The other families had less than 7 species. Based on the habitat 140 (68.3%) species were growing wild as mesophytes and xerophytes. While 46 species (22.4%) were classified as hydrophytes, 10 species (4.8%) were found both in wet and dry conditions; and 9 species (4.6%) were cultivated for various purposes. There were 24 species (11.7%) with spiny nature. Spinescence is also an indicator of dry soil and environment. Among the perennial species, 19 were deciduous and 83 evergreen. The leaf lamina was simple in 152 species (74.1%), 5 species (2.4%) were leafless, while in the remaining 48 species (23.4%) had compound leaves. Biological spectrum of flora indicated that therophytes followed by hemicryptophytes were dominant. Leaf spectra revealed that nanophylls, leptophylls, microphylls and mesophylls were the most prevalent leaf sizes. Cuscuta reflexa, Capparis decidua, Periploca aphylla, P. calophlla and Equisetum arvense were aphyllous species.

1159-1168 Download
6
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DEFORESTATION AND REGENERATION STATUS OF ZIARAT JUNIPER FOREST
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI1*, HUMA BATOOL2, TAHIR AQEEL3 AND ZAHOOR AHMED BAZAI1

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DEFORESTATION AND REGENERATION STATUS OF ZIARAT JUNIPER FOREST
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out in Ziarat Juniper forest {(Juniper excelsa (M. Bieb)} through surveying the five selected locations viz., Zangoon Jungle, Salik Sakhobi, Warkai Zazri, Ambaar Zawar Sar and Nishpa. The data obtained were statistically analyzed for analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean, standard deviation and also for multiple comparison tests of mean values. Results showed that there was statistically an intra non-significant variance but inter significant variance (p<0.01) in the average diameter at breast height (DBH), old (OR), new regeneration (NR) and deforestation (DFR) of the Juniper grown in five selected locations. The OR percentage was calculated to be 13.17, 12.92, 9.92, 8.78 and 6.61 in Zangoon Jungle, Salik Sakhobi, Warkai Zazri, Ambaar Zawar Sar and Nishpa. Likewise the NR percentage found was 10.43, 13.11, 9.74, 5.86 and 7.93 in aforementioned localities, respectively. In comparison to regeneration, the DFR percentage was alarmingly high and it was 20.95, 14, 13.76, 10.22 and 19.02 at Zangoon Jungle, Salik Sakhobi, Warkai Zazri, Ambaar Zawar Sar and Nishpa, respectively. Therefore, the survival chances of Ziarat Juniper forest is equally dangerous/alarming, which is in an urgent need of conservation for its sustainability.

1169-1172 Download
7
EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF CAROB (CERATONIA SILIQUA L.)
ESMA GUNES1, HAMIDE GUBBUK1*, TOMAS AYALA-SILVA2, SADIYE GOZLEKCI1 AND SEZAI ERCISLI3

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF CAROB (CERATONIA SILIQUA L.)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, Ceratonia siliqua L. carob seeds harvested from both wild and cultivated genotypes in Turkey were subjected to mechanical scarification, soaking in hot water and dipping in sulfuric acid. All treatments hastened seed germination and seedling growth of carob compared to control. The germination percentage of control seeds were similar for both wild and cultivated genotypes (13%) and it was increased up to 95% and 93% in wild and cultivated genotypes, respectively, following sulfuric acid treatment. Seed germination percentage of wild and cultivated carobs was similar in all treatments indicating that domestication does not appear to have influenced germination behavior in both genotype.

1173-1177 Download
8
IMPACT OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALT AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
KHALID MAHMOOD QURESHI*, SAMAN CHUGHTAI, USMAN SHOUKAT QURESHI AND NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI

IMPACT OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALT AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
ABSTRACT:
Strawberry is perishable crop which is exceedingly in demand for its taste, profitability, high yield and good quality. For production at commercial level growth regulators have been used in the past but in present more attention paid towards pre and post-harvest techniques by using combination of growth regulators with salt. Keeping in view, present research was laid at research area of horticulture department, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, during 2010 – 2011. The experiment was carried out to check the impact of exogenous application of salt and growth regulators on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments thus formed were T1: Control/ untreated; T2: Gibberellic acid 50ppm; T3: Salicylic acid 1mMol-L; T4: Calcium chloride 0.4%; T5: Gibberellic acid 50ppm + Calcium chloride 0.4%; T6: Salicylic acid 1mMol-L + Calcium chloride 0.4%. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was applied to verify the treatments. Results showed that application of growth regulators combined with salt was more effective in increasing growth and yield. GA3 either applied singly or among calcium chloride, radically increased the vegetative growth parameters by increasing plant height, crown diameter, canopy spread, fresh and dry weight of plant and leaves, leaf area, fruit set percentage, number of, runners, trusses, flowers and fruits; as compared to salicylic acid followed by Calcium chloride. However, fruit size, weight and yield were reduced. Among combined sprays of growth regulator and salt, Salicylic acid + Calcium chloride showed significant results in all parameters viz; vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality parameters, than Gibberellic acid + Calcium chloride followed by control. Salicylic acid + CaCl2 also improve the fruit quality by significantly increasing ascorbic acid content and Total Soluble Solids while titratable acidity showed non-significant result.

1179-1185 Download
9
IMPACT OF ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) ON PHYSIOLOGY AND GROWTH OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.]
NASEER AHMAD AND ASGHARI BANO1

IMPACT OF ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) ON PHYSIOLOGY AND GROWTH OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.]
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from either fresh or oven dried leaves and root of unstressed or water stressed maize plants on soybean growth and its effects on rhizosphere soil treated with maize plant extract. The extracts were applied for 10h to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] as seed soaking treatment prior to sowing. The application of extract prepared from fresh leaves of unstressed maize plants significantly increased micronutrients contents of soil. Higher concentration of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents were found in rhizosphere of soybean plants treated with fresh and oven dried leaf extracts of drought stressed maize plants. Both fresh and oven dried leaf extracts significantly increased the Fe+, Cu+, Cr3+, Zn2+ and Co+ content of soil. The extract prepared from fresh leaves of drought stressed maize plants significantly increased the accumulation of proline, sugar and endogenous abscisic acid content of soybean leaves. The protein content was decreased by these treatments. Significant increases were recorded in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), catalase (CAT) and endogenous abscisic acid in response to application of fresh as well as oven dried leaf extracts prepared from drought stressed maize plants. The leaf extracts were more effective than root extracts and oven drying further augmented its stimulatory effect on the accumulation of Na+ content and micronutrients eg. Co, Zn2+, Mn3+ and Cu+ etc. It can be inferred that aqueous extracts possess allelopathic effects which alter the physiology of soybean plants.

1187-1192 Download
10
BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF JUICE FROM LEMON, MANDARIN AND ORANGE FRUITS CULTIVATED IN SAUDI ARABIA
FAHAD Y. AL-JUHAIMI AND KASHIF GHAFOOR*

BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF JUICE FROM LEMON, MANDARIN AND ORANGE FRUITS CULTIVATED IN SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
Juice prepared from lemon (Eureka), mandarin (Kinnow) and orange (Orlando) fruits cultivated in Saudi Arabia were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, total phenolics, ascorbic acid and antiradical activities. Juices from lemon, mandarin and orange 8.97, 16.1 and 11.78% total soluble solids; 5.73, 1.37 and 1.69% titrable acidity; 79.21, 91.18 and 107.37 mg GAE/100mL total phenolics; 31.24, 53.15 and 53.24 mg/100mL ascorbic acid and 48.3, 59.19 and 61.35% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The results show that juice from locally grown citrus fruits is of good quality and a valuable source of health promoting constituents.

1193-1196 Download
11
BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ.) P. KUMM. GROWN ON SAWDUST OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT.
HASHEM ABEER1*, A.A. ALQARAWI2, A.A. AL-HUQAIL1 AND E.F. ABD ALLAH2

BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ.) P. KUMM. GROWN ON SAWDUST OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT.
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the sawdust of Leucaena leucocephala was examined to understand its suitability as substratum for the production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The sawdust contained 86.1, 25.8, 46.9, 27.56, 0.18, 45.36, 20.58, 27.3 and 1.9% of organic carbon, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total lipids, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash, respectively. Higher growth rate of the fungus was recorded after incubation for eight days on the sawdust of L. leucocephala in Petri dishes. However, the weekly production of fruiting bodies (FB) decreased with increase in incubation period, but the accumulated production increased significantly. On the other hand, total production decreased with increase in incubation periods. The contents of ash, fiber, lipid, and nitrogen (crude protein) decreased significantly with increase in growth periods. The alterations in both fatty acid and amino acid contents of FB showed a negative correlation and visible catabolic metabolism with extension of the incubation period.

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12
DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GINGER LANDRACES
SHAKEEL A. JATOI1* AND KAZUO N. WATANABE2

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GINGER LANDRACES
ABSTRACT:
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a valuable spice and aromatic crop having medicinal significance. To have insight into variability pattern and relationships among ginger landraces, the current study was undertaken at University of Tsukuba, Japan using 32 morphological traits. The germplasm revealed high variance for plant height, rhizome weight, rhizome thickness, sheath length, tillers plant-1 and leaf length. Principal component analysis explained 80% and 90% of the total variation by the first four PCs during the year 2005 and 2006, respectively. The representative accessions acquired from the genebank remained dispersed in the three clusters during both the years displaying variability among accessions. The ginger accessions collected from local markets were found interspersed among all the clusters. Positive and significant correlation among different quantitative traits was observed. Plant height, leaves tillers-1, and tiller thickness appeared to be of prime importance as they directly influence rhizome yield, and provide a good indication for future’s emphasis in crop improvement in ginger. No relationship between distribution pattern and acquisition source was observed in this study. The different approaches used to analyze different aspects of ginger provided a deep insight and indicated existence of considerable variability and diverse base which has been prioritized for crop improvement.

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13
FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHROME B GENE IN MAIZE
LI ZHUANG* AND HUANG YU-BI

FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHROME B GENE IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
ZmPHYB1 and ZmPHYB2 with some other factors and their own interactions were studied using yeast two-hybrid technology. Results showed that interaction signals were detected among different segments. Results speculated that interaction signals between ZmPHYB1 and ZmPHYB2 could be detected under certain lighting condition after a certain period of time. AtSPA1 and AtCOP1 may form complexes with other interaction factors co-interacting ZmPHYB accumulation. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation study of functional ZmPhyB1 and ZmPhyB2 into Arabidopsis thaliana showed that genes can complement the corresponding mutant phenotype, while over-expressing transgenic plants gave rise to more obvious phenotypes in photo-morphogenesis. We speculated that endogenous PhyB gene interferences were responsible for different of indexes of necessary light-inducing phenotypic conditions between over-expression transform-ants and complementary transform-ants.

1215-1220 Download
14
WATER RELATIONS AND IONIC COMPOSITION IN THE SEEDLINGS OF SOME NEWLY DEVELOPED AND CANDIDATE CULTIVARS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
HINA KANWAL1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2*AND MANSOOR HAMEED1

WATER RELATIONS AND IONIC COMPOSITION IN THE SEEDLINGS OF SOME NEWLY DEVELOPED AND CANDIDATE CULTIVARS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Influence of salt stress on water relation parameters and pattern of ion accumulation was observed in 10 spring wheat cultivars, S-24, Lasani, Fsd-2008, Saher-2006, Inqlab-91, AARI-10, P.B-18, S.H-20, M.P-65, and G.A-20 at the seedling stage. The wheat cultivars were grown under saline (150 mM) and non-saline regimes (0 mM). Salt stress markedly reduced different water relation attributes such as leaf osmotic potential (Ψw), water potential (Ψs) and turgor potential (Ψp) of the seedlings of all wheat cultivars. However, relatively less decline in leaf Ψp recorded in cvs. S-24 and G.A-20 could be attributed to their higher degree of salt tolerance. Of different ions, root and leaf K+ and Ca2+ concentrations reduced, while Na+ concentration increased in all wheat cultivars under saline regime. K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios in both root and leaf of all cultivars also decreased under stress conditions. However, maintenance of higher Ca2+/Na+ and K+/Na+ ratios in cv. S-24, Inqlab-91 and G.A-20 in their roots and leaves compared to the other cultivars could also be related to their higher degree of salt tolerance. Of all wheat cultivars, S-24, Inqlab-91 and G.A-20 could be categorized as salt tolerant on the basis of water relation attributes and pattern of ion accumulation.

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15
GENETIC VARIABILITYAND CORRELATION STUDIES FOR MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BRASSICA NAPUS L.
ADNAN NASIM*, FARHATULLAH, SIDRA IQBAL, SIKANDAR SHAH AND SYED MUHAMMAD AZAM

GENETIC VARIABILITYAND CORRELATION STUDIES FOR MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BRASSICA NAPUS L.
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation were determined in ten Brassica napus L. genotypes for morpho-physiological traits at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Significant differences among genotypes for most of the characters indicated presence of sufficient genetic variability for effective selection. High heritability and high genetic advance were observed for flowering initiation, 50% flowering and flowering completion, plant height, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight. Significant positive correlations were observed for plant height with main raceme length (r=0.48**), pods main raceme-1 (r=0.67**) and 100-seed weight (r=0.47**). Seeds pod-1 was positively correlated with pod length (r=0.51**) and pod width (r=0.46**). Similar associations were observed for pod length with pod width (r=0.44*) and 100-seed weight (r=0.59**). Plant height, seeds pod-1, pod length and 100-seed weight can be used as selection criteria.

1229-1234 Download
16
EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF ERUCA SATIVA FROM PAKISTAN BY SDS-PAGE ANALYSIS
SHEHLA SHINWARI1, FAZAL AKBAR2, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2*, A. SAMAD MUMTAZ1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF ERUCA SATIVA FROM PAKISTAN BY SDS-PAGE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
The Eruca sativa (Taramira) germplasm, comprising 102 accessions was evaluated for total seed storage proteins via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The accessions were collected from different ecological areas of Pakistan. Total seed storage proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12.5 to 15.0% polyacrylamide gels. A total of 17 protein bands were detected, of which 6 (35%) were monomorphic and 11 (65%) were polymorphic, with molecular weight extending from 15 to 220 kDa. Dice coefficients among accessions ranged from 0.60 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) divided all the accessions into 4 main groups i.e., 1, 2, 3 and 4 comprising 2, 15, 2 and 83 genotypes, respectively. Although a low level of genetic diversity was observed among given germplasm but the presence/absence and different protein banding pattern showed a considerable level of variability among different Taramira accessions. The variations revealed in this study should be exploited for the future breeding potential of Taramira germplasm by using other advanced molecular techniques including 2-D gel electrophoresis. No studies have yet been conducted in Pakistan on the genetic assessment of Eruca sativa germplasm based on total seed protein. This evaluation will significantly help for identification and differentiation of Taramira germplasm and for best utilization in Taramira varietal improvement program in Pakistan.

1235-1240 Download
17
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG DIFFERENT PEACH GENOTYPES THROUGH RAPD MARKERS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, AISHA JAMSHED1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG DIFFERENT PEACH GENOTYPES THROUGH RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Peach is a traditional crop of northern areas of Pakistan. It is the second most important fruit crop after apple and ranks first in the genus Prunus. For the well establishment of the peach crop, presence of genetic diversity in the germplasm is very important. During the present study, genetic diversity in peach genotypes was analyzed using different RAPD molecular markers through PCR. Variation matrix for each primer followed by an average was calculated using bi-variate data set. Analysis of the banding profile of these primers showed different level of genetic polymorphism among the various peach genotypes under study. The level of genetic polymorphism (estimated as genetic distance using RAPD primers) ranged between 20% and 80%. Cluster analysis revealed that the various peach genotypes were grouped into 5 classes. Group I and II and V had only one genotype each. Group III was comprised of 3 genotypes. Group IV had 6 genotypes. Genetically diverse peach genotypes were identified which can be used in future breeding programs to develop cultivars with broad genetic base.

1241-1245 Download
18
DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.)
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1*, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR1, QUMER IQBAL1, ATTIQ-UR-RAHMAN1 AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM1

DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Diallel analysis revealed highly significant differences among tomato genotypes for days to maturity, plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width and fruit yield per plant. Significant mean squares for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) indicated joint role of additive, non-additive and maternal effects for the expression of days to maturity, fruit length and fruit yield per plant. The predictability ratio of GCA/SCA variance was less than 1 for days to maturity, plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length and fruit yield per plant showing preponderance of non-additive gene effects while it was more than 1 for fruit weight indicating predominance of additive gene effect. Among parents, B26 and B27 were found good general combiner for yield and some of the yield related traits studied. The hybrids viz. B23 x B27, B25 x B26 and B24 x B27 had significant SCA effects for yield and were suggested for the exploitation of heterosis.

1247-1250 Download
19
STUDY OF POLYPEPTIDES INDUCED BY DROUGHT STRESS IN SOME LOCAL VARIETIES OF BARLEY FROM PAKISTAN
MADIHA SADIQ, REHANA ASGHAR, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI* AND AHMAD ALI

STUDY OF POLYPEPTIDES INDUCED BY DROUGHT STRESS IN SOME LOCAL VARIETIES OF BARLEY FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The response against drought stress amongst cultivars of barley is explained on the basis of SDS-PAGE and western blot. In this study, four varieties of barley were collected from National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan for the analysis of protein profile under drought stress. Morphological studies revealed that the most affected traits were germination percentage, leaf area, number of roots & leaves and fresh weight of plant at different stress levels. In all, the highest number of proteins was produced in response to stress in Frontier-87 at 5 and 10% PEG concentration compared with the rest of treatments. Although no significant difference was observed at protein level in Sanober-96, however number of proteins was higher at 10 and 15% PEG concentration. Immunoblot analysis of the total protein extracted at the seedling stage clearly showed that all the varieties were drought tolerant.

1251-1254 Download
20
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PEA GERMPLASM USING RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS
SHUJAUL MULK KHAN1*, HABIB AHMAD2, MUHAMMAD NISAR3, SHER ASLAM4, INAMULLAH2 AND NIAZ ALI1

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PEA GERMPLASM USING RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Selection of the genotypes using plasmid assisted technology provides an efficient and useful tool for elaborating genetic relationships among genotypes. In present study, 48 Pea (Pisum sativum var sativum L.) genotypes obtained from different sources were analyzed through 20 RAPD, DNA markers for assessment of intraspecific DNA variations. Results revealed that significant variations were present in minor bands. Major bands also showed significant diversity. Considerable variations were also recorded in density of some common bands. Maximum and minimum genetic diversity i.e., 80% and 20% was found among 08 and 23 comparisons, respectively from banding profile. These variations can be used further for enhancing variability, a prerequisite for crop breeding. Phylogenetic clustering (through dendrogram analysis) of genotypes revealed that genetic diversity is independent of origin of genotypes. Forty eight genotypes of pea clustered in three main groups A, B and C comprising 23, 5 and 20 genotypes, respectively. Group A1 and C1 included the most distantly related genotypes and hence can be recommended for breeding to obtain genetically diverse segregating populations.

1259-1264 Download
21
GENETIC LINKAGE MAPS OF PEAR BASED ON SRAP MARKERS
YUHUI ZHAO, HONG LİN, YİNSHAN GUO*, ZHENDONG LİU, XIUWU GUO* AND KUN LI

GENETIC LINKAGE MAPS OF PEAR BASED ON SRAP MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic maps for two pear cultivars ‘Red Bartlett’ (Pyrus communis L.) and ‘Nanguo pear’ (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) were constructed using SRAP molecular markers. The mapping population consists of 74 F1 individuals derived from the cross of a cultivar ‘Red Bartlett’ with good fruit quality as the female parent and a cultivar ‘Nanguopear’ with good cold tolerance as the male parent. Linkage maps for both parents were built with Joinmap3.0. 103 markers have been mapped to 20 linkage groups covering 602.2cM with an average distance between markers of 4.89cM on maternal map, while 105 markers have been mapped to 20 linkage groups covering 650cM with an average distance between markers of 5.20cM on the paternal map. The map could lay a foundation for high density molecular genetic map construction for pear, and provide technique support for cold hardiness QTL detection and MAS (marker assisted selection) in the future.

1265-1271 Download
22
EFFECT OF 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC CHANGES ON TWO VARIETIES OF PEPPER UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS
SALWA ABBAS1, HANAN HELMY LATIF1* AND ESRAA ATTIA ELSHERBINY2

EFFECT OF 24-EPIBRASSINOLIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC CHANGES ON TWO VARIETIES OF PEPPER UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
This study investigates the effects of using 24-epibrassinolide on two varieties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to decrease the adverse effects of salinity stress. The growth parameters; carotenoid; proline; total anthocyanins; minerals concentrations; isozymes electrophoresis; RAPD-PCR and some leaf anatomical characters in the tested pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties were evaluated. The data showed that EBR reduces the reduction in both fresh and dry weights of the 2 varieties of pepper induced by NaCl-stress on 2 varieties of pepper. Proline increased in 2 varieties in the studied in response to NaCl and EBR treatments. Carotenoid decreased with salinity stress, whereas application of 24-epibrassinolide significantly increased carotenoids in the 2 varieties at salinity and EBR 0.1-ppm. Anthocyanins significantly increased with salt and EBR in both varieties. In addition, foliar application of EBR upon NaCl stressed plants, improved the content and uptake of the nutrients (N, P and K) and decreased Na+ percentage in the 2 studied varieties. The thickness of mesophyll width, dimensions of main vascular bundle and number of stomata were decreased at salt stress in comparison with the control .On the other hand these anatomical characters increased as increasing in concentrations 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). Moreover, the diameter of vascular bundle in the leaf blade decreased in two plants. Our observations indicated that pretreatment with 24-epibrassinolide caused improved the above-mentioned attributes. Therefore, it is clear that 24-epibrassinolide provide protection against a salt stress by increasing the activity of some antioxidative enzymes resulted in mitigation of oxidative stress caused by salinity in pepper.

1273-1284 Download
23
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A STRESS-RELATED GENE MsTPP IN RELATION TO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF ALFALFA
HUI XIE, XIN HU, CHUN-RONG ZHANG, YUN-FENG CHEN, XIA HUANG AND XUE-LIN HUANG*

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A STRESS-RELATED GENE MsTPP IN RELATION TO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF ALFALFA
ABSTRACT:
Somatic embryogenesis is the most comprehensive form of cell totipotency in plant tissue culture İn vitro, in which plant growth regulator and stress have been regarded as the important factors. In the present work, a full-length cDNA of stress-related trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, designated as MsTPP, was isolated and characterized from the non-embryogenetic callus of alfalfa on the medium involved in thidiazuron (TDZ). Homology analysis showed that MsTPP protein contained two conversed phosphatase boxes, which is the typical characterization of all phosphatases. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR demonstrated that MsTPP was expressed specifically in young root of alfalfa seedling and up-regulated by TDZ during the whole stage of somatic embryogenesis of alfalfa. Furthermore, treatments with 0.93 or 50 μM TDZ strongly suppressed embryogenic competence of the callus, while increased transcript levels of MsTPP. Taken together, these results suggest that MsTPP is likely to be associated with obtaining of embryogenetic competence in alfalfa. This study expands our understanding of the molecular mechanism of TDZ on reduction or inhibition of the embryogenic competence of alfalfa callus.

1285-1291 Download
24
EVALUATING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SCHEDULING CRITERIA FOR AUTUMN-SOWN MAIZE UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
MUHAMMAD MUBEEN1*, ASHFAQ AHMAD1, AFTAB WAJID1 AND ALLAH BAKHSH2

EVALUATING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SCHEDULING CRITERIA FOR AUTUMN-SOWN MAIZE UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Drought is a foundation reason of low grain yield in many field crops including maize (Zea mays L.). Identifying growth stages of any promising cultivar under local climate and soil fertility permits irrigation scheduling to maximize yield. Potential soil moisture deficit (PSMD) approach (a difference between potential evapotranspiration and rainfall plus irrigation) describes the response of canopy growth to water shortage. To examine the productivity of different autumn-sown maize hybrids under irrigation scheduling at different growth stages and PSMD levels, a field study was conducted with a split plot arrangement at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan) during 2009. The treatments consisted of two maize hybrids (Monsanto-919 and Pioneer-30Y87) and seven irrigation levels: I1 = no irrigation (control), I2 = 4 irrigations, I3 = 6 irrigations, I4 = 8 irrigations, I5 = 10 irrigations (1st irrigation starting at 6 leaf stage, followed by subsequent irrigations at an interval of 4 leaf stages in all irrigation treatments and addition of two reproductive stages in I3, I4 and I5 successively), I6 = irrigation at 25mm PSMD and I7 = irrigation at 50mm PSMD. The results showed that Pioneer-30Y87 produced more plant height but the two hybrids did not differ significantly in other growth and yield parameters. Among all irrigation treatments, 6 and 8 irrigation treatments were statistically at par with treatments of 10 irrigations and irrigation at 25 mm PSMD in radiation use efficiency, water use efficiency, 500-grain weight, grain yield and TDM production. More number of irrigations is not a standard for getting maximum yield in all maize hybrids. PSMD can be used as a useful measure for scheduling irrigation in irrigated conditions of Pakistan.

1293-1298 Download
25
EFFECT OF TIME OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DUAL-PURPOSE WHEAT
KHALID NAVEED1*, MUHAMMAD AYYAZ KHAN2, MOHAMMAD SAFDAR BALOCH2, NAEEM KHAN3 AND MUHAMMAD AMJAD NADIM4

EFFECT OF TIME OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DUAL-PURPOSE WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Wheat can be used as dual-purpose (forage and grain) crop, however, to avoid loss in grain yield, it requires proper fertilizer and crop management practices. In order to assess the effects of nitrogen time of application on growth and yield components of dual-purpose wheat, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, during the years 2009-10 and 2010-11. The results revealed that maximum number of productive tillers (m-2), number of grains spike-1, leaf area index and duration (112 days after sowing), crop growth rate and grain yield was obtained in plots that received 75% recommended dose of nitrogen after cut. Fresh and dry forage yield were maximum either when full dose or 75% of recommended nitrogen was applied at sowing. Leaf area index and duration (56 days after sowing) was maximum when full dose of recommended nitrogen was applied at sowing. Minimum plant height was recorded in control plots. Split application of nitrogen increased grain protein content over sole or no application of nitrogen in dual-purpose wheat. The application of nitrogen either in two equal splits or 25% applied at sowing and 75% after cut resulted in increased benefit cost ratio.

1299-1305 Download
26
A NEW GRAPE SHAPING METHOD IN THE SOIL-BURY OVER-WINTERING ZONE OF ARID AND SEMIARID AREAS
XİANHUA ZHAO1,2, CUIXIA LI3, LIJUN NAN1,2, HUA WANG1,2 AND HUA Lİ1,2

A NEW GRAPE SHAPING METHOD IN THE SOIL-BURY OVER-WINTERING ZONE OF ARID AND SEMIARID AREAS
ABSTRACT:
There are many shaping methods in the soil-burying over-wintering zone of arid and semiarid areas. However, these pruning techniques are very complicated for mechanized operations and it’s difficult for soil-burying and water saving irrigation. This article proposed a new shaping method which suits for soil-burying zone of arid and semiarid areas. The main features of the 3 shaping methods [Multiple main vine fan-training (MVF), Cordon-training (CT) and Crawled Cordon Training (CCT)] were comparatively analyzed, and 3 methods’-main labour items and their elapsed time in winter pruning were figured out. The stable yielding ability, grape quality and disease occurrence for these three methods were studied from year 2005 to year 2009. CCT shaping method avoided the unmounting in winter and mounting in spring, as a result it was found easy for mechanized operations. Compared to MVF and CT, single worker’s labour time per 667.7 m2 from winter pruning to spring unearthing in CCT was decreased 37.50% and 27.08%, respectively. The contents of soluble solid, reducing sugar and titratable acid in grape of the three different shaping methods had no significant difference. The stable yielding ability in CCT was significantly higher than the other two methods. The clusters’ infection rate of grape anthracnose, white rot and botrytis cinerea were high but the berries’ infection rate was much lower. CCT shaping method promote a model of durable viticulture, with the objectives of high quality, stable yield, long-lived and artistic vine production in soil-burying over-wintering zone of arid and semiarid areas.

1307-1314 Download
27
OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUND FERTILIZER AND HUMIC ACID TO IMPROVE SOIL AND LEAF PROPERTIES, YIELD AND QUALITY OF APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA) IN THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA
LIXIN ZHANG1*, JUN ZHOU1, YONG GUI ZHAO1, YOUYA ZHAI, KAI WANG, ASHOK K. ALVA2 AND SIVAPATHAM PARAMASIVAM3

OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUND FERTILIZER AND HUMIC ACID TO IMPROVE SOIL AND LEAF PROPERTIES, YIELD AND QUALITY OF APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA) IN THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
A two-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different application rates of chemical compound fertilizer (CF) (control, CF0; low, CF1; medium, CF1.5 and high, CF2 rates) without or with humic acid (no HA, HA0; with HA, HA) on soil chemical properties, growth of apple trees and their fruit yield and quality. With the increasing rates of CF, soil available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents increased regardless of HA treatment. The soil organic matter (OM) content increased with the addition of HA. Most of the tree response parameters i.e. leaf N, P, K concentration, one-year-old shoot length, thickness and weight of 100 leaves, leaf chlorophyll index, fruit firmness, soluble solid and sugar, titratable acidity, and vitamin C contents, increased with increasing CF rates. Generally, the values of all these parameters as well as fruit yield peaked at CF1.5 and CF2 rates without and with HA, respectively. Addition of HA to CF increased the fruit yield by 12-35%. The results of this study demonstrated beneficial effects of HA addition to CF to improve soil properties, growth of apple trees, and finally fruit yield and quality. The CF combined with HA may be considered as a moderate and economical model of fertilizer regime for apple orchard in the Loess Plateau of China.

1315-1320 Download
28
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WEED CONTROL PRACTICES AND SOWING METHODS ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF COTTON
MUHAMMAD ATHER NADEEM1*, MUHAMMAD IDREES1, MUHAMMAD AYUB1, ASIF TANVEER1 AND KHURAM MUBEEN2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WEED CONTROL PRACTICES AND SOWING METHODS ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF COTTON
ABSTRACT:
The field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different weed control treatments namely; manual hoeing, wheat straw mulching at 6 t ha-1, acetachlor at 125 g a.i. ha-1 and pendimethalin+prometryne at 875 g a.i. ha-1 along with a weedy check under ridge and flat sowing, on weed growth and yield of cotton during the year 2007 and 2008. The density of the weeds under study was decreased significantly with all weed control treatments compared with weedy check and weed control efficiency varied from 32.27 to 73.55%, 54.61 to 7.28%, 16.38 to 72.88% and 28.21 to 59.60% for Cyperus rotundus, Trianthema portulacastrum, Convolvulus. arvensis and Cynodon dactylon at early growth stages. The number of monopodial and sympodial branches and mature bolls per plant, seed weight and seed cotton yield was also increased with all weed control practices over weedy check. Pendimethalin+prometryne @ 875 g a.i. ha-1 resulted in significantly the maximum seed cotton yield of 2249.18 kg ha-1. Among sowing methods, ridge sowing was the better method in terms of controlling weeds, reducing dry weight of weeds, increasing monopodial and sympodial branches per plant, total number of bolls per plant, number of mature bolls per plant, seed cotton weight and seed cotton yield. To obtain maximum seed cotton yield and net returns in cotton, pendimethalin + prometryne @ 875 g ha-1 applied to control weeds and cotton should be sown on ridges under agro ecological conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

1321-1328 Download
29
PREFLOWERING GROWTH OF GLADIOLUS IN RESPONSE TO STAGGERED PLANTING
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR, GOHAR AYUB*, ABDUR RAB, NOOR UL AMIN, MASOOD AHMAD AND NEELAM ARA

PREFLOWERING GROWTH OF GLADIOLUS IN RESPONSE TO STAGGERED PLANTING
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during the year 2003-05 with the objectives to introduce and explore the possibility of producing a high valued crop for the development of an emerging floriculture industry and to expend the employment opportunities in Pakistan. The corms of eight cultivars viz., Deciso, Hong Kong, Jessica, Jester Ruffled, Madonna, Peters Pears, Rose Supreme and White Friendship were planted on 1st November, 1st December and 1st January of 2003-04 and 2004-05. Plant emergence (sprouting) was earlier in 1st year (2003-04) as compared to 2nd year (2004-05). Cultivar White Friendship proved earlier in sprouting (26.0 days), spike emergence (97.8 days), first floret opening (111.3 days) and full spike opening (127.7 days). Cultivars Hong Kong, Deciso and Jester Ruffled were found late and took maximum 58.8, 56.0 and 53.3 days respectively, for plant emergence. Cultivars Jessica and Hong Kong resulted in maximum (1.9) and minimum (0.7) number of plants corm-1 respectively. Cultivar Rose Supreme was found the tallest with a maximum plant height of 137.5 cm while White Friendship was noted as the shortest stature cultivar with an average height of 86.6 cm. A delay in planting date (1st Nov., 1st Dec. and 1st Jan.) resulted in earlier spike emergence (130.3, 129.0 and 121.9 days), earlier first floret opening (146.2, 142.3 and 134.1 days), earlier full spike opening (161.2, 154.7 and 146.1 days) and decreased number of plants (1.4, 1.2 and 1.0) corm-1. Cultivar White Friendship planted on 1st November resulted in earlier sprouting (8.7 days), spike emergence (87.5 days) and earlier first floret opening (106.2 days). Cultivar Jessica planted on 1st January in 1st year (2003-04) was earlier in first floret and full spike opening. However, Jessica when planted on 1st November of 1st year (2003-04) resulted in more number of plants (2.5) mother corm-1. Rose Supreme planted on 1st November of 2nd year (2004-05) produced the tallest plants (154.3 cm).

1329-1338 Download
30
INTEGRATED EFFECT OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L)
ABDUL FATAH SOOMRO, SHAMASUDDIN TUNIO, FATEH CHAND OAD AND INAITULLAH RAJPER

INTEGRATED EFFECT OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L)
ABSTRACT:
To determine the inorganic and organic nutrient sources & optimum rates for sugarcane production, field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan, (25o25’60’N 68o31’ 60E) during 2008-2009. Sugarcane variety Thatta-10 was planted and following treatments were arranged in RCBD: control (0-0-0 ), Recommended NPK dose (225-112-168 ), FYM 10 t ha-1, FYM 20 t ha-1, PM 10 t ha-1, PM 20 t ha-1, BF 5 t ha-1, BF 10 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126)+ FYM 10 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126) + FYM 20 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126) + PM 10 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126) + PM 20 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126) + BF 5 t ha-1, three-fourth of recommended rate (169-84-126) + BF 10 t ha-1 , half of recommended rate(112-56-84) + FYM 10 t ha-1, half of recommended rate(112-56-84) + FYM 20 t ha-1, half of recommended rate (112-56-84) + PM 10 t ha-1, half of recommended rate(112-56-84) + PM 20 t ha-1, half of recommended rate(112-56-84)+BF 5t ha-1, and half of recommended rate(112-56-84) + BF 10 t ha-1. The results showed that under-dose or individual application of inorganic or organic nutrient sources recorded less value of all sugarcane traits but the integration of both the sources except bio fertilizer significantly improved all the traits of plant crop. The maximum tillers plant-1, plant height, stem girth, internodes plant-1, internode length, millable canes, cane yield, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, crop growth rate and dry matter were found higher with the application of FYM and or press mud applied at 20 t ha-1 with three-fourth of recommended rate of NPK fertilizer (169-84-126). Both the treatments were statistically non-significant. However, quality and nutrient uptake traits viz. brix, pol, purity, commercial cane sugar, NPK uptake and accumulation in sugarcane were higher with the application of three-fourth of recommended rate of NPK fertilizer (169-84-1261) + 20 tons press mud ha-1. It is concluded that integrated nutrient management recorded 25% saving of inorganic fertilizers with the application of FYM and or press mud applied at 20 t ha-1. Integration of organic and inorganic nutrients should be practiced. This will not only enhance growth, yield, quality and nutrient uptake of sugarcane but also conserve agro-ecosystem for sustainable crop production.

1339-1348 Download
31
EFFECT OF ROCK PHOSPHATE COMPOSTED WITH ORGANIC MATERIALS ON YIELD AND PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE OF WHEAT AND MUNG BEAN CROPS
MUHAMMAD SHARIF1*, TANVIR BURNI2, FAZLI WAHID1, FARMANULLAH KHAN1, SAEED KHAN1, AMJAD KHAN1 AND AZIZULLAH SHAH3

EFFECT OF ROCK PHOSPHATE COMPOSTED WITH ORGANIC MATERIALS ON YIELD AND PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE OF WHEAT AND MUNG BEAN CROPS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of composts prepared from different organic materials with rock phosphate (RP) on yield and P uptake of wheat and their residual effect on mung bean crops during 2010-2011. Wheat variety saran with a seed rate of 100 kg ha-1 was grown in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. There were 11 treatments, each of 3×5 m­2­­­­­ size. Composts prepared from RP fed FYM, simple FYM, organic waste and city garbage were applied at the rate based of their P concentrations. The composts were enriched with phosphorus by mixing different organic material with rock phosphate (RP). Fertilizers were applied at the rate of 120-90-60 kg ha-1 N, P and K, respectively in the form of urea, SSP or composts and K2SO4. Nitrogen was applied in three split applications whereas all P and K were applied at sowing time. Composts significantly (p≤0.05) increased grains, total dry matter, straw yield and 1000 grains weight of wheat over control. Significantly (p≤ 0.05) increased grains yield of 5274 Kg ha-1, total dry matter yield of 8533 Kg ha-1, straw yield of 3585 Kg ha-1 and thousand grains weight of 40.5 g of wheat were produced by the compost of organic waste and half dose of SSP. Residual effect of the prepared composts was determined on yield and plant P uptake of mung bean (Vigna radiate). The experiment was conducted in the same layout of wheat. Fertilizers N and K were applied at the rate of 30 and 60 kg ha-1, respectively in the form of urea and sulphate of potash. No P was added to this crop. Maximum and significantly (p≤0.05) higher mung bean grain yield, total dry matter yield and straw yield of 858 kg ha-1, 8167 kg ha-1 and 7309 kg ha-1, respectively were recorded by the residual effect of compost of RP fed dung with half dose of SSP. Thousand grains weight of 44 g was noted in the treatment of residual effect of compost of simple dung with half dose of SSP. Post harvest soil N and P concentrations improved with composts. Significant (p≤0.05) increases in N and P uptake by wheat and mung bean plants were observed with composts addition. Results suggest that the use of composts prepared from different organic materials with RP are economical, environmental friendly and have potential to improve crops yield and plants N and P uptakes.

1349-1356 Download
32
TIJABAN-10 A DROUGHT TOLERANT AND HIGH YIELDING WHEAT VARIETY FOR RAINFED/SAILABA AREAS OF BALOCHISTAN
JAHANGIR KHAN*, SAIFULLAH KHAN, MUNIR AHMAD KHETRAN, AMANULLAH, NADEEM SADIQ, MOHAMMAD ISLAM, ABDUL HANAN AND AHMAD AZIZ

TIJABAN-10 A DROUGHT TOLERANT AND HIGH YIELDING WHEAT VARIETY FOR RAINFED/SAILABA AREAS OF BALOCHISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Tijaban-10 a drought tolerant wheat variety was developed by Arid Zone Research Centre for rainfed (Sailaba/Khushkaba) areas of Balochistan and has been released by Balochistan Seed Council in 2010. Tijaban-10 is a semi dwarf wheat variety with high tillering capacity, high yield, bold grain and improved drought tolerance. The variety posses high protein content (13.29 %), high wet gluten (29.91%) and dry gluten (10.04%). The yield potential of Tijaban-10 was tested (1997-2008) in different yield trials (PYT, AYT) at AZRC, Quetta, micro plot trials and national trials over multiple locations in rainfed areas of Balochistan and Pakistan. The variety showed stability and wide adoptability under prevalent biotic (Rust and Insect/pest) and abiotic (drought and cold) stress of highland Balochistan. The line was tested over wide range of locations with extreme variation (cold and drought) in rainfed/Sailaba areas of Balochistan (Quetta, Mastung, Killa Saifullah and Loralai). Tijaban-10 produced higher yield in National Uniform Wheat Yield Trial (NUWYT) conducted by National Coordinated Program (NARC) Islamabad during 2006-07 in rainfed areas of Pakistan. Tijaban-10 out yielded check cultivars (AZRI-96, Sariba-92 & Local White) during yield trials in different agro-ecological zones of highland Balochistan with an increase of 20-34% over check cultivars. Tijaban-10 also yielded higher in micro plot (2005-2007) yield trials and produced 25-50% increased yield as compared to check cultivars. Tijaban-10 produced 6 % higher grain yield in National Uniform Yield Trial (2006-07) than check genotypes in pooled analysis all over Pakistan with potential yield of 7000 kg ha-1. It showed 5MS-10MS susceptibility to yellow rust strain of highland Balochistan while it showed resistant to leaf rust when tested in natural conditions of rainfed areas. The variety possesses desirable quality characteristics such as better chapatti quality; improved protein (13.29%) and higher harvest index (30-38%). This variety showed high acceptability/popularity among the farming communities of Balochistan and a new addition in genetic diversity of germplasm/cultivars already available in rainfed areas of Balochistan with significant improvement in farmers yield.

1357-1362 Download
33
ROOT DEVELOPMENT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA STEM CUTTINGS ENHANCED BY INDOLE BUTYRIC ACID
H.I. ATAGANA1, R.O. ANYASI2* AND N. NOGEMANE3

ROOT DEVELOPMENT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA STEM CUTTINGS ENHANCED BY INDOLE BUTYRIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of rooting media in addition to Indole Butyric Acid hormone on root development of stem cuttings of Chromolaena ododrata. Stem cuttings of C. Odorata treated with equal quantities of the growth hormone (0.7%) were grown in 1 kgs of vermuculate, perlite, planting soil, sand, and equal mixture of all media. The set up were treated equally with water and organic manure. Control set up was made with a mixture of different rooting media without growth hormone. Data on shoot development were noted for 6weeks and root length was measured on the day of harvest. The parameters measured were analysed statistically using ANOVA. It was found out that root and shoot lengths were significant at p> 0.05 in the entire rooting media and the highest percentage development (49 and 51%) for root and stem respectively, was observed in the rooting media that had equal measure of each constituent (i.e. the mixed constituents). Germination rate among the media was 100, 70, 60, 50 and 40% for mixed, sand, planting soil and vermiculate, perlite and control respectively. Different sections of mature stem tested with Indole butyric acid hormone were not significant in their root and stem development, although basal cutting stems tend to mature faster than epical. This has proven that propagating C. odorata by stem cutting can be optimally achieved through mixture of 0.7% of Indole butyric acid in a collection of different rooting media.

1363-1368 Download
34
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF SIXTEEN SPECIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS REPORTED FROM DIR KOHISTAN VALLEY KPK, PAKISTAN
ALI HAZRAT1,2*, MOHAMMAD NISAR1 AND SHAH ZAMAN1

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF SIXTEEN SPECIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS REPORTED FROM DIR KOHISTAN VALLEY KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The methanol extract of 16 species of medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity, using Agar well diffusion method. They were tested against 6 species of tested pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, crude extract and subsequent fractions demonstrated moderate to excellent antibacterial activities. Highest antibacterial activity was displayed by the methanol fraction showed good and significant activity in 10 species of medicinal plants.

1369-1374 Download
35
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE BASED PLANTS USED IN DIARRHEAL TREATMENT
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*, MISBAH SALIMA1, RIZWAN FAISAL2, SOHAIB HUDA3 ANDMUDASSIR ASRAR4

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE BASED PLANTS USED IN DIARRHEAL TREATMENT
ABSTRACT:
A survey was conducted in Kohat district of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa of Pakistan to document the plants which are used to treat diarrhea. Based on the survey, 11 medicinal plants were selected (Acacia nilotica, Artemisia absinthim, Carumcopticum, Cinnamomumzeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Fumariaindica, Menthalongifolia, Phyllanthsemblica, Punicagranatum, Withaniasomnifera, Woodfordiafruticosa). Their antibacterial activity against 7 pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigellasonnei, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes) causing diarrhea was checked. Forty four crude extracts at concentration of 50 mg/ml were used for in vitro antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. All of the crude extracts were found to inhibit one or the other bacterial strain examined. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against susceptible bacterial strains. The (MIC) of the extracts against all tested bacterial strains ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was then determined for extracts with positive results for MIC that ranged between 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. Woodfordiafruticosa, Punicagranatumand Carumcopticum were found to be potential candidates for development of drugs for diarrhea.

1375-1382 Download
36
GERMINATION CAPACITY AND VIABILITY IN POLLEN OF PRUNUS AMYGDALUS BATSCH (ROSACEAE)
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN1, ANJUM PERVEEN1* AND GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR1

GERMINATION CAPACITY AND VIABILITY IN POLLEN OF PRUNUS AMYGDALUS BATSCH (ROSACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to Prunus amygdalus belonging to family Rosaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using “hanging drop technique”. Viability was determined by storing pollen in different conditions as refrigerator (4ºC), freezer (-20ºC, -30ºC), freeze drier (-60ºC). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4ºC and fresh. Freeze dried pollen showed viability for a longer period.

1383-1385 Download
37
PREVALENCE OF ALLERGENIC POLLEN GRAINS IN THE CITY OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN1, NAIMA HAMID2, AKHTAR ALI1 AND SYEDA MARIA ALI2*

PREVALENCE OF ALLERGENIC POLLEN GRAINS IN THE CITY OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
ABSTRACT:
In this study we explored aerobiological aspects for a period of two years (2009-1010) in Islamabad city using RotoRod Sampler Model 40. Presence of large amount of pollens in the air poses serious implications on pollinosis. In the month of March highest daily pollen count was observed. This revealed a correlation of pollen count with optimum range of temperature for flourishing and dispersing of pollen grains. General trend between pollen count release and the number of allergy patients was found in accordance suggesting a high pollen risk for the residents and the visitors during peak time of the year.

1387-1390 Download
38
EFFECT OF ANTI-BROWNING AGENTS ON QUALITY CHANGES OF LOQUAT [ERIOBOTRYCA JAPONICA (THUNB.) LINDLEY] FRUIT AFTER HARVEST
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, ATTIQ AKHTAR, AZHAR HUSSAIN AND IRFAN ALI

EFFECT OF ANTI-BROWNING AGENTS ON QUALITY CHANGES OF LOQUAT [ERIOBOTRYCA JAPONICA (THUNB.) LINDLEY] FRUIT AFTER HARVEST
ABSTRACT:
In loquat fruit, browning is a major problem that reduces the shelf life. Study was conducted to evaluate the potential of citric acid (CA) and ascorbic acid (AA) as anti- browning agents during storage of loquat fruit. Loquat fruit was immersed for 2 min in solutions of 250 mg/l, 500 mg/l, 750 mg/l ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) then placed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at 4°C for a period of 10 weeks. Changes in browning index (BI), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), total phenolic content (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) as affected by different treatments were studied. Ascorbic acid at higher concentrations was useful in maintaining the fruit quality than citric acid, while AA and CA at higher concentrations significantly reduced the browning.

1391-1396 Download
39
EARLINESS AND YIELD PERFORMANCE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS IN UPLANDS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
SYED ASMATULLAH TARAN1*, D.M. BALOCH2, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN3, JEHAN BAKHT3, SAEED HYDER GHALOO4, N. SHAHWANI2 AND M.S. KAKAR1

EARLINESS AND YIELD PERFORMANCE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS IN UPLANDS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower hybrids were evaluated for adoptability, earliness and yield potential through multi-locations trials during summer cropping season 2006 (after wheat harvest) in uplands of Balochistan, Pakistan. Stability analysis was carried out for hybrids at three different locations in one year. Early maturity and achene yield were used as criterion for selection. All the hybrids matured in less than 95 days due to summer intensive and longer day’s photoperiod. Therefore, all the hybrids were found suitable to grow in June (after wheat harvest) and to complete their growth cycle before commencing of low temperature during colder nights of October. Hybrids Parsun-1 and Hysun-33 were found early maturing and medium maturing, respectively and suitable for growing in wheat cropping pattern. Complete hybrid stability over all parameters was not proved. Therefore, sunflower hybrids sensitivity authenticated to further intensify breeding work for development of local hybrids with early maturity and good yield.

1397-1402 Download
40
RISK EVALUATION OF BRICK KILN SMOKE TO KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)
MUHAMMAD RASHID AZIM1, QAISAR MAHMOOD2 AND SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD3*

RISK EVALUATION OF BRICK KILN SMOKE TO KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)
ABSTRACT:
In view of global change caused by green house gases, bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were exposed to brick kiln smoke in close chambers under laboratory conditions. Brick kiln smoke was produced by firing bituminous coal and furnace oil. The duration of smoke exposure was 4, 8 and 12 hours on daily basis which lasted until crop maturity. Additional control plants were grown in ambient air for evaluating the 'brick kiln smoke effect on plants. A significant reduction in mean length of shoot and roots of plants exposed to smoke for 8 and 12 hours compared with the control were observed. The pollution effects were directly proportional to the intensity of the exposure. The average pore areas of stomata from plants treated for 8 and 12 hours were significantly smaller compared with control plants. The continued uptake of the gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata eventually resulted in cellular damage, which was manifested through effects on growth and the foliar characteristics. Microscopic studies of stomata revealed that a longer duration of smoke exposure resulted in deformation and destruction of stomatal shape. A critical look on the experimental data revealed that the epidermis on adaxial surface was more affected as compared with one present on abaxial surface.

1403-1406 Download
41
CORM AND CORMEL SIZE OF GLADIOLUS GREATLY INFLUENCED GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSEQUENT CORM PRODUCTION
NOOR-UL-AMIN1*, ABDUL MATEEN KHATTAK1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD1, NEELAM ARA1, ARSHAD ALAM, MURAD ALI2 AND IMRAN ALI3

CORM AND CORMEL SIZE OF GLADIOLUS GREATLY INFLUENCED GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSEQUENT CORM PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
A study was initiated to evaluate the effect of different cormel sizes on the growth and development of gladiolus corms in the city of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The current study was undertaken at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, the Agriculture University, Peshawar during 2009. Three different cormel sizes (C1 = >1.5 cm and < 2 cm, C2 = >1.0 cm and < 1.5 cm and C3 = >0.5 cm and < 1 cm of gladiolus cultivar “white Friendship”. were planted and the effect of cormel size on growth was assessed. Cultivar white Friendship; has white colour, 30–45cm spikes length, bearing 18–20 florets around 9.5–10.5cm size and at average each corm produces 15–20 cormels (AgrihortiCo: Dissemination of Horticultural information). Number of studies indicated that cormel sizes significantly influence consequent growth and development of corms. In the present study, it was observed that corm and cormel size positively effects on various parameters and the highest values were obtained from large size cormels for sprouting percentage (70.40), number of leaves per plant (6.77), survival percentage (77.46), leaf area (61.14 cm2), plant height (61.25 cm), diameter of corms (3.18 cm), corms weight (9.616 g) and maximum numbers of cormels per plant (4.74). Earliest sprouting was observed in large size cormels (21.5 days), whereas maximum percent increase in cormel size (186.16) was obtained from small size cormels.

1407-1409 Download
42
MICRO-PROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERTONI THROUGH ROOT EXPLANTS
EJAZ GUL GHAURI*, MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUE AFRIDI, GUL AKHTAR MARWAT, INAYATUR-RAHMAN AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM

MICRO-PROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERTONI THROUGH ROOT EXPLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Protocol for In vitro micro-propagation of exotic medicinal plant Stevia rubaudiana. Bert (Asteraceae) through induction of shoots on root explants and further proliferation of multiple shoots and induction of roots on the micro shoots established. Regeneration of cultures In vitro was markedly influenced by the sterilant; cytokinins, auxins supplied to Murashige and Skoog’s medium. Synergistic combination of 6-Benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) evoked the regeneration of shoots with optimum numbers and maximum lengths. Subculturing of root explants on basal medium with the same concentration of BAP and TDZ resulted in the proliferation of shoots. Roots induction and maximum percentage of number of roots regeneration on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1mg/L IBA was observed. The In vitro regenerated plants were established in sand, loamy soil and farmyard manure 1:1:1. The exotic plants grow normally in the field and acclimatized in the local habitat of Peshawar valley of Pakistan.

1411-1416 Download
43
PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE PRODUCTION BY TRICHOPHYTON SPP. (MBL 23) UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
MUBASHIR NIAZ1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1,2*, FAIZA AKRAM1 AND MUSHMOOM NIAZ3

PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE PRODUCTION BY TRICHOPHYTON SPP. (MBL 23) UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted in the Laboratory of Mycology and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad with the objective of process optimization for the production of extracellular lipases by Trichophyton sp. through solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. Almond meal proved to be the best single substrate with enzyme production of 12.25±0.11U/mL, however, the production was further enhanced by manipulating the environmental variables like combined substrates, etc. Fifteen grams of mixed substrates (Almond+ Sunflower + Brassica) at 1:1:1 ratio was optimized for maximum extracellular lipase production (60.36 ± 0.10a U/mL). The extracellular lipase activity at 26oC after 48 h of incubation at diluent pH of 7 and by using 1 mL inoculum level was 68.65 ± 0.13a U/mL. Agricultural byproducts, nitrogen sources and carbon sources were also optimized for the maximum production of enzyme. Almond oil and Glucose were also found to be supportive carbohydrate & lipid additives to agro-wastes for hyperproduction of extracellular enzyme that improved the lipase production upto 73.34 ± 0.135a and 75.58 ± 0.083a U/mL, respectively. Maximum production of the extracellular lipase (76.42±0.036a U/mL) was obtained when peptone was used as an additional nitrogen source to the pre-optimized culture. From the present findings, it can be inferred that Trichophyton sp. (MBL 23) can be a prospective candidate for commercial lipase production. However, the stability analysis of the enzymes under stressful environmental parameters may be done before its final recommendation.

1417-1421 Download
44
COMPARISON OF EDTA-ENHANCED PHYTOEXTRACTION STRATEGIES WITH NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE (WATERCRESS) ON AN ARTIFICIALLY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED WATER
DIDEM AYDIN1 AND OMER FARUK COSKUN2*

COMPARISON OF EDTA-ENHANCED PHYTOEXTRACTION STRATEGIES WITH NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE (WATERCRESS) ON AN ARTIFICIALLY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED WATER
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of EDTA on arsenic uptake, bioaccumulation and growth potential of watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Watercress was used as a model plant and was grown in artificially contaminated water. A modified Hoagland’s nutrient solution without EDTA was used as the hydroponic medium in this study. The growth media was supported with different As concentration and EDTA. EDTA resulted in more solubilization of arsenite (As (III)) in water. Application of EDTA 15 d prior to harvest increased the amount of arsenite accumulated into watercress with more arsenite accumulated by plants from the media. Nasturtium officinale accumulated high arsenite concentration (1353 µgkg-1) in the leaves at As (III) of 600 µgL-1 and EDTA of 10-4 M after 15 d growth. The application of EDTA had inhibitory effects on the root and leaves dry biomass compared with that in the control. This plant can be used as potential species for chelate-assisted As(III) phytoremediation. However, the use of EDTA in the field should be concerned with their leaching problems.

1423-1429 Download
45
A NEW METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LAWSONE FROM LAWSONIA INERMIS AND ITS ROS INHIBITORY ACTIVITY
SYED MUHAMMAD GHUFRAN SAEED1*, SYED ASAD SAYEED1, SEEMA ASHRAF1, SHAHINA NAZ1, RAHMANULLAH SIDDIQI1, RASHIDA ALI1, 2, 4 AND M. AHMED MESAIK3

A NEW METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LAWSONE FROM LAWSONIA INERMIS AND ITS ROS INHIBITORY ACTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
Lawsone a coloring component of the Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves was found to bind with proteins. Present study has suggested a new rapid method for the isolation of lawsone from L. inermis through the calcium ion using the Flash and Disc Counter Current Chromatography (DCC). The purified pigment structurally characterized by 2D, TLC and NMR spectroscopy, was found to be active against reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Chemeluminiscence assay using lymphocytes. Purified lawsone showed remarkable inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst response of the whole blood, polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs), Mononuclear cells (MNCs) with IC50 as 13 ±1.6 mg/ml, 11±2.7 mg/ml. and 10±4.2 mg/ml respectively.

1431-1436 Download
46
DETOXIFICATION OF MERCURY POLLUTANT BY IMMOBILIZED YEAST STRAIN CANDIDA XYLOPSOCI
AATIF AMIN AND ZAKIA LATIF*

DETOXIFICATION OF MERCURY POLLUTANT BY IMMOBILIZED YEAST STRAIN CANDIDA XYLOPSOCI
ABSTRACT:
Keeping in mind the toxicity of mercury, this study was designed to isolate and evaluate the yeast strains for the remediation of mercury from the environment. Yeast strains, from various sources, were isolated on Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose (YEPD) medium supplemented with different concentrations of Mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Well plate method was used for preliminary screening of strains resistant to mercury. Seven strains were selected for phenotypic characterization on YEPD medium supplemented with HgCl2. Mercury resistant strains were also evaluated for Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production on Lead acetate (LA) medium. H2S producer yeasts co-precipitated the divalent mercury (Hg+2) in the form of mercuric sulfide (HgS) which is less toxic and insoluble in water. Quantification of mercury from selected strains was done by Dithizone method. Characterization of selected strains was also done by 18S rRNA (Ribosomal ribonucleic acid) sequencing. Two strains, Candida xylopsoci (Z-HS 51), with highest ability and Candida rugosa (Z-HS 13) with lowest ability to remediate mercury, were entrapped in sodium alginate. The immobilized C.xylopsoci (Z-HS 51) was also compared with free cells for its ability to reduce mercury pollutant. The reusability and shelf life of immobilized cells of C. xylopsoci (Z-HS 51) was also checked.

1437-1442 Download
47
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AMONG DIFFERENT PARTS OF AUBERGINE (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.)
BUSHRA SULTANA1, ZAIB HUSSAIN2*, MUNAZZA HAMEED1 AND MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ1

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AMONG DIFFERENT PARTS OF AUBERGINE (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Methanolic (80%) extracts of various parts (green crown, peel and flesh) of selected varieties of round and long aubergine were explored for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using a number of colorimetric assays. The results showed that TPC methanolic extracts, of different parts of selected varieties of aubergine, ranged from 16.72-25.00 mg GAE/100g DW. The highest amounts (22.05-25.00 mg GAE/100g DW) were obtained in round aubergine extracts and lower in long aubergine extracts (16.72-20.43 mg GAE/100g mg GAE/100g DW). Similarly, the methanolic extracts of round aubergine exhibited better inhibition of oxidation of linoleic acid (59.34-64.00 %) as compared to that of long aubergine (56.91- 60.56 %). The analysis of variance data showed that the difference in peroxide inhibition capacity and reducing power of different parts of aubergine was significant (p<0.05). The highest DPPH scavenging activity (70.01%) was achieved with methanolic extracts of peels of round aubergine. The present study suggests that round aubergine contained higher antioxidant components and potential as compared to the long variety. A positive correlation was observed between the phenolic component and free radical scavenging potential of methanolic extracts of different parts of aubergine suggesting its use as a bioactive functional food.

1443-1448 Download
48
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF PEEL ESSENTIAL OILS OF THREE PAKISTANI CITRUS SPECIES: CITRUS RETICULATA, CITRUS SINENSIS AND CITRUS PARADISII
GHULAM MUSTAFA KAMAL1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF1*, ABDULLAH IJAZ HUSSAIN2 ANDLEEB SHAHZADI3 AND MUHAMMAD ISMAIL CHUGHTAI1

ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF PEEL ESSENTIAL OILS OF THREE PAKISTANI CITRUS SPECIES: CITRUS RETICULATA, CITRUS SINENSIS AND CITRUS PARADISII
ABSTRACT:
Citrus peel essentials oils are a very important source of natural antioxidants. In the present study the essential oils isolated from peels of three Citrus species namely Citrus reticulate, Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisii were studied for their antioxidant potential. The hydro-distilled essential oil content from peels of C. reticulata, C. sinensis and C. paradisii were 0.30, 0.24 and 0.20 g/100g, respectively. The maximum amount of essential oil was found in C. reticulata while the minimum in C. paradisii peel samples. The essential oils isolated by hydro distillation were characterized using GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the investigated essential oils was evaluated by testing their ability to scavenge 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and bleachability of β-carotene in linoleic acid system. A significant difference was noticed in the antioxidant activities of the studied essential oils.

1449-1454 Download
49
MANAGING THE ROOT DISEASES OF OKRA WITH ENDO-ROOT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS AND TRICHODERMA VIRIDE ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTHY OKRA ROOTS
SAIMA AFZAL1, SAMRAH TARIQ1, VIQAR SULTANA2, JEHAN ARA3 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1

MANAGING THE ROOT DISEASES OF OKRA WITH ENDO-ROOT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS AND TRICHODERMA VIRIDE ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTHY OKRA ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] is an important vegetable crop is grown world wide including Pakistan. However, diseases are the limiting factor in okra production. In Pakistan okra crop is attacked by various soilborne plant pathogenic fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium spp., and root knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. Considerable evidence has been accumulated in recent years to support and identify the benefits associated with the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi in crop protection. In this study some strains of endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from roots of healthy okra plants were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The P. aeruginosa isolates showed significant activity against root rotting fungi and root knot nematode in vitro by producing zone of inhibition against test fungi and killing 2nd stage juveniles of root knot nematode at varying degrees. In screen house experiment, application of some potential strains of P. aeruginosa alone or with Trichoderma viride, an endophytic fungus and biocontrol agent showed significant biocontrol activity against M. phaseolina, R. solani, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Meloidogyne javanica, the root knot nematode infecting okra roots. Application of most of the P. aeruginosa isolates alone or with T. viride showed positive impact on plant growth by improving plant height, fresh shoot weight and root length. Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens and biological control with endophytes offers an effective strategy for pest management.

1455-1460 Download
50
CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTURE FILTRATES OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SESAMI AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ISOLATES ASSOCIATED WITH SESAME BACTERIAL BLIGHT
SYEDA SADIQA FIRDOUS1*, REHANA ASGHAR2 AND M. IRFAN-UL- HAQUE3

CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTURE FILTRATES OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SESAMI AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ISOLATES ASSOCIATED WITH SESAME BACTERIAL BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
Different bioassays were used to detect secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. sesami (Psse) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. sesami (Xcs) virulent isolates. The bioassays were antibacterial activity, phytotoxic activity, potato tuber outgrowth and seedling assay that included qualitative, semi quantitative and quantitative. In qualitative assay, phytotoxic activity of cell free culture filtrates of Psse-1, Psse-2and IBD-1 of Xcs isolates were applied on non host plant brinjal and host sesame leaves and symptoms were observed. Psse-2 isolate elicited water soaking and chlorosis symptoms on both tested plants as produced by pathogen, while Psse-1 showed only water soaking and necrosis symptoms. Psse-2 isolate only induced hypertrophy outgrowth in potato tuber discs, neither Psse-1 nor IBD-1 isolate induces this outgrowth on potato tuber discs. Antibacterial activity was also checked against three pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and an unknown bacterial pathogen. Results showed that Psse-1 and Xcs isolate showed inhibition zones against only unknown bacterial pathogen but Psse-2 isolate did not exhibit any such zones against the tested bacterial pathogens. Moreover, biological effects of different concentrations of culture filtrates of Psse and Xcs isolates on sesame susceptible and resistant seedlings showed that all tested culture filtrates illustrated sesame root and shoot inhibition, while the inhibition recorded was more against Psse-2 isolate culture filtrate than others. Xcs and Psse-1 showed less inhibition and effective at 70 and 100% concentrations. Over all inhibition was less in tolerant than susceptible genotypes. Present results showed that Psse isolates produced two different classes of toxins, chlorosis as well as necrosis. Chlorosis inducing toxins did not show antibacterial activity but could be detected in potato tuber discs bioassay. On the other hand, necrosis inducing toxin showed antibacterial activity against unknown bacterial pathogen. Seedling bioassay also shown that chlorosis inducing toxin was more effective in inhibition of seedlings then necrosis production toxin.

1461-1468 Download
51
USE OF SILICON IN INHIBITING THE GROWTH OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
MUHAMMAD OMER KHAN1*, AZIZUDDIN2 AND SALEEM SHAHZAD3

USE OF SILICON IN INHIBITING THE GROWTH OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
ABSTRACT:
Silicon in the form of sodium silicate was found to be effective in reducing in vitro growth of Macrophomina phaseolina. Silicon was effective against M. phaseolina when added to the medium before autoclaving. There were no significant effects observed on growth of M. phaseolina when silicon was added to Potato Sucrose Agar (PSA) after autoclaving and before boiling. There was much more inhibition of pathogen observed when silicon was added to water agar with (2%) sucrose. Gradual reductions of growth were seen with increase concentration of silicon with different components of Potato Sucrose Agar.

1469-1472 Download
52
SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF DIATOMS IN CORRELATION WITH THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS FROM COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
TAHIRA NAZ*, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, SONIA MUNIR AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF DIATOMS IN CORRELATION WITH THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS FROM COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The seasonal abundance of diatom (20-200µm) and variations in physicochemical properties were studied using bimonthly collected samples at Manora Channel coastal waters of Karachi, north Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan through the period of May 2002 to July 2003 for two stations. Triplicate samples were settled for 24 hours in a settling chamber and were observed using inverted microscope and number of diatoms counted. Seasonal abundance was clearly evident throughout the study period. This variation was due to the influence of monsoon system existing in the region. Primary productivity and hydrographical parameters in the northern Arabian Sea are greatly affected by the monsoon system that prevails from May to October for southwest monsoon and between November and March for northeast monsoon. The total phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms and the mean proportion was 69% at station A and 56% at station B. Diatom abundance showed a peak in September, 2002 at station B and in February, 2003 at station A. There were about 0.847-13.093×103 average cells l-l in station A and 0.667-30.067×103 cells l-l in station B waters showing polluted station A had low abundance compared to non-polluted station B. Seasonal change in chlorophyll a has shown a strong negative correlation with diatom abundance. Highest total average abundance of pennate diatoms was observed at both stations as compared to centric diatoms. Statistical analysis shows overall lower species diversity from 0.1 to 3.6 at both stations. It suggests that organic loads decreased the abundance and diversity of diatom communities in the region.

1477-1486 Download
53
BIOACTIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLOROPHYCOTA SPECIES VIA 96-WELL MICRO TITER PLATE TECHNIQUE
TASNEEM SAHER* AND ALIYA RAHMAN

BIOACTIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLOROPHYCOTA SPECIES VIA 96-WELL MICRO TITER PLATE TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
The 96- well Micro Titer Plate technique was conducted for various species of the phylum Chlorophycota against promastigote stage of Leishmania major. Among selected species of seaweeds Codium flabellatum (IC50 /72h = 34.4±6.2/µg/mL) Caulerpa faridii (IC50 /72h = 34.0±0.15/µg/mL) Caulerpa racemosa (IC50 /72h = 37.6±0.45/µg/mL) and Ulva fasciata (IC50 /72h = 50±0.65/µg/mL) displayed significant values, while the other tested species like Ulva lactuca IC50 /72h = 64.75±µg/m), Ulva rigida (IC50 /72 = 65.69±6.8/µg/m) and Codium iyangarri (IC50 /72h = 60.40µg/m) presented good activity. This result indicates that seaweeds of the phylum Chlorophycota possess antileishmanial activity which was conducted for the first time in Pakistan that could be utilized and employed beneficially.

1487-1488 Download
54
TWO NEW MYXOMYCETES RECORDS FOR IRAN MYCOFLORA
ABOLFAZL ARAB JOSHAGHANI*, FATHOLLAH FALAHIAN, TAHER NEJADSATTARI, RAMAZAN ALI KHAVARINEJAD AND SARA SAADATMAND

TWO NEW MYXOMYCETES RECORDS FOR IRAN MYCOFLORA
ABSTRACT:
This article reports two new myxomycetes genera and species from Iran. These species are collected from Lorestan province, Doroud city in west of Iran. Specimens identified by known references. This species are Reticularia lycoperdon Bull., Mucilago crustacea P. Micheli ex F.H. Wigg. Those belong to Tubiferaceae and Didymiaceae families. We added two new genera and two new species to myxomycetes flora of Iran. At last we review myxomycetes of Iran that presented in literatures. All references about other myxomycetes that recorded from Iran checked and data summarized.

1813-1816 Download
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