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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of Anabasis aphylla
Ting-Ting Wang, Guang-Ming Chu, Ping Jiang, Pan-Xin Niu and Mei Wang

Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of Anabasis aphylla
ABSTRACT:
Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0–2cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantünggüt desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2–2cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantünggüt desert

391-396 Download
2
Identification of some wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines for salt tolerance on the basis of growth and physiological characters
M.A. Khan, M.U. Shirazi, Aisha Shereen, S.M. Mujtaba, M. Ali Khan, S. Mumtaz and Wajid Mahboob

Identification of some wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines for salt tolerance on the basis of growth and physiological characters
ABSTRACT:
To evaluate salt tolerance in some newly developed wheat lines (Triticum aestivum L.) on morphological and physiological basis, a net house study was conducted at Plant Physiology Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam. The tested genotypes were WSP-1, WSP-2, WSP-3 WSP-4 and S-24 along with LU-26s as salt tolerant check. The study was conducted in cemented beds, filled with coarse gravel (up to 30 cm depth). The experiment was laid out using randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replicates. Two treatments were imposed i.e. non-saline control (1.56 dS/m) and saline (12.0 dS/m). Salinity was imposed gradually through irrigation after two weeks of germination, using sodium chloride (NaCl) salt. The beds were irrigated with modified Hoagland solution of respective salinity, weekly or when ever required. Growth performance (plant height, productive tillers, spike length, number of grains/ spike, grain weight/ plant and 1000 grain weight) were recorded at the time of maturity. Studies on solute contents i.e. organic (Proline and total soluble sugars) and inorganic (Na, K and K/Na ratio) were carried out at the time of flowering. The physiological parameters were also correlated with morphological characters. The results indicate that there was decrease in growth under salinity stress. Among the tested genotypes, the performance of WSP-1 was comparatively better at 12.0 dS/m salinity level, with maximum growth variables having < 50% relative decrease. The data indicates that wheat lines are maintaining their osmotic potential (O.P) through the accumulation of organic solutes especially proline. Comparatively higher accumulation of organic solutes (proline & total soluble sugars) and less reduction in K/Na ratio in genotypes WSP-1 was mainly responsible for its better response to NaCl stress

397-403 Download
3
SUB-CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS PERFORMANCE IN ORYZA SATIVA L. SEEDLINGS UNDER SALT STRESS
Jing M.A., Chunfang L.V., Peifei Hao, Z.E. Yuan, Yuwen Wang, Weijun Shen, Chao X.U., Chuangen L.V., Guoxiang Chen and Zhiping Gao

SUB-CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS PERFORMANCE IN ORYZA SATIVA L. SEEDLINGS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
In our study we focus on effects of multiple concentrations of NaCl (25, 50, 100, and 150 mM) on rice seedlings. The results showed that significant oxidation stress was caused, as indicated by the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Na accumulation increased, and the vast majority of the ions were laied in the cell wall and these nutrient ions in the cell wall fraction were elevated, while those stored in the soluble or organelle fraction were declined. Meanwhile, the levels of photosynthetic pigments in leaves of 812HS decreased markedly. These findings were confirmed by the reduced photosynthesis. At 150 mM salt concentrations resulted in a significant damage to chloroplast structure. The data from the protein immunoblot assay revealed that salt stress affected the stability of protein. The major subunits of LHC II were more sensitive than reaction center proteins of PSII under solt stress. All together, these results showed that high salt concentrations disordered the ions homeostasis, stimulated reactive oxygen accumulation and lipid peroxidation in rice, leading to seriously damage to chloroplast ultra-structure, pigments and protein. Thereby, photosynthesis was inevitably blocked. This study is significant for comprehending the physiological and biochemical process under salt stress, and is important for devoting to organic agriculture in soil

405-411 Download
4
Screening date palm cultivars for salinity tolerance using physiological indices
Seyyed Samih Marashi, Jafar Hajilou, Seyyed Jalal Tabatabaei, Fariborz Zare Nahandi and Mahmoud Toorchi

Screening date palm cultivars for salinity tolerance using physiological indices
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major environmental constraint for plant growth and crop production worldwide. Selection of salt tolerant cultivars of date palm as a fruit crop of high salt tolerance and an extremely important strategic crop in arid and semi-arid regions of the world is quite necessary for the most economical use of salt affected soils in these regions. In present study, five commercial Iranian date palm cultivars were screened for salt tolerance using 10 physiological indices, in a pot experiment under greenhouse condition. Levels of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM NaCl were hydroponically applied on 1-year old plants derived through tissue culture. Stress tolerance indices related to total fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area, collar growth, intact leaf and leaf water content were calculated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and comparison of means. Then, calculation of total means and cluster analysis of the cultivars based on all tested indices and correlation between indices were performed. The results showed that the cultivars usually revealed different behaviors for reduction trend of each stress tolerance index in response to increase of salinity. Overall, the group of Zahidi, Piarom and Dayri cultivars exhibited more salt tolerance and better performance in saline conditions than the group of Kabkaab and Istamaran cultivars. Furthermore, all examined indices can be used in screening date palm cultivars for salt tolerance among which the indices related to root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area and intact leaf percent are the most efficient ones

413-419 Download
5
Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted Galia C8 melon cultivar
Garip Yarsi, Aysel Sivaci, H. Yildiz Dasgan, Ozlem Altuntas, Riza Binzet and Yelderem Akhoundnejad

Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted Galia C8 melon cultivar
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress.

421-426 Download
6
Foliar-applied calcium induces drought stress tolerance in maize by manipulating osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative responses
Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz Naeem, Rashid Ahmad and Riaz Ahmad

Foliar-applied calcium induces drought stress tolerance in maize by manipulating osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative responses
ABSTRACT:
Influence of drought stress and foliar applied calcium (Ca2+) on growth, water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system were evaluated in two maize hybrids, i.e. drought-tolerant Dekalb-6525 (DK-6525) and drought-sensitive Yousafwala Hybrid (YH). Drought stress caused substantial reduction in shoot dry matter (DM) production through disturbance in relative water content (RWC), protein metabolism and accelerating malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and disproportioning antioxidant system. However, the accumulation of total free amino acids (TFA), glycinebetaine (GB) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly increased by drought treatment. Foliar treatment of Ca2+ led to increase DM (49%), RWC (18%), accumulation of TFA (15%) and GB (25%) as well as the activities of SOD (37%), CAT (24%) and APX (49%) along with a decrease in MDA content (24%) in both hybrids under water-deficit conditions. Cultivar DK-6525 maintained relatively higher growth rate, water status, and osmolyte content and antioxidant activities than YH, irrespective of calcium supply and watering regimes. The results of the study suggested that optimal supply of Ca2+ is effective to make plants vigorous to thrive under moisture-deficit conditions

427-434 Download
7
Physiological and biochemical responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to plant derived smoke solution
Muhammad Mudasar Aslam, Muhammad Jamil, Amana Khatoon, Salah E. El Hendawy, Nasser A. Al-Suhaibani, Ijaz Malook and Shafiq-Ur-Rehman

Physiological and biochemical responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to plant derived smoke solution
ABSTRACT:
Plant-derived smoke is known as plant growth regulator by affecting plant growth and developmental processes. Current study highlights the priming effects of smoke solutions on physiological and biochemical attributes of maize. Maize seeds were presoaked in distilled water (as control), concentrated and 500 times diluted smoke solution of Cymbopogon jawarncusa (C. jawarncusa) plant for 0, 6, 12 and 18h. Significant increase (p<0.05) in seed germination, seedling length and biomass with increased presoaking hours was observed. Inhibitory effects of concentrated smoke solutions were higher with the increase in presoaking hours. The content of chlorophyll (a and b) pigments, total carotenoids and total soluble proteins were increased in seedling treated with smoke dilution (1:500). These results suggested that plant derived smoke solutions have positive effects on plant physiological and biochemical growth parameters and diluted smoke solution has potential application in agriculture since it is economical and environment friendly

435-443 Download
8
Morpho-physiological assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for drought stress tolerance at seedling stage
Summiya Faisal, S.M. Mujtaba, M.A. Khan and Wajid Mahboob

Morpho-physiological assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for drought stress tolerance at seedling stage
ABSTRACT:
As water deficit is the major constrained for agriculture crop production, germination potentials of twenty six wheat genotypes were assessed under various drought stress levels while six genotypes were evaluated for drought tolerance potential through growth and physiological studies at early seedling stage. The experimental layout was comprised of three drought treatments in completely randomized pattern with three replicates under controlled conditions. Drought stress was induced through polyethylene glycol-6000 solutions by maintaining three osmotic potentials (-0.5MPa, -0.75MPa and -1.0MPa) in water culture medium while 1/4th Hoagland’s solution with zero osmotic potential was applied as control. Germination rate, seedling’s growth and photosynthesis were declined with increased levels of water deficiency. Seedling length, fresh and dry biomasses of root and shoot, and photosynthetic pigments executed more reduction at higher water deficit conditions. However, genotype TD-1 followed by ESW-9525 and IBWSN-1010 showed better performance with minimum reduction in seedling’s length and biomasses at -0.75MPa and -1.0MPa osmotic stress. TD-1 exhibited least reduction (15.26%) in chlorophyll pigments and enhanced accumulation of K+ ions at highest osmotic stress level. Maximum K+/Ca2+ ratio was determined in ESW-9525 and TD-1 which is the tolerance trait. Hence, TD-1 and ESW-9525 have more drought stress tolerance capacity as compare to other genotypes

445-452 Download
9
Heat shock induced morpho-physiological response in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) at early seedling stage
Syed Adeel Zafar, Amjad Hameed, Abdus Salam Khan and Muhammad Ashraf

Heat shock induced morpho-physiological response in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) at early seedling stage
ABSTRACT:
Heat stress is a serious threat for rice production in various localities around the world. Present research was conducted to explore the mechanism of heat tolerance in rice at early seedling stage. Forty six rice genotypes including 39 mutants (M5generation) of super basmati and 7 varieties were subjected to heat stress (45±2°C) for 12 h followed by three days recovery under normal temperature (28±2°C). The relative heat tolerance of genotypes was assessed on the basis of various morphological (fresh and dry leaf weight, fresh and dry weight of seedlings) and physiological (relative water contents (RWC), cell membrane thermo-stability (CMTS), photosynthetic pigments and malondialdehyde (MDA)) parameters. Significant variation was observed among the tested rice genotypes for morpho-physiological response. Based on relatively higher CMTS, RWC and photosynthetic pigments along with higher fresh and dry weights of leaves and seedlings, and less MDA content, fifteen genotypes including 11 mutants and four varieties were identified as heat tolerant. HTT-1 was identified as moderately heat sensitive mutant. In conclusion, tested morpho-physiological markers were useful to screen rice germplasm for heat tolerance at early growth stage. In addition, Kashmir basmati and HTT-114 can be used as heat tolerant check and HTT-1 can be used as heat sensitive check in screening experiments at early growth stage

453-463 Download
10
Saussurea involucrata SiDhn2 gene confers tolerance to drought stress in upland cotton
Bucang Liu, Jianqiang Mu, Jianbo Zhu, Zhiqiang Liang and Li Zhang

Saussurea involucrata SiDhn2 gene confers tolerance to drought stress in upland cotton
ABSTRACT:
Severe water shortage has long been acknowledged as one major limiting factor for global cotton production, and cultivation of cotton varieties with strong drought resistance is of important economic and social significances. In this study, the Xinjiang upland cotton variety Xinluzao 42 was transformed with the SiDhn2 gene by optimized agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of SiDhn2 gene into cotton genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, and the drought resistance of transgenic and corresponding receptor cotton plants and their physiological indexes under drought stress were detailedly analyzed. Multiple physiological and biochemical indexes including soluble sugar content, free proline content, chlorophyll content, relative water content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration in transgenic cotton expressing SiDhn2 gene under drought stress were significantly higher than those of receptor cotton. More importantly, the transgenic cotton plants exhibited remarkably decreased boll abscission rate and highly increased seed yield, indicating the significant role of SiDhn2 gene in cotton drought resistance and its great application potential in agricultural production

465-473 Download
11
Cultivar by environment interaction of coconut under different water and heat regimes at their early stage of growth
L. Perera, C.R.K. Samarasinghe, D.P. Kumarathunge, H.D.M.A.C. Dissanayaka And M. K. Meegahakumbura

Cultivar by environment interaction of coconut under different water and heat regimes at their early stage of growth
ABSTRACT:
Four coconut hybrids (brown dwarf x Sri Lanka tall, Sri Lanka tall x brown dwarf, green dwarf x San Ramon and green dwarf x Sri Lanka tall) arising with two parental dwarf coconut varieties; green dwarf and brown dwarf were evaluated for their early vegetative growth and for duration to reproduction at two sites; Raddegoda and Wanathawilluwa. At Raddegoda, a site with optimum condition for growth of coconut, the overall leaf production rate was 9.4 leaves per palm per year during the first 3 year period. In contrast, at Wanathawilluwa, a site subject to severe and prolong drought and heat stress produced 11.3 leaves per palm per year. Moreover, at Wanathawilluwa crosses made with green dwarf produced a remarkably higher number of leaves compared to crosses made with brown dwarf. However, this trend was not noticeable for stem girth indicating that the higher photosynthetic assimilates in green dwarf crosses resulting from higher leaf area were not used for stem growth. When time to attain reproduction is considered, the crosses made with green and brown dwarfs were similar at Raddegoda (43.2 Vs 43.8 months). However, green dwarf crosses at Wanathawilluwa were markedly precocious attaining early maturity (33.25 Vs 41.9 months), but resulting in a large number of stunted palms. This situation was severe in green dwarf x San Ramon. The overall results suggested that early vegetative phase of coconut hybrids resulting from green dwarf parent is more susceptible to drought and heat stress conditions. This phenomenon indicated a differential physiological response of different coconut cultivars under moisture and heat stress

475-478 Download
12
Seed propagation strategy involving rapid germination with a high final percentage in two perennial clone plants in the Taklimakan desert
Huan-Huan Gao, Fan-Jiang Zeng, Yan Lu, Bo Liu and Sheng-Long Zhao

Seed propagation strategy involving rapid germination with a high final percentage in two perennial clone plants in the Taklimakan desert
ABSTRACT:
Alhagi sparsifolia and Karilinia caspica are two important perennial clone plants of the Taklimakan Desert that also produce a large number of seeds every year. In their natural environment, the two species always reproduce asexually. It is necessary, from the perspective of both basic science and applied science (e.g. vegetation restoration), to explore why clone plants such as these produce seeds and under what conditions they become viable. Accordingly, in this study, the effects of light and temperature on germination and embryo stretch under five temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and two light treatments (Light/Dark and Dark) were investigated. Significant differences were detected in terms of the final germination percentage, germination rate, and the lengths of the plumule, radicle, and seedling, leading us to further investigate the germination strategies of the two plant species under the different light and temperature conditions. The results showed that both light and temperature had a significant effect on germination and embryo stretch in the two plants, yet they were not limiting factors. In shielding the adverse effects of external factors through use of an incubator, the two species’ seeds showed a seed propagation strategy involving rapid germination with a high final germination percentage

479-486 Download
13
Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid
Songül Çanakci-Gülengül, Tuğba Yildiz and Didem Deveci

Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid
ABSTRACT:
Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters

487-492 Download
14
Rapid assessment of lycopene and β-carotene in spiny bitter gourd (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)
Pawanrat Wihong, Patcharin Songsri, Bhalang Suriharn, Khomsorn Lomthaisong and Kamol Lertrat

Rapid assessment of lycopene and β-carotene in spiny bitter gourd (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)
ABSTRACT:
A simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids in the spiny bitter gourd. Lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids were extracted from spiny bitter gourd aril samples using three accelerated solvent extraction methods. The supernatants of the extracted samples were then analyzed for carotenoids using spectrophotometry at the wavelengths of 450, 470 and 502 nm. The proposed method was validated for its analytical performance parameters including simplicity, accuracy and effectiveness. The method was applied to the determination of lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids in 43 spiny bitter gourd genotypes. Over all genotypes, the lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids contents obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method were not significantly different from those obtained from HPLC methods. A spiny bitter gourd genotype with high lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids was identified by the HPLC method, and this result was similar to the results of the spectrophotometric method. The highest positive correlation was found between HPLC and spectrophotometric method III for lycopene (r = 0.94; p ≤0.01), β-carotene (r = 0.92; p ≤ 0.01) and total carotenoids (r = 0.93; p ≤0.01). The results indicated that the present spectrophotometric method could be used as an alternative to chromatographic analysis for the determination of the lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids contents in spiny bitter gourd. This method is reliable, rapid and inexpensive and can be used to screen a large number of accessions in spiny bitter gourd breeding programs

493-497 Download
15
Response of tobacco polyphenol oxidase gene to wounding, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ)
Ejaz Aziz, Wasim Akhtar, Muhammad Ilyas, Shazia Rehman, Hisashai Koiwa, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Tariq Mahmood

Response of tobacco polyphenol oxidase gene to wounding, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ)
ABSTRACT:
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are ubiquitous enzymes in plant kingdom and catalyze the oxidation of phenols to highly reactive quinones. PPO genes are induced by both biotic and abiotic stresses and implicated in several physiological processes including plant defense against pathogen and insects. Here, effect of wounding, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) applications on PPO induction in Nicotiana tabacum (NtPPO) was characterized by RT-PCR. In response to MeJ treatment at different concentrations, maximum expression of NtPPO genes was observed with six folds induction at 500 μM concentration, while target transcript level was relatively low (0.2-0.9 fold) with different concentrations of ABA. Upon wounding, NtPPO gene was strongly induced (up to 14 folds) after 36 hours treatment. Thus, wound and MeJ inducibility of NtPPO gene is a strong indicative of its role in plant defense mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses

499-502 Download
16
The effects of high temperature stress on some agronomic characters on cotton
Remzi Ekinci, Sema Basbağ, Emine Karademir and Çetin Karademir

The effects of high temperature stress on some agronomic characters on cotton
ABSTRACT:
High temperature is one of the abiotic stress causing morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes on plant growth and productivity. Hundred-sixty cotton genotypes obtained from genetic stocks was evaluated for high temperature tolerance based on some agronomic characters under field and controlled conditions. Genotypes showed differences for all investigated characters. Plant height, node number and HNR ranged from 68.38-136.45 cm, 18.22-30.10 number.plant-1, 2.89-6.31 (HNR) respectively. Maximum and minimum values in terms of number of sympodial branches, boll abscission at first position, number of seed and seed-cotton yield changed from 11.09-24.42 number.plant-1; 4.17%-20.80%; 20.39-44.11 number.boll-1 and 5.74-60.30 gr.plant-1 respectively. Differences among genotypes were statistically significant for all characters under high temperature stress conditions. High temperature stress was declined the cotton plant development, the decline are important for cotton breeders and cotton breeding programs on the genotypes less affected from high temperature

503-508 Download
17
Assessment of growth, yield and nutritional values of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by foliage applications of IAA
Nimra Khalid, Khalid Hussain, Khalid Nawaz, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Shaista Jabeen Khan, Muafia Shafiq, Abdul Majeed and Feng Lin

Assessment of growth, yield and nutritional values of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by foliage applications of IAA
ABSTRACT:
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a commercially adopted rational crop used for the conservative and nutritive purposes. By the foliage applications of IAA, morphological, physiological, biochemical, antioxidant, ions, yield and nutritive values of pea were studied. Pea showed a remarkable response to IAA as its growth, yield and nutritional values were increased. IAA applications increased the morphological and physiological attributes which resulted higher yield of the crop. High concentrations of K+ and N were also noted. CAT activities were increased which resulted better balance in plant metabolism and POD activities were reduced that increased the defense mechanism of plants. High rate of photosynthetic and its pigments concentrations helped to produce the higher crop yield. High contents of protein, carbohydrates and fiber were noted in fresh seeds that was a sign of better nutritional composition. It was concluded that increased morphological, physiological and changes in ionic contents and enzyme activities can be helpful to increase crop yield and nutrition composition of pea for better income and good diet. These changes can be used as indicators in pea varieties to predict better yield and nutritional values

509-517 Download
18
Comparative study for the determination of nutritional composition in commercial and noncommercial maize flours
Shaista Qamar, Muhammad Aslam, Fahrulzaman Huyop and Muhammad Arshad Javed

Comparative study for the determination of nutritional composition in commercial and noncommercial maize flours
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional analysis of the commercially available white maize flours and noncommercial yellow maize flour obtained from the grains of the maize grown at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The proximate chemical composition, minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na) and zinc (Zn) and were determined in white and yellow maize flours. In the dry weight basis white maize flours significantly (p<0.05) contained moisture 9-15 %, ash 1.4-2.6%, protein 7.82-12.02%, crude fiber 0.95-2.01%, and total carbohydrates 65.38-78.74% and yellow maize flour significantly (p<0.05) contained moisture 17%,ash 3.3%, protein 12.45%, crude fiber 2.97%, and total carbohydrates 60.23%. The detection of inorganic selective nutrients (Mg, K, Na, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu) was performed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of ICP-MS analysis in white and yellow maize flours revealed that yellow maize flour contains 16, 26.21, 7.43, 5.29, 1.40, 2.11 times higher value of Mg, K Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu as compared to white maize flours, where as white maize flours contain 1.50, 1.02 times higher value of Na and Ca as compared to yellow maize flour obtained from the grains of the maize grown at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

519-523 Download
19
Chemical composition of essential oil Mentha longifolia L. subsp. Longifolia growing wild
Nese Okut, Mehmet Yagmur, Nilufer Selcuk and Bunyamin Yildirim

Chemical composition of essential oil Mentha longifolia L. subsp. Longifolia growing wild
ABSTRACT:
The essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., is very important to some culinary usage and antimicrobial activity. The essential oil of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia growing in the Bahçesaray area (Van Province, Turkey) was studied. This study designed for determine of essential oil constituent Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia that collected from wild area. Mint leaves sample essential oils obtained by hydro distillation and essential oil components were determined using GC-MS. The main component of wild grown Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia was Menthone (19.31 %). Second one and others were Pulegone (12.42%), Piperitone (11.05%), Dihydrocarvon (8.32%), Limonene (6.1%), 3-Terpinolenone (5.66%), 1,8-Cineole (4.37%), Germacrene D (3.38%) and Caryopyllene (3.19%), respectively

525-529 Download
20
Soil and plant nutrient status and spatial variability for sugarcane in lower Sindh (Pakistan)
M.Y. Arain, K.S. Memon, M.S. Akhtar and M. Memon

Soil and plant nutrient status and spatial variability for sugarcane in lower Sindh (Pakistan)
ABSTRACT:
Soil and plant nutrient status (N, P, K, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) of sugarcane fields with the spatial variation and associated was investigated plant nutrient concentrations of sugarcane grown in district Thatta of lower Sindh, through a field survey approach. Soils were low in nitrogen (NO3-N 0.55-9.20 mg kg-1), low to medium in phosphorus (1.20 to 9.48 mg kg-1), and adequate in extractable potassium (above 108 mg kg-1). Among the micronutrients, zinc was low (0.80 mg kg-1), boron was medium (0.56) while copper and iron were adequate (3.02 and 19.48 mg kg-1, respectively). The soil test values had spatial structure especially in case of soil phosphorus, nitrate, copper and manganese, which better fit in the linear model implying that variance in these soil nutrients was yet increasing with the distance of sampling scale. The spatial structure of soil potassium and zinc fit the spherical model indicating that they varied in a “patchy” way; and the range of spatial correlation provides an average extent of these patches. The nugget/sill value between 25 and 75 % indicated medium spatial dependence with the range of 89 km for plant available zinc. Among plant nutrients, the mean nitrogen (1.76%) was slightly below the critical value in 49% samples and phosphorus with mean content of 0.18% blow critical level in 43% plant samples suggesting deficiencies of these nutrients, while the potassium content (1.87%) was indicative of a luxurious uptake. Among micronutrients plant zinc level with mean value of 19.52 mg kg-1 was below critical level in 24% and boron with mean value of 6.81 mg kg-1 was below in 21% plant samples. While copper, iron and manganese were in optimum range

531-540 Download
21
Identification and selection of some female fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from Mardin province of Turkey
Mikdat Simsek, Ersin Gulsoy, M Zeydin Kirar, Yusuf Turgut and Bedriye Yucel

Identification and selection of some female fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from Mardin province of Turkey
ABSTRACT:
Female fig genotypes in the Beyazsu region located between Nusaybin and Midyat districts (Mardin) in Turkey were selected using the weighted ranking method during years 2014-2015. Each selected genotype was identified. The total scores of the genotypes varied from 704 to 950. Fruit weight ranged from 47.68 to 72.68 g, ostiole width from 1.53 to 5.96 mm, total soluble solids (TSS) from 20.67 to 23.87% and acidity from 0.18 to 0.23%. All the genotypes had long petioles and green shoots. The leaf lobe shape was lyrate in two genotypes named MBSU16 and MBSU23, and latate in the rest of the genotypes. The tree growth habit was open in two genotypes named MBSU16 and MBSU24 but spreading in other genotypes. In conclusion, two genotypes MBSU11 and MBSU21 scored the highest in overall quality. These two genotypes should be preserved as genetic resources for future breeding programs

541-546 Download
22
Heavy metal contamination in water, soil and a potential vegetable garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Punjab, Pakistan
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Naunain Mehmood and Sumaira Yasmeen

Heavy metal contamination in water, soil and a potential vegetable garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Punjab, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metal contamination in soil, water, and garlic (Allium sativum L.) (watered with canal, ground and sewage waters) in a semi-arid region was investigated in this study. A sub-urban area of district Khushab, Pakistan was chosen as the study site to assess the risks associated with the consumption of this vegetable supplied with three different types of water for irrigation. Sewage water had higher contents of metals and metalloids (Cu, Ni, Se, Mo, As, Fe and Zn) than in other waters. Mean metal concentrations were below the permissible values, but those of Pb and Mo exceeded their respective limits. Metal correlation for the vegetable and soil was significantly positive except for Cu. The range of bio-concentration factor varied between 0.06-20.51 mg/kg. The sewage water had the highest pollution load index. Zinc had the highest daily intake value (0.199), while Se had the lowest value (0.003). The range for health index stood between 0.261-73.44 mg/kg. Metals like Zn, Ni and Cu had enrichment factor higher than 1.0 which raised serious health concerns. It has been a routine to irrigate crops with sewage water but proper management of wastewater is required prior to its supply to the fields. Hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated alarming levels of different metals with respect to public health due to utilization of this vegetable receiving wastewater irrigation

547-552 Download
23
Variation in winter forage production of four small grain species - oat, rye, triticale, and wheat
Ki-Seung Kim, Joshua D. Anderson, Stephen L. Webb, Mark A. Newell and Twain J. Butler

Variation in winter forage production of four small grain species - oat, rye, triticale, and wheat
ABSTRACT:
Small grains including oat, rye, triticale, and wheat are grown widely for winter forage production throughout the world, and they play an important role in sustainable agriculture related to animal production by providing high quality forage during winter season. To compare winter forage yield, the four species were evaluated during three growing seasons. Significant effects (P<0.0001) of the species, environment, and species by environmental interaction were detected for seasonal and mean forage yield. Rye produced the greatest mean forage yield, followed by triticale, wheat, and oat. Seasonally, rye produced greater forage yield through December to early March while oat, triticale and wheat produced greater forage beginning in March. An advanced rye breeding line, NF95319B, produced the greatest mean forage yield (2,873 kg ha-1) while ForageMax wheat produced the least forage yield (1,573 kg ha-1). This study identified significant differences in forage yield among the small grains species and germplasm within the species, which provides useful information for small grain breeding programs for winter forage production. The results of this study could provide useful guidelines for livestock producers to maximize seasonal forage production by optimizing growth and development using mixtures of small grain forages

553-559 Download
24
Assessment of quantitative agro-morphological variations among Brassica rapa diverse populations
Sohail Ahmad Jan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Iftikhar Azim Niaz and Sabir Hussain Shah

Assessment of quantitative agro-morphological variations among Brassica rapa diverse populations
ABSTRACT:
Brassica rapa is one of the important oilseed crops and commonly grown all over the world for multiple purposes. The present study was designed to study intra-specific quantitative characters among 253 B. rapa genotypes. The two years mean morphological data were recorded for all these characters under field condition. Significant variations were recorded among genotypes for days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering completion, days to flowering completion, days to maturity, leaf length and width, plant height, primary branches plant-1, main raceme length, pod length, pod width, stem thickness, ,thousand seed weight, seed yield plant-1 and pod shattering (stage I-IV). Many elite lines such as Br-505, Br- 512, Br-536, Br-547, Br-560, Br-760, etc. had excellent morphogenic responses in both years. The present early flowering and maturity lines, pod shatter resistant and maximum yielding genotypes give unique opportunity to enhance the quality and production of this important crop

561-567 Download
25
Morphological study of four sections of genus Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia
Maryam Moudi and Rusea Go

Morphological study of four sections of genus Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia
ABSTRACT:
A morphological study of the four sections (Aporum, Crumenata, Strongyle, and Bolbidium) of the genus Dendrobium (family Orchidaceae) was conducted by using 18 morphological characters. One of the three largest Orchid genera in Orchidaceae is genus Dendrobium. This genus is distributed from South- East Asia, west to the Himalayas, east to Japan, and south to the Pacific Islands, New Zealand and Australia. Dendrobiums are one of the most popular orchids for their medicinal and commercial values. This plant occurs in the tropical regions with high annual rainfall and without a significant dry season for growth. In this study, 17 fresh samples of Dendrobium species were collected and identified upto the species level. The statistical analysis indicated he occurrence of two groups. The first group had four sections (Aporum, Crumenata, Strongyle and Bolbidium) and the other group had three sections (Dendrobium, Callista and Latouria), which were closely related. The morphological analysis showed that the four sections formed a monophyletic group compared to three other sections Dendrobium, Callista and Lautoria. The results demonstrated that sections Aporum, Crumenata, and Strongyle were close to one another and were grouped into one clade. Although section Bolbidium was close to them but it formed a different clade by itself. The three other sections included in the analysis formed a separate clade from these four sections .In all, according to the cluster and cladistics analysis, these four sections (Aporum, Crumenata, Strongyle and Bolbidium) can be put in the separate clade compared to the other sections of genus Dendrobium an can be named Aporum based on ICBN rules

569-577 Download
26
Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) taxa endemic to Anatolia, Turkey
Halil Ibrahim Teke and Riza Binzet

Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) taxa endemic to Anatolia, Turkey
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose

579-588 Download
27
Comparative anatomy of leaf lamina of twenty six woody species of Tamaulipan thornscrub from northeastern Mexico and its significance in taxonomic delimitation and adaptation of the species to xeric environments
Humberto González Rodríguez, Ratikanta Maiti and Aruna Kumari Ch

Comparative anatomy of leaf lamina of twenty six woody species of Tamaulipan thornscrub from northeastern Mexico and its significance in taxonomic delimitation and adaptation of the species to xeric environments
ABSTRACT:
The present study was undertaken to determine the variability in leaf anatomical traits and its relation to taxonomic delimitation and adaptation of the woody species in xeric environments. The results show large variability in anatomical traits with respect to cuticle thickness, presence and absence of trichomes, length of palisade cells and thickness of spongy tissue. Species have been classified on the basis of the length and compactness of palisade cells to determine its relation to the taxonomic delimitation and the adaptation of the species to drought condition. The species viz., Karwinskia humboldtiana, Lantana macropoda, Prosopis laevigata, Zanthoxylum fagara, Helietta parvifolia, Acacia berlandieri and Acacia wrightii having long and compact palisade cells are expected to be efficient in photosynthetic function and adaptation to drought. Future research needs to be directed in this direction

589-596 Download
28
RHIZOME DYNAMICS AND AGE STRUCTURE OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS POPULATIONS IN HETEROGENEOUS HABITATS OF NORTHEAST GRASSLANDS IN CHINA
DEZHI JIAO, ZHAOYUE HUANG, CHAN ZHOU AND YUNFEI YANG

RHIZOME DYNAMICS AND AGE STRUCTURE OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS POPULATIONS IN HETEROGENEOUS HABITATS OF NORTHEAST GRASSLANDS IN CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Rhizomes are important for both reproductive organs and nutrient storage; thus, rhizomes have the functions for vegetative propagation and expansion of population as well as for physiological integration of clonal family channels. Using soil samples excavated from Northeast meadow steppe, five rhizomes of single dominant rhizome species (Phragmites australis) from meadow soil habitat and saline-alkali soil habitat were investigated and compared within a growing season on growing period length, biomass and dry storage with the amount of seasonal variation. The results showed that: rhizome length, biomass and dry storage of the species from the meadow soil habitat are significantly greater than the species from the saline-alkali soil habitat. Over the entire growth period, rhizome length gradually increased to a maximum at the 3rd, while at the 6th the smallest rhizome biomass occurred. Dry material storage, after an initial decline, increased to the largest biomass at the 3rd and was the minimum at the 1st year. Maximum dry matter storage occurred at the 5th, and was the lowest for the 1st year. Among age classes, the relationship was significant between rhizome length and age spectrum month fitting a straight line. A quadratic function was found to fit the relationship between amount of months and the biomass of the age spectrum. Further, there is also a significant relationship between the five growth stages and age class of the rhizome dry storage defined by quadratic functions. Rhizome length, biomass and dry storage and soil moisture, soil organic matter, and soil available nitrogen content were significantly positively correlated with soil pH, while soil available phosphorus content was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH. All of the rhizome dynamics have the same seasonal variation; the rhizome life span of different age classes is closely related to nutrient output depletion and nutrient input compensation. Over the entire growth period, the impact of habitat heterogeneity on rhizome age structure dynamics is evident with the relatively stable differences.

597-604 Download
29
Pollen morphology of the subfamily Coryphoideae - Arecaceae (excluding tribe Phoeniceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir
Abid Arzoo Rashid, Anjum Perveen and Roohi Abid

Pollen morphology of the subfamily Coryphoideae - Arecaceae (excluding tribe Phoeniceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir
ABSTRACT:
The pollen morphological diversity of the family Arecaceae has been widely demonstrated, and foregoing studies have revealed that pollen characters may contribute to a better understanding of the systematics of taxa. The present study was carried out to examine the pollen morphological characters of 14 species representing 12 genera of the subfamily Coryphoideae (excluding the tribe Phoeniceae) by using Light microscope (LM) and Scanning electron Microscope (SEM). In general, the pollen throughout the subfamily is monosulcate and elliptic in apertural view. However, the differences are found in the pollen size (ranges from 13.50 µm to 51.00 µm), exine thickness (i.e., from 1.0 µm to 3.0 µm), exine pattern (either supra tectal gemmae present or absent) and the number of baculae (i.e., one, two or more). Pollen characters have been found to be taxonomically useful for characterization of the genera. Therefore, on the basis of the combination of pollen morphological characters four pollen types have been recognized such as Bismarkia-type, Borassus-type, Brahea-type and Sabal type. The pollen morphological data (quantitative and qualitative) have also been analyzed by Agglomerative cluster analysis choosing the Euclidean distance and Ward’s method for a group linkage method

605-616 Download
30
Pollen and nutlet micromorphology of a rare species Salvia kurdica (Lamiaceae) from Turkey
Mehmet Firat, Birol Başer and Akin Aziret

Pollen and nutlet micromorphology of a rare species Salvia kurdica (Lamiaceae) from Turkey
ABSTRACT:
Salvia kurdica Boss & Hohen. ex. Benth. is known from only 2 localities in the territory of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq. As a part of the fieldwork, this species was collected from Şırnak Province. In this study, the micromorphological characteristics of its pollen grains and nutlets have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and a light microscope. The pollen grains are hexacolpate, radially symmetrical, isopolar, and suboblate. Its exine sculpturing is bireticulate-perforate. The nutlets are rounded-trigonous in transverse sections, orbicular ovate-oblong in shape, glabrous and slightly tuberculate. This is an invasive species in Turkey

617-621 Download
31
Epiphytic bryophyte communities and succession on Platanus orientalis trees in Kadıncık Valley (Mersin/Turkey)
Tülay Ezer

Epiphytic bryophyte communities and succession on Platanus orientalis trees in Kadıncık Valley (Mersin/Turkey)
ABSTRACT:
In this study, epiphytic bryophytes of old-growth Platanus orientalis gallery forest in Kadıncık Valley (Mersin/Turkey) were studied. In total thirthy-three epiphytic bryophyte species were found (29 mosses, 4 liverworts) in 60 sample plots, each 20 x 20 cm in size. In order to evaluate the relative abundance of bryophyte communities in the epiphytic habitats on trunks, index of ecological significance (IES) was used. Multivariate statistical analyses (TWINSPAN and DECORANA) were also used to classify and to determine the epiphytic bryophyte community structures in successional stages. The multivariate statistical analyses results indicated that the sample plots were divided into two main clusters and five subclusters associated with gradient of successional satages. Vertical (tree height) and horizontal (tree diameter) distribution patterns of epiphytic bryophytes and their life forms were also observed along a gradient of height and the gradient of age of the Platanus orientalis. Orthotrichum diaphanum, Eurhynchium striatum, E. angustirete and Brachythecium albicans were only found on young trees, Brachythecium rutabulum and Cinclidotus riparius were only found on middle-aged trees, and Cirriphyllum crassinervium and Cratoneuron filicinum were only growing on old trees

623-630 Download
32
Difference in epiphytic lichen communities on Quercus cerris from urban and rural areas in Bursa (Turkey)
Şaban Güvenç and Şule Öztürk

Difference in epiphytic lichen communities on Quercus cerris from urban and rural areas in Bursa (Turkey)
ABSTRACT:
Sixty epiphytic lichen species were identified in seven localities from urban and rural areas in Bursa province. Amandinea punctata, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Opegrapha herbarum, and Parmelia sulcata commonly found in areas with intensive anthropogenic influence were determined to be indicators of urban areas. Pleurosticta acetabulum and Pseudevernia furfuracea were determined to be indicators of rural areas. The species diversity and composition of the epiphytic lichens on Quercus cerris varied depending on the effects of macroclimatic and microclimatic factors, anthropogenic and agricultural activities

631-637 Download
33
Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under PEG-induced water stress
Wu Li, Xiaolan Zhang, Umair Ashraf, Zhaowen Mo, Haicui Suo and Gaoke Li

Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under PEG-induced water stress
ABSTRACT:
Stress induced variations in seed germination of various crops has been well reported but germination potential of sweet corn seeds under osmotic stress with relation to time dynamics is still elusive. Present study explored the water absorption, germination potential and physiological indices and of sweet corn seeds exposed to five different levels of PEG-induced water stress i.e., 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 M Pa water potential (Yw) with respect to time dynamics. Results showed that enhanced water stress for prolonged time period (96 h) led to substantial reduction in water absorption and seed moisture contents, seed germination and vigor index as well as seedlings growth and fresh and dry biomass. Osmotic stress triggered antioxidant defense system like super-oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and accumulation of soluble sugars, proline and protein contents considerably. Initially, activities of SOD and CAT were higher but then reduced as stress persisted, however, POD showed a linear increase with respect to stress exposure time. Water stress also increased MDA contents up to 36 h then declined. Further, α- amylase activity and soluble protein showed significant correlations with maize seed germination. Overall, germination potential decreased with increase in osmotic stress in sweet corn seeds

639-646 Download
34
Contemplation of wheat genotypes for enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity
Shagufta Nasim, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Ilyas, Nasir Mahmood Cheema and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

Contemplation of wheat genotypes for enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity
ABSTRACT:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is leading cereal crop in Pakistan but its yield is highly affected due to various abiotic factors especially drought stress, which affects the metabolism of plants. The present study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, using thirty three genotypes during 2011 to investigate the response of anti oxidative enzymes. Seedlings were subjected to stress condition with 30 % PEG 6000 solution along with control (irrigated with water) under in vitro conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots following Complete Randomized Design in Laboratory. Results revealed that under control conditions the maximum values for Guaiacol peroxidase were found in Punjab-96 and Auqab-2000 (2.523), for superoxide in C-273 (0.294), for ascorbate peroxide in PAK-81 (2.523) and for catalase in Kohsar-95 (0.487). Under moisture stress condition the maximum value for Guaiacol peroxidase were recorded for Kohsar-95 (2.699), for superoxide in Kohsar-95 (1.259), for ascorbate peroxide in Pak-81, SA-75, Mexipak-65 and PARI-73 (3.000) and for catalase in Mexipak-65 (0.640). The genotypes which showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity under drought stress have the ability to perform better under adverse soil moisture condition. Such potential genotypes can be utilized in the future breeding programs and also in improving the wheat varieties against drought stress

647-653 Download
35
Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in Populus section Tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis
Shiping Cheng, Minghui Chen, Yanyan Li, Junqing Wang, Xuerong Sun and Jiansheng Wang

Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in Populus section Tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis
ABSTRACT:
To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation

655-666 Download
36
Exploring genetic variations in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions using newly developed EST-SSR markers
Muhanad W. Akash, Wajdy Al-Awaida, Ahmad Ateyyeh, Hmoud Al-Debei, Mohammed Saleh, Ahmad Zatimeh, Naser Salameh, Mohammad Alawin and Shireen M. Hasan

Exploring genetic variations in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions using newly developed EST-SSR markers
ABSTRACT:
The genetic and phenotypic variability among 22 Jordanian faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions were explored. Fifteen horticultural traits were evaluated including Biological weight, Days to flowering, Grain yield, Plant height, Highest lowest pod, Number of primary branches, Pod length, Pod width, Pod weight, days to filling, pod number node-¹, Pod number plant-¹, number of secondary branches, seeds number per pod, 100 seed weight. Statistical analysis indicated significant variability among accessions for days to flowering, pod width, pod weight and grain yield. Genetic relationships among twenty two accessions were constructed using twelve EST-SSR primer pairs and eight AFLP primer combinations. The UPGMA results, based on phenotypical data, were able to divide the accessions into 3 groups. In contrast, the UPGMA results, based on DNA markers data, divided the accessions into five groups with Dice similarity coefficient of 0.62. This obtained information on the genetic and phenotypic diversity within gene pools in breeding programs could help avoid genetic erosion

667-672 Download
37
In vitro propagation of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and genetic fidelity assessment of micro-propagated plants
Yu-Wei Lv, Rui-Jie Wamg, Ya-Wei Lv, Ze-Shang Yang and Ying-Juan Wang

In vitro propagation of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and genetic fidelity assessment of micro-propagated plants
ABSTRACT:
Silybum marianum (milk thistle), an annual and biennial herbaceous plant, has been used to treat liver disease for 2000 years. An efficient system for micropropagation from leaf explants of wild-grown S. marianum was successfully established and the genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants was assessed using PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The highest frequency (98.9%) of callus induction was obtained from explants cultivated for 4 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l-1 N6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) and 2.0 mg l-1 a-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The optimal medium for shoots organogenesis was MS supplemented with 3.0 mg l-1 Gibberellic acid (GA3) and 1.0 mg l-1 NAA, while shoot proliferation was accomplished in MS supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.3 mg l-1 NAA. Rooting (94.5%) of these shoots was achieved after 4 weeks on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. A total of 92% of the plants were surviving 6 weeks after transplantation of plantlets to soil. RAPD analysis revealed that the genetic fidelity between the parent and the in vitro-raised plantlets exhibited 100% similarity. This confirmed the true-to-type nature of the in vitro-raised clones

673-680 Download
38
Spatial patterns and correlations of trees in a natural secondary forest of white birch with under-planting of Qinghai spruce in a high-cold region of western China
Xing-Bo Hu, Xin-Jian Lu, Yang Yu and Kang-Ning He

Spatial patterns and correlations of trees in a natural secondary forest of white birch with under-planting of Qinghai spruce in a high-cold region of western China
ABSTRACT:
We investigated the feasibility of artificially promoting forest succession by planting Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) trees in secondary natural white birch forests (Betula platyphylla Suk.). Survey data in a 100 × 100 m sample plot were analyzed using Wiegand-Moloney’s O-ring function to determine the spatial point patterns and correlations (intraspecific and interspecific) between two DBH (diameter at breast height) classes of white birch and Qinghai spruce. Results showed that both the white birch and the Qinghai spruce populations were growing, and that the spatial point patterns of all of the DBH classes fit a random distribution. However, the fitted curves of the Qinghai spruce trees in DBH classes 2 and 3 were waved and indicated clustered and regular distributions alternately at different scales. The intraspecific correlations changed from negative to positive, and Qinghai spruce showed greater negative correlations than white birch. The interspecific correlations also primarily changed from negative to positive, and strong interspecific competition dominated the two species, with the smaller trees suffering serious stress from the larger trees of the other species. The biological characteristics of the white birch were fast-growing, photophilic, and shade-intolerant, while the Qinghai spruce were slow-growing and shade-tolerant. These characteristics can be considered as key factors behind the current spatial patterns. In addition, impractical planting methods of the Qinghai spruce might be another important cause of the interspecific competition; therefore, ecological thinning of the current forest is advised

681-690 Download
39
Ethnopharmacological relevance of traditional medicinal flora from semi-tribal areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Pakistan
Asfa Batool, Amin Shah and Ali Bahadur

Ethnopharmacological relevance of traditional medicinal flora from semi-tribal areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants are locally used for the cure of many diseases. The present study aimed to document the medicinal knowledge as well as medicinal flora of indigenous plants of native communities and represents the first ever ethnomedicinal study from Darra Tang, Lakki Marwat and Kundal, Mianwali. The ethnomedicinal information was conducted via crucial informant conversation, group meetings with herbalists, semi-structure interviews and local people having awareness about the remedial exploit of plants. Current research work describes a brief overview of ethnomedicinal scheme in the study area, by highlighting the vital indigenous constituent of medicinal plants. The rest of the study is dedicated to an investigation and documentation based on the 94 reordered medicinal species belonging to 40 families. The leading family Poaceae was signified by the highest number of medicinal plant species (11). Indigenous people most frequently used leaves of the plants. The greatest amount of species was used to treat gastrointestinal, inflammational, renal, urological and dermatological ailments whereas for diabetes the ratio was the lowest. Dominated medicinal plants with most use values were Rhazya stricta having (UVi=0.98) and Phoenix dactylifera (UVi=0.96). There was a significant correlation between the age of informant and used plant known (y= 0.1307×+26.756, r = 0.012) and known plants (y= 0.4043×+16.995, r = 0.082) number by informant. The present study exposes that this vast treasure of medicinal plant played a key role in the health maintenance of local communities from Darra Tang, Lakki Marwat and Kundal, Mianwali

691-705 Download
40
Ecosystem services and structure of western Himalayan temperate forests stands in Neelum valley, Pakistan
Hamayun Shaheen, Shamshad Aziz and Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar

Ecosystem services and structure of western Himalayan temperate forests stands in Neelum valley, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
Forest ecosystem provide valuable services and livelihood support to the rural mountain communities of the Himalayas. Present research was conducted to assess the forest ecosystem services and vegetation structure of Neelum valley in Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 56 plants species belonging to 32 familes were recorded from the studied forest stands. The dominant species were Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Vibrunum grandiflorum, Indigofera haterantha, and Agrostris gigantica. The recorded value of species diversity was found to be 2.35; richness as 1.61; species evenness as 0.75; and maturity index as 49.34%. Thirty two plants speices were reported having ethnomedicinal usage. Fourty two percent respondents were using wild vegetables whereas 23% were involved in mushroom collection. Population showed an average family size of 8.80; herd size of 5.26; land holding as 1.59 acres; and grazing area of 0.302 acre/grazing unit. Annual fuel wood consumption of 3.11 kg/ capita/ day was recorded. Forest stands showed an average tree density of 344/ha. An average stem/stump value of 2.01 indicated high tree felling intensity. Regeneration pattern was represented with an average of 85 seedlings/ha. A continuous grazing pressure along with moderate erosion effects was observed. Vegetation structure showed significant disturbance due to deforestation, overgrazing, trampling and environmental changes. Conservation policy should be applied at local and regional levels by authorities for conservation and maintenance of forest services

707-714 Download
41
Preliminary study of aquatic and marshland angiosperms of Zhob district, Balochistan, Pakistan
Kamran Ishaq, Sarfaraz Khan Marwat and Nazar Khan Mandokhel

Preliminary study of aquatic and marshland angiosperms of Zhob district, Balochistan, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
The present preliminary study is based on the results of the research work carried out in Zhob District, Balochistan, Pakistan, during 2012-2014. The area was surveyed and collection of hydrophytes and marshland plants was made from 20 sites of various aquatic habitats. The collected materials were identified with the help of available literature, and internet and by comparing with herbarium specimens. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, availability, distribution. In this study 40 plant species belonging to 18 families were identified. Cyperaceae was the largest family that contributed 08 species (20%), followed by Poaceae with 07 species (17.5%), Polygonaceae 03 species (07.50 %), next seven families with 2 species (5%) each; while the last 08 families contributed 1 species (2.5%) each. Detailed account of the semi aquatic and marshland angiosperms of Zhob is not available. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to highlight such angiospermic plant species. Hence more work is needed to be done in this regard

715-723 Download
42
Quantitative analyses of medicinal plants consumption among the inhabitants of Shangla-Kohistan areas in northern-Pakistan
Shehla Shinwari, Mushtaq Ahmad, Yinggang Luo and Wajid Zaman

Quantitative analyses of medicinal plants consumption among the inhabitants of Shangla-Kohistan areas in northern-Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
The main purpose of present study is to provide important information on the use of traditional herbal medicines for the therapy of various human aliments in selected areas of northern Pakistan. The survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire for 157 informants. In addition, the recorded data was analyzed by various quantitative indices like relative frequency citation (RFC), frequency of citation (FC), Fidelity level (FL), Used value (UV) and Used reports (UR). Local residents of the study area provided data on 61 medicinal plants belonging to the 34 families and 49 genera. Lamiaceae was the predominant used family consisting of 6 genera (7 species). The highest FL was reported for Coriandrum sativum for the treatment of Respiratory disorders (100%) and the lowest for Cedrus deodara (78.57%). The Relative frequency of Berberis lyceum (0.39) comes the highest and the lowest for the species of Oxalis acetosella (0.15). Leaves were recorded as most used plant part. For the treatment of various diseases, herbs in the area were highly utilized. For the healing of minor and major illness in northern Pakistan, indigenous medicinal plants are more intended as a form of primary health care. Plants that are used for the first time in the treatment of various diseases in the study area can be considered to be pharmacologically effective. Recognizing their frequent use, there is drive need to promote the use of these plants in phytochemical and pharmacological studies to prove their traditional medicinal knowledge

725-734 Download
43
Evaluation of D-genome synthetic hexaploid wheats and advanced derivatives for powdery mildew resistance
Khola Rafique, Chaudhary Abdul Rauf, Alvina Gul, Hadi Bux, Ahmad Ali, Rabia Asma Memon, Sumaira Farrakh and Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi

Evaluation of D-genome synthetic hexaploid wheats and advanced derivatives for powdery mildew resistance
ABSTRACT:
The present study was undertaken to characterize 32 D-genome synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) of an Elite-II sub-set and their 60 advanced derivatives. At seedling stage under controlled glasshouse conditions in Murree, the SHWs showed complete resistance/ immune to susceptible disease reactions viz., two (6.25%) were immune, eighteen (56.25%) were resistant, nine (28.12%) were intermediate, whereas three (9.37%) were susceptible. The BW/SH derivatives also demonstrated complete resistance/ immune to intermediate reactions viz., 51 (85%) were immune, 5 (8.33%) were resistant while 4 (6.66%) were intermediate. Adult plant resistance (APR) evaluated at the hill off-station summer site in Kaghan was 100% in SHWs (32/32) and 80% (48/60) in BW/SH derivatives. Several genotypes provided resistance at both plant stages viz., 20 (62.5%) SHWs and 45 (75%) BW/SH derivatives. All the entries were checked for the presence of Pm4b, Pm9, Pm16 and Pm30 resistance genes using linked SSR markers. The marker Xgwm382.2A flanked the gene Pm4b in one SH and 5 BW/SH derivatives. Pm9 gene was identified using two markers viz., Xgwm4.4A detected Pm9 in one SH and 27 BW/SH while Xgwm332.7A detected same gene in one SH and 13 BW/SH derivatives. Pm16 and Pm30 genes were present in one SH entry and in 2 BW/SH derivatives, detected by Xgwm159.5B. The findings revealed that 37.5% (12 entries) of the SHs and 5% (3) of the 60 BW/SH derivatives possessed APR. These observations add strength to exploit both intraspecific and interspecific strategies for allelic enrichment within wheat pre-breeding / breeding programs

735-743 Download
44
Plant cell-wall hydrolyzing enzymes from indigenously isolated fungi grown on conventional and novel natural substrates
Darshna Kumari, Zainul Abideen, Muhammad Sohail, Sadaf Jahangeer, Bilquees Gul, Muhammad Ajmal Khan and Shakeel Ahmed Khan

Plant cell-wall hydrolyzing enzymes from indigenously isolated fungi grown on conventional and novel natural substrates
ABSTRACT:
Fungi elaborate a variety of plant-hydrolyzing enzymes including cellulases, xylanases, pectinases and amylases. Although these enzymes have potential biotechnological applications, their production at industrial level is limited because of higher costs of the purified substrates. Hence, the present study was aimed to explore the novel, natural and cheaper substrates for enzyme production. Indigenously isolated fungal strains of Aspergillus sp. were grown on banana-peels, grapefruit-peels, pomegranate-peels, sugarcane bagasse, Eucalyptus camaldulensis-leaves and shoots of two halophytic plants including Halopyrum mucronatum and Desmostachya bipinnata under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (Smf) conditions. The crude enzyme preparation was screened for cellulase (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase and filter-paperase), hemicellulase (xylanase), pectinase and amylase production. The results revealed that among all investigated enzymes, the xylanase titers were highest using D. bipinnata- shoots and H. mucronatum- shoots as substrates under solid state fermentation conditions, suggesting their exploitation at commercial scale

745-750 Download
45
Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using pomegranate peel and inhibitory effects of the nanoparticles on aflatoxin production
Al-Othman Monira R, Abd-El-Aziz Abeer R. M. and Mahmoud M.A.

Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using pomegranate peel and inhibitory effects of the nanoparticles on aflatoxin production
ABSTRACT:
In this work, pomegranate peel has been used as a natural and safe method for biosynthesis of silvernanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was confirmed using UV spectroscopy, which showed a peak around a wavelength of 437 nm. The morphology showed spherical and monodispersed nanoparticles with a size range between 5-50 nm. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments revealed their crystalline nature. Active functional groups in the synthesized silver nanoparticles were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers contained four bands at 3281.21 cm-1, possibly indicating the participationof O–H functional group. The peak take place at 1,636.22 cm-1 may be pointed to C = N bending in the amide group or C = O stretching in carboxyl. Transfer in this peak (from 1,641 to 1,643 cm-1) shown the possible role of amino groups or carboxyl in nanoparticle synthesis. The peaks at 431.95 and 421.28 cm-1 be related to AgNPs bonding with oxygen from hydroxyl groups which confirm the role of pomegranate peel as a reducing agent. Furthermore, we investigated effects of these nanoparticles on aflatoxin B1 production by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, isolated from hazelnut. The results found that aflatoxin production in all A. flavus isolates decreased with an increase in the concentration of silver nanoparticles. Maximum suppression of aflatoxin production was recorded at a nanoparticle concentration of 150 ppm

751-756 Download
46
Purification and characterization of extracellular lipase by Geotrichum candidum of dairy origin
Abubakar Muhammad, Syed Ali Imran Bokhari, Naeem Ali, Hamid Mukhtar, Ali Nawaz and Muhammad Imran

Purification and characterization of extracellular lipase by Geotrichum candidum of dairy origin
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, thermostable lipase from Geotrichum candidum UCMA 91(ATCC 204307) was purified and characterized. Lipase produced after optimization of the various cultural and physico-chemical conditions was purified to homogeneity by two step methods of purification: ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was purified by 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation and lipase activity of 5.77U mg-1 was attained. Then, Sephadex G-75 was used for gel filtration chromatography and 62.36fold purification was achieved. Molecular mass of lipase was estimated to be 59 KDa by using SDS-PAGE. It is also determined from the study that lipase showed stability at varying range of pH (5-12) and thermo stability (15-65oC). The lipase was completely inhibited by EDTA (3.98%) confirming it as a metalloprotease, whereas the enzyme was found to be stable in various organic solvents. The results demonstrate that lipase hydrolyzes vegetable oils, which validates its technological relevance for use in the dairy, pharmaceuticals and bakery industry

756-761 Download
47
Exposure of technetium-99M (TC-99M) on seeds of some crops for the management of root infecting fungi
Shamsa Kanwal, Shahnaz Dawar, Marium Tariq and Fauzia Imtiaz

Exposure of technetium-99M (TC-99M) on seeds of some crops for the management of root infecting fungi
ABSTRACT:
Gamma radiation gave suppressive effect on root infecting pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) and Fusarium spp., and inducive effect on growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and mash bean (Vigna mungo L.). Seeds of all tested hosts were treated with gamma rays Technetium (TC-99M) at time periods of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 minutes. When seeds of chickpea treated with the gamma rays for 2 minutes showed significant increment in height and weight of plant as compared to control where as sunflower treated seed at the same time interval showed significant suppression of root infecting fungi and enhanced the shoot length and weight. Two and four minutes treatment of all tested seeds with gamma radiation were best for significant increase in growth parameters as well as reduction in colonization of root rot fungi

763-768 Download
48
Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of Fusarium wilt of tomato
Tazeem Akhtar, Qaiser Shakeel, Ghulam Sarwar, Sher Muhammad, Yasir Iftikhar, M. Irfan Ullah, Mustansar Mubeen and Abdul Hannan

Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of Fusarium wilt of tomato
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium wilt is highly destructive soil borne pathogen in tomato. Current study was carried out to evaluate commercially available fungicides and bio-fungicides in-vitro and in-vivo, for their efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Firstly four fungicides were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Three promising fungicides, two biopesticides and Trichoderma harzianum were further applied both in greenhouse and field experiments. During in-vitro studies PDA amended with fungicides with different treatments @ 1% almost completely inhibited the growth of Fol with varying degree of success whereas Nativo being the most effective treatment with 98% reduction in growth as compared to control. Nativo significantly reduced the disease incidence (32.75 %) at concentration of 1%. While Poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyric-acid effectively promoted the tomato growth. Maximum reduction in disease (30.14 %) was expressed by Nativo followed by Teagro (25.06 %) under field conditions. Nativo was found to be the most effective fungicide for management of Fol both In vitro and In vivo.Further field evaluations of the fungicides are required

769-774 Download
49
Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat
Shanila Emmanuel Aziz, Raisa Bano, Hayssam. Ali, Mohamed S. El-Shikh, Mohammad Haroon Khan, Zubeda Chaudhry and Hamid Rashid

Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat
ABSTRACT:
Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession # DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene’s structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat

775-780 Download
50
Mulberry for environmental protection
Yongbing Jiang, Renzhi Huang, Xinpei Yan, Chaohua Jia, Shimeng Jiang and Tangzhong Long

Mulberry for environmental protection
ABSTRACT:
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a woody, deciduous and economically important tree, with moderate tolerance to various environmental stresses (drought, water-logging, salinity, heavy metals etc.). Mulberry leaf has been used to rear the silkworm Bombyx mori L., process tea and as fodder for livestock. The mulberry fruit is good for human consumption due to its highly nutritious and medicinal properties. In this review, the role of mulberry on remediation of the heavy metals, organic compounds polluted soil and dirty atmosphere has been discussed along with recent developments in mulberry research. The outline of the ecological functions of mulberry was also drawn and discussed for its developed root system, rapid growth rate, resistant to some special pressures

781-788 Download
51
Identification and evolutionary dynamics of Cacta DNA transposons in Brassica
Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noreen and J.S. Heslop-Harrison

Identification and evolutionary dynamics of Cacta DNA transposons in Brassica
ABSTRACT:
Transposable elements are the major drivers of genome evolution and plasticity. Due to their transposition mode, they are classified into two major classes as Retrotransposons and DNA transposons. The En/Spm or CACTA elements are diverse group of DNA transposons proliferating in plant genomes. Various bioinformatics and molecular approaches were used for identification and distribution of CACTA transposons in Brassica genome. A combination of dot plot analysis and BLASTN searches yielded 35 autonomous and 7 non-autonomous CACTA elements in Brassica. The elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 kb non-autonomous elements to 11kb autonomous elements, terminated by 3 bp Target Site Duplication (TSD) and ~15 bp conserved Terminal Inverted Repeat (TIR) motifs (5΄-CACTACAAGAAAACA-3΄), with heterogeneous internal regions. The transposase (TNP) was identified from autonomous CACTA elements, while other protein domains from Brassica and other plants CACTA revealed similar organizations with minor differences. Both transposases (TNPD, TNPA) are present in most CACTA, while a few CACTA harboured an additional ATHILA ORF1-like domain. The PCR analysis amplified the CACTA transposases from 40 Brassica accessions (A, B, and C-genome) suggesting their distribution among various Brassica crops. A detailed characterization and evolutionary analysis of the identified CACTA elements allowed some to be placed in genome-specific groups, while most of them (Brassica-Arabidopsis elements) have followed the same evolutionary line. The distribution of CACTA in Brassica concluded that 3 bp TSDs generating CACTA transposons contributed significantly to genome size and evolution of Brassica genome.

789-798 Download