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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Evaluation and identification of salt tolerant wheat through in vitro salinity induction in seeds


Rao Waqar Ahmad Khan, Faisal Saeed Awan and Rana Khalid Iqbal

Evaluation and identification of salt tolerant wheat through in vitro salinity induction in seeds


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the major growth and yield limiting factor in crop production. Wheat being staple food loses its yield potential when grown in saline soils, however, this problem can be managed by identification and growing the salt tolerant genotypes. Seed is a primitive part which when exposed to salinity gets problem in germination. Current study was planned to investigate seed germination indicators for early selection of salinity tolerant wheat genotypes. Three salinity levels along with one control i.e., 0 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM and 150 mM were used to treat 125 genotypes sown in complete randomized design in replicates. All the genotypes were found significant for germination speed index (GSI), time required for germination of 50% seeds (T50), mean germination time (MGT), mean germination rate (MGR), variance of germination time (VGT), coefficient of variation of germination time (CVt), germination speed coefficient (CVG), and non-significant for final germination percentage (FGP), time required for germination of 90% (T90), germination synchrony (Sync) and uncertainty (Unc). Salinity treatments were found to be significant for all seed germination indicators except uncertainty (Unc). FGP had positive correlation with GSI, MGT, T50, T90, Sync and Unc, and negative correlation with CVG, MGR and CVt. By contrast, MGR showed negative correlation with all indicators except CVt. Moreover, MGT was found positive correlated with FGP, GSI, T50, T90, VGT and Uni, however, negative correlation was observed with CVG, MGR, CVt and Sync. Based on the salt tolerant index (STI), our results categorize wheat genotypes into tolerant (11 genotypes), moderate tolerant (38 genotypes), moderate sensitive (48 genotypes) and sensitive (28 genotypes). Overall, these findings reveal important parameters to select salinity tolerant plants at germination stage which could help in early identification of salt-tolerance genotypes In vitro

1987-1993 Download
2

Genetic variability studies of seed cotton yield and fibre quality in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown under salinity stress

 


Huzaifa Bilal, Amir Shakeel, Waqas Shafqat Chattha, Muhammad Tehseen Azhar, Saifullah Abro and Muhammad Rizwan

Genetic variability studies of seed cotton yield and fibre quality in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown under salinity stress

 


ABSTRACT:

Cotton is a dynamic fibre crop in the world. It is susceptible to salinity stress, a major abiotic factor affecting crop growth, yield and fibre quality. In present study, six cotton genotypes were crossed in half diallel fashion to obtain 15 F1 hybrids. Parents and their F1 were sown under three salinity levels i.e. normal (S1 = 3.7 dSm-1) moderate (S2 = 10 dSm-1) and high (S3 = 15 dSm-1) following split-plot arrangement under completely randomized design. Three salinity levels were maintained in main plot while 21 genotypes (15 F1 and 6 parents) were sown in the subplot. Three replications were maintained for all parents and their F1 crosses. At maturity, data were recorded for seed cotton yield, fibre length, fibre strength and fibre fineness for parents as well as for crosses. The data were analyzed using the Griffing approach to determine the combining ability effects and genetic components. Parent CIM-602 followed by FH-142 showed good GCA performance for all the observed traits at different levels of salt stress. MNH-886 × CIM-616 and CIM-616 × CIM-602 were best specific combiners for most of the traits under normal and salinity stress. While FH-142 × CIM-602 was the best specific combiner for fibre quality traits under all treatments. Further utilization of these genotypes might be helpful for the development of salt-tolerant cultivars.

 

1995-1999 Download
3

Differential adaptation of roots and shoots to salt stress correlates with the antioxidant capacity in mustard (Brassica juncea L.)


Peipei Jia, Andrii Melnyk, Lijie Li, Xiangjun Kong, Haifang Dai and Zhiyong Zhang

Differential adaptation of roots and shoots to salt stress correlates with the antioxidant capacity in mustard (Brassica juncea L.)


ABSTRACT:

Salt adaptive mechanisms of the shoots and roots in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were studied by examination of their growth parameters, biomass, photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and some key antioxidants. Mustard seedlings were treated at four levels of salt (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) at various times of exposure. Severe salt stress significantly inhibited the growth of shoots by causing a reduction in the leaf area and dry and fresh weights. The inhibitory effect of salt on the shoots positively correlated with the decrease in chlorophyll content and performance index and negatively correlated with the content of MDA in leaves. Higher salinity for the roots under stress proved to positively affect growth. The root-shoot ratio, number of first-order lateral roots and the lateral root density were higher than those of the control group by 26.1%, 28.7% and 58.5%, respectively. The levels of MDA remained the same. Coordination of the antioxidant enzymes ensures the plants are highly effective at scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results strongly suggest that the antioxidant system is involved in the adaptive regulation of root growth to avoid the harmful effects of high soil salinity

2001-2011 Download
4

Contribution of environmental and soil physicochemical attributes in invasiveness of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in diverse habitats along elevation and salinity gradients


Syed Mohsan Raza Shah, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad

Contribution of environmental and soil physicochemical attributes in invasiveness of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in diverse habitats along elevation and salinity gradients


ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted in Punjab and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) to evaluate invasion success of Ipomoea carnea in different ecological zones. The thirty selected habitats were grouped on the basis of salinity levels into non-saline (0.9-3.8 dS m-1), moderately saline (4.1-7.1 dS m-1) and highly saline (10-31.5 dS m-1). Data for weather attributes was obtained from meteorology station, Islamabad-, while soil physicochemical traits and ecological parameters were recorded. Importance value of Ipomoea carnea inhabiting non-saline habitats was the maximum at Puran (PRN). Among moderately saline habitats, I. carnea was the most abundant at Pasrur Pond (PPD), while at highly saline in populations growing at Gatwala (GWA). Importance value and relative density were associated with annual precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at non-saline sites. Relative cover as associated with soil physicochemical attributes like ECe, Na+, Cl, K+, Ca2+. PO43− and NO3. Relative density was associated with soil moisture content and soil Ca2+ at moderately saline sites. The highly saline sites showed association of RF with climate factors like maximum and minimum temperatures and soil physicochemical traits like saturation percentage, ECe, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and PO43−. Invasion success based on frequency, density and percent cover decreased with increase in elevation at non-saline, moderately saline and highly saline habitats. Invasive success decreased along salinity gradient at moderately saline habitats, while increased at non-saline and highly saline habitats

2013-2024 Download
5

Antioxidant enzymes responses of different genotypes of Leymus chinensis to saline-alkali stress and comprehensive evaluation of saline-alkali tolerance


Zhuo Zhang, Yuhui Li, Song Liang, Yingying Yan and Chan Zhou

Antioxidant enzymes responses of different genotypes of Leymus chinensis to saline-alkali stress and comprehensive evaluation of saline-alkali tolerance


ABSTRACT:

We conducted pot experiment with four genotypes of Leymus chinensis at different concentrations of saline-alkali treatment. The saline-alkali tolerance of different genotypes of L. chinensis were evaluated comprehensively by PCA, MF and comprehensive evaluation value (D value). The results indicated that with the increase of intensity of saline- alkali stress, the content of soluble protein and the activities of CAT, POD, APX, GR, DHAR and MDHAR in the leaves of four genotypes of L. chinensis, ZS, MZ, DQ and CM, were increased compared with the control. And the activities of APX, DHAR and the content of soluble protein of ZS were significantly higher than those of other three genotypes. PCA was used to convert 8 single indexes into 3 comprehensive indexes under saline-alkali stress, and the cumulative contribution rate reached 100%. The D value of saline-alkali tolerance of four genotypes of L. chinensis were 0.167, 0.160, 0.158 and 0.149 respectively. Therefore, the four genotypes of L. chinensis have a certain degree of tolerance to saline-alkali stress, and their comprehensive saline-alkali tolerance of four genotypes were ZS > MZ > DQ > CM. This finding provides a certain method and material basis for further study on breeding of new varieties and antioxidant enzyme system of saline-alkali stress of L. chinensis

2025-2032 Download
6

Rhododendron micranthum RmMDH gene encoding malic dehydrogenase confers tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum


Shan-Jun Yi, Wei Li, Zhen-Yuan Sun, Xiao-Xing Zhou And Xiao-Ping Li

Rhododendron micranthum RmMDH gene encoding malic dehydrogenase confers tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum


ABSTRACT:

Malic dehydrogenases (MDHs) have vital functions in the development of plants. In this study, the full-length coding sequence of RmMDH (GenBank ID: JQ412742) was isolated from Rhododendron micranthum Turcz. RmMDH had a 999-bp open reading frame (ORF), which was responsible for encoding a protein that contained 332 amino acid residues, its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.40 and its predicted molecular mass was 35.61 kDa. RmMDH was predicted to localize to the chloroplast. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of RmMDH in Rh. Micranthum differed among tissues (highest levels in the flowers, lowest levels in the roots) and developmental stages (highest transcript levels in flowers at the full-bloom stage, and in leaves in October). RmMDH was introduced into tobacco, and its integration into the genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Compared with wild-type tobacco, transgenic plants showed smaller leaves, shorter height, lower malondialdehyde contents, and higher proline contents. Transgenic plants showed stronger tolerance to NaCl, NaHCO3, polyethylene glycol, and aluminum stresses relative to wild-type tobacco. Our results show that RmMDH dramatically affects plant growth and is involved in abiotic stress resistance. These results lay the foundation for the genetic improvement of Rh. micranthum

2033-2042 Download
7

2,4-epibrassinolide relieves the damage of drought stress on fresh-cut lilies by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities


Wen Jinfen, Chi Bowen, Peng Chunxiu and Deng Minghua

2,4-epibrassinolide relieves the damage of drought stress on fresh-cut lilies by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities


ABSTRACT:

Fresh-cut flowers are often suffered from drought stress after they are harvested, which results in quality loss and vase life shorten during marketing of fresh-cut flowers. In this study, the lilies gathered from the greenhouse were treated with 10-7 M 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR), and then subjected to drought treatment to assess the changes in wilting time, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, relative conductivity, the total phenol (TP), antioxidant enzyme activities and these enzyme genes expression levels. Drought considerably accelerated the flowers wilting compared to the control. Moreover, extensive increase by drought in MDA content, and relative conductivity were also recorded. While the TP contents and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD); ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were firstly increased and then dropped in the later period. In which it seemed that SOD and POD played more important roles when the flowers were suffered drought stress. The expression of LbAPX, LbCu-ZnSOD, LbMn-SOD and LbCAT showed a rise and then decline, LbFe-SOD kept decreasing, while LbPOD maintained increasing. However, exogenous application of EBR remarkably delayed the flowers wilting time by 2 days and decreased the MDA content, relative conductivity compared to the drought group. These meant EBR treatment could maintain the membrane integrity of fresh-cut lilies. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EBR could significantly improve the TP contents and the four antioxidant enzymes activities and their genes expression levels. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded exogenous application of EBR could effectively alleviate the damage of drought stress by reducing MDA contents and relative conductivity, improving TP content, antioxidant enzymes’ activities and their genes expressions, and finally extending the flowers’ post-harvest lives

2043-2049 Download
8

Cloning and expression analysis of KfNCED1 from Kalidium foliatum (Chenopodiaceae) in response to NaCl treatment


Zhaojun Li, Hailing Wang, Xiaoli Zhang, Liqiang Zhao, Guoze Wang and Jin Jia

Cloning and expression analysis of KfNCED1 from Kalidium foliatum (Chenopodiaceae) in response to NaCl treatment


ABSTRACT:

Kalidium foliatum exhibits strong tolerance to salinity. NCED1 from K. foliatum was cloned, and its expression level was analysed under salt treatment. Whole plants were subjected to 0, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mM NaCl for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted from the leaves of 4-month-old K. foliatum seedlings. The full-length KfNCED1 cDNA was cloned with reverse transcription PCR, the KfNCED1 expression levels were analysed with semiquantitative RT-PCR, and the ABA contents from K. foliatum were examined. The KfNCED1 cDNA was 1500 bp long and included an open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 499 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KfNCED1 had significant similarity with that of AiNCED1. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of KfNCED1 could be markedly induced by salt treatment

2051-2061 Download
9

Tolerance limits of lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) tissue cultures in response to abiotic stress


Mohamed Ehab EL-Sharnouby

Tolerance limits of lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) tissue cultures in response to abiotic stress


ABSTRACT:

This study investigated the effects of gamma irradiation doses and mannitol levels of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) cultured on solid MS medium. The effects of different growth regulators concentrations on lavender explant growth were also studied. For the first experiment, shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill were sterilized with different Sodium hypochlorite concentrations (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) for 10 min. Growing the lavender explants on MS medium sterilized with 25% Cl produced the highest survival percentage (88.59%). The results indicated that maximum numbers of shoots and leaves of lavender plants were produced on MS medium enriched with 2 mg/L BA, which also produced the maximum callus induction. Growing the lavender explants on MS supplemented with 1.0 BA gave the longest shoots (4.40 cm/ explant). Adding 2 mg/l IBA to MS medium enhanced root growth and significantly increased the average number of roots (3.40 roots/explant) and root length (2.33 cm/explant). Exposing lavender explants to gamma irradiation at high doses (8 krad) decreased lavender growth to the lowest values. A low dose of gamma rays (2 krad) significantly increased the average growth parameters to the highest values when compared with the control. Moreover, increasing mannitol levels induced an adverse effect on the lavender growth control. That decrease was proportional to the level of mannitol, but the total indoles and phenols and reduced sugar increased to their maximum tolerance for drought stress. The highest non-reducing sugar content (12.7 mg) was produced with 20 g/L mannitol when compared with the control. Gamma rays induced changes in the lavender chemical composition in this study

2063-2068 Download
10

Investigation of defense mechanism alterations induced by phytohormones, heat-shock and salt toxicity in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]


Jabeen Farheen and Simeen Mansoor

Investigation of defense mechanism alterations induced by phytohormones, heat-shock and salt toxicity in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]


ABSTRACT:

Salt toxicity cause a drastic reduction in green gram yield which plays a pivotal role in the human diet especially in vegetable-based society. With this respect, the destructive action from 50 to 350 mM NaCl and its recovery through phytohormones and heat-shock were evaluated on growth, biomolecules, and quality and quantity of DNA using advanced cost-effective and quick plant DNA extraction method. The salicylic acid (SA) 50 μM, indoleacetic acid (IAA) 100 μM, and gibberellic acid (GAᴣ) 100 μM were used as seed soaking (24 h) treatment before 40ºC heat-shock (1 h) then salt stress (144 h) applied on Vigna radiata (green gram) variety NM-92. The growth restraining impact of salt along with 40ºC was quite evident with enhancing NaCl concentrations. The utmost growth, and least malondialdehyde (8.76 μM gˉ¹ FW), proline (16.31 μM gˉ¹ FW), and hydrogen peroxide (7.01 μM gˉ¹ FW) were related to SA+30°C+NaCl 50 mM. While, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase maximum activities were associated with SA+30°C+NaCl 350 mM. The modified extraction method-2 yields high-quality DNA without liquid nitrogen, CTAB, Proteinase K, and prolong heating (65ºC). This method is ideal for the extraction of a large number of samples and storage for a year. DNA extraction results showed a 1.8 ratio at from all treatments that is suitable for RAPD-PCR reaction. Conclusively, 50 μM SA presoaking enhanced DNA stability under extreme salt stress that can be beneficial to grow green gram in the highly saline-affected zone

2069-2079 Download
11

Effects of varying NO3ˉ:NH4+ ratios on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nitrogen metabolism


Kaikai Du, Junlin Zhang, Yingyan Han, Jinghong Hao, Xiaoxiao Qin, Chaojie Liu and Shuangxi Fan

Effects of varying NO3ˉ:NH4+ ratios on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nitrogen metabolism


ABSTRACT:

The two main forms of nitrogen (N) in plants are Nitrate (NO3ˉ) and ammonium (NH4+). The effects of different nutrient solution NO3ˉ:NH4+ ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) on the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, activity of key N metabolism enzymes, mineral contents and quality of hydroponically grown lettuce were evaluated. The results showed that total dry biomass,  the total fresh biomass and root length were the maximum at the 75:25 NO3ˉ:NH4+ ratio and that the water content was the highest by a significant margin at 25:75. The leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) , net photosynthesis rate (Pn),and stomatal conductance (Gs) of lettuce were the highest at 75:25, and the transpiration rate (Tr) was the maximum at 50:50. The Ca and Fe contents in lettuce were the highest at 100:0, and the N and Mg contents were the highest at 75:25. The activities of key enzymes related to N metabolism, nitrite reductase (NiR), nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), asparagine synthetase (AS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), were the greatest at 75:25, and the nutritional quality of lettuce in terms of the soluble sugar, vitamin C (Vc) and soluble protein contents was the highest at 75:25. The results showed that when the ratio of NO3ˉ:NH4was 75:25, the most conducive to lettuce growth.

2081-2088 Download
12

The effect of some hormones on the in vitro culture of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Bou-Saâda, Algeria


Ahlem Guettouchi, Muhammad Shoaib Ahmedani, Lamya Redaoui and Aoulia Yahiaoui

The effect of some hormones on the in vitro culture of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Bou-Saâda, Algeria


ABSTRACT:

The Oasis of Bou-Saada is gradually deteriorating due to the attack of insect pests such as white scale Parlatoria blanchardi Targ., the palm worm Myeloïs ceratoniae Zell and some fungal pests. In addition, polluted irrigation water coming from the wadi Bou-Saada has seriously damaged the oasis palm. Consequently, 23 promising date palm varieties are facing extinction. The Rehabilitation of the oasis palms of Bou-Saâda requires mass propagation of the endangered date palm varieties to conserve the fauna and the genotypes. The Tissue Culture technique is the only method through which date palm oases Bou-Saâda can be restored in a short period as compared to growing the trees through seeds or offshoots. As the first phase of conservation of the oases, this research project was initiated whereas propagation of two highly promising varieties Deglet-Nour and Mech-Degla was carried out through tissue culture technique on MS medium using various concentrations of three different hormones (AIB, GA3, 2,4-D) to obtain organogenesis. Results revealed that the growth in length of explants of the variety Deglet-Nour and its overall development was better as compared to the variety Mech-Degla with the AIB (2mg/l). The GA3 hormone performed the best in relation to the development of organogenesis in the two varieties followed by AIB hormone than the 2,4-D with overall mean lengths of 1.36, 1,26 and 0.84 centimetres, respectively. The formation of the callus was noticed only in the case of the variety Deglet-Nour.

 

2089-2093 Download
13

Genetic relationships among wild species of subfamily Malvoideae in Saudi Arabia as inferred from SCOT and ISSR markers


Kadry Abdel Khalik and Suad Al-Ruzayza

Genetic relationships among wild species of subfamily Malvoideae in Saudi Arabia as inferred from SCOT and ISSR markers


ABSTRACT:

Genetic investigation and phylogenetic analyses of 21 species, representing 8 genera of the subfamily Malvoideae from Saudi Arabia, were carried out by using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT), Inter Simple Sequence Repeats DNA (ISSR), and combined ISSR and SCoT markers. Ten SCoT and five ISSR primers created 138 polymorphic amplified fragments, which pointed to a comparatively high level of genetic difference in Malvoideae. SCoT markers exposed a higher level of polymorphism (89 bands) than ISSR (49 bands). The comparison of SCoT and ISSR based dendrograms revealed significantly similar grouping patterns of genotypes. Five clusters and clades were documented within Malvoideae, which generally verified traditional groupings with a few exceptions. Taxonomic and phylogenetic results were discussed in contrast to existing morphological and phylogenetic data. The results of this study provided useful data for evaluating the taxonomy of two Malvoideae tribes at infrageneric and subgeneric levels. In general, the results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic findings of the polyphyletic nature of Abutilon, Hibiscus, and Malva. The species of sections Bombicella and Malva were highly heterogeneous. The most exciting result of this analysis was identifying the Senra incana with unique characters suggesting that it should be preserved as a separate tribe. Similarly, distinctive genetic profiles between the closely related genera Fioria and Althaea were also noted suggesting that they should be placed in different tribes. Furthermore, the present results also indicated parallel characters among the species of Pavonia that supports the monophyly of this genus

2095-2106 Download
14

Regulation of different intensities of UV-B irradiation on phenotypic development of alfalfa radicle


Limei Gao, Yajun Xi, Lijing Zhao and Yongfeng Li

Regulation of different intensities of UV-B irradiation on phenotypic development of alfalfa radicle


ABSTRACT:

Roots are one of the important organs in a plant. Under different intensities of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation condition, plant roots have displayed different responsive behaviors at multiple levels of physiological, biochemical and cellular metabolisms. The higher intensities of UV-B have induced more damages to alfalfa roots than the lower intensities of UV-B irradiation, including biomass reduction, ROS toxicity, cell vitality decrease, and microstructure abnormality and physiochemical component alteration. The experimental data in our studies have shown that antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance play an important role in UV-B tolerability of plant root systems, which would be closely related to the UV-B protection action of plant proteins (FTIR wave number 1700-1600cm-1 and 1300-1200cm-1), cell membrane lipids and cell wall pectins (1745cm-1).

 

2107-2113 Download
15

Cloning and expression of floral organ identity genes in Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’


Shuang Zhou, Chao Ma, Shuangcheng Gao, Dianyun Hou, Peng Song, Zhenzhu Guo, Yi Zhang and Guoan Shi

Cloning and expression of floral organ identity genes in Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’


ABSTRACT:

Tree peony is the most popular and important ornamental plant in China and has many different flower types. Although many studies about tree peony cultivation have been published, the regulatory mechanism of floral organ identity has not been explored. Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’ is a typical single-flower variety, and many important tree peony cultivars in China originated from homoploid hybridization between ‘Fengdan’ and other Paeonia species. Peony tea made from ‘Fengdan’ has already been introduced to the market, and the quality and price of peony tea are closely related to the flower type of ‘Fengdan’. This research cloned six floral organ identity genes in ‘Fengdan’, namely, PsAP1fd, PsAP2fd, PsAP3fd, PsPIfd, PsAGfd, and PsSEP1fd. The bioinformatics analysis was performed, and results showed that all these genes encoded MADS-box proteins, except PsAP2fd, and PsAP2fd encoded an AP2 protein. Five MADS-box proteins encoded by these genes contained two conserved motifs: MADS-MEF2 and K-box domain. PsSEP1fd was hydrophilic and stable, whereas the other five proteins were hydrophilic and unstable. The results of qRT-PCR displayed that PsAP1fd was mostly observed in the petals and sepals, and PsAP2fd was mostly found in the petals. PsAP3fd had strong expressions in the stamens and petals. The highest expression level of PsPIfd was observed in the petals, followed by that in the stamens. The highest expression level of PsAGfd was observed in the pistils, followed by that in the stamens. PsSEP1fd was mainly expressed in the pistils. These results showed that the ABCE model was effective in the flower type formation of ‘Fengdan’. Our work would help reveal the molecular mechanism underlying flower type formation in ‘Fengdan’ and promote quality control for peony tea products

2115-2123 Download
16

Arabidopsis trichome model elucidates the mechanism in cotton fiber initiation


Trinh Ngoc Ai, Thai Van Nam and Anh Phu Nam Bui

Arabidopsis trichome model elucidates the mechanism in cotton fiber initiation


ABSTRACT:

Cotton is valued for its fiber and requires yield improvement to compete with synthetic textiles and for sustainable cotton production. Cotton fiber production from seed coat epidermal cells can be categorized into two stages: initiation and development. While a great deal of research has been conducted on the cotton fiber elongation and secondary cell wall biosynthesis, fiber initiation understanding is still in its infant stage due to the difficulty in studying the mechanism in cotton, namely lengthy transformation, lack of characterized mutants, and large and complex genomes. The Arabidopsis trichome differentiates from the leaf epidermal cells and presents an excellent model system to elucidate the cotton fiber initiation mechanism. Knowledge gained from the initiation mechanism of Arabidopsis trichomes will facilitate, as a comparative model system, in understanding of the cotton fiber initiation mechanisms

2125-2129 Download
17

Comparative transcriptomic analyses of high and low oleic acid content sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed development


Fei Zhou, Yan Liu, Wenjun Wang, Liren Wu, Hongmei Yuan, Xuemei Liu, Jun Ma, Jing Wang, Yubo Yao, Liguo Zhang and Xutang Huang

Comparative transcriptomic analyses of high and low oleic acid content sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed development


ABSTRACT:

Helianthus annuus L. seeds possess high nutritional value and more stable oleic acid oil. Initial analysis of sunflower seed for oleic acid content during seed development revealed rapid oleic acid accumulation by 17 days after flowering (DAF), with high oleic acid levels persisting until after 27 DAF. Subsequent transcriptome sequencing analysis of high ('L-1-OL-1') and low ('86-1') oleic acid oil-producing sunflower cultivars enabled gene expression profile comparisons. Further analysis on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in seed from different group at 17 and 27 days revealed 5971 (2751 up, 3220 down), 4906 (2518 up, 2388 down), 12761 (5807 up, 6954 down), and 9883 (3803 up, 6080 down) DEGs for D8617d vs D8627d, D8617d vs L17d, D8627d vs L27d, and L17d vs L27d, respectively. DEGs annotation detected the key fatty acid biosynthesis genes and transcription factors with potential roles in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR)results of 12 DEGs involved in fatty acid metabolism were positively correlated with their expression patterns using RNA-Seq implying a good reliability of results produced by this method. The results in this research may pave theoretical basis for researching molecular mechanisms of sunflower lipid metabolism.

 

2131-2141 Download
18

Effect of integrated nutrient management practices on physiological, morphological and yield parameters of chilli (Capsicum annum L.)


Zubair Aslam, Ali Ahmad, Safdar Bashir, Saddam Hussain, Korkmaz Bellitürk, Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Ehsan Ullah, Samina Tanvir and Tanveer Abbas

Effect of integrated nutrient management practices on physiological, morphological and yield parameters of chilli (Capsicum annum L.)


ABSTRACT:

A field trial in tunnel was executed at Student Research Farm, near Vermicompost Center, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during December 2019 to May 2020 to develop nutrient management practices for chilli crop. There were six treatments viz., T0: Soil test base recommended dose of chemical fertilizer, T1: 100% cow dung, T2: 100% cow dung vermicompost, T3: 100% vermi-tea, T4: 33% cow dung + 33% vermicompost + 34% vermi-tea, T5: 25% chemical fertilizers + 25%vermicompost + 25% cow dung + 25% vermi-tea. The concerned trial was carried out with the objective to study various morphological traits (such as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves plant-1, count of branches plant-1, number of fruit plant-1, fruit length, fruit fresh and dry weights), physiological attributes (chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll contents (a+b), chlorophyll contents of SPAD value, carotenoids, proteins, ascorbic acid, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance) and yield (yield plant-1, plot-1 and hectare-1 was also calculated) of chilli variety Shandar. The obtained results indicated that treatment T5 resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fruit yield (212.00g/plant, 17kg/plot and 6.20ton/ha) followed by treatment T0 and T1 produced significantly less fruit yield (160.0 g/plant, 11. 33 g/plot, 4.66 ton/ha and 148.67 g/plant, 10 kg/plot, and 4.25 ton/ha respectively) compared to all other treatments

2143-2150 Download
19

The comparative alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potentials of different extracts of Capparis decidua fruit of Pakistani origin


Bushra Asghar, Syed Saeed Ul Hassan, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Abuzar Ghaffari, Hammad Ahmed and Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman

The comparative alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potentials of different extracts of Capparis decidua fruit of Pakistani origin


ABSTRACT:

Use of plant materials, extracts and bioactive compounds termed traditional practice. This type of exercise provided less expensive remedies and better health care. Therapeutic characteristics of natural herbs are usually joined to the secondary metabolites. Traditional medicinal plants have a significant role to manage diabetes mellitus. Consequently, our study is mainly focused on the evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of Capparis decidua fruit as well as comparative study of its different extracts, such as; n-hexane (NCD), chloroform (CCD) and methanolic (MCD). The phytochemical investigation of C. decidua confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides tannins and fixed oils. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoids contents were also assessed and found chief quantity in NCD extract. DPPH protocol was employed to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity with all extracts. The percentage-inhibitions 60.58%, 56.88% and 47.62% exhibited with NCD, CCD and MCD respectively. Values of IC50 were observed, 977.4μg/mL (NCD), 1214μg/mL (CCD) and 3011μg/mL (MCD). Anti-diabetic activity (In-vitro) was calculated through α-amylase inhibition protocols.  The percentage suppressions with MCD, CCD and NCD were observed 80.56, 83.18 and 86.11% respectively. The IC50 values with all said extracts 605, 456 and 167 μg/mL were analyzed. The comparative antioxidant and anti-diabetic aptitudes were also examined and concluded NCD found significant potentials

2151-2156 Download
20

Genetic diversity for production traits in hot chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)


Israr Ahmed, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Rehmat Kabir, Fida Muhammad, Anisa Intikhab, Attiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Zakariya Farid, Ghulam Jellani, Shahid Nadeem, Waleed Quresh, Mohsin Ali, Muhammad Mazhar Hussain and Irslan Ali

Genetic diversity for production traits in hot chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity is the basis of generating new innovations. Nowadays there is great tendency towards the usage of hybrid technology especially in vegetable crops. In hot chillies, only a few commercial hybrids are known which are being marketed at high prices. The indigenous and high yielding hybrid development in hot pepper is a novel approach to boost the national yield along with its fair availability to the masses at low prices. The study reported herein regarding the genetic variability in chillies has triggered the hybrid vigour model. The performance of twenty two different hot chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes including the indigenously developed hybrids along with elite lines and commercial hybrids were studied to find out genetic diversity for the production traits. Noteworthy, significant statistical differences were found for all the parameters showed existence of adequate variation. The fresh fruit yield of the locally developed chilli hybrid CH-15140 remained on the top (141.4 t/ha) and was found significantly higher than the other local and international hybrids and varieties. However, the international hybrids such as Bonanza and Atlas Imp also performed well with the fruit yields of 119.5 t/ha and 102.2 t/ha respectively. Not only high (GCV) and (PCV) were estimated for traits viz; single fruit weight (81.3 and 83.2%), yield per plant (31.8 and 32%), fresh fruit yield per hectare (31.8 and 32%) and fruit length (29 and 29.1%) but also high heritability (≥95%) along with high genetic advance (≥40%) denoted actuality of considerable variability, with minimum engrossment of the environmental factors which may be exploited through selection for better advancement. Highest fresh fruit yield was mostly achieved by the early maturing genotypes as evident from their significant but negative values of correlation coefficients both at the genotypic (-0.38) and phenotypic (-0.33 levels). Seeds per fruit and pericarp thickness significantly but positively contributed towards fresh fruit yield. Cluster analysis identified two main clusters viz., Cluster I with only one genotype (CH-15140) while Cluster II with two sub- clusters;  II-A and II-B. Diversity analysis, showed distinctiveness of eight genotypes from all other twenty-two genotypes which can be further improved through breeding for the development of high quality and high yielding chilli genotypes

2157-2166 Download
21

Establishment of an efficient cell suspension culture system for Lonicera japonica Thunb


Ning Wang, Hao Chen, Qinghai Gao and Jingjing Qian

Establishment of an efficient cell suspension culture system for Lonicera japonica Thunb


ABSTRACT:

Lonicera japonica Thunb (L. japonica T.) has a high medicinal value. Establishing a cell suspension system lays the research foundation for large-scale extraction of the medicinal products of L. japonica T.. Using stem segments from L. japonica T. tissue culture seedling as material, the effects of various hormone combinations on the growth of L. japonica T. cells were studied, the effects of initial inoculum, pH and sucrose concentration of culture medium on cell suspension culture were studied, and the optimal culture time of cell suspension culture was screened. This experiment established an efficient cell suspension culture system from the L. japonica T., stem segment to provide a foundation for large-scale extraction. The following were the observed results: (1) Different hormone combinations had varying effects on the growth of L. japonica. 1.5 mg/L Indol-3-Butyric acid (IBA) had the best effect on plantlet rooting in japonica cells, while 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) was suitable for bud differentiation, and 0.2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.8 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) had the best effect on callus dedifferentiation. (2) For the optimal cell suspension culture system, the best initial inoculum weight was 50 g/L, with a pH of 5.8 and a sucrose concentration of 3%. (3) The cell growth curves were determined using the optimal cell suspension system described above. Cell growth peaked at 18 days of suspension culture, with the fresh weight of cells being 676.0±12.66 g/L; 13.52 times higher than the initial inoculation amount

2167-2172 Download
22

An efficient micropropagation of Reseda lutea: a rare plant of Saudi Arabia


Fahad Al-Qurainy, Saleh Alansi, Salim Khan, Mohammad Nadeem, Aref Al-Shameri, Mohamed Tarroum, Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar and Nora Al-Farraj

An efficient micropropagation of Reseda lutea: a rare plant of Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The goal of this work was to look at the propagation of Reseda lutea L. by organogenesis in tissue culture. Explants from In vitro grown seedlings were taken from the axillary bud. After seven days of culture on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, the adventitious buds developed. After three weeks of culturing on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP, the maximum multiplication of shoots (16.12 shoots/explant) was discovered, with an average (7.37 cm) shoots/explant. These shoots were sub-cultured on MS media with varying concentrations of NAA and IBA for root initiation. The MS medium combined with IBA produced the greatest percentage of root development (92%) and the greatest number of roots (7.37 roots/plant). In MS media supplemented with 0.5 NAA, the longest roots (3.08 cm) were found. After 17 days in a glasshouse, the plantlets were acclimatized in pots containing Peat moss and pearlite, 98 percent of the plantlets were acclimatized. To get a plant in a pot, the complete procedure took about 75 days. The technique proposed could aid in the preservation of the plant both In vivo and In vitro

2173-2178 Download
23

Infertility curative plants as plant growth inhibitory agents


Saddar Afsheen Noman, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi, Syeda Saleha Hassney and Anila Naz Soomro

Infertility curative plants as plant growth inhibitory agents


ABSTRACT:

Long Term use of infertility curative plants is common in Sindh Pakistan. Continues intake of these plants may lead to cellular destruction based on toxic compounds in addition to fertility boosters. Assessment of non-cytotoxic dose to human can initially be tested in plant based assay. Therefore, three fertility enhancing plant parts viz. Sweet Flag Rhizome (S.F.R.), Peppermint Leaves (P.L.) and Red Cabbage Flower (R.C.F.) were compared for germination inhibition and mitotic index (M.I) inhibition as main parameters of phytotoxicity. Chickpea seeds were incubated for 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes in filtered aqueous extracts (1, 3 and 5%). Un-treated seeds were used as negative control and 0.2% Ethyl methane sulphonate treated seeds as positive control. Chickpea seed germination exhibited highly significant variations at p<0.01 (LSD) for all the doses of R.C.F. among tested plant parts. Highest germination inhibition was observed in S.F.R and lowest in R.C.F. Incubation time dependent decrease in germination was only observed for all the concentration of sweet flag and 5% of Peppermint. In case of M.I. highly significant variations were recorded by applying LSD analysis (p≤0.01) for all tested plant extracts except 1% S.F.R. Incubation time and concentration dependent M.I (%) was only observed in peppermint. Overall P.M. was least phytotoxic among tested plant extracts as compare to +ve control

2179-2186 Download
24

Some phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of two Prangos Lindl. (Umbellifera) species grown in Turkey


Sukru Hayta, Sevinc Aydin and Aykut Topdemir

Some phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of two Prangos Lindl. (Umbellifera) species grown in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

The genus Prangos is a member of the Apiaceae family, and it has been a focus of the attention of researchers due to its high nutritional value and some special medical properties. In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the leaf and fruit extracts of the Prangos ferulacea and Prangos uloptera species belonging to this genus were studied, and the properties of these two species were compared to each other. In the study, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the analysis of the total phenolic content, methanolic formaldehyde was used for the total flavonoid content, and both analyses were carried out with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer device. The antioxidant activity of the specimens was measured based on the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method. It was found that the P. ferulacea species had higher total phenolic and flavonoid content values than the P. uloptera species. The P. ferulacea species was also more effective in terms of antioxidant activity, which is known to be associated with these properties. When the fruit and leaf extracts of each species were compared, it was found that the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the fruit extract of the P. uloptera species was higher than that of its leaf extract, and the antioxidant activity of the fruit extract was also higher in proportion to these values. In the P. ferulacea species, as opposed to the case of P. uloptera, all values except for the total flavonoid values were higher in the leaf extract than the fruit extract

2187-2193 Download
25

Long-term fertilization effects on organic carbon, aggregates, and L- and D-amino acids in soils under wheat and maize crops


Zarina Bibi, Weixin Ding, Naqib Ullah Khan, Ghulam Jilani, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Qudratullah Khan and Muti Ullah

Long-term fertilization effects on organic carbon, aggregates, and L- and D-amino acids in soils under wheat and maize crops


ABSTRACT:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in maintaining soil quality and improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Long-term organic and inorganic fertilization effects on SOC, soil aggregates, and L- and D-amino acids under wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) crops were studied at Fengqiu State Key Agroecological Station, Fengqiu County, China. Field studies were initiated in September 1989 and continued for 23 years until 2012. Compost manure and NPK fertilizers alone and in different combinations were applied to wheat and maize crops. Wheat and maize as test crops were grown during winter and summer cropping seasons, respectively. The field experiment included seven treatments i.e., a) compost (CM), b) combination of half compost plus half inorganic fertilizer N (HCM), c) inorganic NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potash) fertilizer, d) inorganic NP fertilizer, e) inorganic PK fertilizer, f) inorganic NK fertilizer, and g) no fertilizer (control) were applied in a randomized complete block design. The L- and D-amino acids concentrations were significantly enhanced in CM- and HCM-treated soils. Amino acids showed a positive response in organically fertilized soil. The L-aspartic, L-glutamic, and D-aspartic acids were significantly (p≤0.01) and positively associated with SOC content. Similarly, SOC content showed a significant positive correlation with L-alanine, L-lysine, L-phenyl-alanine, L-glutamine, and D-tryptophan acids. The D-tryptophan and D-aspartic acids showed a significant positive correlation with total nitrogen. Organic fertilizer alone and in combination with NPK fertilizers increased the amino acids which ultimately enhanced soil fertility by increasing SOC.

 

2203-2214 Download
26

Two new names and validation of name in Nepeta L. (Lamiaceae)


Zhiyong Zhang and Muhammad Idrees

Two new names and validation of name in Nepeta L. (Lamiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

The previously and invalidly published new combination Nepeta platystegia (Rech.f) Jamzad & Serpooshan, is validated here by citing a full and direct reference to its basionym. Two new names are proposed here for Nepeta calycina (Boiss.) Jamzad & Serpooshan (N. neocalycina M. Idrees), and Nepeta incana (Bunge) Jamzad & Serpooshan (N. heinzii M. Idrees), which are an illegitimate later homonyms of N. calycina Fenzl, and N. incana Thunb. ex Houtt, respectively

2215-2217 Download
27

Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance within the genus Scorzonera L. (Cichoreae-Asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir


Rubina Abid, Syed Raza Mehdi, Sana Riaz, Durdana Kanwal, M. Imran and Afsheen Ather

Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance within the genus Scorzonera L. (Cichoreae-Asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

Morphological characters of cypsela for 17 species of the genus Scorzonera L. were examined from Pakistan and Kashmir to assess their taxonomic significance. Macro and micro morphological characters of cypsela, pappus and carpopodium were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The genus showed considerable variations in the morphological characters of cypsela. However, linear shape was found to be dominant and ribbed surface was prevalent within the genus. Pappi were found in one or two series. Carpopodium was basal or sub basal with the variety of shapes. The data obtained was also analyzed numerically and found rewarding to strengthen the taxonomic decisions at specific levels

2219-2231 Download
28

Ellipticalness index – a simple measure of the complexity of oval leaf shape


Yuping Li, Brady K. Quinn, Ülo Niinemets, Julian Schrader, Johan Gielis, Mengdi Liu and Peijian Shi

Ellipticalness index – a simple measure of the complexity of oval leaf shape


ABSTRACT:

Plants have diverse leaf shapes that have evolved to adapt to the environments they have experienced over their evolutionary history. Leaf shape and leaf size can greatly influence the growth rate, competitive ability, and productivity of plants. However, researchers have long struggled to decide how to properly quantify the complexity of leaf shape. Prior studies recommended the leaf roundness index (RI = 4πA/P2) or dissection index (DI = ), where P is leaf perimeter and A is leaf area. However, these two indices merely measure the extent of the deviation of leaf shape from a circle, which is usually invalid as leaves are seldom circular. In this study, we proposed a simple measure, named the ellipticalness index (EI), for quantifying the complexity of leaf shape based on the hypothesis that the shape of any oval leaf can be regarded as a variation from a standard ellipse. 2220 leaves from nine species of Magnoliaceae were sampled to check the validity of the EI. We also tested the validity of the Montgomery equation (ME), which assumes a proportional relationship between leaf area and the product of leaf length and width, because the EI actually comes from the proportionality coefficient of the ME. We also compared the ME with five other models of leaf area. The ME was found to be the best model for calculating leaf area based on consideration of the trade-off between model fit vs. complexity, which strongly supported the robustness of the EI for describing oval leaf shape. The new index can account for both leaf shape and size, and we conclude that it is a promising method for quantifying and comparing oval leaf shapes across species in future studies

2233-2240 Download
29

Vegetation composition and biological spectra of the district Chakwal, Pakistan using multivariate analyses


Shahid Ali, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Naveed Iqbal Raja and Muhammad Azam Khan

Vegetation composition and biological spectra of the district Chakwal, Pakistan using multivariate analyses


ABSTRACT:

The vegetation analysis was undertaken of the District Chakwal which is located at the beginning of the Pothwar plateau during 2015 to 2017. Stratified random vegetation sampling technique was used along the 14 altitudinal transects of 70 sampling sites with 700 plots. The Cluster Analysis classified six dominant plant communities viz., 1) Lantana-Parthenium-Cannabis (LPC) community, 2) Calotropis-Chrysopogon-Melia (CCM) community, 3) Cynodon-Cenchrus-Tecomella (CCT) community, 4) Zizyphus-Zizyphus-Capparis (ZZC) community, 5) Dalbergia-Heteropogon-Prosopis (DHP) community and 6) Acacia-Justicia-Dodonaea (AJD) community. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) tool was applied to confirm the studied climatic variables in association with the existing plant communities. The CCA results revealed that total variations in the response data were 3.827 and 32.7% as explained by the explanatory variables. On the basis of conditional (net) term effects, moisture [Pseudo-F 1.7; p(adj) 0.00243] and soil pH [Pseudo-F 1.6; p(adj) 0.00243] were detected as the most important and significant factors towards explaining the variations among different vegetation communities. It was concluded that altitude, electrical conductivity and soil pH were the significant environmental factors that play role in the formation of major plant communities in the District Chakwal. Being the dominance of natural remnant vegetation in this mountainous terrain, local inhabitants are continuously exerting pressure for utilizing the century’s old vegetation especially for fuel wood and other uses so there is immediate need for proper management of this area

2241-2251 Download
30

Ecological characterization of natural habitats of some Vicia L. species (Fabaceae) in northeastern Algeria


Rachida Issolah, Zahia Sebkhi and Zahira Bouziane

Ecological characterization of natural habitats of some Vicia L. species (Fabaceae) in northeastern Algeria


ABSTRACT:

Within the framework of the evaluation and development of plant genetic resources of fodder and pastoral interest in Algeria, a study was conducted on the characterization of the natural habitats corresponding to some Vicia species (Fabaceae). Following a prospecting and collection mission carried out across north-eastern Algeria (Blida, Boumerdes, Bouira, Tizi ouzou, Béjaia, Sétif), seven species were identified (Vicia sativa, Vicia disperma, Vicia monardi, Vicia narbonensis, Vicia ochroleuca, Vicia onobrychoides and Vicia lutea). Fifty (50) sites and five species were selected. For each site, three soil samples were randomly chosen. Sixteen (16) physico-chemical parameters were analysed (soil pH, conductivity, total limestone, total nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, carbon, organic matter, C/N ratio, soil texture composition). Two (02) factors related to the topography (altitude) and climate (rainfall) of the natural habitats of the various vetches were also considered. The results of the variance analysis (anova and manova), applied to the physical and chemical characteristics of soils, indicated very highly significant variability in the majority of cases. Vetch species are adapted to soils of various textures, however, they are more frequently encountered on soils of balanced textures. Vetches are often found on soils of basic pH, less frequently on acidic or neutral soils. Many significant relationships have also been highlighted, particularly between most of the physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and some climatic and topographical factors (altitude, rainfall). The hierarchical analysis highlighted several groups of sites which confirming the observed variation. The work highlighted the wide capacity of Vicia species to adapt to different ecological conditions, particularly Vicia sativa and Vicia disperma. This work is a contribution to the conservation and enhancement of fodder legumes in Algeria, especially the endemic and rare ones, which would be threatened and endangered.

 

 

2253-2261 Download
31

Diversity and distribution of soil seed banks and plant litter in Al Aadi Al Akhdar (the Green valley) of Tabuk region – Saudi Arabia


Abdelrahim A. Elbalola and Ghazi A. Al-Atawi

Diversity and distribution of soil seed banks and plant litter in Al Aadi Al Akhdar (the Green valley) of Tabuk region – Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

We explored the species composition, diversity, and spatial distribution of soil seed banks and plant litter at two sites within Al Wadi Al Akhdar 'the green valley' area of Tabuk region, KSA, the main valley, and an adjoining shallow stream which are in essence different in elevation, slope and amount of overflow. The objectives were to evaluate and detect the species diversity and spatial variability in soil seed banks and plant litter. We used the systematic sampling procedure to collect soil samples, and the flotation method to extract seeds and plant litter. We employed Paleontological Statistics (PAST) version 4.03 to achieve summary statistics, diversity indices, and graphs and drive appropriate statistical tests that are crucial to answering research questions. Seed banks and plant litter exhibited abnormal spatial distributions. Differences in the mean number of seeds and plant litter contents between sampling points and between the two sites were not significant (p≤0.05). The shallow stream was more diverse in seed species with a high evenness of distribution between species compared to the valley. The valley possessed a higher number of seeds with a higher dominance _ D value. Species within the shallow site varied significantly (p≤0.05) in their mean number of seeds, but the difference between the valley species was not significant. Senecio sp. seeds dominated the seed bank of the valley, while Brassica sp. seeds dominated the shallow stream seed bank. The seed banks of both sites were made of herbaceous species. The parent plants of seed banks do not belong to the standing vegetation. We concluded that elevation and slope influenced soil seed banks' spatial distribution, diversity, and plant litter

2263-2271 Download
32

Variation in productivity along the altitudinal gradients in Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP), Pakistan


Ghulam Raza, Sarwat N. Mirza, Muhammad Akbar, Muhammad Ali, Faisal Hussian, Alamdar Hussian, Salar Ali and Jamal Hussian

Variation in productivity along the altitudinal gradients in Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP), Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The study was carried out in the Hushe Valley, CKNP region, Pakistan, during summer 2012. Sampling was performed along altitudinal gradients in rangelands of CKNP area Hushe. Five quadrats were laid on each of line transects (25m) in four dimensions at 5 meters’ intervals, on alternate sides of transect line. Biomass productivity and carrying capacity were estimated by using 1-m² quadrats (N=20 by site; total N = 60). The average standing biomass and carrying capacity was 48 Kg ha-1and 55.67 ha-1AU-15 mo-1 respectively. Furthermore, cumulative standing biomass of shrub, grass and forb at each altitudinal gradient of upper, mid and lower was estimated at18, 60 and 66 Kg ha-1, respectively. The carrying capacity for the forb category was 16 months’ha-1AU-1/5 months-1 at the lower elevation, whereas at mid elevation the carrying capacity for the shrub category was 23 ha-1AU-15 mo-1. The assessment of soil organic matter at each site was highest (1.5%) at the high elevation, while P (27.9 mgkg1) and K (260 mgkg1) concentrations were highest at mid elevation. The study highlighted low production which also vary along altitudinal gradient. This is an alarming situation for the livestock farmers and wild ungulates under present and predicted climate change scenarios. Therefore, the results of the study would be beneficial for the policy makers and managers in the planning of rangeland of CKNP

2273-2279 Download
33

Leaf epidermal morphology and its systematic implications in Poaceae: investigating 15 taxa from wetland areas


Aamir Shehzad Khan, Maryam Akram Butt, Syed Nasar Shah, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sadaf Kayani and Maimoona Birjees

Leaf epidermal morphology and its systematic implications in Poaceae: investigating 15 taxa from wetland areas


ABSTRACT:

Light microscopic study is significant for the identification of taxonomically complex grass family Poaceae. This is the first microscopic study of foliar epidermal characters of 15 species of family Poaceae belonging to waterlogged and marshy (wetland) areas. These 15 species were collected from different localities of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. In current study we compared the morphological features of foliar epidermis characters of leaf by using light microscopy. Variations in qualitative characters have been observed that include epidermal cell shape, pattern of anticlinal wall, types of stomata, micro hair types, silica body shapes, subsidiary cell shape and presence of prickles. The key result of this study showing that type of stomata in all species is paracytic on both upper and lower surfaces. The anticlinal walls are mostly sinuous but some plant species have straight and undulating walls. Mostly epidermal cells are rectangular but in some species they are elongated and irregular in shape. Micro hairs are either Panicoid type or Chloridoid type in some species. The difference in anatomical characters of leaf between the genera and species proved very helpful in the identification and classification. Taxonomic key using micro morphological characters is provided for the distinction among the genera and species.

 

2281-2289 Download
34

A study on the phenotypic diversity of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying


Zheng Zhang, Zhengyang Yao, Qingqing Ma, Junmei Liu, Yanxia Liu, Weihua Liang, Tong Zhang, Dongxue Yin, Wei Liu and Qi Qiao

A study on the phenotypic diversity of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying


ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity is a basic component of biological diversity, and phenotypic diversity is an important research direction of genetic diversity. The variation in phenotypic traits often has important implications for environmental adaptation and evolution, contributing to an understanding of the ways, mechanisms, and influencing factors of biological adaptation and biological evolution. In this study, the traits of leaves, flowers, fruits, and plant height of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying from different natural distribution regions were measured and analyzed to investigate its phenotypic diversity, which provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of genetic diversity, the protection of germplasm resources, the breeding of improved varieties, and the innovative development and utilization of S. hexandrum. By the phenotypic diversity investigation of 30 characters of 160 S. hexandrum from eight different regions, the results indicated that the phenotypic variation of S. hexandrum was extremely rich, and most traits had wide variation and significant differences among populations (among surveyed regions) and within populations (within surveyed regions). The coefficient of variation (CV) of 30 phenotypic traits in S. hexandrum ranged from 7.98% (LTW) to 31.90% (LTW/LL), with an average of 12.22%. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) ranged from 0.045% (LSe/WSe) to 61.305% (WPe), with an average of 17.776%. The degree of phenotypic differentiation was in this sequence as plant height (25.827%)> floral organs (19.376%)> fruiting organs (16.248%)> leaf organs (14.914%), indicating that the degree of differentiation of phenotypic traits in reproductive organs was higher than that in vegetative organs, and the phenotypic stability of reproductive organs was poor. The degree of variation among different morphological characteristics of S. hexandrum was quite different, but it showed a certain regularity, viz. the differentiation among individuals within surveyed regions was greater than that among surveyed regions, and the stability of the phenotypic traits of individuals within surveyed regions was worse than that among surveyed regions

2291-2302 Download
35

Identification of plant species through leaf vein morphometric and deep learning


Aneeq Atique, Saira Karim, Saman Shahid and Zareen Alamgir

Identification of plant species through leaf vein morphometric and deep learning


ABSTRACT:

Taxonomy language is challenging to comprehend and automated knowledge is required to identify the plant species. The study focused on developing an improved deep neural network: Residual Neural Network-ResNet & and Densely Connected Convolution Network (DenseNet) for the plant identification with plant leaf vein architecture. There was a total of 44 species. Each species had 64 images, each of which was further divided into 52 images for the training data and 12 images for the test data. The Canny edge detection method was deployed to detect the vein architecture of the leaves. For ResNet and DenseNet, the 224 x 224 binary image was used. The size of the feature maps in 4 dense blocks was: 56 x 56, 28 x 28, 14 x 14, and 7 x 7, respectively. MalayaKew (MK) data set was used for the experiment. There was a total of 44 classes and images were divided into the training set and the test set. The training set contained 2288 images, with each class having 52 images. Test class contained 528 images, with each class having 12 images. After preprocessing these images, they were fed to various networks of ResNet and DenseNet. Two algorithms, Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and Adam optimization, were used in each network. Through SGD, the model ResNet, had 26, 34, 50, 101, and 152 layers. The best accuracy achieved was 89.24% using 50 layers. DenseNet had 121, 169, and 201 layers. The best accuracy achieved was 94.20% using 169 layers. In Adam optimizer, the ResNet model had 26, 34, 50, 101, and 152 layers. The best accuracy achieved was 89.50% using 101 layers. DenseNet had 121, 169, and 201 layers. The best accuracy achieved was 95.72% using 169 layers.  Overall, the best performance was achieved using Adam optimizer using the DenseNet model with 169 layers and came out to be 95.72%. This also surpassed the accuracy that was achieved using D-leaf architecture. The proposed deep learning (DL) methods were very accurate in identifying plants

2295-2202 Download
36

Comparative role of Dwarf Cavendish banana leaf formulated biochar and compost in corn - nutrient uptake and its relationship with yield


Hidayatullah Kakar, Mehrunisa Memon, Inayatullah Rajpar and Qamaruddin Chachar

Comparative role of Dwarf Cavendish banana leaf formulated biochar and compost in corn - nutrient uptake and its relationship with yield


ABSTRACT:

Research shows a mixed outcome on the use of compost, biochar, or a mixture of both along with chemical fertilizer application on crops. This study evaluated the use of banana-leaf biochar and compost.  The latter additionally had 25% farm manure rather than the compost of the main material. Trials were carried out with 5 tons of compost, and 20 and 40 tons of biochar, each integrated with nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizer rates of 0-0, 120-0 and 120-90 kg of N and P2O5 on a hectare basis. On average, the N and P contents of biochar were respectively 53% and 43% of the compost contents. The average K contents of compost (97%) were close to the biochar content. While the organic C contents of compost were 79% of the biochar contents. Available P and K contents of the soil were inadequate. The highest uptake was obtained when 120 kg N and 90 kg of P2O5 ha-1 were coupled with 5 tons of compost, which gave equivalent nutrient uptake with 20 tons of biochar under both experiments. Additional 20 tons of biochar (40 tons ha-1) was not beneficial. The nutrient uptake regressed with corn yield gave a positive and linear relationship, which reflected the impact of existing nutrient contents in corn. Same products may be tested under long-term trials using different soil textures.

 

2303-2309 Download
37

Seasonal structural changes of phloem cells in Ginkgo biloba L.


Shan Li, Xin Li, Yafang Yin, Xiaomei Jiang, Jingming Zheng, Li Wang, Zhicheng Chen and Peter Prislan

Seasonal structural changes of phloem cells in Ginkgo biloba L.


ABSTRACT:

Ginkgo biloba is a non-coniferous gymnosperm tree species growing in China and widely cultivated as ornamental tree. Exploring seasonal structural changes in phloem cells of Ginkgo biloba could provide better understanding of the relationship between phloem structure and function. Stems of Ginkgo biloba saplings were sampled at regular intervals during different seasons and then prepared for observation with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy was used for identification of non-conducting and conducting phloem and for histometric comparison between sampling dates. Ultrastructure (cell organelle presence and distribution) of phloem sieve cells and parenchyma was observed to better understand seasonal changes in phloem cells. Our results showed that most early phloem sieve cells collapsed at the end of the growing season, while most late phloem sieve cells did not collapse till the next spring. Sieve cells in the youngest phloem were characterized by square shape with larger radial diameter and slightly thicker cell walls compared to cambial cells. Their lumina were mostly empty, although some organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, plastids) could be found close to the cell walls. In the older (nonconducting) phloem the shape of sieve cells became partly collapsed with completely empty lumina. Furthermore, pores are mostly open and callose was not present on sieve plates neither in the youngest nor in the older phloem. Most phloem parenchyma cells contain large vacuoles, lipid droplets and amyloplasts, with those in the youngest phloem showing evident seasonal changes, i.e., the cytoplasm was denser in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn, and lipid droplets appeared to be at the highest density/frequency in winter compared with other seasons.In conclusion, phloem sieve cells of G. biloba undergo obvious seasonal structural changes depending on their ages, which is also in accordance with their seasonal conducting functions in these deciduous trees. Youngest phloem parenchyma cells also showed seasonal structural variation with regards to cytoplasm density and frequency of lipid droplets

2311-2319 Download
38

Effect of grazing exclusion on soil bacterial community links with variations in soil properties but not in vegetation characteristics


Qing-Rong Huang, Han-Wen Deng, Lei Ji, Yu-Meng Lu, Zi-Jie Wang, Yong-Chul Park, Yan-Lin Sun and Soon-Kwan Hong

Effect of grazing exclusion on soil bacterial community links with variations in soil properties but not in vegetation characteristics


ABSTRACT:

Soil bacterial community plays an important role in soil nutrient cycling, and its diversity has become the key indicator for evaluating soil health, and understanding climate changes, ecosystem resistance, resilience, and functional redundancy. However, the effects of grazing exclusion, as the commonly used soil management strategy for degraded grassland restoration, on soil bacterial community often obtain inconsistent conclusions from different trials. In order to clarity the effects of grazing exclusion on soil bacterial community, we selected a 36 years grazing exclusion area (GE) and three free grazing areas (FGs) with different grazing intensities in Xilingol Grassland of Inner Mongolia, China, and examined the biomass, composition, and diversity of soil bacterial community, together with their corresponding vegetation and soil properties, to further understand the driving factors of soil bacterial community changes. Our results showed that grazing exclusion had no significant effect on the abundance and diversity of total soil bacterial community, but it did change the composition of soil bacteria, especially increasing the abundances of the phyla Diapherotrites and Gemmatimonadetes. In addition, grazing exclusion significantly increased vegetation aboveground biomass, litter mass, soil N stock and the availabilities of K and P, but reduced vegetation diversity. The correlation between soil bacterial communities and their environmental factors suggested that soil bacterial communities closely linked with soil available potassium (AK), and available phosphorus contents (AP), but not with vegetation characteristics. However, the soil properties were closely affected by vegetation characteristics. Therefore, our study suggested that soil bacterial communities mainly responded to the changes of soil properties directly, but also indirectly affected by the changes of vegetation diversity and biomass. Our results would provide new insights for the restoration evaluation of degraded grasslands

2321-2334 Download
39

Detection of aflatoxin contamination and incidence of fungi associated with red chili available in local market of Karachi, Pakistan


Syed Muhammad Enamullah, Afshan Rahman, Najmus Sahar and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Detection of aflatoxin contamination and incidence of fungi associated with red chili available in local market of Karachi, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Chili (Capsicum annuum L.), a valuable cash crop of Pakistan is cultivated for both local consumption as well as for export. However, its export is being affected by aflatoxin contamination. Many chili consignments have been found to have aflatoxin concentration greater than the allowable limit. In this study, different chili samples were collected from local markets as well as from chili fields for the detection of aflatoxins and estimation of the incidence of associated fungi with chili fruit. Aflatoxin (AF) contamination was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and it was found between the range of 3.2 to 39.2 ppb. However, aflatoxin was found less than 10 ppb in most of the samples. The highest incidence of Aspergillus niger was found in all twenty-one test samples followed by Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma spp., and Rhizopus sp. This investigation showed that the export of Pakistani chili is not at the stack, since more than 50% of chili samples showed the presence of aflatoxin within the acceptable range for human consumption as per US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard

2335-2339 Download
40

Physcia vitii Nadv. new to South Asia - molecular data

 


Qudsia Firdous, Kamran Habib, Abdul Nasir Khalid and André Aptroot

Physcia vitii Nadv. new to South Asia - molecular data

 


ABSTRACT:

A species in the genus Physcia was collected from dry temperate ecozones of Pakistan. The critical morpho-anatomical comparison to the known species of the genus revealed it to be P. vitii.  Its existence here indicates that it is first report from South Asia and also here been described for the first time on the basis of ITS marker. A taxonomic treatment including a description based on the newly collected material is provided along with a molecular phylogenetic analysis

2341-2345 Download
41

Strain improvement of Aspergillus oryzae for enhanced biosynthesis of phytase through chemical mutagenesis


Ikram Ul Haq, Muhammad Bilal Saeed, Ali Nawaz, Zannara Mustafa and Fatima Akram

Strain improvement of Aspergillus oryzae for enhanced biosynthesis of phytase through chemical mutagenesis


ABSTRACT:

The present study deal with strain improvement through random chemical mutagenesis of phytase producing Aspergillus oryzae UJIIB-29. Aspergillus oryzae wild strain UJIIB-29 was exposed to three different chemical mutagens i.e. sodium azide, nitrous acid and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Thirty isolates obtained after treating with chemical mutagens showing the large zone of phytic acid hydrolysis were picked and subjected to secondary screening for phytase production using submerged fermentation on phytase screening media. The mutant NA-4 obtained after treating wild strain with nitrous acid exhibited maximum activity of phytase (44± 0.01 U/ml/min). It was approximately 1.9 folds higher than enzyme activity (23.1±0.01 U/ml/min) of parent strain. To further increase the phytase activity, fermentation conditions like fermentation media, time of incubation, incubation temperature, pH of the medium, carbon source and its different concentrations, nitrogen source and its different concentrations and size of inoculum were optimized. The maximum phytase units (58.98± 0.01 U/ml/min) were achieved in glucose phosphate broth (M) having 1% starch, 0.4% ammonium sulphate as a carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, at 30 C, having pH 4.5 after 7days of incubation period. As a result of optimization, 1.3 times increased in phytase activity (58.98± 0.01 U/ml/min) was achieved. Nitrous acid proved to be a potent mutagen for strain improvement. Furthermore, optimized fermentation parameter can help in scaling up the phytsae production using Aspergillus oryzae NA-4

2347-2354 Download
42

Anatomical comparison of response to Verticillium dahliae infection in resistant and susceptible wild eggplants


Liyan Wu, Zhibin Li, Rui Bao, Min Gui, Yaju Gong and Guanghui Du

Anatomical comparison of response to Verticillium dahliae infection in resistant and susceptible wild eggplants


ABSTRACT:

To compare the anatomical response of plant stems to Verticillium dahliae infection, two strains of wild eggplants, Verticillium wilt-resistant Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (197) and susceptible ‘daliyeqie’ (239), were used in this study. Histological observations were conducted at 0, 14, 28, 40, and 60 days post inoculation, using paraffin slices assessed via transmitted light microscopy. Quantitative and qualitative differences in stem microstructure were assessed using captured images. Transverse sections of basal stem showed reduced epidermal cell and parenchyma cell layers and xylem vessel size in stems of 197 compared with those of 239. In general, the stem microstructure of 197 was more closely arranged compared to that of 239. During pathogenic infection, similar induced resistant changes were noted in the stem microstructures of 197 and 239. However, increased lignin deposition in xylem vessels of 197 was observed after infection. In addition, stem growth in 239 was severely inhibited, and stem structure was destroyed upon pathogen infection. These inherent and induced features associated with resistance provide a more complete understanding of resistance mechanisms of wild eggplant to Verticillium wilt

2355-2361 Download
43

Progress on mapping, cloning and application of rice blast resistance genes

 


Lili Wang, Zuobin Ma, Jiaming Zhao, Shuang Gu, Lijun Gao, Zh. Mukhina, Dianrong Ma and Wenjing Zheng

Progress on mapping, cloning and application of rice blast resistance genes

 


ABSTRACT:

Rice blast is a fungal disease that is known to severely affect rice production worldwide. It is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). One of the most economical and effective methods to control this disease involves breeding and cultivate of resistant rice varieties. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made in this field and significant knowledge has been attained regarding rice blast resistance genes. The present study provides an overview of the studies that focused on mapping, cloning, and functional assessment of rice blast resistance genes and their application in molecular breeding. Additionally, the present review discusses the current limitations and future prospects for developing improved rice blast resistant varieties. Altogether, the present study provides valuable and comprehensive insights into rice blast resistance breeding

2363-2375 Download
44

Distribution and diversity of marine algae of Sindh coastal area: alpha, beta and gamma diversity


Fahad Bashir, Alia Abbas, S. Shahid Shaukat, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui and Ijaz Ahmed Qureshi

Distribution and diversity of marine algae of Sindh coastal area: alpha, beta and gamma diversity


ABSTRACT:

Algae occupies a significant position in humans life due to its utilization in different aspects. However, their composition and dominance are being disturbed by many factors. An ecological study was directed to check the species conforrmation, vertical dissemination and monthly variation of marine macro algae along the Sindh coast, Pakistan between February 2020 and January 2021. A sum of 64 species was recorded having the species distribution % i.e., 20% from Chlorophyta, 45% from Phaeophyta and 34% from Rhodophyta. Phaeophyta found to be most prevailing phylum trailed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. Moreover, Monthly growth of Phaeophyta was on peak during November to March while Chlorophyta was on top in May to August and Rhodophyta was moderate throughout the year. However, alpha, beta and gamma diversification of marine algae was also observed that showed alpha diversity was relatively smaller than the beta diversity

2377-2382 Download
45

Nano-copper, temperature, biopesticides and traditional compounds mitigate the adverse effects of cowpea beetle in correlation with germination percentage of cowpea


Maha I. El-Sawy, Attiah Y. Keratum, Raafat B. Abou Arab, Mohamed F. Shady and Sherif M. Abdel-Dayem

Nano-copper, temperature, biopesticides and traditional compounds mitigate the adverse effects of cowpea beetle in correlation with germination percentage of cowpea


ABSTRACT:

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three plant extracts (Ficus, camphor, and clove) and their powders compared with a pyrethroid insecticide (cypermethrin) and copper nanoparticles against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. This study also determined the effects of different temperatures on the progeny arising from immature stages of C. maculatus (eggs, larvae, and pupae). Toxicity, progeny, % F1 reduction, % seed weight loss, and effect on immature stages were studied using the mixing with feeding medium method. Results showed that cypermethrin and copper nanoparticles achieved the highest mortality followed by plant powders and their extracts. In addition, these materials had the same effects on % adult reduction and % weight loss. Most of the immature stages were deterred under the studied temperatures, except for 30°C, which was the most suitable for development of the tested stages. Temperatures of 40°C and 45°C completely prevented any emergence at all durations of exposure, whereas 20°C, 25°C, and 35°C reduced the number of adult emergence. Using plant extracts and their powders provided cowpea seeds the best protection against C. maculatus infestation. In addition, the formulations of plant (extract/powder) and the age of deposit affected plant efficiency. Among the tested materials, clove extract had the highest effect, whereas its powder exerted the least effect. The powders were better than the extracts. Furthermore, the combination of the different tools used in the present investigation might be an effective approach of integrated pest management strategy

2383-2390 Download
46

Diversity of invasive alien plants species of lesser Himalayas-Pakistan


Farida Anjum, Mushtaq Ahmad, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Zafar, Shazia Sultana, Salman Majeed, Anwer Usman And Asif Mir

Diversity of invasive alien plants species of lesser Himalayas-Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The objective of current study is the comprehensive account regarding the diversity of invasive alien plants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan with special emphasis on family, habit, nativity, mode of introduction, and global distribution. A total of 73 invasive alien species under 65 genera and 30 families have been documented in present research study which is based upon field observations, herbarium, literature consultations and review. As far as mode of introduction of species is concerned 37% species, have been introduced intentionally wile rest of species were unintentionally established via different means, the most common is trade. Analysis of status or life form of these plant species indicates that herbs are dominant (44), while shrubs (10 species), Grass (6 species), Trees (10species), undershrub, climber, and Fern (1 species each). Perennial habit is represented by 43 invasive plant species followed by 25 annual and rest of species shows both annual and perennial habit. Nativity analysis revealed that majority of invasive alien plant species are reported from American subcontinent (51%). Plant invasions adversely affect indigenous flora, ecosystem functions which results in ecological and economic imbalance of a particular region. Impacts of biological invasions are complex as it alters the species composition and its dynamics. Due to biological invasions plant communities in an area become less diverse that is proved as a threat to native diversity of invaded region. A better planning strategies and appropriate control measures (indigenous biological and cultural weed control measures) is the urgent need of time. This will give a clear strategy to mitigate the existing and future adverse effects of alien plant invasions on ecological processes that are vulnerable.

 

2391-2403 Download
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