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Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 3
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LVIII. CELASTRACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LVIII. CELASTRACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 6 species of the family Celastraceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate, sub-prolate to oblate-spheroidal. Sexine slightly thicker or thinner than nexine or as thick as nexine. Tectum mostly reticulate or sub-psilate. On the basis of exine pattern two distinct pollen types viz., Celastrus paniculatus–type and Maytenus senegalensis-type are recognized.

957-962 Download
2
MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF MALUS PUMILA L., (ROSACEAE)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND SHAUKAT ALI KHAN

MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF MALUS PUMILA L., (ROSACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination of Malus pumila L., of the family Rosaceae was examined upto 48 weeks in a refrigerator (+4C), freezer (-20C, -30C) and freeze drier (-60C) using hanging drop technique in different concentration of sucrose and boric acid solution. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage as compared to pollen stored at +4C and in fresh pollen. Freeze dried pollen (-60C) showed the highest germination percentage.

963-966 Download
3
SIGNIFICANCE OF FLORA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN
S. I. ALI

SIGNIFICANCE OF FLORA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This article contains no Abstract

967-971 Download
4
TAXONOMY OF SCROPHULARIACEAE FROM NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI* AND G.R. BHATTI1

TAXONOMY OF SCROPHULARIACEAE FROM NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five plant species of the genera Anticharis, Bacopa, Kickxia and Schweinfurthia were collected from Nara Desert during 1998-2004. They were taxonomically determined and have been described for the first time from this area. Since, these species are narrowly distributed; therefore efforts should be made to conserve them.

973-978 Download
5
DIVERSITY OF MICRO-HABITATS AND THEIR PLANT RESOURCES IN NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI* AND G.R. BHATTI1

DIVERSITY OF MICRO-HABITATS AND THEIR PLANT RESOURCES IN NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five habitats were identified for plant communities from Nara Desert, Pakistan. A total of 145 species belonging to 104 genera and 43 families were recorded during 1998-2001. Species composition in the different habitat types showed differences in species richness. The highest species richness of 77.24% is recorded from flat habitat. Crest habitat possesses less number of species (15 species; 10.34%) as compared to the rest of habitats. The vegetation over major area is characterized by xerophytic adaptation. The most common plants in this desert are Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Dipterygium glaucum, Crotalaria burhia, Prosopis cineraria, Tamarix aphylla, Capparis decidua, Salvadora oleoides, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Aristida spp., Limeum indicum and Stipagrostis plumosa growing in Crest, Slope and flat habitats, whereas saline/ sodic land and wetland habitat possess halophytic and hydrophytic characteristic features. The common vegetation of different habitats of this aridland is presented.

979-992 Download
6
STATUS OF PLANT DIVERSITY AT KUFRI (SOONE VALLEY) PUNJAB, PAKISTAN AND PREVAILING THREATS THEREIN
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

STATUS OF PLANT DIVERSITY AT KUFRI (SOONE VALLEY) PUNJAB, PAKISTAN AND PREVAILING THREATS THEREIN
ABSTRACT:
To examine the species composition in the Soone Valley, Punjab, Pakistan, the Kufri site was selected on the basis of some ecological attributes i.e., topography, soil type and the nature of prevailing disturbances. Data regarding the composition of plant diversity revealed that among the woody leguminous plants Acacia modesta was the most commonly occurring species. Propsopis juliflora occurred very commonly and formed mono-species stands, while Dalbergia sissoo was absent altogether. Among the herbaceous weedy legumes Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus indica were commonly found during the winter seasons. At higher altitudes Olea ferruginea formed a good association with Acacia modesta. Throughout the examined site, Dodonaea viscosa and Justicia adhatoda occurred very abundantly, because both species had resistance for grazing and fuel needs. Cutting of woody plants and shrubs for fuel purposes and their lopping for grazing the domestic animals are the two major threats to the entire local vegetation in this valley. Accidental fires caused by careless honey hunters also, sometimes become uncontrollable and wipe out most of the vegetation to a large extent.

993-997 Download
7
FORAGE EVALUATION FOR SOME TRACE ELEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOONE VALLEY, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

FORAGE EVALUATION FOR SOME TRACE ELEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOONE VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey was conducted in the soone valley in the north-west of the Punjab Province of Pakistan to assess the concentrations of some essential minerals during the period of whole year in forages for livestock grazing therein. Samples of dominant species of forage plants were taken, which consisted chiefly of legumes, after following the animals. The samples were analysed for Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn. Micro mineral concentrations in the forages for Mn ranged between 3.92-5.09 and 5.90-6.83; Zn; 0.027-0.076 and 0.028- 0.064, Fe; 20.72-25.43 and 25.35-32.94, Cu; 0.38-0.54 and 0.34-0.51 mg g-1 in the leaves and pods, respectively. The forage species had varying mineral composition in both leaves and pods. The plants showed significant differences for Zn and Mn contents of leaves and non-significant differences for pods, while Fe exhibited non-significant difference for the plant parts. Based on investigation recorded for Mn, Zn, and Fe contents, it was concluded that the forage plant species studied were found to be palatable and had much higher concentrations of those elements required for the needs of grazing livestock in that specific range and warranted no urgent need of supplementation. The results of the present investigation provide information of reasonable amounts of Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu in forages, which seems to be considerably high. Further investigations for the determination and prevention of toxicosis, if any of these trace elements on animals of the range are urgently needed.

999-1004 Download
8
ETHNO MEDICINAL SURVEY OF PLANTS FROM SALT RANGE (KALLAR KAHAR) OF PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD* AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN

ETHNO MEDICINAL SURVEY OF PLANTS FROM SALT RANGE (KALLAR KAHAR) OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation confined to document medicinal uses of plants utilized by local communities on salt range (kallar Kahar) Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to collect information about the interaction of various communities of the area with plant wealth. The study presents data on 29 species belonging to 18 families. It was found that local communities of the area have rich tradition of using natural plant resources for their common day ailments. Local inhabitants both men and women believe that these plants based medicines are easily available, inexpensive and with no side effects. It was found that common disorders such as fever, cold, cough and diarrhoea could be treated by simple herbal teas and herbal powders. The reason for using medicinal plants by the local people of the area was that they are simple living, poor and cannot afford expensive synthetic drugs and their knowledge about medicinal plants has been passed on from their ancestor’s for generations. It was concluded that local authorities and other funding agencies should promote the cultivation and conservation of such natural resources of medicinal plants by involving the local communities of the area. It is also suggested that plants based industries and markets should be promoted in the area to alleviate the poverty problems of local communities.

1005-1011 Download
9
SPRING APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
BASHARAT ALI SALEEM1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1, M. ASLAM PERVEZ1, AHMAD SATTAR KHAN1 AND M. NAWAZ KHAN2

SPRING APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
ABSTRACT:
Spring applications of two plant growth regulators (GA3 and 2, 4-D) alone and in combination, were tested on ‘Blood Red’ sweet orange trees at full bloom. Ultimate effects of these growth regulators were studied on external and internal fruit quality. Fruit weight, diameter, peel thickness and peel quantity were significantly decreased by the growth regulator treatments compared with control while juice contents (%), pulp (%), reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars, seeds quantity and quality were significantly improved by GA3 treatments compared with control. TSS (%), Vitamin C contents were increased by growth regulators treatments compared with non treated ones. In organoleptic tasting, taste, peel colour, pulp colour and appearance were also improved by growth regulator treatments compared with control. In conclusion mixture treatments performed best with regards to biochemical parameters compared with control.

1013-1023 Download
10
DNA METHYLATION PROFILES DIFFER BETWEEN JUVENILE AND ADULT PHASE LEAVES OF CRAB APPLE (MALUS MICROMALUS) SEEDLING TREE
ISHFAQ A. HAFIZ, NADEEM A. ABBASI, TOUQEER AHMAD AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

DNA METHYLATION PROFILES DIFFER BETWEEN JUVENILE AND ADULT PHASE LEAVES OF CRAB APPLE (MALUS MICROMALUS) SEEDLING TREE
ABSTRACT:
Cytosine methylation has been implicated in regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting and chromatin remodeling, resulting both in temporal and developmental regulation. In the present study methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) associated with the transition from juvenile to adult phase in Malus micromalus was explored using a pair of restriction endo-nucleases EcoR II, Bst0.The extracted genomic DNA from juvenile and adult phase leaves of the seedling tree was digested with EcoR II and Bst0I, and amplified using eight primers. In total 77 bands were amplified. Post amplification digestion of these bands with EcoR II or Bst0 I revealed 32 bands containing CC(A/T)GG. Six bands were absent in amplified profiles from juvenile phase digested DNA, appeared in amplified products from digested adult phase DNA, indicating de novo methylation at CC(A/T)GG site. Five bands disappeared in Adult phase while these bands were present in Juvenile phase DNA amplified profiles, revealing presence of restriction site without methylation in adult phase. These results are suggestive that demethylation may have occurred in adult phase. Seventeen motifs of DNA methylation at CC(A/T)GG remaining similar in both phases seem to have been maintained from basal to crown part of the seedling tree. Amplified profiles produced from restricted DNA from both phases showed polymorphism due to differential methylation.

1025-1032 Download
11
GAMMA IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH, PROTEIN CONTENT, PEROXIDASE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY, LIPID PEROXIDATION IN DESI AND KABULI CHICKPEA
AMJAD HAMEED, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, M. AHSANUL HAQ AND HINA SAYED

GAMMA IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH, PROTEIN CONTENT, PEROXIDASE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY, LIPID PEROXIDATION IN DESI AND KABULI CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Desi and kabuli chickpea seeds irradiated with 100 to 1000 Gy gamma rays (with an interval of hundred) were grown in incubator for 8 days at 25 °C. Germination, growth (seedling fresh weight, root shoot length and ratio), lipid peroxidation, protease and peroxidase activity were measured in leaves. Results showed that percent germination of the seeds and the rates of growth of sprouts were inversely related to the irradiation doses. In kabuli chickpea, peroxidase and protease activities (two folds) and MDA contents were higher as compared to desi chickpea while vice versa for protein contents, revealing inherent differences between two types. Data for protein contents, peroxidase and protease activities therefore suggested that irradiation dose should not exceed 600Gy in kabuli chickpea and 500Gy in desi chickpea. In kabuli chickpea 500Gy irradiation dose non-significantly affected the protein contents and peroxidase activity and lowered MDA contents and protease activity. In desi chickpea 400Gy irradiation dose increased the peroxidase activity, lowered the MDA contents and did not affect the protein content and protease activity. It was concluded that protein contents, protease, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation may be used in early assessment of effectiveness and superiority of radiation dose to induce mutations.

1033-1041 Download
12
EFFECTS OF NACL SALINITY ON SEEDLING GROWTH, SENESCENCE, CATALASE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITIES IN TWO WHEAT GENOTYPES DIFFERING IN SALT TOLERANCE
AMJAD HAMEED1*, SHAZIA NASEER2, TAHIRA IQBAL2, HINA SYED1 AND M. AHSANUL HAQ1

EFFECTS OF NACL SALINITY ON SEEDLING GROWTH, SENESCENCE, CATALASE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITIES IN TWO WHEAT GENOTYPES DIFFERING IN SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Changes in seedling growth, senescence, protease activities and possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme e.g., catalase, in relation to salt tolerance were investigated in two wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerance. The 3days old wheat seedlings were subjected to 5

1043-1051 Download
13
EFFECT OF 3,5-DIMETHYLPYRAZOLE AND NITRAPYRIN ON NITRIFICATION UNDER HIGH SOIL TEMPERATURE
R. ALI1, J. IQBAL2, G.R. TAHIR1 AND T. MAHMOOD1*

EFFECT OF 3,5-DIMETHYLPYRAZOLE AND NITRAPYRIN ON NITRIFICATION UNDER HIGH SOIL TEMPERATURE
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to elucidate the effect of 2 nitrification inhibitors viz., 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP) and nitrapyrin on nitrification of (NH4)2SO4 in soil incubated at 35°C. When these inhibitors were applied at rates generally recommended for agricultural use (DMP at 0.225–0.45 mg kg–1; nitrapyrin at 0.25–0.50 mg kg–1), almost all NH4+-N disappeared within a week in the soil treated with DMP, whereas it took 2 weeks in the presence of nitrapyrin. When DMP application rate was increased in the range of 0.225–3.6 mg kg–1, NH4+-N disappeared within 2 weeks in the soil receiving DMP upto 0.90 mg kg–1, whereas it took 3 weeks with DMP applied at 1.8–3.6 mg kg–1. In another experiment, nitrapyrin application rate was increased in the range of 1.04–52 mg kg–1 using a commercial product viz., N-Serve 24 (22.2% active ingredient). In contrast to the unamended control where all NH4+-N disappeared within a week, nitrification was delayed particularly with higher concentrations of nitrapyrin and only 50 and 8 % of the NH4+-N was nitrified in 4 weeks with nitrapyrin applied at 8.32 and 26 mg kg–1, respectively. Results suggested that DMP and nitrapyrin applied at rates generally recommended for agricultural use under moderate climate may not be effective under high summer temperatures prevailing in Pakistan. Application of high concentrations of these chemicals to achieve the desired effects under warm agro-climate may not be economically feasible. Besides, higher concentrations of these nitrification inhibitors can be phytotoxic or adversely affect the activities of soil microflora.

1053-1062 Download
14
DENDROCLIMATIC POTENTIAL OF PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL) BOISS. FROM AFGHANISTAN
NASRULLAH KHAN, MOINUDDIN AHMED AND MOHAMMAD WAHAB

DENDROCLIMATIC POTENTIAL OF PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL) BOISS. FROM AFGHANISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Modern Dendrochronological techniques were applied on Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss, from District Dangam of Afghanistan. Twenty eight wood samples in the form of cores were obtained from 15 Picea trees and cross-dating was obtained among 24 cores of 12 trees. A first dated chronology (1663-2006AD) from this country was presented. Various statistics are described. It is indicated that all cores are highly correlated, showing similar climatic signals. On the basis of present investigations, it is suggested that this species has high Dendroclimatic value and more information could be obtained, if this chronology is correlated with other regional chronologies of the same species.

1063-1070 Download
15
PHOTOSOCIOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOME PINE FORESTS OF AFGHANISTAN
MOHAMMAD WAHAB, MOINUDDIN AHMED AND NASRULLAH KHAN

PHOTOSOCIOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOME PINE FORESTS OF AFGHANISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Phytosociological sampling, structure, age and growth rates studies were carried out in 5 places of Dangam District of Afghanistan. Vegetation compositions of non tree species were also presented. On the basis of floristic composition and importance value index of tree species, two monospecific and one bispecific communities were recognized in the study area. It is shown that in Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., Dbh, age and growth rates are not significantly correlated. Lack of tree seedlings indicate poor regeneration status of the forests.

1071-1079 Download
16
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION IN COASTAL REGION OF NORTH CHINA
WEI-QIANG LI1, LIU XIAO-JING1*, M. AJMAL KHAN2 AND BILQUEES GUL3

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION IN COASTAL REGION OF NORTH CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Plant-soil relationship of saline coastal plain of north China was studied. Principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate a hypothesis that the distribution pattern of halophytic vegetation was influenced by the variation in soil properties. The hypothesis was tested by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). PCA results showed that salinity, pH, moisture and available nitrogen were the major soil factors responsible for variations in the pattern of vegetation. For vegetation, primarily richness, cover, plant height, and biomass, were the main factors. The results of cluster analysis were consistent with field investigation, and CCA showed results similar to PCA. Canonical correlation coefficient between soil parameters and vegetation factors was 0.731. The relationship of soil salinity with vegetation biomass, and that of soil salinity with available nitrogen were both negative. Biomass was the main vegetation factor in indicating soil salinity.

1081-1090 Download
17
ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM IRRIGATION OF MAIZE WITH TREATED EFFLUENT OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN1, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT1 AND M. ALTAF KHAN2

ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM IRRIGATION OF MAIZE WITH TREATED EFFLUENT OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
ABSTRACT:
Shortage of fresh water is worldwide, particularly in the tropics. Treated wastewater can be utilized in arid regions not only as irrigation water but also as a liquid fertilizer. This investigation examines the applicability of waste stabilization pond (WSP) technology to obtain safe irrigation water and also determines the influence of treated wastewater on the growth parameters of maize. Irrigation with wastewater that contained sufficient quantities of N (21.02 mg/l), P (3.49 mg/l) and K (6.66 mg/l) significantly increased plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf area as well as crop yield. The advantages of the use of treated wastewater as irrigation water and liquid fertilizer are presented and discussed.

1091-1098 Download
18
EVALUATION OF ADVANCE RAPSEED LINE HS-98 FOR YIELD ATTRIBUTES AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS
HABIB AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ISLAM1, IMTIAZ AHMAD KHAN1, HAIDAR ALI2, HIDAYATUR-RAHMAN3, AND INAMULLAH1

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE RAPSEED LINE HS-98 FOR YIELD ATTRIBUTES AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted to evaluate the locally developed, improved genotype of Brassica napus viz., HS-98, and compared its performance with the established commercial varieties viz., Dunkled, Rainbow, Oscar and Altex. The agronomic traits taken into consideration were siliqua per plant, siliqua length, siliqua width, pedicle length and 1000 seed weight. The biochemical parameters included the percentage of oil in the seed, oleic acid, linoleinic acid, protein and seed moisture. The mean squares for siliqua per plant, siliqua length and 1000 seed weight were significant at 1% level of probability, whereas siliqua width and pedicel length were non significant. HS-98 had maximum number of siliqua per plant (156.0) and siliqua length per plant (6.7 cm) and therefore high yielding among all the genotypes. The seed protein was highest (25.1 %) in HS-98 followed by Rainbow, Oscar, Altex and Dunkled.

1099-1101 Download
19
PHENOLOGY AND CROP STAND OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCES AND TILLAGE SYSTEMS
AHMAD KHAN, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN, MUHAMMAD ARIF, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT AND AMANULLAH JAN

PHENOLOGY AND CROP STAND OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCES AND TILLAGE SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Phenology and crop stand are the important determinant which fix crop growth cycle and directly or indirectly affect crop productivity. In Pakistan, the conventional tillage practices are used for the production of wheat since long ago. The present concern about the environmental pollution due to the intensive tillage practices and high inorganic fertilization is an important issue. Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar Pakistan during winter 2005-07 in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Twelve treatments of N, farmyard manure (FYM) and soybean residue (SR) management were arranged in subplots and three tillage practices [deep tillage (DT), conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT)] in main plots. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of N sources under different tillage systems on wheat. The MT plots took less days to emergence, boot, anthesis, milk and maturity stages than CT and DT. Both MT and CT proved superior in terms of plant height as well as crop stand i.e. emergence m-2 and tiller m-2 as compared to DT and were statistically at par with each other. Likewise, among the N sources, FYM application @ of 20 tons ha-1 combined with 60 kg N ha-1 delayed phenology, but improved crop stand and plant height compared to all other treatments followed by 20 tons FYM ha-1 combined with 30 kg N ha-1. It is concluded that FYM application in combination with minimum N (30 or 60 kg N ha-1) is an alternative and sustainable practice for improving crop growth and stand.

1103-1112 Download
20
EFFECTS OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL LEAF CHARACTERS OF SOME VEGETABLES WITH INCIDENCE OF PREDATORY MITES OF THE GENUS AGISTEMUS (STIGMAEIDAE: ACARINA)
BILAL SAEED KHAN, MUHAMMAD AFZAL AND MUHAMMAD HAMID BASHIR

EFFECTS OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL LEAF CHARACTERS OF SOME VEGETABLES WITH INCIDENCE OF PREDATORY MITES OF THE GENUS AGISTEMUS (STIGMAEIDAE: ACARINA)
ABSTRACT:
Vegetables, being a major source of micronutrients, form the largest group of plants consumed by man. Summer vegetables are the most liked seasonal vegetables in Pakistan. The cultivation of vegetables on 224.6 thousand ha yielded 2880.3 thousand tones, which is considered low. The attack of insect and mite pests is the most important factor, amongst the others, which causes significant loss to the yield. Mites due to phytophagous nature are endorsed with tremendous distribution potential. Bio-control agents are increasingly used in controlling different insect and mite pests because of pest resistance to chemicals and pesticide hazards to consumers especially in vegetables. Predatory mites of genus Agistemus play pivotal role in controlling phytophagous mites and small soft bodied insects. Morphological plant characters influence the ability of predatory mites to suppress the population of different crop pests. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the role of morphological plant characters viz., leaf area, leaf hair density, thickness of leaf lamina and hair length of different vegetables such as tomato, okra, bitter gourd and brinjal against the incidence of predatory mites of the genus Agistemus in four different localities of Punjab. The maximum population of the mite was observed on tomato (4.01 mites per leaf), which was followed by brinjal (3.6 mites per leaf), bitter gourd (2.40 mites per leaf) and okra (1.1 mites per leaf). Leaf area, leaf hairiness, thickness of leaf lamina and hair length had shown negative correlation with Agistemus population. However, other leaf characters may also be responsible in mite population fluctuation but all the factors worked in compliment and hence affect the relative abundance of the mite.

1113-1119 Download
21
GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) VARIETIES TO ARTIFICIAL AGEING UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI1*, ASJAD ALI2 AND M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY2

GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) VARIETIES TO ARTIFICIAL AGEING UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
ABSTRACT:
Seed viability of the conserved plant genetic resources is decreased even under the optimal storage conditions. Seeds of some plant species loose viability faster than others. Artificial seed ageing was used with the objective to determine its effect on seed viability, while outlining the contribution of different factors like temperature and moisture towards seed deterioration in two wheat varieties viz., Wheat Var. Margala-99 and Wafaq-2001; seeds having two types of initial moisture contents (low and high), were experimental materials. Three temperature regimes (40, 50 and 60oC); four incubation durations (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), under two types of relative humidity (low or high) were the treatments compared with control at 25oC. Seed viability after artificial ageing was determined by germination at 25oC (±2) under light conditions. Germination behavior of artificially aged seeds of both wheat varieties indicated that, the viability decreases with the increase in ageing incubation temperature. Incubation of seeds under high relative humidity has more pronounced effect in decreasing the seed viability than low relative humidity. Seeds incubated under high relative humidity, the viability decreases with increase in incubation period. Variation in germination behavior among varieties warrants study on a larger varietal group.

1121-1127 Download
22
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION AND ROOTING OF PEACH ROOTSTOCK GF 677
M. YOUNAS*, HAFEEZ-UR-RAHMAN*, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI* AND M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY**

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION AND ROOTING OF PEACH ROOTSTOCK GF 677
ABSTRACT:
The effect of different carbon sources on In vitro shoot proliferation and rooting of peach rootstock GF 677 was investigated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Over all the results showed that sucrose + glucose (15 gm/l each) was most appropriate carbon source combination in relation to the growth and shoot proliferation of peach rootstock GF 677 while in case of rooting, glucose 20gm/l was more suitable as compared to sucrose 20gm/l.

1129-1134 Download
23
ROOTING OF OLEA EUROPAEA ‘DOMAT’ CUTTINGS BY AUXIN AND SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENTS
MURAT İSFENDİYAROĞLU* AND ELMAS ÖZEKER

ROOTING OF OLEA EUROPAEA ‘DOMAT’ CUTTINGS BY AUXIN AND SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of various NAA concentrations and applications of SA with IBA in different ways were tested in leafy cuttings of very difficult to root ‘Domat’ olive. Cuttings were collected from bearing (mature) trees and rooted under mist. Cuttings had the highest rooting rate of 63.3% with routine 5 g l-1 IBA treatment. Primary root number (4.1), root length (32.10 mm), root thickness (1.10 mm), root fresh/dry weights and VR score were at the highest level with the same treatment. Untreated cuttings entirely failed to root. NAA treatments produced less rooted cuttings than those treated with IBA alone. Cuttings receiving 3 g l-1 NAA gave 36.6% rooting. Free applications of SA did not give rise to any root formation. No synergistic effect was detected caused by simultaneous applications of 5 g.l-1 IBA combined with SA concentrations ranged between 2.5-10 g.l-1. In both pre applications and post applications of SA strongly inhibited the rooting of cuttings compared to simultaneous applications of both substances. Interval of 15 days between auxin and SA application might be too long to exhibit the promised phase dependent effect of SA on root formation was concluded.

1135-1141 Download
24
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MINERAL STATUS OF BLOOD PLASMA OF SMALL RUMINANTS AND PASTURES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, KAFEEL AHMAD1, IJAZ JAVED3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MINERAL STATUS OF BLOOD PLASMA OF SMALL RUMINANTS AND PASTURES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This paper reports the concentrations of some essential minerals (Mg, Cu and Zn) in soil, forage and blood plasma of grazing goats and sheep in two pastures (managed and unmanaged) in the south-western Punjab, Pakistan during two consecutive seasons of the year. The main aim was to evaluate and compare the mineral status of grazing ruminants on two different areas of the same farm in relation to seasonal variation. Mean mineral element concentrations in soil and forages in the managed pasture area tended to exceed levels over the unmanaged pasture area for almost all three investigated elements. Soil Mg and Cu concentrations were within the optimum range for active plant growth, but the levels of available Zn were below the critical limit. At both managed and unmanaged pastures, the effect of the season on both soil and forage mineral element concentrations were significant. The Zn concentrations in both summer and winter seasons in the managed pasture and Cu in the winter season were below the ruminants requirements, but Mg concentrations were above or within the recommended range. The plasma mineral profile of all animals fluctuated in relation to season and pasture. It was concluded that the mineral nutrition of the livestock at this region is almost adequate but at the marginal deficient level. This concentration may change abruptly to severe deficient levels at any time and may result in decreasing effective minerals particularly at the unmanaged location due to decrease in the levels of essential minerals in winter forages which are considered as the main reason for poor animal performance. Based on the information obtained from soil, pasture forage and plasma it is possible that low levels of Cu and Zn in soil and forage could potentially limit ruminant production. It is concluded that mineral supplement may continually be provided to the grazing animals to enhance the mineral status for maximizing the production potential of livestock at this site.

1143-1151 Download
25
TRANS ESTERIFICATION STUDIES ON CASTOR OIL AS A FIRST STEP TOWARDS ITS USE IN BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION
MOHAMMED H. CHAKRABARTI* AND RAFIQ AHMAD**

TRANS ESTERIFICATION STUDIES ON CASTOR OIL AS A FIRST STEP TOWARDS ITS USE IN BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a fast growing plant of marginal and moderately saline land widely spread throughout tropical regions. It is cultivated at arid coastal sandy belt and inland waste land of Pakistan for obtaining oil from its seeds, which being of medicinal importance is an economical commodity. Facing a great shortage of mineral diesel, scientists are nowadays actively working for converting oil obtained from wild/less commercially important plants into bio diesel for economic purposes. Non-edible oil yielding plants including castor bean, which cannot compete with edible oil yielding plants of commercial importance, are considered good candidates for such research work. The work presented herein deals with the transesterification of oil extracted from castor bean as a step towards possibility of converting it into bio diesel.

1153-1157 Download
26
ASSESSMENT OF SELENIUM CONTENT IN PASTURE AND EWES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, MUHAMMAD DANISH3, KAFEEL AHMAD1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

ASSESSMENT OF SELENIUM CONTENT IN PASTURE AND EWES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The current research was carried out at Rakh Khaire Wala, Punjab, Pakistan. The most developed station for sheep farming. The aim of the study was to determine and collect data on selenium contents of soil, forages along with blood plasma and milk so as to gain information on the deficiency and/or excess of selenium levels for ruminants grazing therein. The livestock farm was visited eight times during the study year so as to determine the effect of sampling periods on the selenium contents of various samples. The mean Se concentrations of soil, forage, plasma, and milk sampled in the study were: 0.041 and 0.035 mg/kg for soil and forages and 0.036, 0.0054 mg/L for plasma and milk, respectively. These values are considered to be indicative of inadequate but point to the dietary supplementation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in this animal pasture, it is necessary to monitor the Se in animals so as to maintain adequate nutrition for achieving vigorous ewes.

1159-1162 Download
27
INTERACTION OF WILD OATS (AVENA FATUA L.) WITH SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) SEEDED AT DIFFERENT RATES
IJAZ AHMAD KHAN, GUL HASSAN* AND KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT

INTERACTION OF WILD OATS (AVENA FATUA L.) WITH SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) SEEDED AT DIFFERENT RATES
ABSTRACT:
Wild oat is noxious weed of wheat crop. In order to study the effect of spring wheat seeding rates on wild oats competition, experiments were conducted at Malkandher Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during Rabi 2004-05. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement. Four seed rates: 100

1163-1167 Download
28
SEED PRIMING IMPROVES EMERGENCE AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN
MUHAMMAD ARIF1, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2 AND MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN2

SEED PRIMING IMPROVES EMERGENCE AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of seed priming on emergence and yield of soybean (Glycine max) cv. William-82 at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. The seed was primed using 0 (deionized water), -0.2, -0.5, -1.1 and -1.8 MPa Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions for 6

1169-1177 Download
29
PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF TIGRIDIOPALMA MAGNIFICA (MELASTOMATACEAE)
SONG JUN ZENG1, LONG NA LI1,2, KUN LING WU1, ZHI LIN CHEN1* AND JUN DUAN1

PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF TIGRIDIOPALMA MAGNIFICA (MELASTOMATACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
An efficient micropropagation system using leaves as explants has been established for Tigridiopalma magnifica C. Chen. It was found that adventitious bud organogenesis occurred from the leaf explants cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium with appropriate supplements of plant growth regulators. Up to 7.6 adventitious buds formed per leaf explant after a 40-day culture on MS medium containing 2.0 mg.l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.1 mg.l-1 thidiazuron (TDZ). During 30-day subculture, the proliferation rate of adventitious bud in cluster was 5.7 on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg.l-1 BA and 0.5 mg.l-1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was best for rooting. When micropropagated plantlets with well-developed root systems were transferred to planting pots containing a mixture of sand, sieved peat and perlite (1:1:1; v/v) in greenhouse conditions, 86.0% of the plantlets survived. The regeneration protocol in this study provides a basis for germplasm conservation and large-scale multiplication of T. magnifica.

1179-1184 Download
30
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS TREATMENTS MODULATE GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CUCUMIS MELO L. PLANTS
GEORGIA OUZOUNIDOU1*, PARTHENA PAPADOPOULOU1, ANASTASIA GIANNAKOULA2 AND ILIAS ILIAS2

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS TREATMENTS MODULATE GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CUCUMIS MELO L. PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Our objective was to identify the effects of Gibberellic acid (GA3), Prohexadione-Calcium (Prohex-Ca), Cycocel and Ethephon applied as foliar sprays, on pre- and post-harvest physiology and quality characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo L.). GA3 promoted melon growth, while a significant inhibition with Cycocel and Ethephon was observed. The chlorophyll a+b concentration as well as the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were negatively affected by Prohex-Ca, Cycocel and Ethephon application. The maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was declined showing an impairment of the primary photochemical efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus during the time course of the experiment. The significant decrease of Fv/Fo is an indicator of structural damage, which occur in the thylakoids and affects the photosynthetic electron transport. With GA3 application, fructose, glucose and soluble solids remained unchanged, whereas ascorbic acid content increased significantly. With the retardants a significant decrease in sugars, soluble solids and ascorbic acid content and an increase in respiration rate and in titratable acidity of fruits, was induced. Less soluble solids accumulation in melon from plants treated with growth retardants could be a consequence of delayed maturity, a fact that it can be proved by the lower maturity index.

1185-1193 Download
31
IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PLANTLETS FROM SEEDLINGS EXPLANTS OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. SAFEDA
S. TARIQ SHAH1, ROSHAN ZAMIR1, J. AHMAD2, HAIDAR ALI3 AND G. LUTFULLAH2

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PLANTLETS FROM SEEDLINGS EXPLANTS OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. SAFEDA
ABSTRACT:
Regeneration of plantlets from In vitro germinated seedling explants was carried out at NIFA, Peshawar. Multiple shoots were generated from In vitro germinated (50 days-old) seedlings of Psidium guajava L. Cv. Safeda. Modified Murashige & Skoog (MMS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), Zeatin and Gibberelic acid (GA3), Zeatin 1.0 mg/L combined with GA3 0.5 mg/L gave the highest response (47.6%) with the regeneration of (3.2) shoots per original explants. Each shoot gave rise to about 4.4 shoots per explant upon sub culture on MMS supplemented with BAP 1.0 mg/L combined with Kinetin 0.5 mg/L. The micro shoots were successfully rooted on ½ strength MMS medium supplemented with IBA 1.5 mg/L and NAA 0.5 mg/L, where 85% rooted plantlets were obtained. The In vitro plantlets after rooting were acclimatized in Jiffy pots and established in the soil.

1195-1200 Download
32
ASSESSMENT OF YIELD-RELATED MORHOLOGICAL MEASURES FOR EARLINESS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
SAEED AHMAD1, SAGHIR AHMAD2*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3, NOOR-UL-ISLAM KHAN4 AND NADEEM IQBAL5

ASSESSMENT OF YIELD-RELATED MORHOLOGICAL MEASURES FOR EARLINESS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Assessment of yield-related morphological measures for earliness is a key factor for developing short duration varieties in cotton. For this purpose

1201-1207 Download
33
GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR FIBER QUALITY TRAITS OF SOME COTTON GENOTYPES
MUHAMMAD ASIF, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA1* AND YUSUF ZAFAR

GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR FIBER QUALITY TRAITS OF SOME COTTON GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Cotton is the basis of our national textile industry and a major source of foreign exchange. Cotton fiber quality is the physical properties related to its spinnability into yarn and textile performance. Nineteen cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) genotypes were screened for fiber length, fiber fineness and fiber strength. Fiber length ranged from 23 to 30 mm with mean value of 27.6 mm. Similarly, fiber fineness was variable with average micronaire reading of 4.75. Differences in fiber strength were also ranging from weak (80 tppsi) to very strong (99 tppsi) fiber. Analysis of variance depicted considerable variations in these three main fiber quality traits among 19 cotton genotypes. Coefficient of variability was 5.4%, 6.13% and 4.5% for fiber length, micronaire and fiber strength, respectively. Highly significant negative correlation was found between fiber length and fiber fineness (r = -0.850), while highly significant positive correlation was observed between fiber length and fiber strength (r = 0.712). Fiber fineness was significantly and negatively correlated with fiber strength (r = -0.499). On the basis of fiber analysis of quality traits two contrasting cotton genotypes viz., FH-883 and FH-631S were selected for further genome mapping studies.

1209-1215 Download
34
GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR MORPHO-GENETIC TRAITS IN BARLEY GERMPLASM
ZAHEER AHMAD1, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1 AND MUHAMMAD SHAHID MASOOD3

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR MORPHO-GENETIC TRAITS IN BARLEY GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm comprising of 133 accessions collected from Pakistan was evaluated for 14 quantitative traits. Significant amount of genetic variation was observed for most of the plant characteristics. All the accessions were grouped into 7 clusters on the basis of morphological similarities. Representative accessions from a cluster of particular group could be chosen for hybridization program. First five principal components having greater than 1 eigenvalue contributed more than 83.40% genetic variation. The PC1 accounted for 33.60% of the total variation. The characters contributing more positively to PC1 were grain yield

1217-1224 Download
35
ISOLATION OF A XYLAN DEGRADING GENE FROM GENOMIC DNA LIBRARY OF A THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM THERMOPHILE ATCC 28076
FOUZIA SALEEM1, SIBTAIN AHMED1,2 AND AMER JAMIL1*

ISOLATION OF A XYLAN DEGRADING GENE FROM GENOMIC DNA LIBRARY OF A THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM THERMOPHILE ATCC 28076
ABSTRACT:
The most abundant hemicellulosic polymers xylans, constitutes about 20-40% of total plant biomass. Xylanases are involved in fruit softening, seed germination and plant defense systems. In this study, genomic DNA of Chaetomium thermophile ATCC 28076 was isolated and a genomic library was created in E.coli DH10B-pUC 19 host vector system. Positive clones were screened by Congo red staining. The E.coli harboring xylanase gene showed clear zone with Congo red clearance assay on xylan plates.

1225-1230 Download
36
RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER FERTILIZED CONDITIONS
M. NAVEED, Z.A. ZAHIR*, M. KHALID, H.N. ASGHAR, M.J. AKHTAR AND M. ARSHAD

RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER FERTILIZED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) regulate the production of ethylene in plants and promote root elongation by hydrolyzing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene), through the action of ACC-deaminase. Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and screened for their growth promoting activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under axenic conditions. Three promising isolates (S5, S7 and S9) were selected on the basis of ACC-deaminase activity and growth promotion under axenic conditions. The performance of these selected PGPR isolates was evaluated with 50 and 75% of recommended (NPK: 120-100-60 kg ha-1) chemical fertilizers for promoting growth and yield of wheat. Inoculated seeds were sown in the field, fertilized with NPK according to the treatments. All the isolates exhibited a significant increase in all the yield-contributing parameters at 50 and 75% of recommended chemical fertilizers compared with untreated control. It was observed that PGPR isolate S7, along with 75% of recommended chemical fertilizers, showed statistically similar results with recommended chemical fertilizers alone and it increased plant height, number of tillers meter-2, spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, total biomass, grain yield and 1000-grain weight by 11, 63

1231-1241 Download
37
RELATIVE EFFICACY OF PSEUDOMONAS SPP., CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) IN THE PRESENCE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER
M. NAVEED1, M. KHALID1*, D.L. JONES2, R. AHMAD3 AND Z.A. ZAHIR1

RELATIVE EFFICACY OF PSEUDOMONAS SPP., CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) IN THE PRESENCE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER
ABSTRACT:
This study was designed to assess the performance of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of maize in the presence of organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer was prepared by composting fruit and vegetable wastes in a locally-fabricated unit and enriched with N fertilizer applied @ 147 g kg-1 compost. This ‘organic fertilizer’ was used to formulate bio-fertilizers by using three PGPR strains containing ACC-deaminase, Pseudomonas putida biotype A (Q7), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Q14) and Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (N3), separately. The organic- and/or bio-fertilizers were applied to maize @ 300 kg ha-1 without/with 88 kg ha-1 urea-N in the field trials. A basal dose of P and K (100 and 50 kg ha-1, respectively) was applied to all plots and also tested in the field trials in the absence of organic-/bio-fertilizer. Results of field study revealed that the organic fertilizer supplemented with 88 kg ha-1 N was equally effective to full dose of N-fertilizer (175 kg ha-1) in improving cob weight, fresh biomass and grain yield of maize. However, bio-fertilizer supplemented with 88 ha-1 N fertilizer significantly increased the growth and yield of maize over full dose of N-fertilizer and exhibited superiority over organic fertilizer. Organic-/bio-fertilizer application also significantly enhanced N, P and K uptakes. The Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (N3) containing biofertilizer was found best to increase grain yield and nutrient uptake both in the presence or absence of 88 kg N ha-1. Results may imply that organic waste could be composted into value-added soil amendment by enriching/blending it with N and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase activity. This approach is based on using organic- or bio-fertilizers (N-enriched and inoculated compost) at lower rates (just 300 kg ha-1) instead of tons ha-1 of non-enriched composts. Moreover, this strategy could also be useful to protect our environments against threat posed by organic wastes.

1243-1251 Download
38
DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CONTENTS OF PESTICIDES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CROP FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
S. AHMAD1*, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ2, M. IMRAN3, S. IQBAL4, J. IQBAL3 AND M. AHMAD2

DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CONTENTS OF PESTICIDES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CROP FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to investigate the pesticide residues in unhusked and husked rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Basmati-385 and Irri-6 varieties in major rice growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The concentration of four pesticides was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In all the 400 samples, four pesticides, i.e., Karate, Malathion, Novacran and Padan were found in concentrations ranging from 19 to 148 ppm. The mean levels of pesticides in all the samples were below or just crossed the threshold limiting values (TLV). So presently there is no serious health problem due to pesticide poisoning. The results present important information on the current contamination status of an important agricultural crop in Pakistan and highlight the need for immediate action to manage the use of some excessively applied and potentially persistent pesticides.

1253-1257 Download
39
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS L.
UMBREEN FARRUKH1, HUMA SHAREEF2, SHAUKAT MAHMUD3, SYED AYUB ALI4 AND GHAZALA H. RIZWANI5

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS L.
ABSTRACT:
In vitro antibacterial activity of leaves and stem extracts of Coccinia grandis L., has been investigated against Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli (ETEC), Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella boydii. Water extract of leaves and ethanolic extract of stem showed significant activity against Shigella boydii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

1259-1262 Download
40
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF MYCOFLORA IN DRINKING WATER AND FRUIT JUICES OF KARACHI
SAMEERA NAZIM, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, MARIUM TARIQ AND M.J. ZAKI

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF MYCOFLORA IN DRINKING WATER AND FRUIT JUICES OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Thirty samples of water and 10 samples of fruit juices were tested for the presence of mycoflora. pH value of water samples ranged from 7.4-10.25 and those of juice samples from 4.03-6.23. Four genera belonging to 9 species of fungi were isolated from water whereas 4 genera and 8 fungal species were isolated from juices using direct plating techniques. In serial dilution technique, 6 genera and 11 species were isolated from water whereas 3 genera and 8 species were isolated from juice samples. Highest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution technique followed by direct plating method. Aspergillus niger was found to be dominant fungus in drinking water as well as in juice samples followed by A. clavatus and A. ustus.

1263-1268 Download
41
EFFECT OF SEED COATING MATERIAL IN THE EFFICACY OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI ON OKRA AND SUNFLOWER
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SADIA HAYAT, M. ANIS AND M.J. ZAKI

EFFECT OF SEED COATING MATERIAL IN THE EFFICACY OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI ON OKRA AND SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
The biological potential of different microbial antagonists viz., Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium meliloti, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma harzianum was examined by coating the seeds with gum arabic, glucose, sugar and mollases in the suppression of root rot fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp., on okra and sunflower plants. All biocontrol agents enhanced the germination and growth of plant as compared to control. Shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight were significantly increased in both okra and sunflower. Maximum plant height was observed where seeds of okra and sunflower were coated with T. harzianum using 2% of glucose followed by gum arabic, mollases and sugar solution. Gum arabic was found more effective in reducing infection by root rot fungi viz., M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp. Of the different microbial antagonists used, T. harzianum was found more effective followed by B. thuringiensis, R. meliloti and A. niger in the control of root rot fungi.

1269-1278 Download
42
NEW RECORDS OF GRAMINICOLOUS RUST FUNGI FROM PAKISTAN
N.S. AFSHAN, A.N. KHALID AND A.R. NIAZI

NEW RECORDS OF GRAMINICOLOUS RUST FUNGI FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Puccinia substriata EII. & Barth. var. insolita (P. Syd. & H. Syd.) Ramachar & Cumm., Puccinia coronata Corda var. gibberosa (Lagerh.) Joerst., Puccinia coronata Corda var. avenae Fraser & Ledingham and Uromyces vossiae Barclay are described and illustrated. These taxa are new records from Pakistan.

1279-1283 Download
43
FURTHER ADDITIONS TO THE RUST FLORA OF PAKISTAN
N. S. AFSHAN, A. N. KHALID AND HUMERA JAVED

FURTHER ADDITIONS TO THE RUST FLORA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Two species of rust fungi viz., Puccinia brachypodii var. arrhenatheri (Kleb.) Cummins & H.C. Greene and P. levis var. panici-sanguinalis (Rangel) Ramachar & Cummins are newly recorded together with three new host plants for Uredinales of Pakistan.

1285-1289 Download
44
BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN SLIME FLUXES OF SOME TREES
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ1, SHARFUN-NAHAR2 AND M.H. HASHMI3

BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN SLIME FLUXES OF SOME TREES
ABSTRACT:
A total of 13 species belonging to 9 genera were isolated from slime fluxes of Araucaria cooki, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Ficus religiosa. The isolated yeast species were identified on the basis of morphological and physiological / biochemical characters. Bullera pseudoalba, Candida lyxosophila, Cryptococcus gasrticus, Pichia anomala, P. strasburgensis, Sporidiobolus ruineniae and Wiliopsis californica were predominantly isolated from slime fluxes of trees.

1291-1299 Download
45
ELIMINATION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS (CTV) AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED CITRUS PLANTS THROUGH SHOOT-TIP MICROGRAFTING
M. ABBAS1, M.M. KHAN1*, B. FATIMA1, Y. IFTIKHAR1, S.M. MUGHAL1, M.J. JASKANI1, I.A. KHAN1 AND H. ABBAS2

ELIMINATION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS (CTV) AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED CITRUS PLANTS THROUGH SHOOT-TIP MICROGRAFTING
ABSTRACT:
Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Musambi sweet orange (C. sinensis) are the predominant citrus fruits cultivated in Pakistan. Citrus species are highly vulnerable to many types of pathogens. Among the viruses, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most devastating which can cause the death of millions of citrus trees if once established. CTV is a graft-transmissible and can be inadvertently propagated through infected budwood. The production of certified and CTV-free citrus plants could be helpful to restrict the widespread of CTV. The study was designed to optimize the micrografting technique for the propagation of CTV free Kinnow mandarin and Musambi sweet orange plants under aseptic conditions. The MS medium supplemented with 5 mgL-1 BA was found better for successful micrografting of both citrus cultivars on rough lemon seedlings. The survival rate of micrografted citrus plantlets was 88% when transferred to soil. The ELISA results showed that more that 90% Kinnow and Musambi plants either grafted on rough lemon or sour orange rootstock were found free from CTV. The foundation block of mandarin and sweet orange free from CTV was successfully established using shoot-tip micrografting technique.

1301-1312 Download
46
SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF A VAM-FUNGUS FOR PROMOTING GROWTH AND RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT DISEASE OF SUNFLOWER VAR. HELICO-250
M. JALALUDDIN*, MARIA HAMID AND SUMAIRA EID MUHAMMAD

SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF A VAM-FUNGUS FOR PROMOTING GROWTH AND RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT DISEASE OF SUNFLOWER VAR. HELICO-250
ABSTRACT:
Of the 7 VAM-fungi, Scutellispora auriglobosa was found consistently associated with sunflower var. Helico-250. Sunflower plants suffer from charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Ten days old sunflower seedlings when inoculated with M. phaseolina either before or after 7 days of inoculation with the VAM-fungus were found to increase the growth of sunflower with reduction in the incidence of charcoal disease.

1313-1318 Download
47
EFFECT OF MOISTURE STRESS ON COMBINING ABILITY VARIATION FOR BIRD RESISTANCE TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
SAEED RAUF1*, H.A. SADAQAT1 AND A. NAVEED2

EFFECT OF MOISTURE STRESS ON COMBINING ABILITY VARIATION FOR BIRD RESISTANCE TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments on sunflower were carried out under 2 moisture level in the field to study their modifying effect on phenotypic expression and combining ability of bird resistant traits i.e., degree of head shape (DHS), degree of achene compactness (DAC), degree of stem orientation (DSO) and degree of head orientation (DHO). Genotypes indicated substantial shift in their relative morphology for all traits related to bird resistance over moisture regimes. All traits exhibited larger proportion of non additive gene action under both conditions and showed an increase in proportion of non-additive genetic variation under moisture stress condition. Intermating and recurrent selection procedures could be useful breeding procedures for accumulating favorable genes responsible for better bird resistance traits and may produce superior recombinants in segregating progenies under both conditions. Under moisture stress condition, only drought tolerant parents showed peculiar morphology of traits leading to bird attack resistance. Relative sensitivity of these traits to the moisture stress has indicated their potential of acting as morphological marker for selection of drought tolerant genotypes. Among bird resistant traits, degree of head shape showed significant negative relationship with achene yield suggesting the possibility of improving yield through selection of highly concave genotype under drought stress condition

1319-1328 Download
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