Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 21/01/2019 Uploaded: 26/06/2018
Uploaded: 29/05/2018

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 6
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
SCREENING OF SALINITY TOLERANT JUTE (CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS & C. OLITORIUS) GENOTYPES VIA PHENOTYPIC AND PHSIOLOGY-ASSISTED PROCEDURES
HONGYU MA1, RUIFANG YANG2, ZHANKUI WANG1, TIAN YU1, YUYING JIA1, HANYAN GU1, XIANSHENG WANG1 AND HAO MA1*

SCREENING OF SALINITY TOLERANT JUTE (CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS & C. OLITORIUS) GENOTYPES VIA PHENOTYPIC AND PHSIOLOGY-ASSISTED PROCEDURES
ABSTRACT:
To obtain salt tolerant genotypes, salt tolerance of 10 jute genotypes of different origins was evaluated by relative salt harm rate at germination stage and by index of salt harm at seedling stage, respectively. The results indicated that salt tolerance of germination stage of jute was consistent with that of seedling stage, with a markedly significant (P < 0.01) correlation of 0.8432 (n =10). Two high salt tolerant genotypes (Huang No.1 and 9511) and two salt sensitive genotypes (Mengyuan and 07-21) were screened out by these methods. Further activity analysis of POD, SOD and CAT and determination of MDA content at seedling stage validated that genotypes Huang No.1 and 9511 were more salt tolerant than genotypes Mengyuan and 07-21. Our results indicated that the combination of relative salt harm rate at germination stage and index of salt harm at seedling stage can be used to evaluate salt tolerance of jute genotypes.

2655-2660 Download
2
GROWTH AND IONS (Na+, K+ AND Cl-) ACCUMULATING PATTERN OF SOME BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE – SODIC FIELD CONDITION
MUHAMMAD UBAIDULLAH SHIRAZI1*, MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT2, MUHAMMAD ATHAR KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ALI1, SHAIKH M. MUJTABA1, AISHA SHEREEN1, SABA MUMTAZ1 AND MUKHTIAR ALI3

GROWTH AND IONS (Na+, K+ AND Cl-) ACCUMULATING PATTERN OF SOME BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE – SODIC FIELD CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
The growth and ionic uptake pattern of some Brassica genotypes i.e., Rainbow, Wester, Durr-e-NIFA, Abaseen 95 (Brassica napus) and NIFA raya (Brassica juncea) under saline-sodic field conditions was studied. Two sets of experiments on normal and saline-sodic site were conducted at NIA experimental farm, Tandojam, Pakistan during Rabi 2006-07. The salinity of the experimental site ranged between 11.0–22.9 dS/m and the pH was alkaline (8-8.6). The dominant cation was sodium (Na). The growth performance was recorded at the time of crop harvest in terms of plant height, grain weight / plant, grain yield and 100 grain weight. It was observed that the performance of Wester was better followed by NIFA- raya. The ionic uptake pattern, of leaves, stem and roots showed that the accumulation of Na was less in leaf as compared to stem and roots. However, the genotypes having better performance were found to have accumulating type of behavior showing comparatively higher Na contents in all plant parts than other genotypes. This suggests that these genotypes might adjust their osmotic potential through the accumulation of sodium in vacuole. On the other hand trend in case of K accumulation was reverse i.e. high in leaves and stem as compared to roots. Higher accumulating pattern of K in leaves might be helpful for reducing the toxic effects of sodium. However, no correlation was observed between K-Na selectivity or K/Na ratio among the genotypes tested. It is therefore concluded that better selective mechanism for Na uptake and strict control of intercellular Na influx for cellular osmotic adjustment could be selected for saline environment.

2661-2664 Download
3
COMPARATIVE SALINITY RESPONSES AMONG TOMATO GENOTYPES AND ROOTSTOCKS
GOLGEN BAHAR OZTEKIN* AND YUKSEL TUZEL

COMPARATIVE SALINITY RESPONSES AMONG TOMATO GENOTYPES AND ROOTSTOCKS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major constraint limiting agricultural crop productivity in the world. However, plant species and cultivars differ greatly in their response to salinity. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the response of 4 commercial tomato rootstocks

2665-2672 Download
4
SALT TOLERANCE OF PHYSALIS DURING GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH
ERTAN YILDIRIM1* HUSEYIN KARLIDAG2 AND ATILLA DURSUN1

SALT TOLERANCE OF PHYSALIS DURING GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity on germination and emergence of Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis peruviana. Seeds of P. ixocarpa and P. peruviana were germinated by the use of 0, 30, 60, 90

2673-2676 Download
5
PRE-SOWING APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID TO SEED OF PUMPKIN AND SEEDLING RESPONSE TO SALT
NOMAN RAFIQUE, SYED HAMMAD RAZA, MUHAMMAD QASIM AND NAEEM IQBAL

PRE-SOWING APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID TO SEED OF PUMPKIN AND SEEDLING RESPONSE TO SALT
ABSTRACT:
The effects of seed soaking with salicylic acid or ascorbic acid on pumpkin seedlings growth under saline (10 dS m-1) conditions were investigated. Seedlings fresh weight, protein contents, protease and nitrate reductase activities were significantly affected by 15 and 30 mg L-1 salicylic acid and 30 mg L-1 ascorbic acid priming treatments, under both normal and saline conditions. Priming reduced the severity of the salt stress, the amelioration was better due to 30 mg L-1 ascorbic acid or 30 mg L-1 salicylic acid treatments as these treatments showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry matter production under non-saline and saline environments. Application of seed priming with ascorbic acid and salicylic acid in pumpkin ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress.

2677-2682 Download
6
SEED PRIMING IMPROVES SALINITY TOLERANCE OF WHEAT VARIETIES
YOUSAF JAMAL1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*

SEED PRIMING IMPROVES SALINITY TOLERANCE OF WHEAT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
2JEHAN BAKHT2 AND MOHAMMAD ARIF1

2683-2686 Download
7
RESPONSE OF BARLEY GENOTYPES TO SALINITY STRESS AS ALLEVIATED BY SEED PRIMING
SHAZMA ANWAR1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, MUHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1 AND YOUSAF HAYAT3

RESPONSE OF BARLEY GENOTYPES TO SALINITY STRESS AS ALLEVIATED BY SEED PRIMING
ABSTRACT:
The present study entitled “Response of barley genotypes to salinity stresses as alleviated by seed priming was conducted at the Greenhouses of the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of twelve barely genotypes (Haider-93, Soorab-96, Arabic Asward, NRB-37, Frontier-87, Jau-83, Balochistan-Local, NRB-31, KPK-Local, Sanober-96, Awarn-2002 and AZ-2006) at two seed conditions (seed priming with 30 mM NaCl and no seed priming) under four salinity levels (0 mM, 50 mM

2687-2691 Download
8
ASSESSMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE OF SOME NEWLY DEVELOPED AND CANDIDATE WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS USING GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE ATTRIBUTES
HINA KANWAL1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2*, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1

ASSESSMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE OF SOME NEWLY DEVELOPED AND CANDIDATE WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS USING GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE ATTRIBUTES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to assess salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Ten wheat cultivars including five newly developed (S-24, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and Inqlab-91) and five candidate (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10 and G.A-20) were grown in sand culture. Salt stress (150 mM NaCl in Hoagland’s nutrient solution) was applied at the seedling stage. A significant reduction in plant biomass production was recorded in all wheat cultivars. Cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 showed less reduction in biomass production as compared with the other cultivars. Different gas exchange attributes such as leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were also adversely affected due to salt stress and were positively associated with the plant biomass production of the genotypes under saline stress. More negative effects in relation to these gas exchange attributes were recorded in cvs. Lasani, G.A-20 and ARRI-10 than those in the other cultivars. Leaf maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), maximum fluorescence at steady state (Fms), and photochemical fluorescence quenching (Qp) increased while maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (Qp), electron transport rate (ETR) and non-photochemical quenching (Qn) decreased due to imposition of salt stress. The adverse effects of salt stress on these chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were minimum in cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008. A significant positive correlation was recorded between biomass production, different gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Overall, cvs. S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 were ranked as salt tolerant on the basis of their performance in biomass production, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters.

2693-2699 Download
9
SODIUM CHLORIDE TOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AT EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH: GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY, IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION
ABDUS SALAM, ZULFIQAR ALI* AND MUHAMMAD ASLAM

SODIUM CHLORIDE TOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AT EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH: GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY, IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION
ABSTRACT:
Plant growth response of four week old seedlings of 48 rice lines/cultivars to four NaCl levels (0

2701-2705 Download
10
ENHANCED PROLINE SYNTHESIS MAY DETERMINE RESISTANCE TO SALT STRESS IN TOMATO CULTIVARS
SYED GHIAS ALI1, ABDUR RAB2, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2 AND KHALID NAWAB2

ENHANCED PROLINE SYNTHESIS MAY DETERMINE RESISTANCE TO SALT STRESS IN TOMATO CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The physiological and biochemical responses of tomato cultivars were studied at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2005-2006 for salt tolerance. Tomato cultivars were Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F., Chinese 87-5, Rio Grand and Super Blocky and subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Fresh weight, dry weight, and ions sodium and potassium accumulation, Na+/K+ ratio and proline content were determined after imposing the tomato cultivars to NaCl salt for 80 days. Salt stress significantly decreased the fresh and dry weight in Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F, Chinese 87-5 and Rio Grand, however, in Super Blocky the fresh and dry weight were enhanced under stress conditions. Salinity stress increased sodium uptake from 191.828 to 436.170 µmg-1 D wt while potassium accumulation decreased from 1033.12 to 926.80 µmg-1 D wt resulting in higher Na+/K+ ratio in stressed (0.48 g) as compared to unstressed control (0.19). The mean proline contents also increased from 28.95 to 40.96 µM Proline g-1 F. wt with the maximum increase (57.378%) in Super Blocky followed by Rio Grand (49.325%).

2707-2710 Download
11
USE OF LOW QUALITY GROUNDWATER FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOIL BY GROWING RICE AND WHEAT CROPS
M.J. QAMAR*, A. GHAFOOR, G. MURTAZA, SAIFULLAH AND M.Z. REHMAN

USE OF LOW QUALITY GROUNDWATER FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOIL BY GROWING RICE AND WHEAT CROPS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at Qaim Bharwana, district Jhang, Pakistan on a saline-sodic soil (ECe = 12.7-20.1 dS m-1, pHs = 10.3-10.4, SAR = 157.0-273.9 at 0-15 cm soil depth and ECe = 5.4-12.1 dS m-1, pHs = 9.5-10.0, SAR = 70.1-171.4 at 15-30 cm soil depth) following rice-wheat rotation using tube well water (EC = 1.32 dS m-1, SAR = 4.8, RSC = Nil, Ca:Mg = 0.74) for irrigation. The treatments tested were: TW) Tube well water alone, FYM-20) FYM @ 20 Mg ha-1, Gyp-100) gypsum @ 100% soil gypsum requirement (SGR) and FYM+Gyp) FYM @ 10 Mg ha-1 + gypsum @ 50% SGR. After rice 2005 harvest, soil analysis showed that pHs for both the soil depths decreased non-significantly, per cent decrease over initial being maximum with Gyp-100 followed by FYM+Gyp, TW and FYM-20 at 0-15 cm, while treatment effectiveness order for pH (per cent) decrease was FYM+Gyp>TW>FYM-20 at 15-30 cm soil depth but slightly increased with Gyp-100. The ECe decreased non-significantly with treatments, per cent decrease over initial being maximum with FYM+Gyp followed by Gyp-100, FYM-20 and TW at 0-15 cm. Decrease in pHs was significant at 15-30 cm soil depth and the treatment order was FYM+Gyp>TW>Gyp-100>FYM-20. Treatments differed non-significantly to lower SAR for both the soil depths, per cent decrease being maximum with FYM+Gyp followed by Gyp-100, FYM-20 and TW at 0-15 cm, while the order was FYM+Gyp>Gyp-100>FYM-20>TW at 15-30 cm soil depth. Soil analysis after harvest of wheat 2005-06 depicted a decrease in pHs with all the treatments, order being Gyp-100>FYM+Gyp>FYM-20>TW at 0-15 cm soil depth. At 15-30 cm depth, the treatment order to decrease pHs was Gyp-100>FYM+Gyp>TW>FYM-20. Maximum decrease in ECe was observed with FYM+Gyp followed by TW, FYM-20 and Gyp-100 at both the 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Maximum reduction in soil SAR was observed with FYM+Gyp followed by Gyp-100, FYM-20 and TW at both the soil depths. The paddy yield of rice 2005 was maximum with FYM+Gyp followed by Gyp-100, FYM-20 and TW. The highest grain yield of wheat during 2005-06 was obtained with FYM+Gyp followed by FYM-20, Gyp-100 and TW. Maximum net profit was obtained with FYM+Gyp followed by FYM-20, Gyp-100 and TW.

2711-2715 Download
12
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS.
MUHAMMAD MOHIBULLAH1, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI2, SHAH JEHAN, ZAKIULLAH1, ADNAN AMIN3 AND GHAZANFARULLAH1

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS.
ABSTRACT:
Experimental plot was conducted to test the variation with correlation of one hundred bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms under the area of Plant Breeding and Genetics department, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, in the year 2006. All the germplasms were evaluated for the traits, spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1, grain yield plant-1(gm)

2717-2720 Download
13
POPULATION GENETICS OF INVASIVE WEED MIMOSA PIGRA L. (MIMOSOIDEAE) IN THAILAND
PAIROT PRAMUAL1*, SUTTIRA KHUMKRATOK2 AND KOMGRIT WONGPAKAM2

POPULATION GENETICS OF INVASIVE WEED MIMOSA PIGRA L. (MIMOSOIDEAE) IN THAILAND
ABSTRACT:
Mimosa pigra L. is widely considered one of the 100 worst invasive species. Native to tropical America this species is now distributed worldwide where it causes severe impact in many regions. Population genetic data could provide important information for management of this species yet to date such study is lacking. The objectives of this effort include assessment of levels of genetic variation and genetic structure of M. pigra in Thailand using RAPD markers. Samples were collected from 11 populations throughout Thailand. Relatively high levels of genetic variation within populations were revealed, suggesting a lack of substantial population bottlenecks. The overall FST value of 0.271 (p<0.001) indicated considerable level of population genetic structure. UGPMA dendrogram indicate three lineages of M. pigra in Thailand. Principal coordinate analysis suggests that populations are not grouping according to geographic origin. Together, the results suggest that patterns of genetic variation and genetic structure are likely due to multiple introductions of M. pigra into Thailand.

2721-2726 Download
14
GENETIC STABILITY EVALUATION OF QUERCUS SUBER L. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS BY RAPD ANALYSIS
PEDRO FERNANDES, ARMANDO COSTA CRISTINA ROCHA, AND CONCEIÇÃO SANTOS*

GENETIC STABILITY EVALUATION OF QUERCUS SUBER L. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS BY RAPD ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
A reliable protocol for adult Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed recently. To evaluate the potential use of this protocol in cork oak forest breeding programs, it is essential to guarantee somatic embryos/emblings genetic stability. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is currently used to assess somaclonal variation providing information on genetic variability of the micropropagation process. In this work, SE was induced from adult trees by growing leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and zeatin. Embling conversion took place on MS medium without growth regulators. DNA from donor tree, somatic embryos and emblings was used to assess genetic variability by RAPD fingerprinting. Fourteen primers produced 165 genetic loci with high quality and reproducibility. Despite somatic embryos originated some poor quality PCR-profiles, replicable and excellent fingerprints were obtained for both donor plant and embling. Results presented no differences among regenerated emblings and donor plant. Hence, the SE protocol used did not induce, up to moment, any genetic variability, confirming data previously obtained with other molecular/genetic techniques, supporting that this protocol may be used to provide true-to-type plants from important forestry species.

2727-2731 Download
15
ASSESSMENT OF HERITABILITY ESTIMATES FOR SOME YIELD TRAITS IN WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MUHAMMAD KHALID1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL2, FARHATULLAH2*, ABDUL BARI1, MOHAMMAD TAHIR1, SHAHID ALI1 SAJJAD ANWAR1, AMJAD ALI1 AND MUHAMMAD ISMAIL1

ASSESSMENT OF HERITABILITY ESTIMATES FOR SOME YIELD TRAITS IN WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Information about the genetic variability and other associated parameters for different traits is very useful in crop improvement programs. Yield components and some morphological characters were studied in an experiment comprising 42 winter wheat genotypes. The experiment was laid out in RCB design in 2004-05 at the New Development Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar. Mean values, genotypic and phenotypic variances, broad sense heritability and genetic advance were calculated for all the traits. Moderate to very low and high heritabilities were estimated for all the morphological characters except days to 50% physiological maturity. Grain yield exhibited highest heritability value of 92.45% while harvest index and days to 50% physiological maturity showed minimum values 27.55% and 15.42% respectively. High heritability estimates were observed for grain yield and biological yield. Genetically the data revealed highly significant mean squares for all the characters i.e., tiller plant-1, plant height, days to 50% physiological maturity, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index which suggested the presence of genetic difference among the winter wheat genotypes.

2733-2736 Download
16
GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) LANDRACES BASED ON QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
FAZAL AKBAR1, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1* AND SHAH JEHAN KHAN3

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) LANDRACES BASED ON QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world’s oldest oil crops and has been cultivated in Asia since ancient times. The breeding potential of the germplasm accessions held in PGRP gene-bank has hardly been exploited to date. This study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic variability in the local sesame genotypes using 16 qualitative and quantitative traits. A total of 105 sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan were used. A considerable level of variation was recorded for a number of morphologic and agronomic traits, while limited diversity for observed among the accessions for characters like stem hairiness, flower color (white with purple shading), seed color and to some extent phyllody disease. The correlation coefficient analysis indicated that plant height, capsules plant-1, capsule length and 1000-seed weight had the significant positive effect on seed yield. The characters related to maturity, days to flower initiation and days to 50% flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish similarity and dissimilarity patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first three PC axes explained 54.21% of the total multivariate variation, while the first four PC axes explaining 63.64%. Plant height, days to maturity, capsules plant-1 and seed yield plant-1 were the major determinants of the genetic diversity in the collection. Cluster analysis places all the accessions into seven groups. Clustering was not associated with the geographical distribution instead accessions were mainly grouped due to their morphological differences. Elite sesame germplasm has been selected on the basis of best agro-morphological performance from 105 sesame collections. These results have an important suggestion for sesame germplasm agro-morphological assessment, enhancement, categorization and conservation in Pakistan.

2737-2744 Download
17
IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE SOURCE IN POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST PVX AND PVY
NADEEM AHMAD1, M. ASLAM KHAN1, NASIR AHMAD KHAN1, R. BINYAMIN1* AND M. AZAM KHAN2

IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE SOURCE IN POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST PVX AND PVY
ABSTRACT:
Potato is attacked by various diseases (bacterial, viral and fungal). PVX and PVY diseases of potato caused by PVX (Potex virus X) and PVY (Poty virus Y) causes heavy losses to the potato crop. In Pakistan, potato crop losses were reported up to 83% due to viruses. Potato germplasm consisting of 28 genotypes was screened against the PVX and PVY under field conditions during two seasons 2008-10. In case of PVX eight genotypes i.e., 494055-40, FD9619, OCEANIA, FD48-4, TPS-9801, FSD RED, 394021-125, FD3713, showed variable response in both years probably due to their genetic instability and in case of PVY six genotypes i.e., FD1-8, FD9619, CARDINAL, DESIREE, TPS-9802, 393574-61 also showed different response might be due to variation of vector population or due to genetic instability. Out of 28 varieties/lines there were 3 varieties FD3-10, FD3-9 and 393574-61 found to be highly resistant against PVX. Only 3 varieties MIRRATO, ARTERIX and DESIREE were moderately susceptible while 8 were moderately resistant and 6 were found to be resistant against PVX. While in case of PVY out of 28 varieties/lines five varieties TPS-9801, FD32-2, OCEANIA, FD13 and FD3713 were found to be resistant against PVY and four varieties FSD RED, ARTERIX, ORLA and FD3-10 were susceptible. Four varieties were found moderately resistant, nine varieties were found moderately susceptible against PVY. In addition to field screening resistant source of potato was identified through biological and serological test (ELISA test) against PVX and PVY. Screening of different varieties of potato against PVX and PVY diseases to find resistant source to control the disease is an economical way and the results would help in the recognition of available resistant germplasm against the disease, and will be utilized for potato improvement program in Pakistan.

2745-2749 Download
18
GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND ASSOCIATION AMONG POLYGENIC CHARACTERS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
MARYAM BIBI1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, ROZINA GUL1, ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI2 AND OBAID ULLAH SAYAL2

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND ASSOCIATION AMONG POLYGENIC CHARACTERS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Development of promising cotton populations with improved agronomic performance is primary objective of the cotton breeders. Genetic potential and variability in 8 × 8 F1 diallel hybrids versus their parental lines, traits correlation and heritability estimates were studied in Gossypium hirsutum L., during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant variations were observed among the parental cultivars and their F1 hybrids for all traits. Results indicated that F1 hybrids CIM-506 × CIM-554, CIM-473 × CIM-554, CIM-446 × CIM-554 and CIM-446 × CIM-496 (its reciprocal) produced significantly higher seed cotton yield, bolls per sympodia, boll weight and seeds per boll. Most of the F1 populations involving CIM-554 as maternal plant also revealed early maturity. Yield related traits revealed significant positive correlations with seed cotton yield. Heritability (broad sense) was high in magnitude for all traits. Results revealed that traits with high heritability and wide range of genetic variability in breeding material can work as a base population, and their significant contribution towards high yield can help in early segregating generations.

2751-2758 Download
19
IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF LENS ESCULENTUM VARIETIES.
AZRA YASMIN1*, SOFIA NAWAZ1 AND SYEDA MARIA ALI2

IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF LENS ESCULENTUM VARIETIES.
ABSTRACT:
Effluent samples were collected from Koh-e-Noor textile mill, Marble Industry and Attock oil Refinery for present study. Different dilutions (0

2759-2763 Download
20
THREE NEW COMBINATIONS IN THE GENUS CEPHALOPHILON (MEISN.) SPACH (POLYGONACEAE)
MUHAMMAD QAISER1 AND ANJUM PERVEEN2

THREE NEW COMBINATIONS IN THE GENUS CEPHALOPHILON (MEISN.) SPACH (POLYGONACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Three new combinations in the genus Cephalophilon (Meisn.) Spach (Polygonaceae) viz., C. glaciale (Meisn.) Qaiser & A. Perveen, C. humilis (Meisn.) Qaiser & A. Perveen and C. sinuatum (Royle ex Bap.) Qaiser & A. Perveen have been proposed.

2765-2767 Download
21
FURTHER INSIGHTS AND NEW COMBINATIONS IN AYLOSTERA (CACTACEAE) BASED ON MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATA
STEFANO MOSTI1,3, NADEESHA LEWKE BANDARA2 AND ALESSIO PAPINI1,3*

FURTHER INSIGHTS AND NEW COMBINATIONS IN AYLOSTERA (CACTACEAE) BASED ON MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATA
ABSTRACT:
The Genus Rebutia K. Schum. is a taxonomically complex genus of Cactaceae subfamily Cactoideae. This genus was subjected to splitting and lumpering treatments through the years. Molecular data revealed that Rebutia sensu lato must be divided in a clade corresponding to former Rebutia section Rebutia (Rebutia sensu stricto), related to the clade formed by Weingartia/Cintia/Sulcorebutia. Only this clade corresponds to genus Rebutia in our results. The other sections of Rebutia s. l. (Aylostera, Digitorebutia, Cylindrorebutia) cluster together to form another clade not directly related to Rebutia s. str. For priority reason this clade is recombined as genus Aylostera Speg. An analytical key is provided, to identify genera Rebutia K. Schum., Aylostera Speg., and Weingartia Werderm. (including Sulcorebutia Backeb. and Cintia Knize & Riha) and in Aylostera, at infrageneric level, the subgenera Aylostera and Mediolobivia. Further investigations are needed to assume taxonomic decisions about the clade Weingartia/Sulcorebutia/Cintia that, as a whole, should be assigned to genus Weingartia Werderm. A list of taxa belonging to genera Rebutia K. Schum. and Aylostera Speg., is provided. In this treatment the necessary combinations following the separation of Aylostera as a genus autonomous from Rebutia are proposed. The ATPB-rbcL IGS fragment revealed to be enough variable to be used for Barcoding of species among Cactaceae. All species here considered are in CITES appendix II, with frequent determination difficulties.

2769-2785 Download
22
FACTORS INFLUENCING SEED GERMINATION OF WILD ONION AND CHICKPEA CULTIVARS
M.I. KHAN1*, G. HASSAN1, I. KHAN1, M. SAEED1, A.A. KHAKWANI2, M. IDREES3 AND K. NAWAB3

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEED GERMINATION OF WILD ONION AND CHICKPEA CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.) is a major weed of chickpea in the sandy tract of Pakistan and elsewhere in the world, but its biology and physiology is less understood. Seeds of its four biotypes were collected from Bannu, Karak, Bhakkar and Mianwali districts of Pakistan for a series of laboratory experiments. Seeds were treated with a range of concentrations of gibberellic acid, potassium nitrate, thiourea or sodium azide and incubated at three temperatures 10

2787-2792 Download
23
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GERMINATION AND SEED SIZE IN ALPINE SHRUBS IN TIBETAN PLATEAU
WU GAO-LIN1,2* LI WEI1,2 AND DU GUO-ZHEN2

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GERMINATION AND SEED SIZE IN ALPINE SHRUBS IN TIBETAN PLATEAU
ABSTRACT:
Seed germination is related to seed size in many herbs species, but few studies investigated the relationship between germination and seed size in shrubs. We examined the correlation of seed size and germination percentage, germination rate and germination persistence time for 29 alpine shrubs in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Results showed that seed size was significant negatively correlated with coefficients of variation (r = -0.709, p<0.001), with germination percentage (r = -0.682, p<0.001), and with germination rate (r = -0.512, p=0.004). Coefficients of variation was significant positively correlated with germination percentage (r = 0.525, p=0.003) and germination rate (r = 0.522, p=0.004). It revealed that the smaller-seeded species present a bigger variance in seed size than the larger-seeded species. Smaller-seeded species were apt to fast and concentrative germination strategy, but, larger-seeded species were apt to slow and stochastic germination strategy. It appears that smaller-seeded species advance their germination fitness by adaptive variance of seed size.

2793-2796 Download
24
EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL OF SEED PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN IMPROVING GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF VARIOUS RANGELAND GRASSES
IHSAN QADIR1, Z. H. KHAN1, R. A. KHAN 1AND IRFAN AFZAL2

EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL OF SEED PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN IMPROVING GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF VARIOUS RANGELAND GRASSES
ABSTRACT:
Poor and erratic germination is a sever problem in stand establishment of range grasses. In this study, the potential of seed priming techniques in improving germination and early seedling growth of three rangeland grasses (viz. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris (L.), dhaman grass (C. setigerus Vahal), and blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) was evaluated in a laboratory trial. For priming, seeds were soaked in well aerated solution of CaCl2, KNO3, KCl and CaSO4 (each having 10 and 50 mM solution) for 24 h. Both hydropriming and untreated seeds were considered as control treatments. Maximum germination of buffel grass was recorded from osmopriming (10 mM KNO3) while in dhaman and blue panic grass low concentration of CaSO3 10 mM followed by priming with 50 mM KNO3 proved the best. Maximum plumule length was recorded in CaSO4 and 50 mM CaCl2 while less mean germination time (1.91 and 2.06) was recorded in untreated control and 10 mM CaCl2 respectively. Osmopriming with 10 mM or 50 mM KNO3 can be successfully employed to improve the germination and seedling vigor in bufffel grass and low level of CaSO4 to improved dhaman grass and panic grass performance in rangeland.

2797-2800 Download
25
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ACACIA TORTILIS (FORSSK.) HAYNE SUBSP. RADDIANA (SAVI) BRENAN IN NORTH AFRICA
ZOUHEIR NOUMI* AND MOHAMED CHAIEB

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ACACIA TORTILIS (FORSSK.) HAYNE SUBSP. RADDIANA (SAVI) BRENAN IN NORTH AFRICA
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathic and autotoxicity effects of aqueous extracts from under the canopy soil and from different parts of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana were studied. These effects were measured in terms of germination rate and radicel length of barley (Hordeum vulgare), softwheat (Triticum sativum L.) and hardwheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with two varieties and Acacia tortilis. The experiments were conducted in the dark at an average temperature of 25°C for cereal species and 30°C for Acacia seeds which represents the optimum temperature of germination. Different extracts (from soil under canopy, leaf, fruit, shoot and root) significantly reduced germination and seedling growth of the tested species. However, this allelopathic effect varied with the extract source. The inhibitory effect was more pronounced in fruit and leaf extracts compared with root, shoot and soil extracts. These results strongly suggest that allelopathy may be a possible mechanism controlling the timing of cereal and Acacia tortilis germination and seedling establishment.

2801-2805 Download
26
EFFECT OF ADDING INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND MICROBIAL FERTILIZERS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER
M. JALALUDDIN1 AND MARIA HAMID2

EFFECT OF ADDING INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND MICROBIAL FERTILIZERS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
In a comparison made on the effect of adding inorganic, organic and microbial fertilizers in soil on the germination of seeds of 4 sunflower varieties viz., Hysun-33, Hysun-38, Helico-250 and SA-278 it was found that manure and triple phosphate had good effect as compared to the control series. Inoculation of microbial fertiliser (VAM-fungal spores) had no effect for 6 days and the percentage of germination of seeds was equal to the control series. On the emergence of seedlings there was a better seedling growth in VAM-fungi inoculated plants as compared to organic manure and inorganic triple phosphate fertilisers. Addition of 300 mg/kg of manure and triple phosphate showed better increase in growth and fresh and dry weights over the control. Addition of 500 mg/kg of manure and triple phosphate in soil showed lodging of seedlings. Inoculation of 500 spores/kg in soil showed remarkable effect on the growth of seedlings after 15 days and there was no lodging of seedlings. The increase in growth was due to the establishment of symbiotic association between the VAM-fungi in roots of sunflower plants which was evident under microscope.

2807-2809 Download
27
EFFECT OF GA AND ABA ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF BLACK RASPBERRY (RUBUS COREANUS MIQUEL) SEEDS
SHAFIQ REHMAN1*, HEH-RAN CHOI2, MUHAMMAD JAMIL3 AND SONG JOONG YUN4*

EFFECT OF GA AND ABA ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF BLACK RASPBERRY (RUBUS COREANUS MIQUEL) SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) seed is covered with hard seed coat and enveloped in an endospermic layer. Seeds failed to germinate without scarification and stratification, suggesting that seeds exhibit profound both physical and physiological dormancy. Scarification with sulfuric acid for 15 minutes and stratification for 45 days produced best results. The application of GA was not effective in alleviating dormancy compared to GA-untreated seeds. R. coreanus seeds in contrast to other plant species, in which radicle emerges first during germination process, seed coat cleaved at the center or little more toward radicle end and whole seed emerged out (cotyledons plus radicle) as if the chick hatched out of egg. Normally seed germination is defined based on the radicle emergence but in case of R. coreanus due to lack of radicle emergence seed was considered germinated when half or more than half of the seed (radicle plus cotyledons and some time endospermic layer) emerged from seed coat. Furthermore, seed germination was completed in two steps,

2811-2816 Download
28
FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, COMMUNITIES AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS OF WHEAT FIELDS OF LAHOR, DISTRICT SWABI, PAKISTAN
ZAMAN SHER*1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2, LAL BADSHAH3 AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB4

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, COMMUNITIES AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS OF WHEAT FIELDS OF LAHOR, DISTRICT SWABI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Forty species related to 21 families were identified as the weeds of wheat from village Lahor, District Swabi during April 2005. Poaceae (7 spp), followed by Brassicaceae (5 spp), Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae (each with 4 spp) were the important families. The remaining families had single species. The most frequent species with more than 45% average frequency were Anagallis arvensis L., Arenaria serphyllifolia L., Chenpodium album L., Fumaria indica (Hausskn) H. N. Pugsley., Melilotus indica (L.) All., Rumex dentatus (Meissn) Rich., and Veronica biloba Linn. Based on importance value four communities viz., Arenaria -Anagallis-Chenopodium, Fumaria-Rumex-Chenopodium, Fumaria-Chenopodium-Anagallis, Arenaria-Fumaria-Chenopodium were deciphered. Caryophyllaceae, Fumariaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae and Primulaceae were the dominant families on the basis of family importance values. The biological spectrum showed that there were 82.5% therophytes and 12.5% hemicryptophytes. Geophytes and chamaephytes were represented by one species each. Leaf spectra consisted of 42.5% microphylls, 35% nanophylls and 22.5% leptophylls. Biomass of the forbs was higher than the grasses. Species diversity was higher in Koz Mulk and Pani owing to crop rotation.

2817-2820 Download
29
SURVEILLANCE OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS TO INVESTIGATE POLLUTION STATUS OF LAHORE CANAL
ARIFA TAHIR1*, FARIHA KANWAL1 AND BUSHRA MATEEN2

SURVEILLANCE OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS TO INVESTIGATE POLLUTION STATUS OF LAHORE CANAL
ABSTRACT:
The Lahore canal is an important watershed in Lahore. The present study was conducted to monitor pollution load of Lahore canal. Surface water was collected from the middle of the canal at four different sites, and analysed for physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, EC, DO, BOD5, turbidity, nitrates, phosphates) and microbial load (bacteria (TVC), total coliform and fungi). Water quality parameters were monitored from May to August at four sites along 17Km long patch. Surface water was collected in the middle of the canal. The results were compared with IWQ guidelines proposed by WWF, Pakistan. Pollution load of Lahore Canal revealed an alarming situation. Water can be used for the irrigation purpose, but only with advanced treatment.

2821-2824 Download
30
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN –LXVIII. DIPSACACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN –LXVIII. DIPSACACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of three genera representing 6 species of the family Dipsacaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly prolate-spheroidal rarely spheroidal, porate or tricolpate, sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly spinulose rarely scabrate. On the basis of apertural types 3 distinct pollen types are recognized, viz.,Dipsacus inermis–type, Pterocephalus gedrosiacus–type and Scabiosa candollei–type.

2825-2827 Download
31
DETERMINATION OF MACRO AND MICRONUTRIENTS AND NUTRITIONAL PROSPECTS OF SIX VEGETABLE SPECIES OF MARDAN, PAKISTAN
JAVID HUSSAIN1,2*, NAJEEB UR REHMAN1,2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,3, HIDAYAT HUSSAIN2, AHMED AL-HARRASI2, LIAQAT ALI2, FARHANA SAMI1, AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4

DETERMINATION OF MACRO AND MICRONUTRIENTS AND NUTRITIONAL PROSPECTS OF SIX VEGETABLE SPECIES OF MARDAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to assess the nutritional and mineral composition of selected vegetables, which are commonly used as food in Pakistan. Abelmoschus esculentus, Solanum melongena, Cucurbita moschata, Allium sativum, Momordica charantia and Portulaca oleracea were collected form Mardan (Pakistan) and subjected to nutrient analysis. Nutrient analysis (total proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, energy value and moisture contents) of vegetable species were determined according to AOAC methods. Macro viz. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P) and micro viz. iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and selenium (Se) elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method. The moisture (wet and dry basis), ash, fats, fibers, proteins, energy value (305.9-382.6 Kcal/100g) and carbohydrates of these vegetable species were found in the range of 62.9-92.7, 5.4-7.7, 3.1-23.1, 0.3-8.3

2829-2833 Download
32
OVEREXPRESSION OF RICE PHYTOCHROME A IN ARABIDOPSIS: DIVERSE ROLE IN MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
CHUNFENG CHEN1

OVEREXPRESSION OF RICE PHYTOCHROME A IN ARABIDOPSIS: DIVERSE ROLE IN MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
ABSTRACT:
2, YOU CHEN1, QING ZHANG1, BENWEN CHEN3, CHENGWEI YANG1 AND YA QIN WANG1,*

2835-2844 Download
33
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN YIELD AND SEED-OIL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, AND F. AL-QURAINY3

AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN YIELD AND SEED-OIL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Effectiveness of a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on improving yield and regulating some potential physio-chemical attributes of seed and oil of two sunflower cultivars was examined in a greenhouse experiment. Four varying levels of ALA 20, 50 and 80 mg L-1 were applied foliarly to the two sunflower cultivars (Hysun-33 and S-278) grown under saline (150 mM NaCl) and non-saline (0 mM NaCl) conditions. Salt stress adversely affected the achenes/plant, total achene yield

2845-2852 Download
34
ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM
MAQSOOD AHMAD1, A. WAHID2*, SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD3, ZAHID ALI BUTT4 AND MARYUM TARIQ1

ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM
ABSTRACT:
The effects of hexavalent chromium (Cr) were studied in rice plants by applying its different concentrations ranging from 50-500 mg/kg of soil. Cr significantly altered growth of rice plants and reduced dry weights of shoot (7-58%) and roots (7-73%) in different treatments. Cr impact was remarkably high on photosynthetic rate (21-62%), transpiration rate (5-59%), and stomatal conductance (21-66%). Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents were also reduced in Cr-treatment plants by 17-47%

2853-2859 Download
35
EFFECTS OF SOIL PROPRIETIES ON WATER AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF BETA MACROCARPA GUSS.
SAMEH SASSI-AYDI 1, SAMIR AYDI 1 *, KAMEL HESSINI1, CHEDLY ABDELLY 1, MOKHTAR LACHAÂL2 AND ABDELAZIZ SOLTANI 1

EFFECTS OF SOIL PROPRIETIES ON WATER AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF BETA MACROCARPA GUSS.
ABSTRACT:
During their development cycle, plants are subjected to variations of climatic conditions and soil proprieties which affect their growth. Scattered information is available on the mineral status of the halophytes habitat. B. macrocarpa, an annual herbaceous plant, was selected among a large number of other species, in coastal and marginal lands in Tunisia. We aimed in this study to focus on soil proprieties and plants mineral status during principal periods of the B. macrocarpa growth cycle, in order to understand the relationship between changes in soil fertility on plant growth and mineral acquisition. Results showed that soil fertility influences plant distribution between bared and vegetated soil. Furthermore, salinity increased notably in bared soil. This provides information concerning the role of the microhabitats, formed by halophytes tufts, in keeping adequate soil moisture. Nevertheless, mineral acquisition by plants was similar in both plant types, then this species is able to maintain adequate growth even in relatively poor and desiccated soil. Sodium and chloride were the most abundant ions in plants tissues; this reflects their utilisation in osmotic adjustment. Results herein suggested that the litter formed by halophyte fallen organs and by organic debris at the feet of tufts contributed to localized soil enrichment in N and P.

2861-2868 Download
36
ROLE OF NITRATE NUTRITION IN ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESS ON MAIZE CULTIVARS: BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY
LIXIN ZHANG1,2*, KAI WANG1, XIFENG ZHANG1, LIXIA LU3,YUNFEI LI3, MEI GAO1,2, CUIYUN WANG1, JINJIANG HU1 AND ZONGSUO LIANG1,2

ROLE OF NITRATE NUTRITION IN ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESS ON MAIZE CULTIVARS: BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY
ABSTRACT:
Optimal nitrogen (N) nutrition has been shown to alleviate the negative effects of drought stress (DS) on plants. The mechanisms of beneficial effect of nitrogen form are not conclusive. In this study, the effects of different ratios of nitrate (NO3-) to ammonium (NH4+) nutrition on the growth and oxidative damage of two maize cultivar i.e. Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Jundan 20 (JD20) were investigated under DS and non-DS in nutrient solution. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased, while that of peroxidase (POD) remained unchanged in ZD958 with supplies of NO3-: NH4+ ratios of either 100:0 or 50:50, while in NO3-: NH4+ ratio of 0:100 in ZD958 and all NO3-: NH4+ ratios in JD20 all the enzymes showed decreased activities compared to control. Furthermore, DS decreased biomass production, whereas increased the contents of superoxide radical (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), along with an enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves of both cultivars. The above effects were greater in JD20 than those in ZD958. An increased ratio of NO3-: NH4+ in culture solution increased the activities of SOD, POD and CAT while decreased the production of O2•- and H2O2, thereby diminishing MDA accumulation, and increasing biomass production of drought-stressed plants of both cultivars. The above responses were pronounced in ZD958 than those in JD20. This study demonstrated that increased NO3--nutrition played a favored anti-oxidative metabolic role, as compared with NH4+-nutrition, in the plants thereby increasing tolerance to DS.

2869-2874 Download
37
FRACTION OF INTERCEPTED RADIATION OF COTTON RESPONDS TO IRRIGATION AND INTEGRATED PLANT NUTRITION
MUHAMMAD SALEEM1*, MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN2, SYED SARWAR ALAM2 AND ASIF JAVAID3

FRACTION OF INTERCEPTED RADIATION OF COTTON RESPONDS TO IRRIGATION AND INTEGRATED PLANT NUTRITION
ABSTRACT:
Significant effect of different irrigation schedules and integrated nutrition levels was determined on fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi) in cotton. The treatments were four irrigation schedules viz. six irrigations (I1), three irrigations (I2), irrigation at 25 mm deficit (I3) and irrigation at 50 mm deficit (I4), and seven integrated nutrition levels i.e. control (N0), 75-37.5–37.5 kg NPK ha-1 (N1), 75-37.5-37.5 kg NPK ha-1 + FYM (farm yard manure) @ 20 t ha-1 (N2), 75-37.5-37.5 kg NPK ha-1 + wheat straw@ 5 t ha-1 (N3)

2875-2879 Download
38
BIO-REACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CITRUS WASTE: AN INVESTIGATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND TYROSINASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES
MUSARRAT AKHTAR1, LUBNA IQBAL2*, MEHREEN LATEEF2, BUSHRA NAWAB1, MUHAMMAD SALEEM2 AND NIGHAT AFZA1

BIO-REACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CITRUS WASTE: AN INVESTIGATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND TYROSINASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES
ABSTRACT:
The antioxidant potential as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity of citrus fruit waste were determined. Fruit peels of 4 species of genus citrus viz. Citrus sinensis (Malta), C. reticulate (Orange), C. paradisi (Grape fruit) and C. aurantifolia (Lemon), were analyzed for these bio-reactive properties. Six different fractions of crude extracts of each citrus fruit peel were screened for antioxidant behavior through DPPH scavenging activity, while tyrosinase inhibition capacity was evaluated by using kojic acid as standard tyrosinase inhibitor. It was revealed that significant antioxidant potential was found in chloroform fraction of malta, orange and lemon, while chloroform and ethyl acetate, both fractions of grape fruit had 90% antioxidant activity at 1% concentration. Alcoholic fractions of orange, malta, and lemon showed 90, 87, and 69% tyrosinase inhibition respectively, while no tyrosinase inhibition was found in any fraction of grape fruit.

2881-2883 Download
39
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF CUT ROSE CULTIVARS GROWN IN TWO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
IFTIKHAR AHMAD*, M. SHAFIQUE KHALID, M. ASLAM KHAN AND M. SALEEM

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF CUT ROSE CULTIVARS GROWN IN TWO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to compare the growth and yield of five promising cut rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars in two production systems viz. greenhouse and field under agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. All plant growth and physiological indices of the study except total leaf chlorophyll contents were higher in greenhouse grown plants as compared with field cultivated. Among cultivars, ‘Rosy Cheeks’ and ‘Whisky Mac’ had vigorous vegetative growth while ‘Amalia’ and ‘Anjlique’ produced higher flower yield of best quality than other cultivars compared in the study. Therefore, ‘Amalia’ and ‘Anjlique’ are preferred cultivars for commercial production than ‘Rosy Cheeks’, ‘Whisky Mac’ and ‘Kardinal’.

2885-2890 Download
40
INFLUENCE OF DEFOLIATION AND DEBLOSSOMING ON THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. ‘GOLA’
AHMAD SATTAR KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD REHMAN GUL KHAN1, AMAN ULLAH MALIK1, BASHARAT ALI SALEEM2, ISHTIAQ AHMAD RAJWANA3 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD1

INFLUENCE OF DEFOLIATION AND DEBLOSSOMING ON THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV. ‘GOLA’
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken to determine the influence of defoliation and deblossoming on the vegetative and reproductive growth of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. ‘Gola’ tree. Twenty guava trees of uniform size and age with five treatments replicated four times were selected for the experiment. Defoliation and deblossoming was done manually at different levels [0% defoliation + 0% deblossoming

2891-2896 Download
41
SEMINAL ROOT OF MAIZE VARIETIES IN RELATION TO REDUCTION IN THE SUBSTRATE MOISTURE CONTENT
ASAD SHAH1, RABIA GOHAR1, S. KHALID2 AND MOHAMMAD AKMAL1*

SEMINAL ROOT OF MAIZE VARIETIES IN RELATION TO REDUCTION IN THE SUBSTRATE MOISTURE CONTENT
ABSTRACT:
To study the different moisture regimes on root growth of maize varieties, this experiment was conducted at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Agricultural University, Peshawar Pakistan during summer 2008. Four moisture treatments i.e. favorable (100%), moderate (75%), low (50%) and very low (25%) were prepared with sand soil mixtures of 8:1 (w/w). Ten varieties of maize comprising three hybrids and seven synthetic were compared for the seminal root length and elongation rates. Germinated grains were transplanted in glass boxes (23x16x4 cm) filled with substrate having different moisture contents. Grains were separated from the substrate using black cotton cloth to avoid roots disappearance and/or penetration in substrate for elongation rate measurements. Rate of the elongation was calculated by marking root tips on the glass surface at each day on definite time intervals. The results showed that a reduction in root length was common by decreasing substrate moisture from favorable to any level. However, the decrease in root length was moderate to stronger when substrate’s moisture contents decreased form below 75%. Different varieties responded differently to the reduction in soil moisture contents showing that potential did exist in genotype for further improvement e.g. identification of marker genes and its transferring to existing commercial varieties to adopt them better in an environment when sowing was accomplished in hot summer months in soils where loss of moisture was relatively high. Reduction in substrate moisture has shown a decrease in root length which might has an almost similar effect on seedling establishment in early development phase and hence can accumulate in yield losses at maturity.

2897-2902 Download
42
IMPACT OF BORON FERTILIZATION ON DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND MINERAL CONSTITUTION OF IRRIGATED COTTON
NIAZ AHMED1, MUHAMMAD ABID1, FIAZ AHMAD2, MUHAMMAD AMAN ULLAH3, QAISAR JAVAID4, AND MUHAMMAD ARIF ALI1*

IMPACT OF BORON FERTILIZATION ON DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND MINERAL CONSTITUTION OF IRRIGATED COTTON
ABSTRACT:
The inorganic fertilizers produce significant effects on quantity as well as quality on the produce of most of the crop plants: The productivity of cotton crop varies greatly due to addition of macro-and micro-nutrients. Among micro-nutrients, boron fertilizer holds significant importance in not only sustaining but also enhancing the yield of cotton. At the advent of excessive use of high analysis fertilizers, a wide spread deficiency of boron in soils of Pakistan is of common scene. However, research studies are limited on the quantity and the impact of boron fertilizer on production of biological yield and its chemical composition of cotton plant under irrigated conditions. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the influence of boron fertilizer on dry matter production and its interactive effects on other nutrients in plant system. The experiment was conducted on calcareous soils under irrigated conditions for two seasons 2004-2005 at Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The treatments consisted of six levels of boron fertilizer i.e., 0.0

2903-2910 Download
43
EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTIGATION IN WHEAT ON DIFFERENT SOILS VARYING IN CaCO3 LEVELS
MUHAMMAD YOUSUF MEMON, JAVAID AHMAD SHAH*, PARVEZ KHAN, MUHAMMAD ASLAM AND NIZAMUDDIN DEPAR

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTIGATION IN WHEAT ON DIFFERENT SOILS VARYING IN CaCO3 LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Low native soil phosphorus availability coupled with poor utilization of added phosphorus is one of the major constraints limiting the productivity of alkaline and calcareous soils of Pakistan. With a view of addressing this issue, a field experiment was conducted to compare the efficacy of two methods of phosphorus application; broadcast (0 and 100 kg P2O5 kg ha-1) and fertigation (50, 75 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1) in calcareous soils varying in CaCO3 concentrations (6, 9 and 13% CaCO3). Phosphorus fertigation @ 100 kg ha-1 significantly enhanced the grain (4.4 tons ha-1) and biological yields (11.4 tons ha-1) as compared to control and broadcast at each level of CaCO3%. The maximum P uptake (16.6 kg ha-1) and P (10.0%) recovery were observed with fertigated P (100 kg ha-1) at 6%CaCO3 level in soil. The premier agronomic efficiency recorded with P fertigation at 50 kg ha-1, was (147.7 %) more than broadcasted P (100 kg ha-1). The results revealed that the fertigation method remained most efficient for phosphorus application compared to the conventional broadcasting method in calcareous soils.

2911-2914 Download
44
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF SKIMMIA LAUREOLA (DC.) ZUCC. EX WALP., VER. NAIR
FERHAT MEHMOOD*, MUHAMMAD QASIM1, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN, NAEEM IQBAL1, SHAHID MEHMOOD2, MUHAMMAD LATEEF3 AND PHOOL SHAHZADI2

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF SKIMMIA LAUREOLA (DC.) ZUCC. EX WALP., VER. NAIR
ABSTRACT:
In this study ‘anthelmintic activity of essential oils (EOs), of leaf, stem and root of Skimmia laureola (DC.) Zucc. Ex Walp., ver. Nair was evaluated. ‘Adult motility assay’ was employed using Haemoncus contortus adult worms. EO was applied at three levels viz. 10, 35 and 50µL/10 ml in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) plus 10µL of tween 20 (as carrier/emulsifier). Levamisole was used as a positive control at 0.55 mg/ml concentration. Each concentration of essential oils obtained from different plant parts exhibited varied anthelmintic activity. The best dose dependant effect on adult mortality was by EOs from S. laureola root and stem (R2 values 0.801). Change in the color of the dead worms was an indicator parameter of the fact that the EOs might have damaged the skin of the worms or after transcutaneous penetration into the body has disrupted the circulatory system by causing constriction of blood vessels. It is concluded that EOs extracted from Skimmia laureola have anthelmintic properties.

2915-2918 Download
45
OPTIMIZING WATER AND NITROGEN REQUIREMENT IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER SEMI ARID CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
HAFIZ MOHKUM HAMMAD*, A. AHMAD, F. AZHAR, T. KHALIQ, A. WAJID, W. NASIM, AND W. FARHAD

OPTIMIZING WATER AND NITROGEN REQUIREMENT IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER SEMI ARID CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Water and nitrogen are the most important factors, play their role in better growth and yield of maize. To find out effective use of resources a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation regimes and nitrogen rates on growth and yield of maize hybrid at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2009. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Three irrigation regime i.e., I1 (eight irrigation), I2 (six irrigation, two missed at vegetative stage) and I3 (seven one missed at grain filling stage) were kept in main plots and four rates of nitrogen; N1 (150 kg ha-1), N2 (200 kg ha-1), N3 (250 kg ha-1) and N4 (300 kg ha-1) were randomized in sub plots. Results showed that maximum leaf area index (4.92), number of grains per cob (490), grain yield (8.49 t ha-1) and harvest index (47.73%) were achieved in N3 treatment with I1 irrigation regime while the highest biological yield (17.97 t ha-1) was recorded in N4 treatment with the I1 irrigation regimes . The minimum1000-grains weight (314 g), biological yield (12.48 t ha-1) and grain yield (4.67 t ha-1) were recorded in the combination of I2 and N1 treatments. Water stress at six and twelve leaves stage simultaneously decreased grain yield 30% while water stress at grain filling stage decreased 20% yield.

2919-2923 Download
46
EFFECT OF MINERAL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LUCERNE UNDER INDUCED WATER DEFICIENCY STRESS
VILIANA VASILEVA1, OGNYAN KOSTOV2, EMIL VASILEV1 AND MOHAMMAD ATHAR3

EFFECT OF MINERAL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LUCERNE UNDER INDUCED WATER DEFICIENCY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Utility of lucerne crop fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer has been discussed in literature with controversy. In this study experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral nitrogen at the doses of 40, 80

2925-2928 Download
47
RELATIONSHIP OF PLANT AVAILABLE SULPHUR WITH SOIL CHARACTERISTICS, RAINFALL AND YIELD LEVELS OF OILSEED CROPS IN POTHWAR PAKISTAN
RIZWAN KHALID1, KHALID SAIFULLAH KHAN1*, ZAHID AKRAM2, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3 AND MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ4

RELATIONSHIP OF PLANT AVAILABLE SULPHUR WITH SOIL CHARACTERISTICS, RAINFALL AND YIELD LEVELS OF OILSEED CROPS IN POTHWAR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out in order to assess the status of plant available S in the 15 rain-fed arable soils of Pothwar, Pakistan and to evaluate its relationships with soil characteristics, rainfall distribution and yield levels of oilseed crops in the region. The contents of plant available S (0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S) in the soils varied from 5.7 to 21.7 µg g-1 soil (mean 11.7 µg g-1 soil) and corresponded to 7.0 to 13.8% of the total S in the soils. The adsorbed S contents ranged from 1.9 to 7.8 µg g-1 soil (mean 4.8µg g-1 soil) forming 2.0 to 7.3% of the total S in the soils. The organic S contents ranged from 68.4 to 140.4 µg g-1 soil (mean 97.0 µg g-1 soil) accounting for 81.5 to 89.3% of the total S in the soils. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S was highly significant positive correlated with total S and organic S in the soils. Significant positive relationships also existed between 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S and the clay, ECe, organic C, total N, and extractable P contents in the soils. Significant negative relationships of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S were observed with the CaCO3 and pHs of the soils. Among the climatic factors, 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S showed significant positive correlation with the mean annual temperature, while the significant negative relationships with rainfall from July to August, total annual rainfall and the rainfall from September to June. A strong positive relationship existed between 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S contents and the average yield level of oilseed crops (r = 0.80**). Among different crops, groundnut yield had highly significant correlation (r = 0.90**) with the CaCl2 extractable SO4-2-S followed by the sunflower (r = 0.70**), while the rapeseed/ mustard yield had the lowest (r = 0.59*).

2929-2935 Download
48
IN VITRO GROWTH OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA CHEEL IN BIOREACTOR OF IMMERSION BY BUBBLES
GESSIEL NEWTON SCHEIDT1, ANDRÉ LUÍS LOPES DA SILVA2, YOHANA DE OLIVEIRA2, JEFFERSON DA LUZ COSTA2, LUIZ ANTONIO BIASI2 AND CARLOS RICARDO SOCCOL2*

IN VITRO GROWTH OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA CHEEL IN BIOREACTOR OF IMMERSION BY BUBBLES
ABSTRACT:
Development of new techniques for in vitro culture is necessary to optimize and reduce the production costs. The aim of this work was to introduce the bioreactor BIB® (Bioreactor of Immersion by Bubbles) and compare it with conventional culture and bioreactor RITA® (Recipient with Automatized Temporary Immersion) for In vitro growth of M. alternifolia plantlets. Plantlets with 1.0 cm height from the fifth In vitro subculture were used. Treatments were:

2937-2939 Download
49
EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC PLANT EXTRACTS ON THREE STORAGE GRAIN PESTS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
FARKHANDA MANZOOR1, GHAZALA NASIM2*, SADIA SAIF1, SAADIYA ASMA MALIK1,

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC PLANT EXTRACTS ON THREE STORAGE GRAIN PESTS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
ABSTRACT:
Screening of plant extracts from wild species of plants for insecticidal properties could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest control. Keeping this in view, the ethanolic extracts of five plants leaves Bakain (Melia azedarach), Mint (Mentha longifolia), Habulas (Myrtus communis), Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and Datura (Datura stramonium) were tested against three stored grain pests viz., Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Saw-Toothed Grain Beetle), Tribolium castaneum. Herbst (Red Flour Beetle) and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Gram Dhora). The results revealed that all of the tested materials had repellent and lethal effects against the tested pests as compared to untreated check. The extracts were mixed with grain 10mg/g of grains. Comparison of test plant extracts on Oryzaephilus surinamensis showed that Habulas extracts were the most effective causing 50.71% mortality. Datura showed maximum mortality of (21.43%) in Tribolium castaneum and when percentage mortality of different plants extracts on Callosobruchus chinensis was compared, it was seen that Habulas caused highest (63.94%) mortality. Present study also revealed that all the treatments significantly deterred / repelled the tested insects. Lemon grass showed maximum repellency of 39.75% against Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Habulas extract showed maximum repellency of 64.05% against Tribolium castaneum and Datura extract showed maximum (31.67%) repellency against Callosobruchus chinensis. The results of thin layer chromatography (TLC) also showed that two components were detected in Lemon grass extract, four components in Mint extract and two components in Habulas extract. From Datura and Bakain, three components are detected respectively in the ethanol extractive.

2941-2946 Download
50
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WASTEWATER OF QUETTA CITY
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI, ZAHOOR AHMED BAZAI AND SAFDAR ALI KAYANI

ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) IRRIGATED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WASTEWATER OF QUETTA CITY
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from irrigation by wastewater is causing major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This study was therefore designed to investigate the heavy metal ions viz., Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ concentrations by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots. This leafy vegetable was irrigated with 5 different concentrations of wastewater collected from 3 different localities viz., Chiltan town, Chiltan Ghee Mill (oil industry) and Zarghoon town of Quetta city. Tap water was used as background water. Plant samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that localities, treatments and their interactions (except Cu2+& Pb2+) generally exhibited highly significant (P≤0.01) influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. The maximum values of 9.71; 509.06; 32.47; 94.38; 8.58; 5.05 and 7.45 mg kg-1 for Cu2+, total Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+,Pb2+, and Cd2+ respectively, were generally obtained in highest concentration of effluents. While maximum values of 9.02; 4.47 and 7.90 mg kg-1 of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were obtained for Chiltan ghee mill effluents. However, maximum values i.e., 435.96 and 80.47 mg kg-1 of total Fe and Zn2+ were recorded for Chiltan town. The highest values of 30.09 and 6.32 mg kg-1 for Mn2+ and Pb2+ were noted in Zarghoon town, respectively. On the basis of grand mean values,the magnitude of heavy metals detected for various metals is in order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd > Ni. Results further demonstrated that the total concentrations of Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ are within the recommended international standards set by WHO/FAO, but could be reached to toxic level either by the consecutive use of effluents or by increased dietary pattern of the consumers. Whereas, the amount of Pb2+ and Cd2+ are at par than the international maximum permissible limits. This study highlights the potential health risks associated with the cultivation and consumption of leafy vegetables on wastewater-contaminated soils. Wastewater used for irrigation around the peri-urban area of Quetta is highly polluted especially in term of Pb2+& Cd2+ metals. Therefore, domestic and industrial waste of the city should be properly disposed and or recycled so as to avoid the present/ future health risks.

2953-2960 Download
51
CROP STRAW BURNING PRACTICE-A THREAT TO ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL BIODIVERSITY
GHAZALA NASIM

CROP STRAW BURNING PRACTICE-A THREAT TO ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL BIODIVERSITY
ABSTRACT:
The burning of crop straw or vegetable remains is a traditional agricultural practice in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Present study reveals that the crop straw /veg remain burning practices in urban Pakistan is a growing threat to the biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in the region. The study reports that some of the species of AM fungi use these plant portions as their ecological niches and categorically sporulate in decaying sheathing leaf bases/non root portions like scale-leaves of cereal crops and vegetables. This includes species of Glomus, Sclerosystis and Acaulospora. Setting the left over plant materials into fire has lead to complete burning of the biomass into ashes and sterilization of upper 10-15cm of surface soil (Fig. 1). This practice if continues may totally eliminate the threatened species like Glomus monosporum, Acaulospora bireticulta and Sclerocystis pakistanica.

2961-2966 Download
52
EFFECT OF MATURITY ON COMPARATIVE NUTRITIVE VALUE AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIZE, SORGHUM AND MILLET SILAGES
SOHAIL HASSAN KHAN1*, ATIYA AZIM2, MUHAMMAD SARWAR1AND ABDUL GHAFAR KHAN2

EFFECT OF MATURITY ON COMPARATIVE NUTRITIVE VALUE AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIZE, SORGHUM AND MILLET SILAGES
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to compare nutritional worth of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) silages. These fodders were manually harvested and then preserved in laboratory scale silos at three physiological stages i.e., pre heading (CS1), heading (CS2) and milk stage (CS3). The results showed that the dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin and water soluble carbohydrate contents increased (p<0.05) in all three fodder silages with advancing age. However, crude protein, total digestible nutrients and metabolizable energy contents decreased (p<0.05) in all fodders silages with the advancement of their growth. The water soluble carbohydrates, pH and ammonia nitrogen values of silages prepared from three fodders decreased (p<0.05) as the plants advanced in age. However, lactic acid contents in three fodder silages increased (p<0.05) with the advancement of age of fodder. Based upon nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, the milk growth stage was the best physiological stage of the three fodder silages.

2967-2970 Download
53
SOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEPTIDE(S) FROM PISUM SATIVUM HAVING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST VARIOUS BACTERIA
SAIMA REHMAN AND AZRA KHANUM

SOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEPTIDE(S) FROM PISUM SATIVUM HAVING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST VARIOUS BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Abstract : A systematic approach was taken to isolate and characterize the antimicrobial peptide(s) from the crude aqueous extract, solubilized ammonium sulphate precipitates and purified gel filtration chromatographic fractions of seed/pod of Pisum sativum L. (garden pea). Their antibacterial activity was investigated against a number of bacteria: Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris Pasterurella multocida, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion method. Two active peptides from seed i.e., S4, S5 and pod i.e., P7, P8 were obtained having molecular weight ~19 kDa, ~22 kDa, ~10 kDa and ~11 kDa, respectively. The bioactivity of each peptide was tested against different enzymes, temperatures and pH. The results showed that the all purified peptides were susceptible to inactivation by trypsin and proteinase K, stable at temperature 4

2971-2978 Download
54
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM FROM INFECTED TOMATO PLANTS OF SOAN SKESAR VALLEY OF PUNJAB
ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY1 AND HAMID RASHID2*

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM FROM INFECTED TOMATO PLANTS OF SOAN SKESAR VALLEY OF PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
The most devastating disease of tomato is bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum which occur in hot and humid areas of Pakistan. Control of bacterial wilt is difficult, because the pathogen is soil-borne and has a wide host range. There is a need to establish resistance against this pathogen through biotechnological approaches. As a first step, infected tomato leaf samples were collected from various parts of soan skesar valley of Punjab, Pakistan. Isolations were performed on triphenyl tetrazolium salt (TTC) medium. Five samples, each of ten plants, from seven fields were used for isolation. Bacteria with similar characteristics were isolated from all positive samples which produced fluidal colonies that were either entirely white or white with red centre after incubation for 48 hours at 28oC on TTC medium. They were found positive for gram staining, KOH test, Kovacs oxidase test, Catalase test, Oxidation/fermentation of glucose, Hydrolysis of tween 80 and negative for Arginine dihydrolase, Levan production, Salt tolerance, Lecithinase detection, Gelatin hydrolysis and production of Fluorescent pigment. Wilting and necrosis were observed for pathogenicity test and chlorosis/necrosis was observed for hypersensitivity. Isolates were identified as Ralstonia Solanacearum. . Out of 10 diseased plants, 7 were found positive and 3 were negative.

2979-2985 Download
55
PEROXIDASE, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY, PROTEIN PROFILE AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN TOMATO CULTIVARS TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM OXSYPORUM F.SP.LYCOPERSICI
GYANENDRA KUMAR RAI1, RAJESH KUMAR, J. SINGH, P. K. RAI2 AND S.K. RAI3

PEROXIDASE, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY, PROTEIN PROFILE AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN TOMATO CULTIVARS TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM OXSYPORUM F.SP.LYCOPERSICI
ABSTRACT:
The total phenol content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activities and the total protein profile in tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.), tolerant and susceptible to Fusarium wilt disease was studied. The tolerant cultivars of tomato viz., FEB-2, FEB-4, FloraDade and NF-31 had significantly higher phenol content as well as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities than the susceptible ones (Sel-7, Sel-18 and Punjab Chhuhara). The maximum peroxidase activity was recorded in the resistant cultivar, Flora Dade (02.073unit/ml) and minimum in the susceptible cultivar,Sel-18 (0.241unit/ml). Major differences in soluble protein banding pattern were observed in the susceptible and resistant cultivars. The hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using NTSYS-pc(V.1.8) software. The dendrogram using the average linkage between the groups, showed proximity of resistant cultivars viz., FEB-4,FEB-2, Flora Dade and NF-31 to the wild species with respect to similarity of banding patterns. The three susceptible cultivars viz., Sel-7, Punjab Chhuhara and Sel-18 were grouped separately.

2987-2990 Download
56
THE EFFECTS OF SEED TREATMENTS WITH FUNGICIDES ON STEM ROT CAUSED BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC., IN PEANUT
DAVUT SONER AKGUL1, HULYA OZGONEN2* AND ALI ERKILIC3

THE EFFECTS OF SEED TREATMENTS WITH FUNGICIDES ON STEM ROT CAUSED BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC., IN PEANUT
ABSTRACT:
The effects and the possibility of using some systemic fungicides as seed treatments with different active ingredients against stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in peanuts were investigated. The effects of fungicides on mycelial growth of pathogen and seed germination of peanuts In vitro were determined. Severity of disease and yield were determined with pot experiments under controlled conditions as well as field experiments which were conducted for two years. Fungicides decreased the germination disorders caused by some fungal agents (Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp.) in and/or on the surface of seeds significantly and treatments provided an increase in germination ratio of seeds by 64-96%. Seed treatments decreased the disease severity in pot experiments under controlled conditions and field experiments by 74.3% and 34.2%, respectively. Fungicides having mixture of different active ingredients named tolclofos-methyl 200g/kg + thiram

2991-2996 Download
57
REMOVAL OF Pb(II), Cu(II) AND Cd(II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOME FUNGI AND NATURAL ADSORBENTS IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE METAL SYSTEMS
AMNA SHOAIB*, TASKEEN BADAR AND NABILA ASLAM

REMOVAL OF Pb(II), Cu(II) AND Cd(II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOME FUNGI AND NATURAL ADSORBENTS IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE METAL SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Six fungal and 10 natural biosorbents were analyzed for their Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake capacity from single, binary and ternary metal ion system. Preliminary screening biosorption of assays revealed 2 fungi (Aspergillus niger and Cunninghamella echinulata) and three natural [Cicer arietinum husk, Moringa oleifera flower & soil (clay)] adsorbents hold considerable high adsorption efficiency and capacity for 3 metal ions amongst the adsorbents. Further biosorption trials with five elected adsorbents showed a considerable reduction in metal uptake capability of adsorbents in binary- and ternary systems as compared to singly metal system. Cd(II) manifested the highest inhibitory effect on the biosorption of other metal ions, followed by Pb(II) and Cu(II). On account of metal preference, the selectivity order for metal ion towards the studied biomass matrices was Pb(II) (40-90%) > Cd(II) (2-53%) > Cu(II) (2-30%).

2997-3000 Download
58
PRODUCTION OF CELLULASES FROM ALTERNARIA SP. MS28 ANDTHEIR PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION
MUHAMMAD SOHAIL, AQEEL AHMAD AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

PRODUCTION OF CELLULASES FROM ALTERNARIA SP. MS28 ANDTHEIR PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Cellulase production was studied after cultivation of Alternaria sp. MS28 in cellulose containing media. This fungus produces different component activities of cellulases, a property influenced by growth temperature. The data indicates that the production of cellulases is a genetically regulated process in the Alternaria sp. MS28, where endoglucanase production was triggered in the presence of CMC; β-glucosidase production by salicin; however, the presence of glucose suppressed the cellulase production. The growth and cellulase production kinetics revealed that the production of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase started in early log-phase and attained its peak in stationary phase. The higher rates of biomass production and shorter generation time were noted in SDB. The rate of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase production was higher in CMC and salicin containing medium, respectively. Partial characterization of cellulases in cell-free culture supernatant showed that endoglucanase has its optimum activity at 50oC and pH 6.0; while β-glucosidase at 45oC and pH 4.5. The melting temperature for endoglucanase and β-glucosidase were 57o and 59oC, respectively. Activity of both the enzymes was slightly affected by the presence of EDTA indicating that these enzymes may not require divalent metallic ions for their activity.

3001-3006 Download
59
PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF BARK EXTRACTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI AGAINST PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
KHALID MEHMOOD1, HAFIZ M. ASIF1, RUKHSANA BAJWA2, SHAZIA SHAFIQUE2 AND SOBIYA SHAFIQUE2*

PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF BARK EXTRACTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI AGAINST PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of aqueous and n-hexane bark extracts of allelopathic tree species viz., Acacia nilotica and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels was studied on germination and seedling growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In laboratory trials, all the concentrations of aqueous extract of both the test plants increased seed germination of target weed while by employing n-hexane concentrations of A. nilotica the number of germinated seeds remained the same as in control except 20%. However, among all the concentrations of n-hexane extract of S. cumini, significantly minimum seed germination (about 50%) was recorded at 20% concentration. There was a negative phytotoxic response on weed growth by aqueous extracts of both test plants. Conversely a pronounced effect on plant growth (shoot and root length) was exhibited by n-hexane extract of test plants. Similarly, the biomass was significantly reduced by both aqueous and n-hexane extracts of both test plants. In pot trials, all the n-hexane concentrations of test plants invariably suppressed the root and shoot growth of target weed. There was 30-35%

3007-3012 Download
60
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF) ASSOCIATED WITH THE RHIZOSPHERE OF MENTHA ARVENSIS L., AND M.LONGIFOLIA HUDS
TANVIR BURNI1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND M. SHARIEF2

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF) ASSOCIATED WITH THE RHIZOSPHERE OF MENTHA ARVENSIS L., AND M.LONGIFOLIA HUDS
ABSTRACT:
Present investigations were carried out to identify, quantify and find out the AMF relationship with chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils of Mentha arvensis and M longifolia, growing in some cultivated and natural sites of KPK (Khyber PakhtunKhawa) respectively. Seven AMF species with M.arvensis and 11 with M.longifolia were recorded. The dominant Genus was Glomus (11 species) followed by Acaulospora and Gigaspora (2 species each). The AMF spore densities in studied sites were ranged from 30-245 spores/10 gr. soil. AM colonization ranged from 26.87 – 100 %. Coefficient of correlation (r) was estimated statistically to find out the relationship between AMF spore densities and chemical characteristics of soils.

3013-3019 Download
61
EVALUATION OF RICE GERMPLASM AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE CAUSING BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT
MUHAMMAD AFZAL AKHTAR1, FIDA MOHAMMAD ABBASI2, HABIB AHMAD2*MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD1, MEHR ALI SHAH3 AND AZHAR HUSAIN SHAH4

EVALUATION OF RICE GERMPLASM AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE CAUSING BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae is the most destructive disease of rice in Pakistan due to its high epidemic potential. Forty seven rice accessions comprising 6 crosses, 8 wild rice

3021-3023 Download
62
CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RHIZOSPHERE AND RHIZOPLANE OF WILD AND CULTIVATED PLANTS
SHAMIM A. QURESHI1, HIRA1, VIQAR SULTANA1, JEHAN ARA2 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE3

CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RHIZOSPHERE AND RHIZOPLANE OF WILD AND CULTIVATED PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Discovery of anticancer drugs that must kill or disable tumor cells in the presence of normal cells without undue toxicity is an extraordinary challenge. In the past 50 years, number of highly successful drugs based upon fungal metabolites was discovered. Beside producing antibiotics, fungi have a much greater potential for producing other medicinally useful compounds including antitumor agents and immunoregulators. Toxicity of plant or microbial material is considered as the presence of antitumor compounds. In this study culture filtrates of 51 fungal isolates, belonging to 15 genera viz., Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Memnoniella, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Trichoderma and Verticillium (Pochonia) isolated from rhizosphere and rhizoplane of cultivated and wild plants showed significant toxicity on brine shrimp (LC50 3.3-116 μl/ml). Aspergillus niger (LC50 3.7μl/ml), Penicillium citrinum (LC50 3.7μl/ml), P. purpurescens (LC50 3.3μl/ml) P. rugulosum (LC50 6.3 μl/ml) and Penicillium sp., (LC50 4.3 μl/ml) showing highest mortality of brine shrimp. Fungi associated with rhizosphere and rhizoplane of wild and cultivated plants offer a unexhousted source of antitumour agent.

3025-3028 Download
63
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO GROWN GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.)
ANEELA FATIMA,* TAUQEER AHMAD, SHAISTA J. KHAN, FARAH DEEBA AND NASREEN ZAIDI

ASSESSMENT OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO GROWN GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Antibacterial activities of In vitro and In vivo grown garlic were compared against five bacterial strains Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In 8-9 weeks, In vitro garlic bulblets were produced from shoot tip explants callus of garlic cloves cultured on modified MS medium. Ten µM BA induced somatic embryogenesis in soft, granular and dirty white to yellow colored clumps of calli, regenerated into plantlets, which eventually transformed into 9 or 10 mm dia bulblets on basal MS medium. Clear zones of inhibition were demarked by paper disc diffusion method. The content of micro-bulblets expressed greater antimicrobial activity than that of In vivo garlic cloves through wider diameter zone of inhibition against said bacterial strains. In vitro garlic extract formed 24mm and 22mm zones being the widest zones against Klebsiella and Proteus respectively.

3029-3033 Download
64
DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF IPOMOEA SINDICA STAPF, A DESERT SUMMER ANNUAL
SEEMI AZIZ AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT

DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF IPOMOEA SINDICA STAPF, A DESERT SUMMER ANNUAL
ABSTRACT:
This study focuses on the population ecology of a desert summer annual, Ipomoea sindica Stapf, the abundant flora after the monsoon rains in Karachi, Sindh. Two sites were selected for the study, designated as site ‘A’ and ‘B’. Site ‘A’ was dry having low water holding capacity, on the other hand, site ‘B’ had high water holding capacity. Vegetation was comparatively sparse at site ‘A’, whereas, relatively high water holding capacity and nutrient status of the soil ‘B’, presumably enable the population to flourish with higher densities. I. sindica exhibited Deevey type I survivorship curves at both the sites. Plants inhabiting site ‘B’showed better vegetative and reproductive growth than those surviving at site ‘A’. Large quantity of seeds were present in the buried seed pool. Their number decreased after the monsoon rains i.e., after the germination of seedlings. Rise in the seed bank was observed after dispersal from the existing vegetation, thus exhibiting persistent type of seed bank. I. sindica produces heavy seeds in smaller numbers. That’s why the dispersal distance travelled by the seeds was less. Most of the seeds fall near the mother plant due to their heavy weight and horizontal growth of plants.

3035-3040 Download
65
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PAKISTANI ISOLATES OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC CUCUMOVIRUS (CMV)
SHOMAILA IQBAL1, MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ1* AND HUSSAIN SHAH2

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PAKISTANI ISOLATES OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC CUCUMOVIRUS (CMV)
ABSTRACT:
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can be transmited mechanically as well as biologically through insect vector (Aphis gossypii). CMV has a wide host range particularly it infects Solanaceous crops. Sixty one different hosts were tested against Pakistani isolates of CMV, among them only 33 hosts were found to be infected with CMV upon inoculation while rest remained asymptomatic and showed negative response to ELISA test. Weed flora was also tested as an alternate host of CMV. Datura stramonium, Datura metal, Portulaca olercea (Kulfa), Cyprus rotundus (Deela) and Trianthema pentandra (itsit) showed positive reaction to CMV infection. Different inocula of CMV were applied on test plants/indicator hosts and only Chenopodium quinoa was found to be susceptible to CMV infection while Nicotiana tabacum cv. samsum remained resistant to each tested isolate under controlled conditions.

3041-3047 Download
66
BIOCONVERSION OF DRIFTED SEAWEED BIOMASS INTO ORGANIC COMPOST COLLECTED FROM THE KARACHI COAST
TOOBA HAQ*, FAROOQ AHMED KHAN, RAZIA BEGUM AND ALIA BANO MUNSHI

BIOCONVERSION OF DRIFTED SEAWEED BIOMASS INTO ORGANIC COMPOST COLLECTED FROM THE KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
Present bioconversion studies were carried out to convert drifted seaweed biomass into bioactive organic compost. Chemical analysis of the collected seaweed biomass from the Karachi coast revealed 60.30 % organic matter. Aerobic composting method i.e., windrow composting technique was applied for the conversion of collected seaweed biomass into organic compost. Employing this technique almost 70% biomass was converted into organic compost. On analysis, the compost obtained by the above method showed 2.3% Nitrogen, 0.86% Phosphate and 1.8% Potassium. Results for the analysis of heavy metals showed Mercury 0.05 mg / kg, Arsenic BDL Cadmium 0.080 mg / kg and Copper 7.1 mg / kg. Results for the biological evaluation of seaweed compost showed 78% germabilty while the Biogold and cow dung showed 83 and 60% germabilty.

3049-3051 Download
67
BIOACTIVE ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED MARINE RED ALGAE AGAINST LEISHMANIA MAJOR AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF OSMUNDEA PINNATIFIDA
H. SABINA AND R. ALIYA*

BIOACTIVE ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED MARINE RED ALGAE AGAINST LEISHMANIA MAJOR AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF OSMUNDEA PINNATIFIDA
ABSTRACT:
The antileishmanial activities of the seven different species of red algal extracts were evaluated against the promastigote form of Leishmania major. The ethanol extracts of Osmundea pinnatifida scored the highest activity with IC50 value 6.25 µg/mL comparable to other algae such as Scinaia hatei with IC50 value 14.10 µg/mL, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii with IC50 value 32.6 µg/mL and Gracilaria corticata with IC50 value 37.5 µg/mL, which exhibited significant inhibitory effect on the viability of Leishmania major. While other few species, like Scinaia fascicularis, Centroceras clavulatum and Botryocladia leptopoda were found to show good activity and gave lethal effect In vitro, as conducted for the first time using the Pakistani seaweeds. Current report describes the isolation and structural elucidation of flavone Scutellarein 4'-methyl ether

3053-3056 Download
68
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME EUGLENOID ALGAE ALONG G.T. ROAD BETWEEN SHAHDARA AND GUJRANWALA
A. ZARINA 1, SYED TARIQ-ALI 1, MASUD-UL-HASAN3 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL4

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME EUGLENOID ALGAE ALONG G.T. ROAD BETWEEN SHAHDARA AND GUJRANWALA
ABSTRACT:
Six taxa of algae (phylum Euglenophycota Shameel) were collected from various freshwater habitats in the Punjab Province of Pakistan during April and June 1989. They have been taxonomically investigated and were found to include two unreported taxa from Pakistan i.e., Euglena oxyuris var. charkoviensis Bourrelly and e. o. f. minima Bourrelly.

3057-3060 Download
69
THE DINOFLAGELLATE GENUS PROROCENTRUM (PROROCENTRALES, PROROCENTRACEAE) FROM THE NORTH ARABIAN SEA
SADAF GUL AND S.M. SAIFULLAH

THE DINOFLAGELLATE GENUS PROROCENTRUM (PROROCENTRALES, PROROCENTRACEAE) FROM THE NORTH ARABIAN SEA
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports the occurrence of four species of Prorocentrum viz., P. compressum, P. gracile, P. rhathymum and P. micans from the North Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan. P. micans was the only bloom forming species found and P. compressum was more common than other species.

3061-3065 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1165225, Today's: 532, Yesterday's: 1407, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");