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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 4
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1

Obituary Prof. Dr. S.H. Iqbal


Firdaus-e-Bareen and Abdul Nasir Khalid

Obituary Prof. Dr. S.H. Iqbal


ABSTRACT:

Prof. Dr. S.H. Iqbal, an eminent Researcher, Teacher and Mycologist of Pakistan, passed away in Lahore on 8th December 2019. He retired from the Department of Botany, University of the Punjab in 1997 after serving this University for 34 years.

Prof. Dr. S.H. Iqbal was born in a small village named Talwandi, Battala in the Indian Punjab in 1937. At the age of one and a half year, his father, Abu-Al Hassan Burra Shah, passed away and his mother brought him up. His family migrated to Pakistan and settled in Sahiwal. He did his Matriculation and FSc from Sahiwal and his B.Sc. from Faisalabad. He did his M.Sc. (Botany) from Government College, Lahore in 1963 with distinction and got Gold Medal. During MSc he worked under the mentorship of the great Mycologist of Pakistan, Prof. Sultan Ahmad Chaudhry. This cultivated in him an interest in the field of Mycology and, therefore, he planned to specialize in this field. He started working with Prof. Sultan Ahmad Chaudhry on Ascomycetes of Pakistan. During his research, he collected Fungi and Lichens from mountainous areas of Pakistan with Prof. Sultan Ahmad.

He joined Department of Botany, University of the Punjab as Lecturer. Dr. Iqbal completed his Ph.D. under the supervision of Prof. John Webster, a renowned Mycologist in 1972 from the University of Sheffield, U.K. where he worked on Ecology and seasonal periodicity of Aquatic Hyphomyetes, which is quoted in all standard books of Mycology. During his academic/professional career he also served in the Department of Biological Science at Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad as Associate Professor.

Prof. Dr. Iqbal also served as Chairman, Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore from 1986―1992. He was a versatile Mycologist, having command on Taxonomy and Ecology of Freshwater Hyphomycetes, Mushrooms, Lichens, Rust and Smut Fungi and Mycorrhizae. Later, he compiled all known fungi of Pakistan in a book “Fungi of Pakistan” retaining Prof. Sultan Ahmad as the first author. He published more than 250 research papers. He kept working even after his retirement in 1997 and his last publication was on Lichens of Pakistan in 2012.

He supervised seven Ph.D. and several M.Sc. theses during his career. He excelled in classroom teaching and practical work with live materials of fungi collected by himself. His skill of identifying plants and fungi in the field was commendable. He always enlightened his pupils with exceptional knowledge and inculcated in them novel ideas. His students are currently serving in prominent academic and institutions in Pakistan.

May ALLAH, Almighty shower His choicest blessings upon him and may his soul rest in Eternal Peace. Ameen

1157-1157 Download
2

Influence of humates to mitigate NaCl-induced adverse effects on Ocimum basilicum L.: relative water content and photosynthetic pigments


Juan José Reyes-Pérez, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay, Luis G. Hernández-Montiel, Francisco H. Ruiz-Espinoza and Edgar O. Rueda-Puente

Influence of humates to mitigate NaCl-induced adverse effects on Ocimum basilicum L.: relative water content and photosynthetic pigments


ABSTRACT:

Aqueous extracts of humic substances constitute one of the alternatives in the group of products used in sustainable agriculture. They are fundamentally obtained from recyclable organic sources, such as compost and vermicompost. The objectives of this study were 1) to define the salinity tolerance of two sweet basil varieties submitted to NaCl-stress; 2) to evaluate the effect of humates as mitigator of NaCl-induce adverse effects and 3) to test the criteria that leaf relative water content (LRWC) and photosynthetic pigments are accepted as salinity tolerance indicators. The plants were subjected to three NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 mM) and one dilution (1/60 v/v) of humates isolated from vermicompost and a control (distilled water) in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement with six replications. The study was developed under shade-enclosure conditions. The results showed that there is a differential response among varieties with respect LRWC and chlorophyll content. Napoletano was most NaCl tolerant than Sweet Genovese. The LRWC and chlorophyll content perhaps used as tolerance indicators, while defining the NaCl tolerance of sweet basil varieties. The capacity of humates isolated from vermicompost to mitigate NaCl-induced adverse effects in basil development has been proved, when improve some physiological indicators like LRWC and chlorophyll. The discussion of the differential response among basil varieties subjected to different NaCl concentrations and humates isolated from vermicompost is addressed

1159-1165 Download
3

Nanosized titanium dioxide seed priming enhances salt tolerance of an ornamental and medicinal plant Paeonia suffruticosa


Li Liu, Yayue Cao, Qiaosheng Guo and Zaibiao Zhu

Nanosized titanium dioxide seed priming enhances salt tolerance of an ornamental and medicinal plant Paeonia suffruticosa


ABSTRACT:

Paeonia suffruticosa is a popular ornamental and medicinal plant it is vulnerable to saline stress. To find an effective seed treatment for P. suffruticosa under salt stress, the present study explored the effects of nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) priming on the germination, growth and physiological response of P. suffruticosa under salt stress. The seeds were primed with different concentrations of nano-TiO2 for either 48 h or 72 h in a growth chamber. The germination characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase enzymes, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, lateral root number, and seedling biomass were evaluated. The results indicated that treatment with 2, 10, and 100 mg·L-1 nano-TiO2 significantly reversed the adverse effects of salinity stress on P. suffruticosa seed germination and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, the number of lateral roots and the content of chlorophyll in seedlings, thereby increasing seedling dry weights P. suffruticosa of when primed for 48 h. Nano-TiO2 priming for 72 h increased the Pn of P. suffruticosa seedlings, while priming for 48 h decreased Pn or had no significant effect. The findings suggest that priming seeds with 2, 10, or 100 mg·L-1 nano-TiO2 is an effective method for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth in P. suffruticosa under salt stress

1167-1175 Download
4

Screening of salt tolerant wheat varieties under salt stress in region Khuiratta, district Kotli (AJK) Pakistan


Qumqum Noshad, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Musfirah Anjum, Sidra Arif, Sadia Jehangir and Zahid Malik

Screening of salt tolerant wheat varieties under salt stress in region Khuiratta, district Kotli (AJK) Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

An experimental study was investigated to estimate an interactive effect of environment on the morphological, biochemicaland phytochemical characters of Triticumaestivumviz; Aas-2011, Bakhtawar, Chakwal, Faisalabad-2008 and Galaxylines in region Khuiratta (District Kotli) having different microclimatic conditions. The results conferred that among all the five wheat varieties the maximum plants height was (73.20cm) in Chakwal and (85.60cm) in Aas-2011 without stress salinity and it was (60.32cm) in galaxy and (70.30cm) in Faisalabad-2008 under stress salinity. The peduncle length was (65cm) in Bakhtawar and (85cm) in Galaxy without using salt. The peduncle length was (50cm) in Bakhtawar and (75cm) in Faisalabad-2008 after salt while, spike length was (4.30cm) in Bakhtawar and (9.5cm) in Aas-2011 before applying salt and after applying salts the spike length was (3cm) in Bakhtawar and (7.5cm) in Aas-2011. Number of spike/spikelet’s before applying salt was (10.60) in Bakhtawar and (50.60) in Aas-2011. Number of spike per spikelet was (5.50) in Bakhtawar and (45.50) in Aas-2011 stress salinity. The number of grains/spike was (9.33) in Bakhtawar and (48) in Aas-2011 before applying salts while it was (6.40) in Bakhtawar and (38) in Aas-2011 respectively after applying salt. Flag leaf weight was (0.15gm) in Bakhtawar and (0.37gm) in Galaxy before using salts. Whereas flag leaf weight was (0.09gm) in Bakhtawar and (0.30gm) in Galaxy after applying salts. The leaf area was (8.40cm) in Bakhtawar and (9.50cm) in Chakwal without stress salinity, it was (6.30cm) in Bakhtawar and (7.80cm) in Chakwal under stress salinity. Similarly, grain yield (1.05gm) was in Bakhtawar and (2.30gm) in Aas-2011 without using salts, while it was (1gm) in Bakhtawar and (2.10gm) in Aas-2011 under stress salinity. The soil parameters analyzed included saturation percentage (36%), pH (6.8), E.C(0.40ms), organic matter (0.80), K(90ppm), P(8ppm), respectively. To evaluate the genetic diversity in the seed endosperm of Triticumaestivum for the nutritional grading by using SDS-PAGE. Five bands were attained by using 10 to 180kDa (Asbastas/SM0661), among which the band B, F and A with molecular weights 180kDa, 95kDa and 43kDa respectively were common in five wheat varieties but other band, show little variations. Wheat grouped in some cluster analysis which showed their initiation from same parental line so these are genetically less variance.

1177-1182 Download
5

Comparative physiological assessment of some edible oil-seed crops under drought stress environment using fluorescence and IR imaging techniques


Fiza Ali, Muhammad Umar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Comparative physiological assessment of some edible oil-seed crops under drought stress environment using fluorescence and IR imaging techniques


ABSTRACT:

Comparative physiological assessment of some edible oilseed crops under drought stress environments were performed. In this regard, fluorescence and IR thermal imaging techniques were used. Seeds of each sunflower SF0049, SF0054 and soybean NARC-II, William-82 cultivars were germinated. Followed by uniform seedlings of each cultivar were transplanted in rectangular pots of an area 480cm2.  Three weeks old plants were subjected to drought stress for the next five days. Chlorophyll ‘a’ fluorescence, IR images, relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) were recorded. In drought stress, NARC II and William-82 showed 26-31% reduction in RWC as compared to 18-20% reduction in SF0049 and SF0054. Similarly, 67- 87% reduction in stomatal conductance was observed in soybean and 59-72% were recorded in sunflower cultivars. Further soybean cultivars displayed 44.4% to 85.7% decrease in performance index (PI) and dark-adapted quantum yield (Fv/Fm) as compared to 40% to 87% in sunflower cultivars. Maximum yield of photochemistry of PSII and chlorophyll content index were also reduced up to 28-68% in all tested cultivars under drought stress. Non-photochemical quenching, heat dissipation, and leaf temperature were increased over control under drought stress showing maximum in soybean as compared to sunflower. The importance of comparative physiological assessment using fluorescence and IR thermal imaging techniques are discussed.

1183-1192 Download
6

Comparative effects of manganese and iron stress on seed germination and various growth parameters of Phaseolus lunatus L.


Sher Wali, Leena Syed, Fazli Rahim, Faheem Tariq and Khushnood Ur Rahman

Comparative effects of manganese and iron stress on seed germination and various growth parameters of Phaseolus lunatus L.


ABSTRACT:

In the current research work, the effects of different concentrations of Manganese and Iron on various growth parameters of Phaseolus lunatus L. were studied. For this purpose pots experiments were performed in three replicates. Three concentrations each of Manganese and Iron (2millimolar (mM), 10mM and 20mM) were used as metal stress treatments. A single series of 3 pots with no treatment was designated as the control. The results showed that number of days to germination were more in treated plants as compared to control. Hence, seed germination was negatively affected by the applied metal stresses. Similarly number of seeds germinated per treatment was also decreased with the increasing concentrations of the treatments. All the other growth parameters including plant height, number of leaves, shoot length and root length significantly reduced with the increase in concentration as compared to control. While fresh and dry weights increased at the lower (2mM) concentration while decreased significantly with the higher (10mM and 20mM) concentrations.

1193-1197 Download
7

Plasticity in structural and functional traits associated with photosynthesis in Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link. under salt stress


Muhammad Kaleem and Mansoor Hameed

Plasticity in structural and functional traits associated with photosynthesis in Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link. under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link. is a halophytic sedge and commonly found in salt-affected wetlands and salt marshes. This species is less explored, particularly no information available on salinity tolerance in the literature. In the present work, structural and functional modifications of photosynthesis in F. complanata were evaluated under salt stress. A complete randomized design with three replications and three salt regimes (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) were maintained throughout the experiment. Population SH collected from the highest saline habitat (ECe 49.28 dS m-1) ranked as the highest tolerant, which showed an increase in biomass and chlorophyll pigments under salt stress. Modification in gas exchange parameters include decline in transpiration rate (E), while increase water use efficiency (WUE) and net CO2 assimilation rate (Pn), while structural modifications in SH population include increase in leaf succulence, cortical region thickness, bulliform thickness, aerenchyma formation, metaxylem and phloem area. Moderately saline population KM (ECe 29.56 dS m-1) exhibited significant alterations, like E (transiently up to 200 mM NaCl) and maintence of Pn up to 400 mM. This population altered leaf structural and epidermal traits related to photosynthetic efficiency. Least saline population LR (ECe 21.49 dS m-1) accumulates high chlorophyll content, increased leaf succulence and secured higher abaxial stomatal density. Present results suggest that F. complanata could proficiently maintain photosynthesis by several structural and functional modifications

1199-1208 Download
8

Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Galaxy-2013) to pre-sowing seed treatment with thiourea under drought stress


Sonia Naz and Shagufta Perveen

Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Galaxy-2013) to pre-sowing seed treatment with thiourea under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

A pot experiment was performed to assess the effect of thiourea (TU) as pre-sowing seed treatment to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stressed conditions. Seeds of wheat variety named Galaxy-2013 were soaked in various TU levels such as non-soaking (control), water-soaking, 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM thiourea for 12 hours. Drought stress treatments i.e., non stress (100 % field capacity), moderate drought stress (70% FC) and severe drought stress (50% FC) were applied to one week old wheat seedlings. Data of different growth and physicochemical parameters was taken of seven-week-old wheat plants whereas yield was taken at the maturity stage. Drought stress considerably reduced shoot fresh weight, dry weight of shoot, fresh weight of root, shoot length, root length, grain yield plant-1, 100-grain weight, number of grains plant-1, total phenolics and total flavonoid contents, while increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline and glycinebetaine contents. Pre-sowing seed treatment with varying levels of thiourea showed differential effect under drought stress or non stress conditions e.g., under moderate drought stress (70% FC) both 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM TU increased shoot dry weight and decreased total phenolic contents. Furthermore, 0.1 mM TU enhanced root dry weight, while 1.0 mM TU increased proline contents. In conclusion, hydro-priming proved more effective in increasing shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot length, total leaf area plant-1, grain yield and number of grains plant-1 in wheat var. Galaxy-2013 plants under drought stress or non stress conditions.

1209-1217 Download
9

Effects of 6-benzyladenine and kinetin on growth and secondary metabolites of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae)


Wen-Xuan Quan, Xiao-Fang Wei, Zhan-Nan Yang Shi-Qiong Luo and Die Fu

Effects of 6-benzyladenine and kinetin on growth and secondary metabolites of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae)


ABSTRACT:

The plant height, root length, fresh weight, morphological characters, phenolics, and volatiles of Houttuynia cordata, cultured in the presence of different concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) or kinetin (KT) in the culture medium, were analyzed. Treatment with 6-BA and KT markedly inhibited the height and root length of H. cordata, and significantly promoted fresh weight. Treatment with either 6-BA or KT stimulated non-normal plantlet development. Treatment with either 6-BA or KT markedly inhibited the accumulation of the phenolics chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercitrin, and isoquerietrin by H. cordata, and significantly promoted the accumulation of α-pinene, β-pinene, trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, decanal, linalool, decanol, and borneol. Treatment with 6-BA inhibited the accumulation of bornyl acetate, β-myrcene and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, whereas KT inhibited the accumulation of cineole. These findings provide theoretical support for improving the concentration of secondary metabolites in H. cordata, of potential value in the pharmacological utilization and exploitation of these compounds.

1219-1225 Download
10

Root growth and morphology of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) in mixed plantation under varying soil water and phosphorus supply conditions


Shi-Qi Wang, Jin-Biao Liu, Ji-Yue Kang, Bing-Cheng Xu and Ying-Long Chen

Root growth and morphology of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) in mixed plantation under varying soil water and phosphorus supply conditions


ABSTRACT:

Water and phosphorus (P) are two major factors affecting plant growth on the Loess Plateau of China. To clarify root response of introduced species to native species in mixture under varying water and P supplies would be favorable for assessing their interactions. This study investigated the effects of soil water, P and mixture ratio on root growth and morphology of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (an introduced C4 perennial herbaceous grass) and bushclover (Lespedeza davurica S.) (a C3 perennial leguminous subshrub) in mixtures in a pot experiment. Two soil water regimes [75 ± 5% field capacity, FC (high water, HW) and 35 ± 5% FC (low water, LW)], three P treatments (addition of 0, 0.05 and 0.1 g of P2O5 per kg dry soil) and 5 mixture ratios of the two species (12:0, 8:4, 6:6, 4:8, 0:12) were complemented. Results showed that switchgrass tended to decrease root average diameter (RAD) and increase specific root length (SRL) under LW comparing with HW, while bushclover showed the opposite trends. P application significantly (p<0.05) deceased the RAD of switchgrass under LW, while had no effect on SRL, resulting in a thinner root system with higher root tissue density. Regardless of soil water regimes, SRL of bushclover decreased significantly after P application. Root biomass and total root length of switchgrass were increased with the decrease of mixture ratio, while both parameters decreased in bushclover. In mixture with switchgrass, bushclover decreased SRL and proportion of fine root length (0-0.5 mm diameter class). The present study implied that switchgrass would be superior when mixed with bushclover, and P application might increase the abilities of switchgrass in competing and acquiring for limited resources.

1227-1237 Download
11

Differential expression of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene in relation to podophyllotoxin accumulation in different plant organs of endangered anticancer species Podophyllum peltatum


Dongxue Yin, Wei Liu, Yujuan Zhang and Xuyang Sun

Differential expression of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene in relation to podophyllotoxin accumulation in different plant organs of endangered anticancer species Podophyllum peltatum


ABSTRACT:

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in podophyllotoxin (PTOX) biosynthesis pathway, which catalyzes the conversion of pinoresinol into secoisolariciresinol, a central precursor for the PTOX biosynthesis. Podophyllum peltatum is an important anticancer species, and PTOX content is obviously different from various plant organs. Therefore, investigation of PLR gene expression facilitates the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the variation of the PTOX content in different organs from P. peltatum as well as its biosynthesis mechanisms, suggesting that it is an important gene for metabolic engineering of the PTOX. The PTOX was found in all the test organs (root, rhizome, petiole, fruit, leaf and flower), with significant differences among them (p<0.05). The highest PTOX content (2.8018 ± 0.23%) was found in rhizome, which was 30 times higher than the lowest PTOX content in fruit. Furthermore, tissue expression profile showed that P. peltatum PLR (PpPLR) was expressed in all the test organs except for the flower. The highest and lowest expression level was found in rhizome and leaf, respectively. The expression profile of PpPLR was inconsistent with the PTOX content variation in the test organs except for the rhizome, suggesting that the PTOX biosynthetic organ is not necessarily its storage organ. After the initial synthesis, PTOX can be transferred to its storage organ, such as the rhizome.

1239-1245 Download
12

Correlation between DNA methylation of the chalcone isomerase gene in Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. (Fagaceae) and phlorizin accumulation


Limei Lin, Yuehong Long, Zhuo Wang, Hongyu Guo, Minghui Cui, Jian Huang and Zhaobin Xing

Correlation between DNA methylation of the chalcone isomerase gene in Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. (Fagaceae) and phlorizin accumulation


ABSTRACT:

Chalcone isomerase gene (CHI) is an important gene that flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. This study aimed at investigating the effects of DNA methylation in the CHI promoter of Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd, gene expression levels and phlorizin accumulation. Primers were designed based on the cDNA sequence of the chalcone isomerase gene (CHI) from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd and the promoter sequence was cloned using TAIL-PCR technology. The CpG Island of the gene promoter was predicted using online software, and the DNA methylation sites of the CHI promoter was investigated through bisulfite sequencing. QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of CHI at varying DNA methylation levels and types. Ultra-pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to determine the phlorizin quantity. The full-length promoter sequence of CHI was 2141 bp, with 33 types, 138 cis-acting elements (CREs), 3 CpG islands, 16 methylation sites, and 7 DNA methylation types. DNA methylation of the CHI gene promoter region was significantly negatively correlated with gene expression and phlorizin content (p<0.01. The successfully cloning of the CHI gene promoter and its DNA methylation lays the foundation for further research on gene expression analysis and flavonoid biosynthesis in L. polystachyus.

1247-1252 Download
13

A genome-scale mining of single-copy nuclear gene markers for Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa and implications for genetic study


Hu Xiaoyan, Du Shuhui and Han Youzhi

A genome-scale mining of single-copy nuclear gene markers for Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa and implications for genetic study


ABSTRACT:

 

Nowadays, the breeding of Ziziphus jujuba encounters substantial difficulties in cultivation process. The wild relative of jujube, Z. jujuba var. spinosa (also called sour jujube), has long been treated as the important gene pool for the genetic breeding of cultivated jujube. However, the mining of important functional genes in this significant lineage has been seldom manipulated due to the lack of information about genetic diversity and evolutionary history. In the present study, a novel set of single-copy nuclear gene markers were developed and characterized. Thirteen single-copy nuclear gene markers were developed following a genome-wide scanning of jujube genome. The single-copy nuclear gene markers showed relatively high level of nucleotide variation (π= 0.00513, θw= 0.00531). None of the results of neutrally tests showed significant difference, indicating that all the markers conformed to the neutral evolution model. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analysis showed admixture of these two lineages, supporting the domestication of cultivated jujube from sour jujube. The single-copy nuclear gene markers are powerful for genetic study of Z. jujuba var. spinosa and provide useful genetic information for future protection and conservation management of this important lineage. Furthermore, these markers could be useful for future population genetics, phylogeney and phylogeographic research in Ziziphus, even in Rhamnaceae

1253-1258 Download
14

Germplasm collection, in vitro clonal propagation, seed viability and vulnerability of ancient Peruvian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)


Guillermo E. Delgado-Paredes, Cecilia Vásquez-Díaz, Boris Esquerre-Ibáñez, Alexander Huamán-Mera and Consuelo Rojas-Idrogo

Germplasm collection, in vitro clonal propagation, seed viability and vulnerability of ancient Peruvian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)


ABSTRACT:

Gossypium barbadense, known as ‘native cotton’, ‘brown cotton’, ‘algodón del país’, ‘Sea Island’, ‘Egyptian o extra-long staple cotton’ is probably originated from west Peruvian Andes. G. barbadense has been used since ancient times by the ancient habitants of pre-Columbian civilizations. The objective of the work was the collection of germplasm, study the In vitro clonal propagation and the viability of seeds, as well as the vulnerability of the species. The germplasm collection was carried out in several locations in the Lambayeque region and around the Piura, Cajamarca, and La Libertad regions. The fieldwork approximately added 160 accessions and various fiber colors. Cotyledonary nodes were isolated from seven days old In vitro germinated seeds and grown in MS culture medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L AgNO3, formulation where the seedlings reached 12 months of conservation with minimal vitrification and browning of the culture medium. Tests were carried out on the viability of the seed, reaching average germination rates between 50 and 70% in seeds collected no greater than one year, so it is possible to consider them as recalcitrant seeds. Surveys conducted in Morrope, a locality with very ancestral customs, determined a dramatic decrease in the percentage of women weavers with a waist loom of 63% (great-grandmothers and grandmothers, over 40 years of age) to 33% (mothers and aunts, among 20 to 40 years of age) and 8% (sisters, under 20 years of age). The vulnerability of the species would be related to the loss of colors and fiber tones and in the ethnobotanical aspect with the loss of the ancestral tradition in the use of the waist loom.

1259-1270 Download
15

In-silico and phylogenetic analysis of DREB transcription factor in Solanum melongena L.


Amna Ahmed, Syeda Qamarunnisa, Ishrat Jamil, Saboohi Raza and Khalida Khatoon

In-silico and phylogenetic analysis of DREB transcription factor in Solanum melongena L.


ABSTRACT:

Solanum melongena L. belongs to family Solanaceae is an agronomically, economically and medicinally important crop plant. The crop is sensitive to severe environmental conditions thus open the door to explore its genome for possible genetic improvement. Abiotic stresses are well known to adversely affect crop productivity and yield. Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are reported to play a significant role in abiotic stress tolerance. Solanum melongena genome was searched for the presence of DREB1 gene and structural-functional analyses were carried out by using different in silico, bioinformatics and phylogenetics tools. It was observed that SmDREB1 showed 92% and 81% sequence similarity at nucleotide and protein level respectively with Solanum tuberosum DREB1. Most of the short linear motifs harbored by SmDREB1 were also seen conserved in StDREB1 however, six motifs were found only in SmDREB1 which make this protein a good candidate to be used in crop engineering approaches. The translated protein has three intrinsically disordered regions, which include 89.5% of total amino acids. This feature categorizes SmDREB1 under unstructured protein that is an attribute of transcription factors. The 3D structure prediction presented nine residues mostly tyrosine and arginine involved in binding with nucleic acid. Bayesian based phylogenetic analysis inferred that DREB1 from S. melongena is a close homologue of DREB1 from other Solanum species although it may perform some additional biological functions. The results of this study highlighted the importance of SmDREB1 that could be a good candidate gene for the incorporation of abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. 

1271-1279 Download
16

Genetic divergence in wheat genotypes based on seed biochemical profiles appraised through agglomerative hierarchical clustering and association analysis among traits


Anam Khalid and Amjad Hameed

Genetic divergence in wheat genotypes based on seed biochemical profiles appraised through agglomerative hierarchical clustering and association analysis among traits


ABSTRACT:

For biochemical traits improvement, presence of variability has primary significance in plant breeding. Data of various seed biochemical constituents in 77 wheat genotypes were analysed for correlation and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to choose varieties and characters for future breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationship of catalase (CAT) with reducing sugars (RS), total soluble sugars (TSS), and total soluble proteins (TSP) while negative association with total phenolic content (TPC), protease and ascorbic acid (AsA). Peroxidase (POD) activity displayed highly significant positive correlation with superoxide dismutase (SOD), TPC, protease and AsA but showed negative correlation with malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Cluster analysis clustered all genotypes into four different groups. The D2 statistics confirmed highest distance between cluster- II and cluster-III whereas maximum similarity was found in cluster-III as well as cluster-IV. Hence, it is suggested that crosses between genotypes of cluster-II and cluster-III with those of cluster-III and cluster-IV may be chosen for wheat breeding program and for superior genotypes selection in subsequent population.

1281-1286 Download
17

Characterization of the genetic diversity of Epimedium brevicornum (Berberidaceae) via ISSR and CDDP markers


Yuanyuan Duan, Wuxian Zhou, Jingmao You, Xiaoliang Guo, Xiaorong Luo, Chao Lu and Jie Guo

Characterization of the genetic diversity of Epimedium brevicornum (Berberidaceae) via ISSR and CDDP markers


ABSTRACT:

Epimedium brevicornum is a traditional and edible medicinal herb, used to tonify kidneys and strengthen tendons and bones. In this study, two types of molecular markers, namely, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and conserved DNA-derived polymorphism (CDDP) markers, were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of E. brevicornum. The results showed that both ISSR and CDDP markers were useful for estimating the genetic diversity. Forty-six polymorphic (86.79%) bands were generated by 7 random ISSR primers, while 82 polymorphic (95.35%) bands were generated by 11 CDDP primers. The genetic similarity coefficients of the ISSR markers ranged from 0.019 to 0.60, while those of the CDDP markers varied from 0.048 to 0.871. Moreover, the CDDP molecular marker technique was a preferable method for marker-assisted selection of stress-resistant varieties. Two superior resistant germplasms (BQ2 and MPC2) were screened, which would enable the selection and breeding of stress-resistant varieties of E. brevicornum

1287-1293 Download
18

Impact of early and normal sowing dates on seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits of elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines.


Zaheer Ahmed Deho, Saifullah Abro, Shafiq Ahmed Abro, Muhammad Rizwan and Fakhruddin Kharo

Impact of early and normal sowing dates on seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits of elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines.


ABSTRACT:

Changes of the climate bring ahead new pressure for cotton cultivation in Pakistan especially in Sindh province. In present study thirty four elite lines along with three local check varieties (Sadori, NIA-Noori and NIA-Ufaq) were tested under early 20th March and normal 20th April, 2015-16 and 2016-17 sowing dates at NIA, experimental farm. Four lines produced (22) sympodial branches plant-1, two lines took more boll weight (4.0 g), five lines obtained long staple length ranges from (30.0 to 30.8 mm), eight elite lines took higher seed index ranges from (8.6 to 8.7 g) and three lines produced higher seed cotton yield kg ha-1 ranges from (2206 to 2314) under normal sowing date 20th April in comparison with early sowing 20th March seed cotton yield kg ha-1 ranges from (780 to 1049).

1295-1298 Download
19

Investigating wheat yield and climate parameters regression model based on Akaike information criteria


Sardar Sarfaraz, Syed Shahid Shoukat and Tariq Masood Ali Khan

Investigating wheat yield and climate parameters regression model based on Akaike information criteria


ABSTRACT:

Wheat is a staple food of Pakistan and a central commodity of world food security. Wheat yield production is likely to be affected adversely (or positively at some places) in a changing climate scenario and ever-increasing demand due to burgeoning world population and may lead to a growing food security issue because of changing climate. This study investigated the co-variability of wheat yield production in Pakistan with the principal climate parameters, precipitation and temperature, through a linear regression method by adopting the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC)-based best model selection strategy, for given data over 51-year period. Employing the AIC technique on twenty different combinations of seasonal aggregates of rainfall, seasonal mean temperature, seasonal minimum and maximum temperatures, the investigation revealed that the model containing a combination of seasonal-minimum temperature and seasonal-mean temperature is the best model for wheat yield production followed by 7 equally adequate models with different combinations of climate parameters from the data. Hence, seasonal-averaged minimum and mean temperatures proved to be the best-fit regressors deduced by the AIC-based criterion

1299-1306 Download
20

Assessment of phylogenetics relationship among the selected species of family Leguminosae based on chloroplast rps14 gene


Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Javed Iqbal and Tariq Mahmood

Assessment of phylogenetics relationship among the selected species of family Leguminosae based on chloroplast rps14 gene


ABSTRACT:

The Leguminosae is a cosmopolitan family comprised of approximately 770 genera and 20,000 species mostly found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. This family is well known for its commercial, nutritional and medicinal importance. Twenty-six species of Leguminosae were collected from different geographical regions of Pakistan to resolve their controversial phylogenetic position using Ribosomal Protein Subunit (rps14) gene. Furthermore, in each species, the rps14 gene was successfully amplified, purified, sequenced and the dendrogram was constructed using molecular evolutionary genetic analysis (MEGA7) tool which divided the species into two main clades showing a narrow genetic diversity of 0.5 with well supported bootstrap values. Moreover, the range of pairwise distance was found to be 0.02 to 0.40 with a mean value of 0.15. The phylogenetic analysis is in agreement with the work done by earlier phylogenetists with the addition of new species, Crotalaria medicaginea, Argyrolobium roseum, Vicia sativa sub spp. nigra, Vicia sepium, Medicago falcata and Mimosa himalayana from Pakistan. The stereochemical analyses were evaluated and 3D protein structures were authenticated by Iterative Threading Assembly Refinement (I-TASSER) and Ramachandran plots. 3D protein models were quite good and can be reliably used for the application of different bioinformatics tools. Future studies can focus on the examination of morphology, anatomy, phylogenetics with multiple marker system and evolution of these and other variable characters within this diverse family.

1307-1313 Download
21

Onosma onur-koyuncui sp. nov. (Boraginaceae), a new species from Kütahya, Turkey


Okan Sezer

Onosma onur-koyuncui sp. nov. (Boraginaceae), a new species from Kütahya, Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Onosma onur-koyuncui (Sect. Onosma subsect. Asterotricha) is described and illustrated as a new species from Kütahya (Turkey). New species grows on calcarous base rock between 1000-1100 m. Diagnostic features are given comparison with the related species, O. lycaonica Hub.-Mor., especially in the indumentum, habit, inflorescence, bracts, calyx, corolla, nutlets and leaves. The geographical distribution of the new and related species is also provided. Key for O. onur-koyuncui and O. lycaonica is provided. Notes about conservation status [CR: B2ab(i)] of O. onur-koyuncui according to the IUCN criteria and its ecology are also presented.

1315-1323 Download
22

Foliar characteristics as an aid for the specific delimitation of the genus Cleome L. (Cleomaceae) from Pakistan


Sana Riaz and Rubina Abid

Foliar characteristics as an aid for the specific delimitation of the genus Cleome L. (Cleomaceae) from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Leaf morphology and epidermal characters (including stomata and trichomes) of 11 species of the genus Cleome L. from Pakistan were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The genus Cleome is characterised by the presence of amphistomatic leaves with great polymorphism in shape. Amongst the stomatal type, actinocytic and anomocytic stomata are most prevalent in the genus Cleome. While, anisocytic type is exclusive for C. ariana and paracytic type is the characteristic of C. brachycarpa. All the species of the genus Cleome have different types of indumentum with the exception of C. oxypetala. Among the types of indumentum glandular hairy type is most dominant within the genus. Similarly, the quantitative characters of leaves such as, leaf size (6 − 80 × 1 – 20 mm) and stomatal frequency (154 to 769 stomata/mm2) are well correlated with that of the qualitative features of leaves to strengthen the delimitation of Pakistani species belonging to the genus Cleome.

 

1325-1330 Download
23

Taxonomic importance of seedling morphological data


Nabeela Mahmood, Sahar Zaidi, Mohammad Imran and Muniza Riaz

Taxonomic importance of seedling morphological data


ABSTRACT:

In the present work, morphological features of 16 plant species of 14 genera belonging to 6 families collected from different localities of Murad Memon Goth (Gadap town) Karachi, Pakistan were recorded. The study included the initial stages of seedlings just after their germination up to 3-4 leaves stage. Dichotomous key was constructed for the recognition of these taxa. All the taxa showed great diversity in their seedling morphological characters. These attributes may provide considerable data for the identification and classification of these taxa at the seedling stage.

1331-1337 Download
24

Climatic factors influencing geographical replacement in the desert genus Calligonum Sect. Medusa (Polygonaceae) in Xinjiang, China


Ying Feng, Zhibin Wen, Yan Li and Wenjun Li

Climatic factors influencing geographical replacement in the desert genus Calligonum Sect. Medusa (Polygonaceae) in Xinjiang, China


ABSTRACT:

Calligonum Sect. Medusa is most diverse and widespread taxon in the Xinjiang region. The species are morphologically similar with close phylogenetic ties and occupy narrow geographic ranges, thus becoming geographical replacement species. Eleven Calligonum species fall into three geographical displacement distribution series: Calligonum jimunaicum, C. trifarium, C. ebinuricum and C. gobicum occur in northern Xinjiang; C. ruoqiangense and C. pumilum occur in the east; and C. kuerlese, C. roborowskii, C. yingisarium have a southern distribution. Their distribution follows a pattern of geographical displacement from north to east to south, where they overlap and replace each other in space. We used ANOVA and PCA to identify the climatic factors that influence geographical partitioning in Sect. Medusa and found the most important factors to be annual precipitation and annual temperature. The geographical transitioning observed in Sect. Medusa may be the result of adaptation to long-term aridity in the region. Selective pressures from rainfall and temperature may have prompted adaptation to increasingly arid conditions in Calligonum.

1339-1342 Download
25

Quantitative description, present status and future trend of conifer forests growing in the Indus Kohistan region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Adam Khan, Moinuddin Ahmed, Afsheen Khan, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui, Mohib Shah and Ali Hazrat

Quantitative description, present status and future trend of conifer forests growing in the Indus Kohistan region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Forest structure unlocks our understanding of species distribution, function, history, and future prospects of an ecosystem. In this study, for determination of present status and future trend, the conifer forests of Indus Kohistan were quantitatively analyzed. Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, and Picea smithiana were the most common species, whereas Taxus wallichiana and Pinus gerardiana were observed in two and one sampling stands respectively. The Pinus wallichiana-deodar located in Semo dara forest occupied the highest density (461 plants ha-1), whereas the highest basal area was occupied by Kolai forest (192.42 m2ha-1) with similar floristic composition. The lowest density (215.71 plants ha-1) and basal area (45.71 m2ha-1) occupying forests were recorded from the Sharakot and Pattan sampling sites respectively. The pure forest of Cedrus deodara demonstrates a maximum number of trees in the medium and large size classes. Abies pindrow was observed in 11 sampling sites, showing the size class distribution in a haphazard way, whereas Picea smithiana showed a uniform distribution. Most of the forests revealed bell shape structures, indicating the highest individuals in the medium size classes, while fewer individuals in the small and old size classes. The gaps in the size class distribution indicating anthropogenic disturbance. Our findings show that regeneration potential and deforestation in the Indus Kohistan region are at an alarming rate, which needs prompt action for protection

1343-1353 Download
26

Rise in temperature of twentieth century enhanced growth of Pinus wallichiana trees in Karakoram region, northern Pakistan


Muhammad Luqman, Fayaz Asad, Farooq Jan, Haifeng Zhu, Fida Hussain and Tabassum Yaseen

Rise in temperature of twentieth century enhanced growth of Pinus wallichiana trees in Karakoram region, northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The effect of global warming on trees growth have got great attention in last few decades. Most regions of the world reported the considerable growth changes in diverse forest types over the 20th century. Here, we explored the older trees of Pinus wallichiana from the Karakoram region, northern Pakistan. The results showed that the mean growth pattern in the high altitude in Karakoram region are strongly associated with warming pattern over the region. The tree growth enhanced due to high temperature in late 19th to 1st decade of the 21st century, while during the cold period of Little Ice Age (1500-1850 AD) the tree growth was suppressed. The log-suppressed growth of the trees still alive and give the important information about the tolerance of Pinus wallichiana. This indicates that increase of temperature was encouraging tree growth at upper treeline ecotone in the study area. However, if any effort in the future regarding tree growth-climate association is perceived, there should be the incorporation of more forest (tree-ring) sites along different altitudinal levels to acquire clear insights.

1355-1359 Download
27

Population structure and dynamics of an endangered desert shrub endemic to northwestern China


Zhihao Su, Xiaobing Zhou, Li Zhuo, Xiaolong Jiang and Xiaoshan Kang

Population structure and dynamics of an endangered desert shrub endemic to northwestern China


ABSTRACT:

Information of population structure and dynamics can provide valuable insight for conservation and management of rare and threatened plant species. Tamarix taklamakanensis is an endangered shrub endemic to northwestern China. The abundance of this species has been substantially decreased over the past several decades. Size structure, static life table and survivor curve were analyzed to estimate the population demography. Within the 6 plots set up in the Taklimakan Desert, seedlings were scarce and juvenile individuals were dominant. Size distributions were skewed down towards larger size classes in all plots. The shape of survivorship curves was approximate Deevey type III, suggesting a high mortality in early life stages of this species. Based on hierarchical analysis of variance and Morisita’s index, T. taklamakanensis had a clumped distribution pattern in all plots and in the species level. Based on time sequence analysis, survived individuals increased and decreased in abundance. The results indicated that young stages were at great risk before transforming to adult individuals, and the populations might finish with the elapse of time. Efforts are required to prevent the continuous loss in abundance. Conserving the groundwater in the basin is essential for the conservation of T. taklamakanesis, and in situ and ex situ conservation measures were strongly recommended. As well as, artificial tending should be performed on the young stages of the population.

1361-1370 Download
28

Effect of elevation on biological activity of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher populations grown in Al Soda mountains, Saudi Arabia


Ashwag Hassan, Sulaiman Alrumman and Mahmoud Moustafa

Effect of elevation on biological activity of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher populations grown in Al Soda mountains, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, leaves and berries of healthy and diseased (dieback) of Juniperus procera plants have been collected from four different elevations site in Al Soda Mountains, Saudi Arabia to study their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca and Candida albicans. Also, the synthesized silver nanoparticles from healthy and diseased leaves and berries of J. procera have been tested against the same microbes using well agar diffusion methods. All extracts showed effective inhibiting properties against tested microbes at different rates depending on the type of microbe itself, type of solvent and plant location. C. albicans recorded the highest inhibition zone gained from ethyl alcohol extract of diseased leaves (3.16 ± 0.11cm) compared to other extracts and microbes, followed by water extract of healthy berries with a zone of inhibition (3.13 ± 0.15cm) against K. oxytoca. Chloroform extract obtained from diseased berries recorded antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone of (2.74 ± 0.11cm) against S. aureus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed potent inhibition activity against all microbes in the range between (3.52 ± 0.05cm) against S. aureus, (3.46 ± 0.05cm) against K. oxytoca and (3.42 ± 0.11cm) against C. albicans. Our findings proved that leaves and berries of J. procera from all locations whether healthy or diseased had antimicrobial activity against tested human pathogenic microbes which it may be used as a safe, economical, and powerful natural medicine better than synthetic chemicals

1371-1377 Download
29

Application of distance based indices to measure pattern of functional diversity of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities: a case study from Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China


Sehrish Sadia, Beenish Aftab, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad, and Jin-Tun Zhang

Application of distance based indices to measure pattern of functional diversity of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities: a case study from Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China


ABSTRACT:

Functional diversity changes with the change of environmental variables’ values in Gentiana macrophylla communities in Dongling Mountain. Seventy-five quadrats of 1m*1m around 15 sampling zones separated by 50m in meadow elevation were fixed. Functional traits, community composition and various environmental factors were measured, observed and recorded in each quadrat. Soil samples were also collected and then analyzed in laboratory for five soil nutrients’ contents. Ten functional diversity indices based on functional distances (FAD1, MFAD, FDp, FDc, wFDp, wFDc, Rao, rRao, FDiv, FDis) were used to find out functional diversity. Functional diversity was found to be significantly affected by variation in elevation. Besides elevation, slope aspect, soil type, soil pH, disturbance, total phosphorus, magnesium and zinc also proved to be significantly important for functional diversity change of G. macrophylla communities. Rank-order correlation coefficient between/among species diversity and functional diversity indices indicated that changes in functional diversity were significantly correlated to species richness and heterogeneity while no significant correlation was observed for species evenness. Principle component analysis showed that all the indices were correlated to each other. Criteria defined by these results will prove helpful for management and conservation of G. macrophylla communities and other medicinal plant species in Dongling Mountain meadow.

1379-1388 Download
30

Is Rubus perrobustus expanding to the north? – new records from Poland


Grzegorz Łazarski

Is Rubus perrobustus expanding to the north? – new records from Poland


ABSTRACT:

Rubus perrobustus Holub is an endemic species of the Europe, whose range stretches from northern Austria, southern Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, northern Hungary, South-western Poland to western Ukraine. Distribution of the species is not completely known as evidenced by its new localities found in recent years in different parts of Europe. The aim of the paper is to present new data on occurrence of R. perrobustus in Central Europe (Małopolska Upland, southern Poland). Five new localities of the species were found during phytogeographical studies in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (central part of Małopolska Upland) using the cartogram method. The new data of R. perrobustus distribution indicate that the Świętokrzyskie Mountains and their foreland are the next area of its concentration in Central Europe. The recorded localities are among the most northerly. They may be the result of modern expansion of the species to the north from the eastern part of the Polish Carpathians. However, the similarity of distribution of R. perrobustus and a few other brambles recorded in the Polish mountains indicates that the localities found are rather the result of old postglacial migration. One way expects more localities of the species for instance in the uplands of southern Poland and therefore further extension of its range.

1389-1391 Download
31

Traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of wild plants of Tilla Jogian district Jhelum, Pakistan


Muhammad Ajaib, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Khawaja Shafiq Ahmed, Mehwish Maqbool and Tanveer Hussain

Traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of wild plants of Tilla Jogian district Jhelum, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This research was conducted to explore and document traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of wild plants of Tilla Jogian, and its adjoining areas, District Jhelum of Punjab, Pakistan. The data were collected by field visits and interview of local informants using open-ended and close-ended methodology. In this study, 64 plants of 37 families from five village areas were explored and their ethnobotanical information was collected. In field work, 45 informants (25 males and 20 females) consisting of peasants, herbalists, house-women, nomadic people and traditional practioners were interviewed. Lamiaceae was prevalently dominant family of the area and out of 64 species; 31 species (47%) had single-use while 27 species (40%) double-use and nine species (15%) species multiple-use. Ethnobotanical quantitative analysis showed that relative frequency of citation (RFC) of studied taxa ranged from 0.97 to 0.02. High RFC of the plant proves their high citations and use in traditional ethnomedicines. According to use values (UV) index, Justicia adhatoda L. had (UV: 0.26), Croton bonplandianus Bail. (UV: 0.17) and Salvia plebia R. Br. (UV: 0.15); revealing that these species had high use in the area and were being exploited extensively. Relative importance (RI) values of the plants depicted their potential to cure different infirmities of the body. Jaccared index (JI) tool was used to compare current ethnobotanical knowledge with previous reports. JI values ranged from 2.07 to 16.07 which proved that most of ethnobotanical data provided was novel and reported for the first time. In this study, it was determined that various biotic interferences especially grazing, over exploitation and cutting of plants was the main pressure on many species, hence, the study area Tilla Jogian demands urgent measures for protection of wild plants of the area for future use and conservation.

 

1393-1406 Download
32

Antioxidant activity, sugar quantification, and phytochemical and physical profiling of apricot varieties of Chitral and Gilgit - Pakistan


Muhammad Waseem, Summar Abbas Naqvi, Muhammad S. Haider, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Iqrar Ahmad Khan and Haider Abbas

Antioxidant activity, sugar quantification, and phytochemical and physical profiling of apricot varieties of Chitral and Gilgit - Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Apricot is highly appreciated fruit worldwide. Pakistan is a 6th major producer of apricot in the world. In Pakistan, the apricot is found in Gilgit, Sakardu, Swat, Chitral and Balochistan Province. In our study, twenty six different varietiess of apricot were taken to explore their nutritional diversification. Physical properties were determined following the descriptor of apricot. Major sugars (Fructose and Glucose) were quantified through HPLC. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin and carotenoids were analyzed using a micro plate reader (Bio Tek, USA). Bradford and Deming method was used to estimate total proteins and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), respectively. The data related to physical traits showed variation in weight, size, shape and color. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis depicted that the range of fructose and glucose was 1.71 to 40.79 and 1.59 to 44.53 mg/100g, respectively. In phytochemical panel, antioxidant activity (45.69-90.45%), total phenolic contents (2094.4-6411.5 mg GAE/100g), ascorbic acid (69.22-91.20 mg/100g), anthocyanins (0.06-2.01 mg/100g) and total flavonoids (13.65-46.33 mg CAE/g) showed varying concentrations among examined apricot varieties. Further investigations of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT) and soluble protein contents revealed plenty of variations in their final values. Our results regarding different biochemical analysis revealed that the variation in these biochemical characteristics is totally dependent of variety type and geographical region. It was concluded that the varieties under analysis from Northern Pakistan are highly nutritive and beneficial for human health.

1407-1415 Download
33

Diversity of traditionally used polyherbal medicines


Sakina Mussarat, Muhammad Adnan, Shaheen Begum, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Shafiq Ur Rehman and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

Diversity of traditionally used polyherbal medicines


ABSTRACT:

Ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge provides the base for formulation of alternative drugs and fulfills primary health care needs. There is not much data documented and published regarding use of traditional polyherbal formulations in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Present research provides valuable ethnopharmacological information about the use of polyherbal traditional medicines. Data was collected from 2016-2018 through questionnaires’ survey of local communities in their native languages. Total 150 informants (100 females and 50 males) were selected for polyherbal ethnomedicinal information based on their experience. Plant species were collected, identified, and deposited in Kohat University of Science and Technology, herbarium. Data was further analyzed by using various ethnobotanical indices i.e., Frequency Citation, Relative Frequency Citation and Use Value. Ethnographic data showed that females’ participants were more inclined towards traditional medicines. A total of 50 different mixtures of plants belonging to different families were documented. Most of the recepies were used for gastrointestinal ailments followed by respiratory ailments, weight loss, obesity, and reproductive complaints. Dominant plant families were Apiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Leguminosae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Powder and decoction methods were the best for crude drug preparation and fruit was the dominant plant part in these polyherbal therapies. Traditionally used polyherbal formulations provide alternative source of medicines with synergistic/additive effects and less toxicity. Polyherbal mixtures are useful to treat acute and common complications by reducing their symptoms and diseases cycle. The study diverts the attention of chemists and pharmacologists to produce novel and effective medicines from natural sources. The study also provides a link between industries, policymakers, and local people for the conservation of threatened flora and its associated indigenous knowledge. There is a dire need to provide scientific base of these polyherbal traditional mixtures through In vitro and In vivo hypothesis.

1417-1432 Download
34

Evaluation of anticancer activities of selected medicinal plants from Ganga Choti, lesser Himalaya, Bagh, Azad Kashmir


Khawaja Shafique Ahmad, Muhammad Rafi, Bushra Hafeez Kiani, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Ansar Mehmood, Muhammad Sajjad Iqbal, Tayyaba Zubair and Rahmatullah Qureshi

Evaluation of anticancer activities of selected medicinal plants from Ganga Choti, lesser Himalaya, Bagh, Azad Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

The current study investigates the effect of plant extracts on human muscle cancer cell lines. Our medicinal plants viz. Terminalia chebula, Berberis lycium, Justicia adhatoda, and Geranium wallichianum were collected, preserved, and processed for the analysis of their anticancer activity. The basic aim was to observe the mechanism of cell death on Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line as an experimental model. The cell death rate, cytotoxicity, and viability of RD cells were determined with the help of MTT method. Results revealed that at 48 hours, T. chebula exhibited maximum cytotoxicity having 21% cell viability followed by 48% viability by J. adhatoda, 61% by G. wallichianum and 69% by B. lycium. Photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) effect of Terminalia chebula extract showed 68, 58, 61, 53 and 48% viability followed by Berberis lycium 68, 63, 100, 76, and 75% viability. Justicia adhatoda exhibited 95, 94, 69, 69, and 74% viability whereas Geranium wallichianum had 75, 73, 61, 60, and 64% viability at 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ug/ml concentration, respectively. The results indicated that plant extracts have anticancer activity and T. chebula is the most toxic plant that exhibited maximum RD cell toxicity. The study suggests further isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds in T. chebula responsible for anti-cancer activity.

1433-1440 Download
35

Performance of soybean against allelopathic leaf aqueous extracts and soil incorporated residues


Rana Muhammad Ikram Khan, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali and Muhammad Ayaz Shahzad

Performance of soybean against allelopathic leaf aqueous extracts and soil incorporated residues


ABSTRACT:

Allelopathy is the study of plant exudates with their supplementary or antagonistic effect towards other plant species. Wise use of Allelopathy and its further investigations may result new and effective chemicals which may have positive effect on crop stands in one way or other. The present investigation is aimed to probe the allelopathic effect of Rice and Mustard on Soybean. The study was carried out in 2018 at the Islamia University of Bahawalpur in laboratory as well as in wire-house. In the laboratory phase of this experiment, overall sprouting and growth pattern of Soybean was observed against different concentrations of mentioned plant species. Yield and quality attributes were tested in wire-house conditions via soil incorporated residues of Rice and Mustard (which were left for decomposition for different time interval). Results from the laboratory bioassay revealed that higher concentrations of rice i.e. 3, 4 and 5% while all tested concentrations of mustard i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% significantly reduced the germination and seedling growth of soybean when equated to control. Whereas lower concentration of rice i.e. 1 and 2% produced similar results to the control. Results from the wire-house phase of the study unveiled that 1% and 2% of rice augmented the plant height, numbers of pods per plant, numbers of grains per pod, 1000 grain weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, crop growth rate, biological yield and grain yield hill-1 of Soybean. Other concentrations i.e. 3, 4 and 5% of rice and all the tested concentrations of mustard i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% reduced the mentioned parameters significantly. Based upon the results it is concluded that lower aqueous extract concentrations of rice (1 and 2%) increase the growth and yield of soybean and may further be used in investigations related to this crop.

1441-1448 Download
36

Dust storms add in blooming of phytoplankton, tiny wanderer plants as food-chain, over Arabian sea: a research study


Nayyer Alam Zaigham, Tanveer Alam, Gohar Ali Mahar and Zeeshan Alam Nayyar

Dust storms add in blooming of phytoplankton, tiny wanderer plants as food-chain, over Arabian sea: a research study


ABSTRACT:

Geologically, climatologically and biodiversity-wise, Arabian Sea and Oman Gulf are unique from many other marine basins, where tiny-floating or drifting marine plants, phytoplankton, distinctly grow. Phytoplanktons are important because they serve as foundation of food chain sustaining the marine life. It was generally considered that the available incoming sunlight and the periodic phenomena of seawater upwelling from deeper depths provide essential nutrients for survival of phytoplanktons. An integrated research study is conducted to evaluate controlling factors for typical phytoplankton blooming based on analyses of satellite images of different periods related to dust-sandstorms, geotectonic-setup & submarine configuration, atmospheric-aerosol, sun-glittering and phytoplankton-bloom. It was observed that satellite images consistently reflected varying-pattern of phytoplankton-growth indicating dependence on number of multiple-factors. Results revealed that tropical cycles, dust-sandstorms, atmospheric-aerosol and prevailing-monsoons in Arabian Sea affect the levels of incoming sunlight and available nutrients impacting on phytoplankton growth within surface seawaters. It was also deduced that the dust-sandstorms carry iron, phosphorite and other minerals rich-particles from surrounding unique geological land regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and Arabian Peninsula serving as source of essential nutrients; and also control light-levels affecting photosynthesis processes in addition to monsoon-clouds, which collectively effect the phytoplankton-growth. Moreover, it was observed that submarine tectonic exotic features, e.g., Owen Fracture-Zone Ridge, Murray-Ridge, abyssal plains, Indus submarine fan, dynamic eddy-currents as well as cyclones affect growth and dispersal-trends of phytoplankton in Arabian Sea too. 

1449-1457 Download
37

Identification of volatile aroma compounds of Toona sinensis (A. Juss) Roem buds and investigation of genes expression profiles confering aroma production


Ren Liping, Wan Wenyang, Xie Yunhao, Chen Beibei, Wang Guoshu, Yin Dandan, Su Xiaohui and Cao Xiaohan

Identification of volatile aroma compounds of Toona sinensis (A. Juss) Roem buds and investigation of genes expression profiles confering aroma production


ABSTRACT:

Aroma is one of the important indexes of Toona sinensis (A. Juss) Roem quality that also determines its edible and commercial value. To detect the existing compounds of volatile aroma and related biosynthetic genes that the variety ‘Heiyouchun’ (named THToa) originated in the county of Taihe (Province of Chinese Anhui), confer aroma training in Toona sinensis was studied. By using the headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, the chemical composition and relative content were analyzed. The gene expression of key enzymes including terpene synthase (TsTPS), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TsFPS), 1-deoxy-d-ribulose 5-phosphate synthase (TsDXS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (TsHMGR) and two important regulators, TsAP2/ERF and TsWRKY, were also detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) at different developmental periods of leaves. The results showed that a total of 24 compounds were detected from the volatile oil of buds of THToa, which were mainly terpenes, esters, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and thiophenes. Among them, α-caryophyllene (8.521%) was the most abundant, followed by prop-l-enyldithiopro (8.214%), 1-propyl-2-(4-thiohepth) (7.155%), aromadendrene (5.106%) and γ-elemene (6.928%). TsDXS, TsHMGR1, TsTPS, TsAP2 and TsWRKY47 showed first low expression, then elevated and then decreased, while TsFPS2 showed early high expression during leaf growth and then gradually decreased tendency. It was speculated that the differential expression of these key genes during the growth of Toona sinensis leaves was closely related to the synthesis of aroma components. The results of this study may provide a foundation for elucidating the formation mechanism of Toona aroma, evaluating the quality of buds, as well as facilitating the molecular assisted breeding and development and utilization of Toona Sinensis.

1459-1464 Download
38

Management of root deteriorating fungi by the application of solanaceous plants


Shaista Jabeen, Asma Hanif and Shahnaz Dawar

Management of root deteriorating fungi by the application of solanaceous plants


ABSTRACT:

Solanaceous plant extract represent a potential source of antimicrobial properties that used as an alternative method for controlling root pathogens. In the present work, seed treatment and soil drenching methods with solanaceous plant extracts (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanum nigrum (L.) and Datura alba Rumphius ex Nees showed positive effect on the soil environment, plant life and suppressed pathogenic fungi (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina). In vitro studies, D. alba and W. somnifera leaves extracts at 100 and 75% w/v concentrations recorded remarkable inhibition of tested pathogenic fungi by using well and paper disc methods followed by S. nigrum leaves extracts. In the screen house experiment, okra and cowpea seeds were treated with100% w/v leaves extract of W. somnifera and D. alba showed greater effect in suppressing root rot colonization but also increased the height and weight of plants followed by S. nigrum. Furthermore, when solanaceous leaves extract drenched in soil, it not only enhanced the growth of crop plants but also showed reduction in fungal colonization.

1465-1472 Download
39

Combination ratio affects synergistic activity of oil palm frond residue and S-metolachlor on goosegrass (Eleusine indica)


Tse Seng Chuah and Win Kent Lim

Combination ratio affects synergistic activity of oil palm frond residue and S-metolachlor on goosegrass (Eleusine indica)


ABSTRACT:

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica), a troublesome weed, has been documented to evolve resistance to various groups of herbicides. Recent field study revealed that S-metolachlor in combination with oil palm frond residue (OFP) provided great suppression of herbicide-resistant biotype of goosegrass. However, study on interaction between OPF and S-metolachlor is still limited. Hence, combined phytotoxic effects of OFP and S-metolachlor were evaluated at the ratios of 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80 10:90 based on Additive Dose Model under glasshouse conditions. Pre-emergence application of S-metolachlor and OPF were able to reduce goosegrass emergence by 90% (ED90) at 3.5 t ha-1 and 148 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. The ED90 values of S-metolachlor were greatly reduced by approximately 72-92% when being incorporated with 1.0-1.4 t ha-1 of OPF at 50:50 and 40:60 ratios. However, the interaction turned antagonism as the rate of OPF was increased from 3.0 to 4.0 t ha-1 at the ratios of 30:70, 20:80 and 10:90. These results suggest that S-metolachlor in combination with OPF and applied as mulch could provide synergistic or antagonistic activity for goosegrass management depending on the ratio of oil palm frond residue combined with S-metolachlor

1473-1477 Download
40

Molecular characterization of bacterial strains isolated from pesticides contaminated soils of district Gujrat, Pakistan


Asma Nosheen, Razia Iqbal, Tahir Iqbal, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz and Hamid Mukhtar

Molecular characterization of bacterial strains isolated from pesticides contaminated soils of district Gujrat, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from Fenitrothion and Diamethioate contaminated soils. Due to identical morphological characteristics only two strains, APDB9 and APDB10, were randomly selected for molecular identification through 16S rRNA gene sequence. These two strains were found closely related to Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. The presence of 21 kb plasmid in all strains isolated suggests the involvement of this plasmid in pesticide resistance. However, none of the bacterial strains showed amplification of organophosphate degrading (opd) gene with gene specific primers, which suggested that the nucleotide sequence of the genes in these strains was different from the ones already reported. These results may help to characterize and investigate the new types of opd genes, so that they may be utilized in pesticides biodegradation in future.

1479-1485 Download
41

Endophytic radicular and rhizospheric microbiota associated with the endemic Cerrado palm, Butia archeri


Cintia Faria Da Silva, Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Liliane Cira Pinheiro, Kátia Aparecida De Siqueira, Marcos Antônio Soares and Edson Luiz Souchie

Endophytic radicular and rhizospheric microbiota associated with the endemic Cerrado palm, Butia archeri


ABSTRACT:

Endophytic and rhizospheric microorganisms form complex communities that play pivotal role in plant growth and development, and contribute to the resilience of the host plant. As Butia archeri, a palm species endemic to the Cerrado savanna, is resistant to acidic soils and high concentrations of iron and aluminum, we decided to test the hypothesis that the endophyte and rhizosphere communities associated with this plant comprise microbiota rich in functional traits. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the cultivable radicular (endophytic) and rhizospheric microbiota of this palm and evaluated the capacity of the isolates to solubilize calcium (CaHPO4) and iron (FePO4) phosphates, synthesize indole acetic acid (IAA), and suppress the development of Aspergillus niger, the principal fungus known to deteriorate the seeds of this species. In total, 115 symbiotic bacterial and 17 fungal lineages were isolated, together with 40 seed-degrading fungi, primarily A. niger. The seed-deteriorating fungi presented a higher diversity index (H = 1.82) than the other groups analyzed. Moreover, we confirmed the hypothesis that the microbiota associated with B. archeri has functional traits that contribute to plant growth. The BA81RB isolate of the bacterium Bacillus cereus solubilized 570.4 mg L−1 CaHPO4 and 750.2 mg L−1 FePO4. Furthermore, two isolates also solubilized remarkable amounts of CaHPO4, with the BA367EF and BA99RF lineages of Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum and Bionectria ochroleuca solubilizing 798.90 and 493.20 mg L−1 phosphorous, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed the presence of isolates that synthesized high concentrations of IAA, such as the BA147RB lineage of Enterobacter sp., which synthesized 97.0 μg mL−1, and others with potential for suppression of A. niger (BA68EB of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and BA89RB of B. cereus). The present study provides novel insights into the symbiotic microorganisms associated with B. archeri, and reveals potentially important perspectives for the application of these isolates as promoters of plant growth, in particular for crops cultivated on the soils of the Cerrado biome.

1487-1500 Download
42

Effects of fungicides and storage temperature on shelf life and fruit quality of stored mango (Mangifera indica L.)


Habiba, Amna Tariq, Rubina Noreen, Afshan Rahman, Hafiza Asma Shafique, Jehan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Effects of fungicides and storage temperature on shelf life and fruit quality of stored mango (Mangifera indica L.)


ABSTRACT:

Postharvest fungal spoilage, particularly anthracnose is a serious problem of mango and it is considered as the main hurdle faced by Pakistan in exporting its mango fruit. In this study, the effects of three different fungicides (topsin-M, carbendazim, and aliette) on shelf life and quality of mango fruit was evaluated at two different storage temperatures i.e., room temperature (23 ± 3ºC) and at refrigerated temperature (5ºC). Storage temperatures also affected weight loss, total soluble solids, fruit firmness, total titratable acidity and decay of mango fruit. Optimum holding storage temperature observed for stored mango fruit with least chilling injury symptom and decay was 5ºC. Fungicide treated fruits stored refrigerated showed least changes in physiochemical properties with no visual infection of anthracnose on fruit. Among fungicides, carbendazim treatment was found more effective at both storage temperatures. Carbendazim treated mango fruit showed least and steady increase in total soluble solids, gradual increase in pH and steady decrease in total titratable acidity. 

1501-1506 Download
43

Responses of spring sown maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes to Aspergillus flavus inoculation: grain yield and quality attributes


Sadia Zafar, Naeem Iqbal, Muhammad Zulqurnain Haider, Muhammad Rafique and Muhammad Ali

Responses of spring sown maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes to Aspergillus flavus inoculation: grain yield and quality attributes


ABSTRACT:

Maize, the one of the world’s most important cereals is susceptible to an opportunistic pathogen, A. flavusproducing aflatoxins, which ultimately causing economic as well as human health risks. The insufficient understandings of maize resistance to the fungus have made the selection of resistant genotypes difficult for scientists and growers. A field trial was conducted to find out the host responses to A. flavus exposure in terms of grain yield and quality of maize during the spring season. Maize cob of fungal inoculated and non-inoculated plants were harvested manually and then dried under shade at room temperature. After drying of maize cob, yield and quality related attributed were investigated. The results revealed that non-inoculated maize plants had cob of greater weight than those of A. flavus inoculated maize plants, despite negligible record of visible symptoms of infection in all maize genotypes. The exposure of plants to A. flavus negatively affected the grains per cob, total grains weight/cob and protein, oil as well as carbohydrate contents of grains. Maize genotype, KSC-9663 produced higher value for cob length, diameter as well as weight and grains weight per cob. While, maize genotype, HC-9091 showed the lowest value for cob length, diameter and grains weight per cob. Based on the results of current studies, it can be concluded that A. flavus inoculation may have negative effects on grain yield and quality attributes of maize under climatic conditions that favor the fungus growth without producing visible symptoms of infection.

1507-1513 Download
44

Functional characterization of a potent antimicrobial and insecticidal chitin binding protein from seeds of Iberis umbellata L.


Ahsan Saeed, Zahra Rafiq, Qamar Saeed, Binish Khaliq, Anwar Ullah, Sohaib Mehmood, Zahid Ali, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf and Ahmed Akrem

Functional characterization of a potent antimicrobial and insecticidal chitin binding protein from seeds of Iberis umbellata L.


ABSTRACT:

Chitin-binding proteins belong to the 2S albumin family and are helped in the plant defense, especially against fungal pathogens. A chitin-binding protein, Iu-CBP, has been identified and characterized from Iberis umbellata seeds. The purified form of this protein showed approximately an 11 kDa band under non-reduced condition on SDS-PAGE. LC-MS/MS provided a single fragment of amino acid sequence of 23 residues (QAVQSAQQQQGQVGPQQVGHMYR). UniProtKB database showed 100% sequence similarity with Moringa oleifera chitin-binding protein (Mo-CBP3-1) which classically contained two proteolytically matured α-helical chains linked by disulfide bonds along surfaced Arginines responsible for antimicrobial activity. Iu-CBP showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens i.e Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas oryzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 µg per disc. Similarly, a 20 µg/disc dose of Iu-CBP inhibited the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus. At a concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, Iu-CBP had a significant reduction in progeny population of Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum. Chitin-binding proteins have historically been studied as a source of carbon and nitrogen in plants; more recently, their thermostability, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, along with their water sterilizing qualities have attracted the interest of the scientific community.

1515-1523 Download
45

Preparation and estimation of physio-mechanical properties of eco-friendly bioplastics of Gracilaria corticata from Karachi coast


Marium Asif, Asma Tabassum, Tahira M. Ali and Aliya Rahman

Preparation and estimation of physio-mechanical properties of eco-friendly bioplastics of Gracilaria corticata from Karachi coast


ABSTRACT:

This study aims to prepare sustainable and eco-friendly bio-plastics of agar extracted from the red seaweed Gracilaria corticata collected from Karachi coast. The bioplastic samples were assessed against different parameters like physio-mechanical properties, solubility ratio and soil-biodegradation at different agar concentrations by using two different plasticizers glycerol & sorbitol as plasticizers. The Scanning Electron Microscopic images of bioplastic samples were also studied. The obtained results showed that the increasing amount of agar in bio-plastics directly affects the thickness and tensile strength of the films. It was also observed that plasticizer glycerol was found to be more efficient in maximizing the elasticity of the films whereas sorbitol contributed in enhancing the bio-film’s tensile strength. Solubility tests and bio-degradation results of the bioplastic samples with lowest agar concentration, blended with glycerol revealed the highest solubility and decomposition rate.

1525-1529 Download
46

Effect of pyrethroid on growth and protein content of two unicellular cyanobacteria (blue green algae)


Saira Bano, Seema Shafique, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan and Munawwer Rasheed

Effect of pyrethroid on growth and protein content of two unicellular cyanobacteria (blue green algae)


ABSTRACT:

Two unicellular strains of cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis sp. and Microcystis sp. isolated from marine environment were mass cultured and their interaction with pyrethroid pesticides was studied. Pyrethroid pesticides namely cypermethrin and deltamethrin are used widely as agricultural insecticides and have been identified from many environments including soil and water. It is also reported from agricultural runoff and coastal waters of Pakistan. In the current study both strains were exposed to different concentration of pesticides in laboratory conditions. Tolerance limit of these cyanobacteria was determined in different concentrations ranging from 5-500 µg/mL by studying photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and carotenoids), growth rate via dry weight and total proteins. Results showed that these cyanobacterial isolates tolerate cypermethrin up to 100 µg/mL. It was also observed that the presence of pesticides in the media enhanced protein content as compared to control. However, deltamethrin has showed deleterious effects on growth and photosynthetic pigments. Protein content was found decreasing in deltamethrin treated cultures.

1531-1535 Download
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