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Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 5
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Effects of elevated temperature on the vegetative growth and flowering of lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis)


Mohammad Abo Gamar, Taghleb Al-Deeb and Riyadh Muhaidat

Effects of elevated temperature on the vegetative growth and flowering of lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis)


ABSTRACT:

Lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) an aquatic plant, belongs to the family Aponogetonaceae. Under controlled experimental conditions, the effects of temperature on morphological and physiological parameters of lace plants were studied. Lace plants were grown under two temperature treatments (24oC and 30oC) in aquariums, and their morphological and physiological characteristics, such as leaf number and flowering percentage, plastid density and photosynthetic pigments, were measured. Results indicated that leaf number was negatively affected by the high temperature condition. The percentage of flowering was higher in lace plants grown under high temperature compared with plants grown under low temperature. On the other hand, chlorophyll content and plastid density was increased grown under high temperature. This study indicated that high temperature stimulated flowering process and chlorophyll synthesis, but reduced leaf number. This is an unprecedented finding on the effect of high temperature on flowering in lace plants. Our findings demonstrated a phenotypic plasticity in response to high temperature, suggesting evolved adaptations in lace plants to high temperature in the aquatic environment

1599-1603 Download
2

Salicylic acid seed priming improved dry biomass and ionic efficiency of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] under salt stress conditions


M. Yasin Ashraf, Zaib-Un-Nisa, Naila Ali, M. Yousaf Shani, Aneela Naz, Muhammad Azmat and Iqra Ashraf

Salicylic acid seed priming improved dry biomass and ionic efficiency of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] under salt stress conditions


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is a major constraint for mungbean seedlings establishment. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenously synthesized signaling compound contributes to regulate physiological processes in plants as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Effect of SA seed priming of mungbean in developing resistance under salt stress was investigated. The seeds of mungbean varieties (NM-2016 and NM-20-21) were soaked in 0.01% and 0.02% of SA while, no priming and hydropriming was taken as control. Seeds were sown in washed river sand with two salinity (0, 80 mM NaCl) levels. The results showed that priming with 0.01% SA improved plant height and dry biomass as compared with hydropriming and non-priming plants under salt stress. Meanwhile, 80 mM salt stress notably decreased the concentrations of Ca2+, N, P, and K+ while Na+ and Cl- contents increased in leaves as compared to control plants. But 0.01% SA improved the concentrations of almost all nutrients except Mg2+ under salt stress as compared to hydropriming and control. Collectively, NM-20-21 variety performed better than that of NM-2016 and seed priming with 0.01 % SA was found more effective in improving growth and nutrient uptake of mungbean seedlings

1605-1613 Download
3

Effect of  different  priming agents on germination of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) seeds under laboratory conditions


Wasim Akram, Azhar Hussain, Ishrat Roomi and Muhammad Muhammad

Effect of  different  priming agents on germination of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) seeds under laboratory conditions


ABSTRACT:

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has gained in popularity as a food crop due to the presence of many biologically active compounds that are regarded to be helpful for human health and disease prevention. Unfavorable environmental conditions during sowing, such as high temperature and rigid seed structure can cause late, poor emergence and substantial seed mortality, resulting in low crop stand and yield. The only approach to tackle these challenges is to improve seed germination by using seed priming. Seed priming is a pre-sowing treatment that causes a physiological change in the seed, allowing it to germinate more quickly. The goal of this study was to observe the effect of different primings, such as temperature (hot water), methanol, NaCl, and KI, on germination under laboratory conditions at various concentrations and temperatures. The hot water-treated seed with temperatures of 30, 40, and 50°C for 10 minutes revealed 100% germination at 50°C under In vitro conditions. The effect of both salts (NaCl and KI) at concentrations of 15, 30, and 45% for 10 minutes showed that seed germination was inversely proportional to concentration. In comparison to NaCl, KI salt had a higher rate of purslane seed germination. Furthermore, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of various methanol concentrations on seed germination, > 90% germination was obtained at 20% concentration, followed by 10% and 30%. According to the present finding hot water was most effective to use as farm-priming of Purslane seeds. In fluctuating situations, seed priming techniques are a safe and simple strategy for promoting seed germination. They may help to manage early-season drought and avoid seed germination failure, which leads to crop failure

1615-1622 Download
4

Influence of plant growth regulators on the phenolic composition of Elaeocarpus grandiflorus J.E. Smith (Elaeocarpaceae) cell culture


Noor Aini Habibah, Nugrahaningsih Nugrahaningsih, Yustinus Ulung Anggraito, Safitri Safitri, Fajar Musafa and Nur Wijawati

Influence of plant growth regulators on the phenolic composition of Elaeocarpus grandiflorus J.E. Smith (Elaeocarpaceae) cell culture


ABSTRACT:

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus (Elaeocarpaceae) has the potential to be developed as an antidiabetic agent and as a source of antioxidants. However, massive exploration of this species is very risky and likely to be extinct because it is rare and difficult to cultivate. Cell culturing of E. grandiflorus is an effective alternative technique for producing secondary metabolites, especially phenolic acid. Picloram and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are plant growth regulators in the form of synthetic auxins which are widely used to increase the production of secondary metabolites in the cell culturing process. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of the type and concentration of picloram and 2,4-D on the composition of phenolic acids. The organ samples for the cell suspension culture were petioles of mature leaves obtained from two-year-old E. grandiflorus plants. Petiole was prepared aseptically and inoculated on a woody plant medium and induced using 2,4-D at a dose of 1.5 ppm, 2.5 ppm, and 3.5 ppm and picloram at a dose of 2.5 ppm, 5.0 ppm, and 7.5 ppm. Cultures were maintained for 35 days and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the phenolic content. The results showed that picloram and 2,4-D with various concentrations had the same effect in inducing the formation of phenolic compounds in E. grandiflorus cell cultures. However, cell suspension cultures derived from the petiole of young leaves produced various types of phenolic acid compounds. The dominant compound found was kaempferol, which accounted for more than 16% of the total identified secondary metabolites. Further research is needed to determine the mechanism of action of picloram and 2,4-D in influencing the productivity of phenolic acid compounds

1623-1631 Download
5

Selenium application reduces cadmium uptake in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) by modulating growth, nutrient uptake, gas exchange, root exudates and antioxidant profile


Muhammad Bedar Bekhat Naseem, Qasim Ali, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rehan Khalid and Muhammad Nawaz

Selenium application reduces cadmium uptake in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) by modulating growth, nutrient uptake, gas exchange, root exudates and antioxidant profile


ABSTRACT:

In the recent past, the application of trace elements/micronutrients has gained a considerable attention to mitigate harmful impacts of cadmium (Cd) and other heavy metals. In current study we investigated the effects of selenium (Se) in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) for mitigating Cd toxicity. Different applications of Se i.e., 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 µM were employed under 20.0 µM Cd Stress. A significant (p≤0.001) decrease in physiological, nutrient uptake and plant growth parameters was observed under Cd stress. A decrease of 34% in root length, 21% in shoot length, 40% in shoot fresh weight, 31% in root fresh weight, 24% in shoot dry weight and 20% in root dry weight as compared to control under Cd stress was recorded. Higher levels of antioxidants (enzymatic, non-enzymatic) indicated a higher production of oxidative stress indicators. An increase in SOD (34%), POD (65%), CAT (58%) and proline (81%) was recorded in plants treated with Cd as compared to control (Cd non treated ones). The MDA and H2O2 contents in Cd-treated plants likewise exhibited a significant increase. An augmentation of 23% in Chl A/B ratio, 39% in carotenoids, 50% in transpiration rate and 28% in net photosynthesis was recorded as compared to control under Se application. Plants recovery from Cd stress was evident after application of Se. Results indicated a decrease of 18 and 15% in MDA and H2O2 contents respectively, due to Se application. The crux of the present investigation revealed that Se application mitigated Cd stress in tomato cultivars used in this study. Tomato var. Nagina proved to be more Cd stress tolerant with lower up take of Cd to aerial parts than Roma. It is concluded from the outcomes of this study that Se improved Cd toxicity tolerance in tomato in terms of its low uptake, enhanced growth, better nutrient uptake, improved photosynthetic and antioxidant attributes. This will pave the futuristic path for exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism for Cd toxicity tolerance with Se application in tomato

1633-1646 Download
6

Silicic acid and glutathione application improves elevated ozone toxicity tolerance by modulating biomass, senescence, seed quality attributes and oxidative stress indicators in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)


Faryad Ali, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Anwar and Naeem Iqbal

Silicic acid and glutathione application improves elevated ozone toxicity tolerance by modulating biomass, senescence, seed quality attributes and oxidative stress indicators in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Ever rising ozone (O3) is considered as a major threat for crop production in many areas of the world including Pakistan. The present study describes the role of glutathione (0.1 mM) and silicic acid (0.1 mM) for ameliorating the toxic effects of elevated O3 in Sesame. Four newly released sesame lines, MYT-3, MYT-2, MYT-8, and 1500-I were used in this study as split-split plot design with four replications under ambient (~40 ppb) and elevated (~120 ppb) O3 treatments. Elevated O3 toxic effects were recovered through foliar treatment of silicic acid and glutathione via decreased leaf senescence especially at grain filling period, increased chlorophyll pigments (except chl b), increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in addition to decreased MDA and H2O2. Moreover, the yield attributes were also influenced positively. Negative effects of O3 on seed oil and protein were reversed with applications but decrease in seed fibre and moisture was not recovered. It is revealed from current findings that silicic acid foliar supplementation is more effective for O3 toxicity amelioration as compared to glutathione application. Sesame line, MYT-3 produced highest yield under the hazardous O3 treatment via reducing leaf senescence at grain filling period increasing total chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, SOD and POD, decline in MDA, rise in harvest index and seed oil to prove O3 tolerant line. This tolerant sesame line could be incorporated in variety development program and subjected to molecular characterization to understand the O3 stress tolerance mechanism at molecular level in future.

1647-1660 Download
7

ATP synthase subunits: structure and role in plants under stress conditions


Nadia Iqbal, Ammara Masood, Hira Mubeen, Farah Deeba, Raheela Waheed, Iqra Noreen, Asma Zafar and Plosha Khanum

ATP synthase subunits: structure and role in plants under stress conditions


ABSTRACT:

Mitochondrial F1F0 -ATP synthase is a vital enzymatic complex in energy metabolism that provides the cell with ATP. ATP synthase is composed of five complexes carry out which execute electron transport and ATP synthesis, vital processes of cellular oxidative phosphorylation. Complex V also known as the F1 F0 ATP synthase or ATPase is mainly involved in of production of ATP by phosphorylating ADP with electrochemical energy produced by the proton gradient across the inner membrane of mitochondria. Plant reproduction and survival are harmed by abiotic factors such as drought, salinity and high temperature. Previously genes of ATP synthase were to over express in stress conditions in plants. It was discovered that during abiotic stresses, such as high salts, drought, and cold, expression of the AtMtATP6 gene was high in Arabidopsis. In transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis plants, overexpression of the AtMtATP6 gene increased resistance to salts, drought, oxidative and cold stress. Antisense construct of ATP synthase transformed in various palnts exhibited diverse effects including decline in plant growth, impaired flowering as well as reduced plant vigor. Consequently, ATP synthase subunits gene is crucial for plant development and growth by providing cellular energy source to cell.

1661-1668 Download
8

Delayed harvesting during one season reduces yield of next year’s crop and induces alternate bearing in mango cv. Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa


Abdul Ghaffar Grewal, Muhammad Shahzad Zafar, Maqbool Ahmad, Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi and Niaz Ahmed

Delayed harvesting during one season reduces yield of next year’s crop and induces alternate bearing in mango cv. Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa


ABSTRACT:

Fruit harvesting is traditionally delayed in some mango-producing regions of the world to fetch high fruit prices later in the market. This practice badly affects the fruiting pattern of mango trees during the next crop season. Considering the phenomena, a field-oriented study was carried out in Pakistan to understand the role of different harvesting times on the next year’s fruiting. The study was conducted for five consecutive years to properly understand the relationship between harvesting time and the bearing pattern of next year's crop in mango cv. Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa. Mango fruits were harvested at the commercial maturity (CM) stage and followed by 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after CM. The performance of mango plants was evaluated based on their vegetative and reproductive traits as influenced by delayed harvesting. Mango fruits harvested at CM had the highest (72.0%) average postharvest vegetative growth with a maximum (244.1 kg/tree) average fruit yield. In contrast, those harvested 28 days after CM had the lowest (37.5 %) average postharvest vegetative growth with the least (55.6 %) average fruit yield. Delay in the harvesting of mango fruit by 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after CM reduced fruit yield by 16.8, 43.7, 53.9, and 55.6 % when averaged over 5-years data.  Harvesting of mango fruit at CM had no bad effects on the next year’s mango fruiting. Based on the results from the present investigation, it is suggested that the harvest window of 10-12 days after CM for mango cv. Sammar Bahisht Chaunsa. If harvested within the proposed harvest window, a delay in fruit harvesting does not cause any significant losses in the yield. The trees may prepare themselves efficiently to bear regular fruit crops with minimum risk of developing alternate bearing habits during the subsequent seasons.

 

1669-1675 Download
9

A study on agronomic traits, yields and nutritive value of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] cultivated with underground water drainage system in saline-alkali soil in the Hetao Irrigation District (HID) of China


Shichao Wang, Hui Gao, Tonggang Fu, Lipu Han, Shicun Ni, Hongzhu Liang and Jintong Liu

A study on agronomic traits, yields and nutritive value of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] cultivated with underground water drainage system in saline-alkali soil in the Hetao Irrigation District (HID) of China


ABSTRACT:

In order to explore suitable foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) varieties, important for increasing plant yields in heavy saline-alkaline soil, this study utilized saline-alkali soil in Mongolia as experiment site. Seven foxtail millet cultivars were used as experimental object, and the agronomic traits, biomass, and forage nutritive value of this crop were analysed in severe saline-alkali soil with underground water drainage system. The biomass, yields, agronomic traits, and forage quality of all the cultivars of foxtail millet were compared. Compared with the agronomic traits, forage components and nutritive value varied significantly within different growth stages. The ZZ-3 cultivar held the maximum leaf number, stem diameter, leaf area, and SPAD values. All foxtail cultivars had higher crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents at the heading stage than at the other stages. The NDF and ADF of ZZ-12 (69.2% and 38.3%, respectively) were higher (p<0.05) than those of the other foxtail millet cultivars (63.8-68.9% and 35.0-35.8%, respectively) at heading. Compared with those of the other cultivars, the CP (1.29 t ha-1), NDF (7.47 t ha-1), and ADF (3.87 t ha-1) of the ZZ-5 cultivar were more intense at heading stage. No differences in the relative forage value (RFV) were observed among the seven cultivars at harvest. The selection of a suitable cultivar of foxtail millet at harvest under a subsurface pipe drainage system can be extremely effective at improving plant production in heavy saline-alkali soil. The study provided scientific bases for the cultivation of foxtail millet in heavy saline-alkali soil of the Hetao Irrigation District.

 

1677-1685 Download
10

Geographical distribution and estimation of the climatic tolerance ranges of Poa scaberula (Poaceae) in South America


Lidia R. Scrivanti, Fernando Moro Cordobes and Ana M. Anton

Geographical distribution and estimation of the climatic tolerance ranges of Poa scaberula (Poaceae) in South America


ABSTRACT:

This paper analyzes the potential distribution of Poa scaberula (Poaceae) in South America. The study area includes the Andes and the Sierras Pampeanas of Central Argentina. Based on records of occurrence and environmental data, we modeled the potential distribution and identified the areas of high probability of presence, evaluating the contribution of climatic variables to the model, and estimating the ranges of climate tolerance. The species distribution models showed that P. scaberula has a suitable habitat of ca. 289,062 km2 in the study region. We identified annual minimum temperature as the critical factor shaping P. scaberula. Moreover, the species shows a broad ecological tolerance, being able to withstand extreme conditions of low temperature (–11.8ºC) and rainfall (<664.5 mm annual) related to elevational and latitudinal gradients; these gradients strongly contribute to the delimitation of the species distribution in South America

1687-1695 Download
11

Combining ability analysis in soybean through North Carolina mating design II under varying water levels and  temperature at maturity stage


Bareera Nasir, Humera Razzaq, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat and Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid

Combining ability analysis in soybean through North Carolina mating design II under varying water levels and  temperature at maturity stage


ABSTRACT:

Soybean is a climate sensitive crop. Water and temperature is crucial factors for its cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of eight soybean parents and their crosses under various levels of water and temperature at maturity stage. Fifteen crosses resulting from North Carolina Mating Design II and their parents were evaluated for maturity traits under three levels of water and temperature i.e. T0= Water level: 4 irrigations + Average weekly temperature= 36.50°C, T1= Water level: 3 irrigations + Average weekly temperature= 33.83°C and T2 = Water level: 2 irrigations + Average weekly temperature= 29.80°C. Recorded data were subjected to analysis of variance. Existence of genetic variability among most of the entries showed that this germplasm can be further used for breeding programme in soybean to improve yield and stability. General combining ability (GCA) effects of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects of crosses were estimated. Our findings reveal that selected parents (17444, 24567 and 24581) and cross combinations (17444×24581 and 24567×24576) are the most promising for breeding soybeans under different climatic conditions and may be further evaluated to study their worth as potential parents and crosses

1697-1706 Download
12

Effects of copper nanoparticles on the organoleptic, physicochemical and nutraceutical properties of grafted tomato fruit


Rocio Maricela Peralta-Manjarrez, Marcelino Cabrera-De La Fuente, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Rafael German Campos-Montiel, Hortensia Ortega-Ortíz and Alma D. Hernández-Fuentes

Effects of copper nanoparticles on the organoleptic, physicochemical and nutraceutical properties of grafted tomato fruit


ABSTRACT:

The changes in the metabolic and physiological processes that occur when a tomato plant’s management, nutrition, and growth environment are modified, are reflected in modifications to the chemical and physical characteristics of its fruit. As such, the object of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the organoleptic properties and the physicochemical and nutraceutical quality of tomato fruit in response to the interaction between grafting and the application of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). A total of six treatments with or without grafting and either a foliar application (50 g L-1) or a substrate (5 mg/plant) of CuNPs were tested. The results show that grafting tomato plants in combination with substrate, application of CuNPs promotes an increase (21.3%) in fruit equatorial diameter, therefore the fruit of larger size and greater firmness (63.7%), and a lighter red color suggesting a decrease in the ripening index. The highest concentrations of nutraceutical compounds evaluated were recorded when the experimental factors were applied individually

1707-1713 Download
13

Evaluation of natural compounds as targeted activators against systemin receptor 160 for defense genes activation in the Solanaceae family


Pravej Alam

Evaluation of natural compounds as targeted activators against systemin receptor 160 for defense genes activation in the Solanaceae family


ABSTRACT:

Plants subjected to injury-causing substances are activating healing and other defense systems. Mechanical damage response involves either local, systemic or both, and consequently, wound signal production, translocation and detection, and transduction to trigger wound-inducible expression of genes. They become an effective target systemin receptor 160 (SR160) for the downstream process to activate the defense genes in the Solanaceae family. In-silico investigations of SR160 protein against natural chemicals have been presented. This study will create and anticipate potential modes of interaction and binding affinities between the natural substances and model SR160 as a 3-dimensional (3D) structure for SR160. The SR160 3D was designed utilizing the SWISS-MODEL system, while the InterBioScreen database provided the compound library. Maestro 10.5 was used for molecular docking. The binding energy ranged from -9.126 kcal to -12.813 mol in all tested compounds. Thus, active commercial defensive gene activators for wound healing can be further synthesized.

 

1715-1721 Download
14

Analysis of physiological indexes and aroma-related genes of thick-skinned melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Hetau) under salt stress


Liqiang Zhao, Zewei Zhang, Fengshuo Wang, Jingshu Li, Yuchen Liu, Yanli Ding, Guoze Wang and Jin Jia

Analysis of physiological indexes and aroma-related genes of thick-skinned melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Hetau) under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Comprehensive performance and aroma synthase in melon seedling under salt stress could directly affects the aromas content of its fruit. In the present research, when the height of the Cucumis melo L. cv Hetau was 10~15 cm, the seedlings were treated using Hoagland with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl. After three days of NaCl stress, the tender leaves of C. melo L. cv Hetau were cut for the extraction of total RNA, semi-quantitative PCR was used to analyze the lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) gene expression in C. melo L. cv Hetau under NaCl stress, and after 40 days, samples were taken for the determination of chlorophyll content, root activity based on α-naphthylamine content, nitrate reductase activities (NR), LOX activities and the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities in C. melo L. cv Hetau. The results showed that the relative expression of LOX and ADH3 genes increased with NaCl increase, and reached the highest level under 100 mM NaCl, the relative expression of the genes decreased under 150-200 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll content, root activity based on α-naphthylamine content and ADH activities in C. melo L. cv Hetau rose first, and then decreased with NaCl increase. The chlorophyll contents, root activities based on α-naphthylamine content and LOX activities reached the highest value under 50 mM NaCl, and ADH and NR activities reached the highest value at 100 mM NaCl. These results indicate that higher NaCl can obviously impact the physiological reaction of C. melo L. cv Hetau, and the impact is more obvious with the increase of NaCl. The study indicated that the moderate salt could adjust the aroma of muskmelon to the best

1723-1728 Download
15

Effect of ultrasonic and vacuum treatments on the germination of Himantoglossum robertianum (Loiseleur) P. Delforgei (Orchidaceae) seeds under in vitro conditions


Salih Parlak and Kamil Erken

Effect of ultrasonic and vacuum treatments on the germination of Himantoglossum robertianum (Loiseleur) P. Delforgei (Orchidaceae) seeds under in vitro conditions


ABSTRACT:

Every year millions of orchid tubers are destroyed despite their conservation status as international conventions. Orchid species are consumed more frequently because of their tubers used for food production. H. robertianum is one of the main species utilized for food purposes due to its large tuber size and glucomannan content. As orchid seeds do not contain endosperms, there are challenges associated with their asymbiotic germination and reproduction. Seeds should be treated with appropriate chemical treatment with the right amount and duration for their asymbiotic germination, and thus seed dormancy could be eliminated. In these treatments, the aim is to weaken seed coat and facilitate water penetration. To eliminate seed dormancy appeared due to seed testa, physical methods such as ultrasonic and vacuum treatments can also be used. Sometimes these methods may be more reliable and effective than chemical methods. In this study, the effects of ultrasonic and vacuum treatments on the germination of Himantoglossum robertianum seeds, which have dormancy, were investigated. For this purpose, ultrasonic and vacuum treatments were performed at different durations, and their effects were assessed. Both treatments were found to increase the germination rate of the seeds significantly compared to the control groups. The highest germination rate was found in seeds treated with ultrasound for 3 minutes (20.5%) and with vacuum treated for 10 minutes (15.2%) when compared to controls’ germination, which was 1.9% and 0.8%, respectively. Ultrasound and vacuum treatments increased the germination of H. robertianum seeds by promoting water uptake. According to these results, the methods can be used safely for the germination of orchid seeds.

 

1729-1738 Download
16

Genome-wide association mapping of seed reserve utilization during early seedling growth of sweet corn under salt stress


Jing-Yi Huang, Wang-Fei He, Zi-Qiang Hong, You-Xin Li, Baiyu Zhou and Xin-Xin Cheng

Genome-wide association mapping of seed reserve utilization during early seedling growth of sweet corn under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Sweet corn is a special type of cultivated maize only used in food production. It results from a naturally occurring recessive mutation in the genes controlling sugar conversion to starch inside the corn kernel’s endosperm. In this study, we have found that the seed germination rate, seedling height, root length, weight of the mobilized seed reserve, and seed reserve utilization efficiency of 100 sweet corn seeds were significantly different. They also showed a downward trend with increasing salt concentration. A total of 37297 SNP markers were screened to identify valuable quantitative trait loci associated with the seed germination rate, seedling height, root length, weight of the mobilized seed reserve, and seed reserve utilization efficiency by genome-wide association study. Significant SNPs were successfully identified, and 28 quantitative trait loci were identified for all salt-related traits in hydroponic systems. Three major loci of Affx-91146, Affx-91055, and Affx-90658 were common. Their contributions were 15.06~19.56%, and positions 162789062, 2136131, and 1230444, respectively

1739-1746 Download
17

Genetic analysis of rice genotypes with contrasting response to aerobic conditions


Mahmoud Mohamed Gaballah, Roshidy Y. El-Agoury, Elsayed A. Abo-Marzoka, Hassan Sh. Hamad, Aziz F. Abu Elezz, Mohamed M. Shehab, Ibrahim Al-Ashkar, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Liu Liyun and Ayman El Sabagh

Genetic analysis of rice genotypes with contrasting response to aerobic conditions


ABSTRACT:

Climate change and emerging water scarcity have seriously threatened the rice production systems which necessitate developing drought tolerant genotypes for ensuring food security. A trial was conducted to explore the genetic divergence among rice genotypes with an ultimate aim to sort out drought tolerant genotypes with high grain yield potential. The trial was comprised of seven rice genotypes along with their twenty one hybrids grown under aerobic conditions. The results revealed that hybrids of Azucena × Giza177 and Azucena × Giza179 remained superior by recording the maximum leaf diffusive resistance, leaf transpiration rate, and grain yield. In contrast, IRAT112 × N22 and IRAT112 × Azucena hybrids exhibited the lowest stomatal conductance. Besides rice hybrids, three parents N22, Azucena and Giza179 were identified as promising general combiners in terms of drought tolerance, physiological robustness and better grain yield components and thus these might be recommended as potent candidates for future breeding programs to increase drought tolerance. Additionally, grain yield per plant was positively correlated with leaf diffusive resistance, net photosynthesis rate, CO2 concentration, photosynthetic active radiation, panicles numbers, 100-grain weight, and fertility percentage, while it had negative association with stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf temperature, and leaf rolling. Moreover, the crosses of Azucena × Giza177, IRAT 112 × Azucena, IRAT 112 × N22, and Azucena × Giza179 showed good SCA effects and significant heterosis indicating that the hybrid combinations could be an introgression to drought

1747-1762 Download
18

Analysis of the genetic diversity of 58 blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) germplasm resources using SRAP markers


Huixin Gang, Feng Sun, Chenqiao Zhu, Jun Wei Huo, Huayu Liu, Lijun Zhang and Dong Qin

Analysis of the genetic diversity of 58 blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) germplasm resources using SRAP markers


ABSTRACT:

Blue honeysuckle is a shrub species widely distributed in the northern regions of the world, the nutritious fruits of which have high economic value and are considered to have beneficial health effects. To gain a better understanding of the genetic background of blue honeysuckle, we employed sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers to analyse the genetic diversity of 58 blue honeysuckle germplasms, which are naturally distributed in China, Russia, and Japan. A total of 20 SRAP primer pairs showing clear polymorphisms, screened from 90 assessed primer pairs, were used to analyse genetic relationships among the 58 blue honeysuckle germplasms. The results revealed that the 20 primer pairs amplified 172 bands, among which, 143 bands were polymorphic, with a polymorphic rate of 83.1%. Each primer pair yielded between five and 12 bands, with an average band number of 8.6. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SRAP marker data revealed that genetic similarity coefficients of the 58 germplasms ranged from 0.68 to 0.95. The germplasms were divided into seven groups with a genetic similarity coefficient 0.74, with germplasms from China being characterised by greater differences than those from Russia. Wild genotypes from Mount Changbai and the Great Khingan mountains were classified into a single group, indicating that cultivar classification has been based on genotype composition. In general, blue honeysuckle has a high genetic diversity, which will provide a valuable basis for future breeding

1763-1768 Download
19

Effect of defoliation and silique removal on carbohydrates accumulation, seed quality, and yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)


Abu Zar Ghafoor, Hassan Karim, Hafiz Hassan Javed, Ali Raza, Shahla Nargis, Iram Shafiq, Muhammad Ahsan Asghar, Hu Yue, Peng Xiao and Yongcheng Wu

Effect of defoliation and silique removal on carbohydrates accumulation, seed quality, and yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)


ABSTRACT:

Rapeseed is one of the important oil seed crop and it has many studies related to its yield and oil quality. There is a lack of quantitative information on the effect of rapeseed yield and quality by management measures (Defoliation and silique removal). This study was designed to investigate defoliation and silique removal treatments effect on the physiological process at the flowering stage, the quality and quantity of crops. A field trial was carried out at the Experimental Research Station of Sichuan Agricultural University in Sichuan province of China, in 2020. The split-plot field experiment was designed with treatments as the main plot and variety as a subplot with three replicates. The leaf and silique removal treatments were applied to investigate their seed yield and quality behaviors at the flowering stage. This experiment was conducted by using two high-yielding varieties, V1=JYJS01: medium height variety and V2=CY36: tall height variety to investigate the impact of different leaf and silique removal treatments, T1=control; T2=50% branch silique removal; T3=50% defoliation; T4=100% branch silique removal and T5=100% defoliation. Our results have revealed that the effect of defoliation and silique removal treatments affected the N uptake of rapeseed plants. During the physiological maturity stage of rapeseed, treatment T4 significantly amplified the protein content by 9%, while the seed oil content was decreased by 3.95% compared to T1. Moreover, in contrast, the stem sucrose and reducing sugar content were decreased at T4 by 26.70% and 42.80 % compared to T1, respectively. The seed yield and plant biomass was also decreased at T4 compared to T1. Our findings revealed that higher stem nitrogen percentage and sugars metabolism was possible during the seed filling stage of rapeseed by defoliation and silique removal treatments. Further research is required to investigate the involvement of molecular mechanisms in the fatty acid metabolism of rapeseed

1769-1776 Download
20

Study of biological remediation technologies in relation to the quality and quantity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crop along with the restoration of metal contaminated soil


Adil Shakil Ahmed, Anjum Parveen, Rafia Azmat and Amna Jabbar Siddiqui

Study of biological remediation technologies in relation to the quality and quantity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crop along with the restoration of metal contaminated soil


ABSTRACT:

The discharge of heavy metals due to anthropogenic activities is the primary concern regarding soil pollution in the current advancement of the world. Therefore it is essential to design novel, cost-effective technologies for soil remediation. In the current paper, the restoration of Cadmium (Cd) metal-contaminated soil concerning the growth of the Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is reported. For this purpose, two natural bio-stimulators, i) Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi and ii) Tea waste (TW), were used as biological remediation technology to restore the Cd-contaminated soil. These stimulators are readily available and effectively check metal’s movement from soil to roots; additionally, these are the natural sources and can be worked as natural fertilizers for plants growth. Ultimately, an organic crop free from pesticides, synthetic and hazardous chemicals can be obtained with equal yield in terms of quality and quantity. The experiment was conducted in natural habitat in three replicates for each remediator with control as standard plant. The soil pots were prepared, and laboratory-prepared Cd solution with different concentrations was added, followed by applying a) VAM and b) TW. The soil's physical properties, including, Soil pH, Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were monitored as health-associated properties of the soil. Results showed that the pH of the soil under different Cd (10ppm-50ppm) treatments increased by 13.8%, while in control plants (no Cd added), the treatment also increased the pH by 5.5%. The soil EC increased (13.3%) in Cd-contaminated soil, were found decreased in the presence of both remediators. Results revealed that the high-quality growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), in the presence of both remediators, indicated the effective control of the metal movements from soil to roots. It was established that the Tea waste acts as a suitable adsorbent to adsorb the metal on its surface and to facilitate the movements of the other essential ions. Furthermore, VAM also traps the metal and increases the movement of essential ions; consequently, remarkable growth of the plants exposes the soil restoration to contamination. It was concluded that both of the remediators are readily accessible and can easily be used by the farmers as the best biofertilizers to control metal’s destructive effects, followed by healthy beneficial crop

1777-1787 Download
21

Climatic adaptability of exotic Gladiolus grandiflorus varieties under the environment of Lahore, Pakistan


Malik F.H. Ferdosi, Hafiz Shahbaz Ahmad, Muhammad Kaleem Nasim, Iqra Haider Khan, Arshad Javaid and Iqra Zahid

Climatic adaptability of exotic Gladiolus grandiflorus varieties under the environment of Lahore, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Gladiolus grandiflorus Andrews is among the most popular cut flowers. In the present study, the effect of sowing time on growth, flowering, and corm characteristics of six newly introduced varieties of this cut flower in Pakistan, namely Red Balance, Cartago, Beach Party, Cayenne, Kir Royal, and Almerium, was studied under agro-ecological conditions of Lahore, Pakistan. Corms of these varieties were sown in a field on November 30, December 15 and 31, 2019, with average temperatures of 16, 14, and 12ºC, respectively. Sowing dates had significant effects on various vegetative and reproductive characteristics. In general, maximum plant height, leaf width, minimum days to flowering, number of florets per plant, and floret diameter were recorded in plants sown on November 30 (and sometimes on December 15 also), while the lowest values for all these parameters were obtained in plants sown on December 31. The number of cormels were gradually decreased in Beach Party, Cayenne, Kir Royal, and Almerium with the delay of sowing from November 30 to December 15 and 31. On the other hand, in Red Balance, Cartago, the highest number of cormels was recorded on December 31 owing plants. This study concludes that cultivation on November 30 is the most suitable time for most of the gladiolus varieties for the best vegetative and reproductive growth in agro ecological zone of Lahore

1789-1794 Download
22

Glycine max transcriptome changes in response to aphid and volatiles exposures


Hongyu Chen, Ying Yu, Xiuling Chen, Zhenzhu Zhang, Kuijun Zhao and Aoxue Wang

Glycine max transcriptome changes in response to aphid and volatiles exposures


ABSTRACT:

Plant-plant interactions via herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) have been shown to trigger plant anti-herbivore defense responses. Such volatiles-regulated genes have been studied comprehensively in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Arabidopsis thaliana at the transcriptional level, but not in soybean (Glycine max). The transcriptomes of soybean leaf tissues responding to aphid infestation and volatiles released from neighboring aphid-infested plants were studied by RNA-seq. Soybean aphid infested plants exhibited 2413 up-regulated and 3905 down-regulated genes, while leaf exposure to volatiles resulted in 2153 up-regulated and 3572 down-regulated genes, which were endowed with a wide range of functions including ‘hormone responses’, ‘pathogen-related’, and ‘oxidative stress’ functions. The results ultimately demonstrated that aphid damage and volatiles exposure elicited drastic metabolic changes in soybean leaves. These results also emphasize that RNA-seq analysis of repressed genes should contribute to our understanding of signal transduction in aphid-infested leaves, as well as in leaves exposed to herbivory-induced volatiles

1795-1804 Download
23

Morphometric characterization of different mango varieties cultivated in Tehsil Bernala District Bhimber Azad Kashmir, Pakistan


Tanveer Hussain, Muhammad Ishttiaq, Bilal Zafar, Abida Parveen, Mehwish Maqbool and Faheem Ahmed Khan

Morphometric characterization of different mango varieties cultivated in Tehsil Bernala District Bhimber Azad Kashmir, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Mangifera indica L. is called king of fruits which provides lot of nutrients to human beings for better health. District Bhimber is a hub of different indigenous as well invasive varieties of Mango. In this analysis, seven local mango varieties (Langra, Moota, Peela, Kala, Sanduri, Khakharia and Gola) were explored for their morpho-genetic assessment by using numerical approaches. Results were expressed in form of dendrogram by using dedicated softwares i.e., MSVP and SPSS. The variety “Mota” was separated as one unit in cluster I while other six varieties were aggregated in cluster II. The varieties “Peela, Sanduri and Khakharia” were re-shuffled in sub-cluster “a” while three varieties “Gola, Kala and Langra” were grouped in sub-cluster “b”. Two broad groups and various sub-clusters established due to genetic dissimilarities among Mango varieties. The variety “Mota” showed genetic distance (GD) of 5.7 from all other analyzed varieties. Other two varieties “Sandori and Khakharia” depicted most closeness with GD 1.9. After fruit ripening, quantity of each variety was also measured and it was found that “Mota” variety was better with 90 Kg/ft2. Area wise analysis indicated that “Watala” area was more suitable for better growth and good yield of Mango due to better adaptability of climatic conditions and suitable soil texture. This research will be proved a good initial model data for researchers, horticulturist and agriculturist in future further study

1805-1812 Download
24

Integrating exponential regression model optimizations for wheat area, productivity and population through statistical and machine learning approaches


Farrukh Shehzad, Muhammad Islam, Azeem Ali, Abdul Qayyum and Rabia Siddiqui

Integrating exponential regression model optimizations for wheat area, productivity and population through statistical and machine learning approaches


ABSTRACT:

Strategic planning for food security has become the key intention especially for the developing countries like Pakistan. A comparative study is carried out to forecast the wheat area, yield and population eruption in Pakistan using the time series dataset, comprise from 1950-2020.This study layouts the plan to develop the regression model using the compound growth rate, called compound growth exponential regression models (CGREM). CGREM are applied using the machine learning (ML) and statistical approaches to address the food security planning for wheat area, yield and population eruption in Pakistan. Data partition is carried out using 80% and 20% randomized partitions for ML models. The hyper parametric tuning of ML model is further applied for 75%, 25% and 70%, 30% randomized partitions. The Performance of ML models are evaluated based on training and testing datasets. The evaluation metrics (RMSE, R2) and information criterions (AIC, SIC) are used to measure the performance of models. The decomposition prediction error (P.E) is used to address the variance bias tradeoff and to select the optimum model. The decomposition model is applied to decompose the wheat production into its determinants. CGREM found better fitted model using the machine learning approaches. CGREM predicted, up to 2050, wheat area will rise up to 51.7%, wheat yield will grow up to 109.7%, and population will rise up to 140.6%. It noted that population will likely to upturn 88.9% and 30.9% more from wheat area and yield. Decomposition analysis model depicts that wheat productivity and area sharing 38% and 20% change towards wheat production. This study demonstrated the strong evidences to layout the true policy decisions, which leads to overcome the social dilemma of food security

1813-1818 Download
25

Effects of rest grazing in different seasons on grassland soil nutrients in the Bog Meadow of Sanjiang Plain , China

 

 

 


Mingjun Wang, Lingbo Zheng, Zhenyin Bai, Fengcheng Zhang, Dongwei Liu, Yintao Shi and Guowen Cui

Effects of rest grazing in different seasons on grassland soil nutrients in the Bog Meadow of Sanjiang Plain , China

 

 

 


ABSTRACT:

Grazing heavily influences the soil organic carbon pool of grassland ecosystems and therefore plays an important role in the global carbon balance. In China, various efforts aimed at alleviating grazing pressure have been promoted in the past two decades to conserve and restore degraded grassland, and improved management has shown profound effects on grassland resilience. Although many studies have explored the role of rest-grazing in arid grasslands, little is known about the effects of seasonal rest-grazing strategies on carbon storage in mesic grasslands. This study analysed the effects of rest grazing in spring, summer, and autumn on the soil nutrients and plant growth content of plots under light, medium, and heavy grazing intensities, respectively, for 3 continuous years (2010-2012) on the Deyeuxia angustifolia meadow grassland in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. The study contributes to the understanding of the relative effectiveness of different seasonal rest-grazing strategies on grassland sustainability in the Sanjiang Plain. The results highlight the importance of timing in the use of seasonal rest-grazing in the short term for the soil carbon balance of mesic grassland: (1) under moderate and severe grazing pressure, the aboveground net primary productivity of grassland plants was significantly increased in spring and summer but not in autumn. (2) The organic matter content in the 0-30 cm soil layer significantly increased in spring and autumn, and the organic matter content in the 0-20 cm soil layer significantly increased in summer. (3) Seasonal rest-grazing significantly decreased the content of available nitrogen in the 0-30 cm soil layer, especially in the 10-20 cm soil layer. In addition to the driving power of growing season precipitation, our results suggest that seasonal rest-grazing has a great potential for the recovery of soil carbon storage in mesic grassland despite differential grazing intensity levels.

 

1819-1825 Download
26

Metabolomic analysis of seed coat and peeled seeds of Polygonatum cyrtonema in sand storage


Wenwu Zhang, Jinfeng Tong, Chenyu Song, Fulei Peng, Xu Yang and Qing Jin

Metabolomic analysis of seed coat and peeled seeds of Polygonatum cyrtonema in sand storage


ABSTRACT:

The ending of seed dormancy by sand storage involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of sand storage on dormancy breaking in seeds of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua, the seed germination rate and metabolites change were monitored in seed coat and peeled seeds. The germination rate of P. cyrtonema seeds was increased after 60 d of storage at 4°C or room temperature -5 to 15°C. Metabolomics analysis showed that there were 85 and 74 metabolites in seed coat and peeled seeds, respectively. The dynamic changes in metabolites and in metabolic pathways during sand storage were analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models. Metabolomics analysis showed that sand storage had different effects on the seed coat and peeled seeds. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis of the peeled seeds were active in sand storage for 30 d and 60 d, which provided energy for seed germination. Myo-inositol and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), molecules related to seed germination, were also affected in the sand storage process. These results provide a comprehensive analysis of the metabolic changes for exploring the seed dormancy mechanism of P. cyrtonema

1827-1839 Download
27

Transcriptome analysis and EST-SSR marker development of medicinal plant cyclocarya paliurus


Shuai Mu, Yu Zhang, Jia Xiang Zhang, Min Zheng, Jian Zhong Wang, Man Ping Ding, Maroof Ali and Xiao Hong Li

Transcriptome analysis and EST-SSR marker development of medicinal plant cyclocarya paliurus


ABSTRACT:

As people’s living standards improve, the Trio H's (Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Hyperlipidemia) chronic diseases have seriously threatened the health of middle-aged and older people. In recent years, many researchers have become concerned about the development of specific drugs for Trio H's people. Because the leaf and bud teas of Cyclocarya paliurus (Juglandaceae) can relieve Trio H's syndrome, it is considered an ideal and potential medicinal tree. Concerning the unclear genetic background of C. paliurus, molecular markers applicable to the population level are still in need. In this study, using the BGISEQ-500 platform, we obtained about 108,003 unigenes by mining the leaf cDNA library of C. paliurus. Among them, 86,366 unigenes (79.97%) were successfully annotated, referring to the public protein database utilizing BLASTX alignment. 77,441 (Nr), 31,223 (GO), 60,160 (KOG), and 60,580 (KEGG) unigenes were aligned to NCBI databases, respectively. Besides, 27,960 SSRs were excavated and located from 21,517 unigenes, with an average frequency of 0.228 SSR/1 Kb, screened from 60 selected primer pairs, and 13 microsatellite primer pairs were found to be polymorphic and stable for C. paliurus. To confirm the validity of these thirteen primer pairs, we further screened 33 individuals derived from three locations (POP-JX, POP-HN, and POP-AH). The result showed that 51 variant loci were detected, with an average of 6.05 polymorphic loci per prime pair. The average genetic diversity index at the population level exhibited higher polymorphic (Ho:0.721; He:0.700; PIC:0.780). The reference transcriptome can facilitate functional genomic research of C. paliurus, and the new EST-SSRs will be useful for further population genetics study of C. paliurus

1841-1850 Download
28

Paclitaxel content in various parts of Taxus wallichiana from moist temperate forests of Swat and Hazara, Pakistan


Nasreen Ghaffar, Linda S. Lee, Bushra Khan, Hizbullah Khan, Javaid Iqbal, Ishaq Ahmad Mian, Shumaila Ihtisham, Rukhsana, Iftikhar Ahmad and Shah Khalid

Paclitaxel content in various parts of Taxus wallichiana from moist temperate forests of Swat and Hazara, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Paclitaxel, isolated from Taxus wallichiana, has clinically been used as a standard anticancer agent. Although Paclitaxel has been quantified in species from forests in different countries of the world and its concentration show variation with environmental factors, no studies have been conducted on it in Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Paclitaxel and quantify its concentration in various parts of T. wallichiana, sampled from Hazara and Swat Forest Divisions, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Paclitaxel levels in 119 samples (leaves, stem, bark, and root) of T. wallichiana were measured and compared within and between the two forest divisions. Extraction of biomass was accomplished using Ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis after an ENVI-Carb cleanup step. Paclitaxel content (wt %) measured in plant biomass followed; roots (0.023 ± 0.018) > bark (0.014 ± 0.013) > leaf (0.011 ± 0.006) > stem (0.006 ± 0.006) samples. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in Paclitaxel content between the two Forest Divisions. The mean Paclitaxel content for different plant parts was significantly greater for trees from Hazara Forests compared to Swat Forests. T. wallichiana can be grown in its natural zones “Hazara Forests” for a high yield of Paclitaxel.

 

1851-1856 Download
29

Studies on the biological activity of different populations of the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root)


Moldir Zhumagul, Meryuert Kurmanbayeva, Serik Kubentayev, Alfiya Kurmantayeva, Aknur Turgumbayeva, Indira Nurpeissova, Natalya Cherepkova and Aizhan Moldakaryzova

Studies on the biological activity of different populations of the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root)


ABSTRACT:

Rhodiola rosea  species have a wide spectrum of therapeutic action and are actively used as a tonic, adaptogenic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, and for other treatments. We analyzed the phytochemical composition of essential oils of R. rosea from the high mountainous regions of Kazakhstan Altai (Eastern Kazakhstan) and Austria. The results showed high percentages of cinnamyl alcohol (31.28%), Cyclobutanecarboxylic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester (9.65%) (9.65%) in the roots of R. rosea. of Kazakhstan Altai and the content of cinnamyl alcohol (27.28%), Tyrosol in the root (19.39%) native to Hochkar, Austrian Alps. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of species of different populations of R. rosea were also studied. The results revealed antioxidant activity of this species. Biologically active compounds of R. rosea have many pharmaceutical effects in various diseases. The formula of essential oils from the root of R. rosea were analyzed using GC-MS. The antioxidative activity was determined by FRAP method. The essential oil has shown a low antioxidative activity compared to butylhydroxyanisole(BHA)at concentrations of 0.25-1.0 mg ml-1, which confirms the antioxidative properties of this species. The results of cytotoxic activity against the larvae of Artemia salina has revealed that its essential oil shows lethal toxicity at all tested concentrations, proving the cytoxicity of golden root.

 

1857-1865 Download
30

Proximate and mineral analyses, and antioxidant activities of selected wild fruits from district Kurram Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Saima, Bibi Umolbaneen, Syed Khalil Khaider, Saima Batool, Amjad Ali, Shariat Ullah, Maroof Ali, Aroosa Zafar, Khateeb Hussain and Wahid Hussain

Proximate and mineral analyses, and antioxidant activities of selected wild fruits from district Kurram Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Wild edible fruits play an important role in the nutritional security of humans around the globe. The detailed analyses of nutritional and minerals composition of wild fruits of the Kurram region (in Pakistan) are lacking. The objective of the current study was to determine the nutritional, minerals composition and antioxidants activities of five selected wild fruits Rubus fruticosus, Prunus jacquemontii, Nannorrhops ritchieana, Crataegus oxyacantha, and Elaeagnus angustifolia. Among these wild fruits the highest moisture content (27.1%) was recorded in Nannorrhops ritchieana while crude protein was at a maximum in Nannorrhops ritchieana (11.4%) and in Prunus jacquemontii (11.3%), while ash was highest (15.4%) in Prunus jacquemontii. On the other hand, crude fat (11.7%) was the maximum in Prunus jacquemontii, crude fiber was found to be the higher (13.4%) in Rubus fruticosus, and the maximum carbohydrate (85%) was found in Elaeagnus angustifolia.  Notable amounts of macro minerals like potassium was found to be a maximum in Crataegus oxyacantha (77.2mg/L), calcium in Elaeagnus angustifolia (102.7mg/L), and magnesium in Rubus fruticosus (13.7 mg/L) as well as in Nannorrhops ritchieana (13.6 mg/L). The microelements like iron were recorded to be a maximum (3.4 mg/L) in Prunus jacquemontii, zinc as a maximum (0.44 mg/L) in Nannorrhops ritchieana, both cobalt and manganese concentrations of (0.3 mg/L), (0.2mg/L) were observed to be the highest in Rubus fruticosus respectively, while chromium were found to be a maximum in Elaeagnus angustifolia i.e. 0.07mg/L.  Sodium was found to be high in Nannorrhops ritchieana (6.01mg/L). Highest FRSA% was reported in Rubus fruticosus which was 77% and TAC% was maximum in Prunus jacquemontii i.e. 1.33 mg/ml. Nutrition results of these five wild fruits showed that these species should be developed as nutraceuticals so that these wild edible fruits can be employed for supplementing the dietary foods of mountain people

1867-1877 Download
31

Soil and associated plant potassium status of sunflower in lower Sindh (Pakistan)


Abdul Aleem Memon, Inayatullah Rajpar, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Javaid Ahmed Shah

Soil and associated plant potassium status of sunflower in lower Sindh (Pakistan)


ABSTRACT:

Increasing present level of Potassium (K+) in calcareous soils improve sunflower yield. Soil and plant K+ status as yield-limiting factor for sunflower crop in calcareous soils was investigated through a survey study in the areas of lower Sindh (Sujawal, Badin and Hyderabad). Soil and crop productivity data from thirty sunflower farms were surveyed to assess soil-plant K+ status, some basic physicochemical properties, seed yield, and to get information on common crop husbandry practices. Composite samples of soil and sunflower leaf tissue were gathered from randomly chosen locations and analyzed for K+ content. Besides, the soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were also analyzed for some basic physicochemical properties. Furthermore, information about seed yield and common fertilization practices for each farm was also collected. The seed yield of sunflower in the study farms ranged from 1.63 to 1.86 tonnes ha-1 with an average of 1.73 tonnes ha-1. It was found that soils had a marginal to adequate K+ content (105–247 mg kg-1) with 47 % having marginal K+ content (100–150 mg kg-1) and 53% having sufficient K+ content (>150 mg kg-1). Most of the soils were found clayey in texture, moderately to strongly alkaline (pH1:5 7.7–8.8) in reaction, non-saline (EC1:5 0.12–0.24), moderately to strongly calcareous (CaCO3 8.45–17.65 %) in nature, and low to adequate (0.38–1.82%) in organic matter content. Exchangeable Ca2+ remained as the dominant cation, followed by Mg2+, K+, and Na+.  Due to the high clay content, the CEC of the soils ranged between 15.34 and 33.48 cmolc kg-1. The leaf tissue K+ concentration varied between 1.38 and 3.41%, with a mean of 2.43. Around 60% of leaf samples were below a critical value (2.6%), 37% were above critical, and only 3% were found adequate. In sampling farms, soil K+ contents indicated a significant, positive, and linear relationship with the leaf tissue K+ concentration. Similarly, Soil K+ activity ratio had a significant, positive, and linear relationship with the K+ concentration in sunflower leaf tissue and seed yield. Appropriate field studies maybe planned and conducted in the future to formulate general K+ recommendations for sunflower farming in the region.

 

1879-1885 Download
32

Anatomical modifications in Carex brownii and C. brunnea along elevation gradient


Ansa Asghar, Farooq Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Shahbaz Naeem

Anatomical modifications in Carex brownii and C. brunnea along elevation gradient


ABSTRACT:

The family Cyperaceae consists of more than 98 genera and 5500 species, primarily distributed in different habitats like wetlands and swamps, high elevations, hypersaline soils, deserts and semi-deserts, and water bodies. Carex is the most diverse genus of Cyperaceae that is restricted to cool temperate regions of northern hemisphere. The diversity and distribution of sedges change dramatically along elevation gradient with alterations in anatomical characteristics. The study was carried out to explore the anatomical modifications in naturally grown species of genus Carex along elevation gradient. Two species, C. brownii, and C. brunnea, were collected from three different elevations. All Carex species from various elevations showed variation. Soil physicochemical characteristics like ECe, TSS, SP, Cl, CO32−, HCO3, SO42−, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ in the habitats of C. brunnea showed strong association with morphological attributes at high elevation. Plant biomass was linked to high elevation in all three species. Anatomical traits like aerenchymatous cavities in C. brunnea increased significantly at the lowest elevation. In leaves, proportion of epidermis was the highest in C. brunnea at medium elevation. Vascular bundles were heavily sclerified in all species, maximally in C. brunnea at low elevation. High proportion of storage parenchymatous tissues was observed in roots of C. brownii and C. brunnea at medium elevation that help them to acclimatize water deficit environmental conditions by storing additional water. The Carex species showed unique adaptation along elevation gradient in their anatomical traits. Modifications at high elevation were high proportion of dermal tissue in root and leaves, stem vascular region and formation of root aerenchymatous cavities. Such modifications guarantee Carex spp. for successful survival in extremely cold environments at high elevations

1887-1898 Download
33

Soil characteristics and plant functional traits under long-term conservation in arid desert ecosystems


Marwa Moumni, Abderazak Tlili, Jamila Msadek, Mohamed Neji and Mohamed Tarhouni

Soil characteristics and plant functional traits under long-term conservation in arid desert ecosystems


ABSTRACT:

This research was done during the spring 2020 in Dghoumes national park, southwest desert region of Tunisia with extreme weather conditions that accelerate the natural resources degradation processes. Aims are to assess the soil properties (organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, texture, and total limestone) and their relationship with the existing plant communities. Soil samples were collected from two depths (0-20 cm, 60-80 cm) under the canopy of the dominant plant species as well as in the adjacent open areas (inter-patches, bare soil). The functional traits (leaf area, bio-volume, leaf dry matter content, canopy cover, leaf water content, and specific leaf area) of the six dominant plant species within the park (Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) M. Bieb., Helianthemum kahiricum Delile, Retama raetam Forssk., Anarrhinum brevifolium Cosson & Kralik, Haloxylon schmittianum Pomel and Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss.) are compared with those of outside. Main results show that the soil texture of the park ranges between sandy, sandy-loam and loamy-sand with very low nitrogen (< 0.1%) and organic matter contents. The total limestone is variable inside the park and reaches the highest value in salty soils. For the majority of studied species, the bio-volume and leaf water content are higher inside the park than outside and vice-versa for leaf dry matter content. There is a slight difference concerning the leaf area between inside and outside park. Despite the desert climate and dry soil conditions, the plant species are able to regenerate and to produce sufficient biomass in absence of human disturbances

1899-1907 Download
34

Exploring the best native insect pollinators for the reproductive success of Bauhinia variegata L. (Fabaceae) in Multan, Pakistan


Mariam Zahid, Mudssar Ali, Fawad Z. Khan, Naeem Iqbal, Muhammad A. Khan and Shafqat Saeed

Exploring the best native insect pollinators for the reproductive success of Bauhinia variegata L. (Fabaceae) in Multan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Insect pollination is an important ecosystem service for the reproductive success of different plant species. The mountain ebony, Bauhinia variegata L. (Fabaceae) is a native tree of Pakistan, and its flowering buds are used as a vegetable. The current study aims to determine the diversity and efficiency of native insect pollinators in the seed set of B. variegata. The foraging behavior of the pollinators was assessed in terms of their stay time and visitation rate. Furthermore, most abundant insect pollinators were also tested for their pollination efficiency in terms of single-visit pollen deposition and single-visit seed set. Moreover, different pollination treatments (i.e., open, hand cross, hand self, and natural self-pollination) were also compared. The insect pollinator fauna was composed of four hymenopteran species, four dipteran species, and three lepidopteran species. The managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant insect pollinator, followed by the wild honey bee, A. dorsata and a hover fly species Ischiodon scutellaris (F.) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Based on the efficiency of pollen deposition and single visit seed set, A. dorsata and A. mellifera were the most efficient insect pollinators followed by I. scutellaris. Open pollination resulted in better reproductive success parameters (pod length, pod weight, number of seeds per pod, and seed weight per pod) as compared to other pollination treatments. The study concluded that conserving the most efficient insect pollinators (through providing year-round foraging and nesting resources) can help in improving the reproductive success of B. variegata and other cross-pollinated crops in the same region.

1909-1914 Download
35

Quantitative description and environmental relations of pine communities of Shangla district of KP, Pakistan


Javed Iqbal, Nasiruddin Shaikh, Moinuddin Ahmed, Sahar Zaidi, Afsheen Khan, Zoya Baig and Waqar Ahmed

Quantitative description and environmental relations of pine communities of Shangla district of KP, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The study was carried out in forty stands of conifer dominating forests in Shangla District to evaluate the quantitative vegetation composition and community structure. Sampling was carried out by Point Centered Quadrate (PCQ) method. Five conifer species were dominating the forest namely, Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Cedrus deodara, and Pinus roxburghii. On the basis of importance value five communities were identified i.e. Abies pindrow - Picea smithiana Community, Pinus wallichiana – Abies pindrow community, Pinus wallichiana - Quercus baloot community, Cedrus deodara, and Pinus wallichiana community, Picea smithiana - Pinus wallichiana. Four monospecific stands of Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, and Pinus roxberghii, were also recognized. Among these, Pinus wallichiana exhibited the highest mean density 296 ha-1 with 80 m2 ha-1 mean basal area occurring in 32 stands followed by Abies pindrow which was recorded in 9 stands with mean density of 223 ha-1 and about 85 m2 ha-1 basal area, exhibiting the second highest importance value. Picea smithiana attained low quantitative values recorded from 3 sites. By studying the current forest structure, it can be concluded that the population of young stands exhibited higher density while the population of old trees is at risk of elimination. Therefore it is necessary that proper attention should be needed to these ecologically important forests zone that contributes a diverse range of biodiversity with a number of conifers that are seemingly close to elimination. Hence, proper conservation approaches should be applied to retain forests in the future

1915-1922 Download
36

Random mutagenesis of koji mold (Aspergillus oryzae) to enhance the catalytic efficiency and thermostability of glucoamylase


Anam Saqib and Muhammad Hamid Rashid

Random mutagenesis of koji mold (Aspergillus oryzae) to enhance the catalytic efficiency and thermostability of glucoamylase


ABSTRACT:

Current report explains the effects of γ-ray mutagenesis on kinetics and thermodynamics of stability-function of Koji glucoamylase (GA). It is generally believed that stability and function are inversely proportional. Our results are novel as it reports about the simultaneous improvement in stability and function of glucoamylase through random mutagenesis. Aspergillus oryzae strain mutated by 60 kRad g-rays exposure was termed as M-60(5) and the mutant Koji showed enhanced (2.6 fold) production of GA. The pKa1 & pKa2 of active site residues (ASRs) evidenced about carboxyl and imidazole as ionizable groups. Thermostability of mutated GA increased ~2 fold at 55°C. The change in active site conformation due to γ-ray mediated random mutagenesis has improved kinetics of starch hydrolysis; constants for parent GA: Km (% w/v), Vmax /Km & Vmax (U mg-1 protein) for starch hydrolysis at 50°C and pH 5.0 were 0.022, 79.34 & 3606, whereas for mutant GA these were 0.065, 246 & 3785. The DHi of ASRs ionization confirmed that the conformation of mutant “M-60(5)” GA was altered due to mutagenesis. The mutation altered the conformation of the GA active site that contributed to improve the functional energy (ΔG*) from 99.35 kJ mol-1 for parent to 105.62 kJ mol-1 for mutant GA, resulted stabilization of the transition state (ΔG* is the heat content a protein molecule has to resist against thermal unfolding), which made it thermostable and highly efficient in starch hydrolysis

1923-1929 Download
37

Interactive potential of Bacillus megaterium A12 and biochar in chromium stress mitigation in Spinacia oleracea: methylglyoxal detoxification and activation of antioxidant enzymes


Samia Anwar, Anis Ali Shah, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Musarat Ramzan, Waheed Ullah Khan, Shazia Kousar, Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Saleh Alfarraj, Emre Babur, Ömer Süha Uslu, Sami Al Obaid and Muhammad Iftikhar Hussain

Interactive potential of Bacillus megaterium A12 and biochar in chromium stress mitigation in Spinacia oleracea: methylglyoxal detoxification and activation of antioxidant enzymes


ABSTRACT:

Metallic toxins are potential threats to human health and the achievement of optimum plant growth. In these toxins, chromium (Cr) is carcinogenic. Its higher plant accumulation caused oxidative damage by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, antioxidant biosynthesis is a natural defensive mechanism that can alleviate Cr toxicity in plants. Furthermore, biochar (BC) addition in soil has been reported as an effective amendment for Cr immobilization. Inoculation of rhizobacteria is also well documented as an efficacious tool for improvement in plant growth under heavy metals stress. The present study was conducted to cover the knowledge gap of the combined use of Bacillus megaterium (A12) and BC for chromium (Cr) stress mitigation in Spinacia oleracea. There were eight treatments with five replications following a completely randomized design. Results showed that in Cr-contamination, A12 and BC decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in S. oleracea plants. A12 and BC significantly improved catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. A significant increase in shoot dry weight (27%), chlorophyll a (31%), phenolic contents (59%) and total chlorophyll (32%) validated the efficacious role of BC+A12 over control. Furthermore, Cr stress alleviation was credited to the increment activity of antioxidative enzymes and the detoxification of methylglyoxal, besides increasing ascorbic acid and proline content. In conclusion, the synergistic interaction of BC and A12 is an efficacious approach to mitigating abiotic stresses in plants. More investigations are suggested at the field level to declare the best application rate of BC with A12 to alleviate Cr stress in different crops

1931-1940 Download
38

In silico modeling and docking of salicylic acid revealing the sod like activity of an antimicrobial seed vicilin of Capsicum annuum L. var. Grossum


Nermeen Kainat, Ahsan Saeed, Arslan Ali, Binish Khaliq, Sohaib Mehmood, Muhammad Qamar Saeed, Rana Khalid Iqbal, Sobia Khalid and Ahmed Akrem

In silico modeling and docking of salicylic acid revealing the sod like activity of an antimicrobial seed vicilin of Capsicum annuum L. var. Grossum


ABSTRACT:

This work is presenting a thorough in-silico modeling and salicylic acid docking in the predicted structure of Capsicum annuum var. grossum (bell pepper) seed vicilin along with antimicrobial activities. The Capsicum annuum var. grossum vicilin (CagV) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (60%) followed by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE showed an intact 50 kDa band of CagV under both non-reduced and reduced conditions. LC-MS/MS analysis produced one fragment (14 residues) which showed 100% sequence homology with already reported vicilin of Capsicum annuum var. grossum in the NCBI database. The primary sequence of this highly homologous C. annuum var. grossum vicilin (NCBI Accession ID: KAF3621967.1) along with crystallographic coordinates of PDB ID: 5YJS were used for prediction of the in-silico model. The predicted cartoon model (PCagV) showed an intact copper-binding extended loop having polar residues as well as the presence of non-mutated sites (Gly-Phe-Gly). Low Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) values indicated high structural homology of PCagV with 5YJS, 6L4C, and 6L4M vicilins. Additionally, the docking experiment confirmed the binding of salicylic acid to the C-terminal localized binding pocket of PCagV. Numerous hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions took part in stabilizing the ligand binding. Purified CagV (15 μg) showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial stains. Similarly, CagV (60 µg) exhibited strong mycelial inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. Thus, it is concluded that CagV is an effective antibacterial and antifungal agent

1941-1949 Download
39

Antioxidant defense response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Setaria viridis


Hao Zhang, Zilong Wu, Xiaogai Wang and Xin Zhao

Antioxidant defense response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Setaria viridis


ABSTRACT:

Setaria viridis inoculate with Funneliformis mosseae was studied for examining the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and metabolites of Setaria viridis under Cadmium stress. The growth index, including root length, plant height and biomass of S. viridis inoculated with F. mosseae under Cd stress were higher than those of S. viridis without inoculation. Inoculation with F. mosseae can increase activities of CAT, SOD, POD and APX in shoot and decrease the activities of NADPH oxidase in root and shoot. The expression of SvRbohF gene encoding NADPH oxidase was down-regulated in roots but up-regulated in shoots. It showed that inoculation with F. mosseae induced the shoot of Setaria viridis to obtain higher antioxidant enzyme activity and scavenge more reactive oxygen species, thus further weakening the oxidative stress response of shoot and maintaining higher shoot biomass. The GSH and Cd content significantly increased in root inoculated with F. mosseae under Cd stress, but the MDA and Cd content in shoot significantly decreased. The changes increasing yield of phytochelatin, immobilizing Cd in root as much as possible, and reducing Cd content in shoot and lipid peroxidation products may be one of the mechanisms of AMF promoting the resistance of Setaria viridis to Cd stress. In addition, two-factor interaction analysis showed that Cd stress and AMF had significant interaction effects on aboveground biomass, CAT and other enzyme activities and Cd content of Setaria viridis. It confirmed that AMF could reduce the damage of Setaria viridis to Cd and promote the growth of Setaria viridis by regulating antioxidant defense system.

1951-1960 Download
40

Detection of Colletotrichum capsici causing chili anthracnose through morphological and species-specific marker and its genetic diversity


Ifrat Jahan Tamanna, Umme Habiba, Md. Shahidul Islam and Muhammad Shahidul Haque

Detection of Colletotrichum capsici causing chili anthracnose through morphological and species-specific marker and its genetic diversity


ABSTRACT:

Anthracnose of chili is caused by different Colletotrichum species. Precise detection of the species responsible is essential in strategizing disease management and control. We collected ten Colletotrichum isolates causing chili anthracnose to identify the organism by species-specific SSR marker, characterized them morphologically and determined genetic diversity by RAPD-PCR technique. The fungal pathogens were taken from anthracnose lesions without visible spores. Identification and characterization based on the morphology of the fungal colony, and the dimension and shape of the conidia formed were done. Two pathogen species-specific microsatellite loci were used for molecular detection. As was expected, the markers amplified DNA bands of 394 and 447bp, which confirmed the pathogen as Colletotrichum capsici. Five RAPD primers generated 64 distinct bands, of which 84.38% showed polymorphism. UPGMA Dendrogram segregated ten isolates into two distinct clades. Wide variability was detected among the isolates indicating the existence of different pathotypes of anthracnose causing C. capsici in Bangladesh. This paper identifies Colletotrichum capsici as the causal agent of chilli anthracnose in Bangladesh by molecular and conventional methods and detects molecular diversity among the C. capsici isolates. The information obtained has potential application in the detection and effective control of chill anthracnose

1961-1966 Download
41

Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against bacterial pathogenic strains of plants


Muhammad Iqbal, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Said Akbar Khan, Aamir Ali, Asma Hanif, Mubashir Hussain, Tauseef Anwar, Huma Qureshi, Maimona Saeed, Abdul Rauf, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi And Mohammad Javed Ansari and Rana Khalid Iqbal

Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against bacterial pathogenic strains of plants


ABSTRACT:

Aqueous leaf extract of Hyppophae rhamnoides leaves was used to create silver nanoparticles as a reducing and capping agent. Techniques like the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides size distribution specifying sizes of silver nanoparticles ranging from 13 nm to 34 nm in diameter. The shape of the nanoparticles was amorphous, ranging from spherical to rectangular. The absorption bands at 2526, 2340, 2159 and 2030 cm−1 are related to the carbonyl group (C=O), confirming more biomolecule involvement with C=O functional groups. The peaks 1869, 1845 and 1829 cm−1 are associated with aldehyde (C=O) and alkenes (C=C) functional groups containing compounds. The peak at 668 cm−1 depicted the presence of an aromatic ring. Phytochemical profiling of green synthesized AgNPs revealed the incidence of phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phytosterols being involved in successfully reducing and capping nanoparticles. Maximum antibacterial activity was found in higher concentrations of AgNPs (0.35mg/100ul) against Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae. Green synthesis is fast, cost-effective, non-hazardous, and environment-friendly compared to its chemical synthesis counterpart. AgNPs can be used as a source of antibiotics in the future

1967-1972 Download
42

Potential of nitrification rate in sediments of grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) located at different stations along Karachi coast  Pakistan


Rafia Sahar, Seema Shafique, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan, Sarwat Ghulam Rasool and Pirzada J.A. Siddiqui

Potential of nitrification rate in sediments of grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) located at different stations along Karachi coast  Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Mangrove acts as a vital source/sink pool for biogeochemical processes (nitrogen cycle) in the ecosystem. Owing to the importance of nitrification process in mangrove sediments the present study was undertaken to assess seasonal variation in potential nitrification (PN) rate in the mangroves along the Karachi coast. Sediments samples were retrieved in triplicate from the rhizosphere at four sites during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon season and divided into the top, middle, and bottom (3 cm each) of the core. Overall, the potential nitrification rate was high in the post-monsoon season as compared to pre-monsoon season and monsoon season. In terms of sections of sediment cores, PN rate was high in the middle and bottom sections as compared to the top section. Among sites, at Sandspit and Korangi Creek, the highest PN rate was observed in the middle section of the sediment at 45mM and 15mM chlorate concentrations at 6 hours of incubation. However, at Manora Channel and Port Qasim, it was found high in the bottom section at 60mM and 15mM at 6 hrs. of incubation, respectively. A distinct seasonal variation in Physico-chemical variables including temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen was observed at all four stations. In the case of nutrients ion, the highest value of NO2 was observed in pre-monsoon, and NO3 and PO4 ions were in post-monsoon season at all stations. While the maximum value of NH4 ion was recorded in pre-monsoon followed by post-monsoon and monsoon seasons. In conclusion, the present study revealed a strong potential nitrification phenomenon observed at all stations with a slight variation that may be due to the relevance of anthropogenic activities along the backwaters of the Karachi coast

1973-1983 Download
43

A comparative study on biodiesel production from biomass of three different species of algae


Farooq Ahmad, Tayyaba Munawar, Sahar Azhar, Sehrish Imran and Naseem Hijazi

A comparative study on biodiesel production from biomass of three different species of algae


ABSTRACT:

This study was aimed to compare the efficiency of biodiesel production by Chlorella emersonii, Cladophora fracta and Spirogyra. Algae were grown in artificial media consisting of wastewater for further growth and preservation. Harvested biomass of algae was placed in an oven at 60oC for drying and powdered to size of 1.0mm by grinding mill. Extraction of oils rom biomass of algae were carried out by hexane solvent in a Soxhlet extractor for 18 h and analyzed for various parameters such as fatty acid composition, iodine value, water contents, saponification value iodine value and acid value. Growth rate, lipid content, protein and carbohydrate contents of above mentioned species were measured in dried biomass o algae. Sodium methoxide prepared rom methanol and sodium metal was used as a catalyst or transesterification o extracted oil to methyl ester. Biodiesel yield was higher in Chlorella emersonii than Cladophora fracta and Spirogyra. Analysis of biodiesels produced through transesterification was carried out for various properties such as iodine values (49, 53 & 47), flash point (155, 156 & 160oC), Specific gravity (0.912, 0.914 & 0.91), kinematic viscosity (4.7, 5.0 & 4.9), water content (17, 23 & 15 mg/kg), sulphur (0.01, 0.012 & 0.013 wt%), sulfated ash (0.004, 0.003 & 0.007 mass%), carbon residue (0.01, 0.02 & 0.01 mass%) cetain number (47, 49 & 51 min) and acid number (0.46, 0.5 & 0.49 mg.KOH/g) for Spirogyra, Cladophora fracta and Chlorella emersonii respectively. Additionally biodiesel properties of all samples were in accordance with ASTM standards.

 

1985-1989 Download
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